WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally sensitive health

  1. Culturally Sensitive Refugee Mental Health Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.

    This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…

  2. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  3. Culturally Sensitive Health Care and Counseling Psychology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Ferdinand, Lisa A.; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Hasan, Nadia T.; Beato, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on counseling psychologists' roles in addressing health disparities through culturally sensitive health care research and interventions. First, the authors provide a rationale for conducting research focused on culturally sensitive health care and then offer definitions of…

  4. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Culturally sensitive health counseling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.

  6. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways.

  7. Teaching Health Sciences Students about Culturally Sensitive Communication between Health Professionals and Patients from Diverse Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Mónica; Pena, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    As members of a nationally accredited research project (I?+?D+i) InterMED (ref.: FF2011-25500) being carried out in the field of Intercultural Mediation, we are aware of the mediator's delicate role in communicative interactions between health professionals and foreign population. Sales has pointed out the dangers of stereotyping minorities and…

  8. Implementation and evaluation of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavely, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Maldonado, Edgardo; Eid, Sherrine; Etchason, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is more prevalent in persons with limited education, members of ethnic minorities, and those who speak English as a second language, and is associated with multiple adverse diabetes-related health outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program for economically and socially disadvantaged adult patients with type 2 diabetes. A pre-post prospective study design was used to examine outcomes over 12 months. Outcome measures included diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care, measured using reliable and valid survey tools, and A1C. Over this period of time 277 patients were enrolled in the program, with 106 participants completing survey data. At the completion of the program patients had significant improvements in diabetes knowledge (p diabetes education program designed to be culturally sensitive and meet the needs of individuals with low health literacy improves short-term outcomes. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  9. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  10. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture-sensitive

  11. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  12. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  13. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.

  14. Influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes in municipal primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; Paavilainen, Eija; McCormack, Brendan; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of workplace culture on sickness absences, overtime work and occupational injuries in municipal primary health care. The need to improve nursing sensitive outcomes has been highlighted. Therefore, an adequate understanding of the influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes is essential for nurse managers to meet the requirements of improving nursing outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to incorporating the data from 21 inpatient acute care units of nine organisations at the Finnish municipal primary health care system from 2011 to 2012. Findings emphasise in particular the importance of the practice environment as being an interpretative factor for nurses' absences owing to sickness, overtime work and occupational injuries. To ensure favourable nursing sensitive outcomes it is essential that there is a shared interest in the unit to invest in the creation of a supportive practice environment. Outcome improvements require a special focus on issues related to nursing management, adequate staffing and resources and intention to leave. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  16. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2016-11-29

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  17. Validation of a provider self-report inventory for measuring patient-centered cultural sensitivity in health care using a sample of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Tucker, Carolyn M; Herman, Keith C; Hernandez, Caridad A

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes the construction and initial evaluation of the new Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Inventory (T-CSHCI) Provider Form, which was developed to address the shortcomings of existing similar measures. Two hundred seventeen (217) 3rd and 4th year medical students completed the T-CSHCI-Provider Form. Factor analysis was used to identify non-overlapping items. The final solution produced five factors: patient-centeredness, interpersonal skills, disrespect/disempowerment, competence, and cultural knowledge/responsiveness. The five T-CSHCI-Provider Form factors/subscales proved to be reliable and were associated with related constructs as hypothesized. This study provides initial evidence that the T-CSHCI-Provider Form measures independent dimensions of patient-centered culturally sensitive health care as perceived by medical students. Recommendations for ways in which the T-CSHCI Provider Form can be used to guide culturally sensitive health care training are provided.

  18. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...

  20. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...

  1. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human......: patients and IT; usability test and evaluation; work tasks and related contexts; human factors and simulation; and context and systems design, and outline theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights related to how health information technologies can be better designed to accommodate...

  2. Evaluation of a Video-Based Seminar to Raise Health Care Professionals' Awareness of Culturally Sensitive End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Oliver, Dulce M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Roegner, Michael; Yeo, Gwen

    2017-07-15

    Health care workers serve diverse communities and face challenges in delivering culturally responsive EOL care, especially when caring for Latino elders. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a newly developed telenovela, or video soap opera, on health care professionals (HCPs)' awareness of caregivers' stress and patients' cultural approaches to end-of-life (EOL) care decisions. A multicenter cross-sectional study among three communities in New York, Miami, and Missouri. Participants from a convenience sample of multidisciplinary HCPs were randomly assigned to view power point presentation with either a control video or an intervention-telenovela about caregiving as part of a one-hour audiovisual seminar and completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire to evaluate reaction and learning. Participants (N = 142) were mostly female (80%) nurses (54%) with a mean age of 44.5 ± 12.4 years and from non-Hispanic white (41%) or Hispanics (37%) ethnicity. In both control and intervention groups, post-test responses demonstrated a high level (87%) of satisfaction with seminar and an increase in openness to discuss EOL issues with culturally diverse patients (P educate HCPs on cultural sensitivity to help ethnically diverse caregivers and their patients benefit from EOL care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  4. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  5. Continuing professional development in sensitive cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Many cultures of the world face threats to their existence due to the homogenizing effects of the global commercial pop culture. These same influences present challenges to vulnerable cultures that seek the benefits of modern medicine, while attempting to preserve their unique identities. This paper briefly reviews some of these challenges and presents one novel approach to providing continuing medical education that minimizes the potential for adverse influences on the sensitive culture.

  6. Culturally Sensitive Dementia Caregiving Models and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Family caregiving for individuals with dementia is an increasingly complex issue that affects the caregivers' and care recipients' physical, mental, and emotional health. This article presents 3 key culturally sensitive caregiver models along with clinical interventions relevant for mental health counseling professionals.

  7. A Sixth Sense--Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Francesina R.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for culturally sensitive modifications to help students from all backgrounds learn better. The modifications include building trust, building a repertoire of instructional strategies, using effective questioning techniques, providing effective feedback, analyzing instructional materials, and establishing positive…

  8. The effect of culture on pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthy, M; Ohrbach, R; Michelotti, A; List, T

    2016-02-01

    Cross-cultural differences in pain sensitivity have been identified in pain-free subjects as well as in chronic pain patients. The aim was to assess the impact of culture on psychophysical measures using mechanical and electrical stimuli in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and pain-free matched controls in three cultures. This case-control study compared 122 female cases of chronic TMD pain (39 Saudis, 41 Swedes and 42 Italians) with equal numbers of age- and gender-matched TMD-free controls. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and tolerance (PPTo) were measured over one hand and two masticatory muscles. Electrical perception threshold and electrical pain threshold (EPT) and tolerance (EPTo) were recorded between the thumb and index fingers. Italian females reported significantly lower PPT in the masseter muscle than other cultures (P cultures (P = 0.017). Italians reported significantly lower PPTo in all muscles than Swedes (P ≤ 0.006) and in the masseter muscle than Saudis (P cultures (P = 0.01). Temporomandibular disorder cases, compared to TMD-free controls, reported lower PPT and PPTo in all the three muscles (P cultural differences between groups in the PPT, PPTo and EPTo. Overall, Italian females reported the highest sensitivity to both mechanical and electrical stimulation, while Swedes reported the lowest sensitivity. Mechanical pain thresholds differed more across cultures than did electrical pain thresholds. Cultural factors may influence response to type of pain test.

  9. Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L

    2005-10-17

    In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.

  10. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Development of culturally sensitive dialog tools in diabetes education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Folmann Hempler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-centeredness is a goal in diabetes education, and cultural influences are important to consider in this regard. This report describes the use of a design-based research approach to develop culturally sensitive dialog tools to support person-centered dietary education targeting Pakistani immigrants in Denmark with type 2 diabetes. The approach appears to be a promising method to develop dialog tools for patient education that are culturally sensitive, thereby increasing their acceptability among ethnic minority groups. The process also emphasizes the importance of adequate training and competencies in the application of dialog tools and of alignment between researchers and health care professionals with regards to the educational philosophy underlying their use.

  12. Cultural Sensitive Care Provision in a Public Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre: A Case Study from the Toulouse University Hospital Intercultural Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Gesine; Bonnet, Sylvie; Coussot, Yolaine; Journot, Katja; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe

    2017-05-02

    Child and adolescent mental health services in Europe are confronted with children with increasingly diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. Clinicians encounter cultural environments of hyperdiversity in terms of languages and countries of origin, growing diversity within groups, and accelerated change with regards to social and administrational situations (Hannah, in: DelVecchio Good et al. (eds) Shattering culture: American medicine responds to cultural diversity, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2011). Children and families who live in these complex constellations face multiple vulnerabilizing factors related to overlapping or intersecting social identities (Crenshaw in Univ Chic Leg Forum 140:139-167, 1989). Mobilizing existing resources in terms of social and family support, and encouraging creative strategies of interculturation in therapeutic work (Denoux, in: Blomart and Krewer (eds) Perspectives de l'interculturel, L'Harmattan, Paris, 1994) may be helpful in order to enhance resilience. Drawing from experiences in the context of French transcultural and intercultural psychiatry, and inspired by the Mc Gill Cultural Consultation in Child Psychiatry, we developed an innovative model, the Intercultural Consultation Service (ICS). This consultation proposes short term interventions to children and families with complex migration experiences. It has been implemented into a local public health care structure in Toulouse, the Medical and Psychological Centre la Grave. The innovation includes the creation of a specific setting for short term therapeutic interventions and team training via shared case discussions. Our objectives are (a) to improve outcomes of mental health care for the children through a better understanding of the child's family context (exploration of family dynamics and their relatedness to complex migration histories), (b) to enhance intercultural competencies in professionals via shared case discussions, and, (c) to improve the therapeutic

  13. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  14. Is Ethical Sensitivity in Teaching Culturally Bound? Comparing Finnish and Iranian Teachers' Ethical Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…

  15. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2012-06-01

    SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.

  16. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  17. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  18. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    OpenAIRE

    J. Snel; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumption, sensitivity and health complaints were significant but were of low importance to health. Coffee consumption was significantly related to intestinal complaints (r=0.15) and sensitivity to coffee ...

  19. The Cultural Geography of Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M.

    1987-01-01

    This article shows how health care delivery is related to cultural or human geography. This is accomplished by describing health care delivery in terms of 12 popular themes of cultural geography. (JDH)

  20. What Is a Moose? Becoming Culturally Sensitive Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Lori; Wilhite, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    At a summer camp that introduces Japanese high school students to American culture, the authors learned the following basic principles underlying culturally responsive camp activities: sensitivity to cultural nuances in communication, deliberate and sequential processes, appreciation of one's own cultural biases, understanding perceived risks, and…

  1. Assessing the cultural in culturally sensitive printed patient-education materials for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.

  2. "Shattering culture": perspectives on cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Hannah, Seth Donal

    2015-04-01

    The concept of culture as an analytic concept has increasingly been questioned by social scientists, just as health care institutions and clinicians have increasingly routinized concepts and uses of culture as means for improving the quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities. This paper examines this tension, asking whether it is possible to use cultural categories to develop evidenced-based practice guidelines in mental health services when these categories are challenged by the increasing hyperdiversity of patient populations and newer theories of culture that question direct connection between group-based social identities and cultural characteristics. Anthropologists have grown concerned about essentializing societies, yet unequal treatment on the basis of cultural, racial, or ethnic group membership is present in medicine and mental health care today. We argue that discussions of culture-patients' culture and the "culture of medicine"-should be sensitive to the risk of improper stereotypes, but should also be sensitive to the continuing significance of group-based discrimination and the myriad ways culture shapes clinical presentation, doctor-patient interactions, the illness experience, and the communication of symptoms. We recommend that mental health professionals consider the local contexts, with greater appreciation for the diversity of lived experience found among individual patients. This suggests a nuanced reliance on broad cultural categories of racial, ethnic, and national identities in evidence-based practice guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students' experiences of a study abroad programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Heidi C; Turner, de Sales

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students. background: Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity and incorporate this into caregiving. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students' experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock, and making a decision to take on the ways of the host culture. These actions led to an understanding that being sensitive to another culture required being open to its dynamics, acknowledging social and political structures, and incorporating other people's beliefs about health and illness. The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory-practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes on the deliver of culturally sensitive care.

  4. Migrants and health: a cultural dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshiett, Michael U A; Parry, Eldryd H O

    2003-01-01

    Culture profoundly affects what those who come to the UK as migrants believe about disease and thus how they behave during illness. Their beliefs may be very different from the beliefs of healthcare professionals and so there can be difficulties in understanding and barriers which inhibit effective clinical management. The behaviour of healthcare professionals towards those of a different race can lead to feelings of discrimination and lack of sympathy, so that a gulf can be allowed to develop. This gulf can be bridged if simple measures are adopted: training in communication, culturally sensitive health-promotion programmes, specific programmes relevant for those of defined ethnic groups and, as a basic means to increase confidence and trust, elementary skills in the language of the migrants.

  5. Cultural diversity and conflict in the health care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, A J; Glanville, C

    1995-01-01

    Cultural diversity issues affect the health care workplace and nursing practice. The Lowenstein-Glanville conflict model can be used for assessing and intervening in racial and status conflict in hospital settings. Implications for nursing practice include recognizing that cultural diversity will continue to grow in the health care workplace. Nurses must increase sensitivity, become aware of cultural nuances and issues, and make cultural assessment a routine part of their assessment and planning, not only for patient care, but also with their co-workers and subordinates.

  6. Making Career Theories More Culturally Sensitive: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…

  7. Culture and religion in nursing: providing culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aysha

    Last month, Aysha Mendes discussed the impact on care of personal beliefs held by both nurses and patients. This month, she delves into the aspects of culture and religion, which form important pieces of this puzzle, as well as the importance of culturally appropriate care provision in nursing practice.

  8. Consumer price sensitivity in Dutch health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:

  9. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries

  10. Cultural capital and social inequality in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, T

    2008-07-01

    Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.

  11. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  12. A Culture-Sensitive Agent in Kirman's Ant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Liou, Wen-Ching; Chen, Ting-Yu

    The global financial crisis brought a serious collapse involving a "systemic" meltdown. Internet technology and globalization have increased the chances for interaction between countries and people. The global economy has become more complex than ever before. Mark Buchanan [12] indicated that agent-based computer models will prevent another financial crisis and has been particularly influential in contributing insights. There are two reasons why culture-sensitive agent on the financial market has become so important. Therefore, the aim of this article is to establish a culture-sensitive agent and forecast the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. We based our study on the Kirman's Ant Model[4,5] and Hofstede's Natational Culture[11] to establish our culture-sensitive agent based model. Kirman's Ant Model is quite famous and describes financial market herding behavior from the expectations of the future of financial investors. Hofstede's cultural consequence used the staff of IBM in 72 different countries to understand the cultural difference. As a result, this paper focuses on one of the five dimensions of culture from Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism and creates a culture-sensitive agent and predicts the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. To conclude, this study will be of importance in explaining the herding behavior with cultural factors, as well as in providing researchers with a clearer understanding of how herding beliefs of people about different cultures relate to their finance market strategies.

  13. Cultural Diversity Training: The Necessity of Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers and in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the need to provide culturally sensitive care to the growing number of diverse health care consumers. A literature review of national standards and research on cultural competency was conducted and specifically focused on the field of nursing. This study supports the theory that cultural competence is learned over time and is a process of inner reflection and awareness. The domains of awareness, skill, and knowledge are essential competencies that must be gained by health care providers and especially for nurses. Although barriers to providing culturally sensitive care exist, gaining a better understanding of cultural competence is essential to developing realistic education and training techniques, which will lead to quality professional nursing practice for increasingly diverse populations.

  14. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries a

  15. Empathy and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Roberts, Amber

    Multicultural empathy has been recognized as an important factor in successfully treating ethnic minority clients. A study detailing the relationship between White counselor trainees' general ability to empathize and their ability to interact comfortably outside their culture of origin is described in this paper. Thirty-three counselor trainees…

  16. Cultural competence education for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Lidia; Horey, Dell; Romios, Panayiota; Kis-Rigo, John

    2014-05-05

    (relative risk (RR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.27, 1 study, USA, ESS 28 women, low quality). Involvement in care by "non-Western" patients (described as "mainly Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdean and Surinamese patients") with largely "Western" doctors improved in terms of mutual understanding (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.42, 1 study, The Netherlands, 109 patients, low quality). Evaluations of care were mixed (three studies). Two studies found no evidence of effect in: proportion of patients reporting satisfaction with consultations (RD 0.14, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.31, 1 study, The Netherlands, 109 patients, low quality); patient scores of physician cultural competency (SMD 0.11 95% CI -0.63 to 0.85, 1 study, USA, ESS 68 "Caucasian" and "non-Causcasian" patients (described as Latino, African American, Asian and other, low quality). Client perceptions of health professionals were significantly higher in the intervention group (SMD 1.60 95% CI 1.05 to 2.15, 1 study, USA, ESS 28 "Black" women, low quality).No study assessed adverse outcomes.There was no evidence of effect on clinician awareness of "racial" differences in quality of care among clients at a USA health centre (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.94. P = 0.07) with no adjustment for clustering. Included studies did not measure other outcomes of interest. Sensitivity analyses using different values for the Intra-cluster coefficient (ICC) did not substantially alter the magnitude or significance of summary effect sizes.All four domains of the conceptual framework were addressed, suggesting agreement on core components of cultural competence education interventions may be possible. Cultural competence continues to be developed as a major strategy to address health inequities. Five studies assessed the effects of cultural competence education for health professionals on patient-related outcomes. There was positive, albeit low-quality evidence, showing improvements in the involvement of CALD patients. Findings either showed support for the

  17. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  18. Cultural aspects of ageing and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, R J

    2015-03-01

    The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section

  19. Integrative Report on a culture-sensitive quality & curriculum framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, Kathy; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina; Pastori, Giulia; Slot, P.L.; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report draws together research findings that support a comprehensive culture-sensitive European curriculum and quality assessment framework that can inform practice, teacher education and policy. The aim of this integrative report is to inform the development of a comprehensive, culture-sensiti

  20. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  1. Cultural reflexivity in health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason; Tach, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This "misrecognition," which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice.

  2. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  3. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumptio

  4. Practical strategies for providing culturally sensitive, ethical care in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care in developing nations results in cultural and ethical challenges for health care professionals. The authors' intent is to raise readers' awareness of how to maintain an ethical and culturally sensitive approach to practice in developing nations. Four practical approaches to ethical decision-making, developed from the literature and praxis, in conjunction with traditional moral theory and guidelines from professional and international organizations are discussed. Ethical multiculturalism, a view that combines universalism and multiculturalism undergirds culturally appropriate and ethically responsive decisions.

  5. Building Cultural Sensitivity and Interprofessional Collaboration Through a Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Irene; Attridge, Russell T; Attridge, Rebecca L; Maize, David F; McNeill, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad (SA) experiences for health professions students may be used to heighten cultural sensitivity to future patients and incorporate interprofessional education (IPE). Two groups of nursing and pharmacy students participated in an SA elective over a 2-year period, traveling to China and India. Both groups improved significantly in knowledge, awareness, and skills following the travel experiences. Student reflections indicate that the SA experience was transformative, changing their views of travel, other cultures, personal environment, collaboration with other health professionals, and themselves. Use of SA programs is a novel method to encourage IPE, with a focus on enhancing the acquisition of cultural competency skills. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Samir; Darmstadt, Gary; Naheed, Aliya; Arifeen, Shams; Islam, Maksuda; Fatima, Kaniz; Breiman, Robert; Sack, David; Hamer, Davidson

    2011-06-01

    Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.

  7. Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

    1985-01-01

    Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

  8. Global health language and culture competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need.

  9. Cultural competence in correctional mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Reena; Dike, Charles; Burns, Craig; Carvalho, Vinneth; Griffith, Ezra E H

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence is an essential aspect of competence as a mental health professional. In this article, the framework of cultural competence developed in general psychiatry-acquiring knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand the interaction between culture and the individual-is applied to the prison setting. Race and ethnicity, extremes of age, gender, and religion are highlighted and examined as elements of the overall culture of prisons. The model of the cultural formulation from the DSM-IV is then adapted for use by clinicians in the correctional setting, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the inmate's culture of origin and the unique culture of the prison environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. Intergroup anxiety, cultural sensitivity and socio-cultural diverse leaders’ effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Peruginni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This intended to analyze differences in the level of perception –of general population participants- in regards to leaders with diverse socio-cultural characteristics (gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, nationality and also verify by means of structural equations, the influence of intergroup anxiety and the cultural sensitivity in terms of the level of effectiveness perception. Participants: 481 adults from Argentina (52.8% female, 47.2% male; age average = 35.45 years old. Instruments: Intergroup Anxiety scale, Cultural Sensitivity scale, and an ad hoc protocol designed to assess level of effectiveness perception in socio-culturally diverse leaders. Results: Differences in the level of perception of effectiveness according to sociocultural characteristics could not be confirmed. However, a direct effect of cultural sensitivity and an indirect effect of intergroup anxiety on the levels of effectiveness perception were confirmed. This work contributes to previous studies on prejudice and leadership.

  12. Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs in Turkish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the sensitiveness of principals, teachers, and curriculum on multicultural education. Education provides the transmission and the advancement of its culture while it is developing and enhancing the common values, the integrity and the progress of…

  13. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  14. Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, highlights the wisdom of cultural knowledge to promote health and prevent type 2 diabetes.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  15. Health and culture in urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S

    1994-01-01

    Rapid change, driven mainly by business and technology, has transformed our understanding of health and living conditions in recent decades. Experiments in urban development in Japan are bringing together technology, quality of life, culture and business to satisfy the needs of human health and well-being.

  16. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  17. Sensitization, subjective health complaints, and sustained arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, H; Eriksen, H R

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the possibility that sensitization is a psychobiological mechanism underlying not only multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), but a much more general cluster of illness, referred to as "subjective health complaints". Sustained arousal, or sustained "stress" responses, may be an important factor for the development of these conditions. Patients with subjective complaints without objective changes are sometimes referred to as having "fashionable diagnoses" or "unexplained symptoms". They may be given diagnoses like MCS, epidemic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, burnout, stress, a variety of intoxications, environmental illness, radiation, multiple chemical hypersensitivity, food intolerance, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel, myalgic encephalitis, postviral syndrome, yuppie flu, fibromyalgia, or vital exhaustion. One issue is whether this is one general condition or separate entities. Another issue is whether sensitization may be the psychobiological mechanism for most or all of these conditions. Finally, is it likely that sustained arousal may facilitate the development of sensitization in some or many neural circuits? In this review, the main emphasis will be on musculoskeletal pain. This is the most frequent and most expensive condition for sickness compensation and disability. The comorbidity of other complaints, however, will also be taken into account.

  18. [Culture-Sensitive Aspects in Diagnostics of Mental Distress in Refugees - Two Commented Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterko, Yuriy; Kaiser, Marie; Glaesmer, Heide

    2017-04-01

    High levels of mental disorders, especially PTSD, are commonly known among groups of people forced to leave their homeland as a consequence of war-related experiences (e. g. armed conflict, torture or persecution). Depending on the cultural background the perceptions of illnesses vary, different symptom presentation and thereupon different coping strategies respectively expectations towards health care services exist. To minimize the danger of misdiagnosis by different experts working with refugees in the host countries, a culture-sensitive diagnostic approach is needed from the beginning. This article describes important aspects of culture-sensitive diagnostics by means of 2 commented case reports. Special focus is set on the aspect of linguistic and in a broader sense cultural comprehension between therapist, client and if necessary language mediator. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam; Tybjerg, Karin; Whiteley, Louise;

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based in the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking if cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the wellbeing of their visitors, we instead...... focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize peoples’ multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture......, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. We suggest that museums are an ideal site for doing so, and can thereby contribute to public engagement with medicine that acknowledges multiplicity on both sides. The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine...

  20. Automatic Damage Detection for Sensitive Cultural Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerra, D.; Tian, J.; Lysandrou, V.; Plank, S.

    2016-06-01

    The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State (IS) have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data is an important tool to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas: If a fast response is desired, automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites in the observed images.

  1. Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Thuret, G; Carricajo, A.; Chiquet, C.; Vautrin, A C; Celle, N; Boureille, M; Acquart, S; Aubert, G.; Maugery, J; Gain, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium.

  2. Interdisciplinary: Cultural competency and culturally congruent education for millennials in health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawala-Druy, Souzan; Hill, Mary H

    2012-10-01

    The increasingly diverse multicultural and multigenerational student population in the United States requires that educators at all levels develop cultural knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity to help diverse learners fulfill their potential and to avoid cultural misunderstandings that can become obstacles or barriers to learning. The purpose of this study was to design and implement eclectic, creative, evidence-based interdisciplinary educational activities, along with culturally congruent teaching strategies, within a semester-long university course that promoted positive and culturally competent learning outcomes for culturally diverse, largely millennial students. The interdisciplinary course would prepare health professional students with the requisite knowledge and skills, through transformative learning that produces change agents, to provide culturally congruent and quality team-based care to diverse populations. This was a qualitative and quantitative study, which measured students' level of cultural awareness, competence, and proficiency pre and post the educational intervention. Instruments used for data collection included the Inventory for Assessing The Process of Cultural Competence-Student Version (IAPCC-SV) by Campinha-Bacote, course evaluations, students' feedback, and portfolio reflections. The study was conducted at a private academic institution located in the Mid-Atlantic region and the sample population included inter-professional students (N=106) from various health professions including nursing, pharmacy, and allied health sciences. Results from the pre- and post-test IAPCC-SV survey revealed that mean scores increased significantly from pre-test (60.8) to post-test (70.6). Thus, students' levels of cultural competency (awareness, knowledge, skills, desire, encounter) improved post-educational intervention, indicating that the teaching methods used in the course might be applied on a larger scale across the university system to cater to the

  3. The Relationship Between Cultural Sensitivity and Assertiveness in Nursing Students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Serap Parlar; Sevinç, Sibel

    2017-07-01

    As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate health care. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and assertiveness in university nursing students. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at two universities in the cities of Kilis and Elazığ, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 444 nursing students. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about participant sociodemographic characteristics, Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. The mean age of participants was 21.09 years. Most students (71.6%) were female and 34.7% of the students stayed at the hostel. Of the students, 44.4%, 27.5%, and 28.2% attended were the second-, third-, and fourth-year students, respectively. Participants were asked about problems related to caring for patients who speak different languages. The mean score for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was 89.42 ± 13.55 and the total score for all students for the Assertiveness Scale was 112.64 ± 15.61. We identified a positive relationship between total scores for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and the Assertiveness Scale ( p < .001). There was relationship between cultural sensitivity and gender and want to work overseas; assertiveness and year of nursing education and want to work overseas. Nursing students at both schools had a moderate level of cultural sensitivity and assertiveness. It has been determined that as assertiveness level of the students increased, intercultural sensitivity of them also increased. Consequently, it is concluded that training as assertive and self-confident individuals during the nursing education of students has a contribution to making patient-specific and culture-sensitive care.

  4. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  5. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2017-09-28

    Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Navigating the ethics of cross-cultural health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; McKenzie, Hayley

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.

  7. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  8. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Enhanced external and culturally sensitive attributions after extended intercultural contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, Johanna Ray

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the common tendency to overestimate internal factors. A content analysis of open-ended attributions supported these hypotheses, revealing that majority group members in Germany who had hosted an exchange student from another continent used significantly less internal and more external as well as culturally sensitive attributions to explain the behaviour described in critical intercultural incidents, compared to future hosts. The effect remained significant when controlling for perspective taking and prior intercultural experience. Moreover, the hypothesis was supported for scenarios describing different cultural groups (regardless of the exchange students' country of origin), suggesting a generalized effect. Problems of selection bias are discussed, and the importance of studying a range of positive outcomes of intercultural contact is emphasized.

  10. Culture-based literacy and Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Williams, Lewis; Cooper, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary report of the Aboriginal content of the Language and Culture theme at the Canadian Public Health Association's Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Our key premise is that Indigenous conceptualizations of literacy need to build on Indigenous understandings and perspectives. We support this premise through a review of the relevant literature in the disciplines of Aboriginal literacy, Indigenous education, health literacy, health promotion, and knowledge translation and our synthesis of the presentations, workshops, and discussions at the meeting. Key emergent themes include: the unique and culturally determined ways in which Aboriginal peoples and their languages conceptualize learning, education, and health; and the recognition that self-determination of language and learning are human rights. Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to literacy naturally link to and overlap with Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to health. The paper includes an overview of gaps in the field and an example of the way that research and practice can be brought together in the context of one First Nations community.

  11. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  12. Managing equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Beverley

    2007-12-01

    cultural sensitivity, equality and human rights; performance management; and transparent human resource management processes. Managing a racially and culturally diverse workforce is complex and challenging for managers. There are no ready-made tools to show them how to do so. Achieving effective management of a culturally diverse workforce comes from an intrinsic motivation to develop the cultural competence to engage with them. This article, together with others in this special issue, provides a springboard for moving this agenda on. It offers managers a framework of themes, which they can draw on to develop their own best practice for managing racial equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

  13. Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Belinda; Lewis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    "This book is about communicating for health and social change. With a clear focus on public health and health promotion practice, it provides a unique introduction to media and cultural studies perspectives on health communication...

  14. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  15. Yogurt, living cultures, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Bacteria used to ferment milk to obtain yogurt belong to thermophilic, bile-sensitive species of lactic acid bacteria, which are not ideally suited for survival into the human gut. However, assessing the viability of these bacteria through the digestive tract may be relevant to evaluate their potential to deliver some beneficial effects for the well-being of the consumer. The well-known reduction in the symptoms caused by lactose maldigestion is not the only benefit provided by yogurt starter cultures; some additional effects will be reviewed here, with special attention paid to data that may suggest a strain-dependent effect, features that are not present with lactose hydrolysis.

  16. The cultural production of health inequalities: a cross-sectional, multilevel examination of 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Amick, Benjamin C; Harrist, Ronald B; Franzini, Luisa; Roberts, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    In a 2001 report, the U.S. National Institutes of Health called for more integration of the social sciences into health-related research, including research guided by theories and methods that take social and cultural systems into consideration. Based on a theoretical framework that integrates Hofstede's cultural dimensions with sociological theory, the authors used multilevel modeling to explore the association of culture with structural inequality and health disparities. Their results support the idea that cultural dimensions and social structure, along with economic development, may account for much of the cross-national variation in the distribution of health inequalities. Sensitivity tests also suggest that an interaction between culture and social structure may confound the relationship between income inequality and health. It is necessary to identify important cultural and social structural characteristics before we can achieve an understanding of the complex, dynamic systems that affect health, and develop culturally sensitive interventions and policies. This study takes a step toward identifying some of the relevant cultural and structural influences. More research is needed to explore the pathways leading from the sociocultural environment to health inequalities.

  17. [Health culture in the Statute of Lastovo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic Karic, Grozdana; Milovic, Dorde

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the elements of health culture in the Statute of Lastovo, from its declaration in 1310 to amendments made in the 18th century. The source we used was a recently published translation of the Statute from Latin, in which we identified the lawmaker's stipulations directly or indirectly related to public health of the times. The Statute stipulates several preventive measures to keep plague at bay and to control it if it breaks out. Stipulations on communal slaughterhouses and fish markets, even if not directly intended to address healthcare issues, brought a definite improvement to public hygiene and sanitation. Penal provisions for the perpetrators included death, whipping, branding, cutting fingers off, standing on logs, and pillorying. The article concludes that even though the Statute of Lastovo is quite comprehensive and voluminous, it does not give much space to health culture, in fact, even less space than other Medieval statutes of towns along the east coast of the Adriatic.

  18. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  19. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  20. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  1. In vitro versus in vivo culture sensitivities: an unchecked assumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation A patient presents to urgent care with the symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI. The urinalysis is consistent with infection, and the urine culture is sent to lab. In the interim, a physician prescribes empiric treatment, and sends the patient home. Two days later, the culture is positive for E. coli, resistant to the drug prescribed (Ciprofloxacin, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC 64 μg/ml, but attempts to contact the patient (by telephone are not successful. The patient returns the call two weeks later to say that the infection resolved without sequelae.Discussion Many clinicians have the experience of treatment success in the setting of known antibiotic resistance, and, conversely, treatment failure in the setting of known sensitivity. Such anomalies and empiric research described here forces us to revisit assumptions about the relationship between in vivo and in vitro drug responses. When it comes to the utility of microbiology…

  2. Cultural respect encompassing simulation training: being heard about health through broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Min-yu Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST is a learning program that uses simulation to provide health professional students and practitioners with strategies to communicate sensitively with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD patients. It consists of training modules with a cultural competency evaluation framework and CALD simulated patients to interact with trainees in immersive simulation scenarios. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of expanding the delivery of CREST to rural Australia using live video streaming; and to investigate the fidelity of cultural sensitivity – defined within the process of cultural competency which includes awareness, knowledge, skills, encounters and desire – of the streamed simulations. Design and Methods. In this mixed-methods evaluative study, health professional trainees were recruited at three rural academic campuses and one rural hospital to pilot CREST sessions via live video streaming and simulation from the city campus in 2014. Cultural competency, teaching and learning evaluations were conducted. Results. Forty-five participants rated 26 reliable items before and after each session and reported statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 cultural competency domains, particularly in cultural skills (P<0.05. Qualitative data indicated an overall acknowledgement amongst participants of the importance of communication training and the quality of the simulation training provided remotely by CREST. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity education using live video-streaming and simulation can contribute to health professionals’ learning and is effective in improving cultural competency. CREST has the potential to be embedded within health professional curricula across Australian universities to address issues of health inequalities arising from a lack of cultural sensitivity training.

  3. From a blame culture to a just culture in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Naresh; Brown, Gordon D; Hicks, Lanis L

    2009-01-01

    A prevailing blame culture in health care has been suggested as a major source of an unacceptably high number of medical errors. A just culture has emerged as an imperative for improving the quality and safety of patient care. However, health care organizations are finding it hard to move from a culture of blame to a just culture. We argue that moving from a blame culture to a just culture requires a comprehensive understanding of organizational attributes or antecedents that cause blame or just cultures. Health care organizations need to build organizational capacity in the form of human resource (HR) management capabilities to achieve a just culture. This is a conceptual article. Health care management literature was reviewed with twin objectives: (a) to ascertain if a consistent pattern existed in organizational attributes that lead to either blame or just cultures and (2) to find out ways to reform a blame culture. On the basis of the review of related literature, we conclude that (a) a blame culture is more likely to occur in health care organizations that rely predominantly on hierarchical, compliance-based functional management systems; (b) a just or learning culture is more likely to occur in health organizations that elicit greater employee involvement in decision making; and (c) human resource management capabilities play an important role in moving from a blame culture to a just culture. Organizational culture or human resource management practices play a critical role in the health care delivery process. Health care organizations need to develop a culture that harnesses the ideas and ingenuity of health care professional by employing a commitment-based management philosophy rather than strangling them by overregulating their behaviors using a control-based philosophy. They cannot simply wish away the deeply entrenched culture of blame nor can they outsource their way out of it. Health care organizations need to build internal human resource management

  4. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  5. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  6. Climate-sensitive health priorities in Nunatsiavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sherilee L; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Wood, Michele; McEwen, Scott A

    2015-07-02

    This exploratory study used participatory methods to identify, characterize, and rank climate-sensitive health priorities in Nunatsiavut, Labrador, Canada. A mixed method study design was used and involved collecting both qualitative and quantitative data at regional, community, and individual levels. In-depth interviews with regional health representatives were conducted throughout Nunatsiavut (n = 11). In addition, three PhotoVoice workshops were held with Rigolet community members (n = 11), where participants took photos of areas, items, or concepts that expressed how climate change is impacting their health. The workshop groups shared their photographs, discussed the stories and messages behind them, and then grouped photos into re-occurring themes. Two community surveys were administered in Rigolet to capture data on observed climatic and environmental changes in the area, and perceived impacts on health, wellbeing, and lifestyles (n = 187). Climate-sensitive health pathways were described in terms of inter-relationships between environmental and social determinants of Inuit health. The climate-sensitive health priorities for the region included food security, water security, mental health and wellbeing, new hazards and safety concerns, and health services and delivery. The results highlight several climate-sensitive health priorities that are specific to the Nunatsiavut region, and suggest approaching health research and adaptation planning from an EcoHealth perspective.

  7. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  8. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  9. Clinical exchange: one model to achieve culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, J; Moore, D

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports on a clinical exchange programme that formed part of a pre-registration European nursing degree run by three collaborating institutions in England, Holland and Spain. The course included: common and shared learning including two summer schools; and the development of a second language before the students went on a three-month clinical placement in one of the other base institutions' clinical environments. The aim of the course was to enable students to become culturally sensitive carers. This was achieved by developing a programme based on transcultural nursing principles in theory and practice. Data were gathered by interview, focus groups, and questionnaires from 79 exchange students, fostering the strategies of illuminative evaluation. The paper examines: how the aims of the course were met; the factors that inhibited the attainment of certain goals; and how the acquisition of a second language influenced the students' learning about nursing. A model is presented to illustrate the process of transformative learning from the exchange experience.

  10. Organizational cultural competence consultation to a mental health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kenneth; Lo, Hung-Tat Ted; Srivastava, Rani; Andermann, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Cultural competence is increasingly recognized as an essential component of effective mental health care delivery to address diversity and equity issues. Drawing from the literature and our experience in providing cultural competence consultation and training, the paper will discuss our perspective on the foundational concepts of cultural competence and how it applies to a health care organization, including its programs and services. Based on a recent consultation project, we present a methodology for assessing cultural competence in health care organizations, involving mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Key findings and recommendations from the resulting cultural competence plan are discussed, including core principles, change strategies, and an Organizational Cultural Competence Framework, which may be applicable to other health care institutions seeking such changes. This framework, consisting of eight domains, can be used for organizational assessment and cultural competence planning, ultimately aiming at enhancing mental health care service to the diverse patients, families, and communities.

  11. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed.

  12. Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Donders

    2015-07-01

    . The article concludes that various cultural dimensions of the right to health are recognised and elaborated upon in recommendations by treaty monitoring bodies both at UN and African level. These bodies have endorsed the idea that health facilities, goods and services must be respectful of the culture of individuals, peoples and communities. At the same time, the right to health should be protected against the negative impact that cultural values, patterns or practices may have, such as on access to health goods and services and on the health of people as such. The latter issue has received most attention at the UN as well as at African level, and there appears to be a clear consensus on several practices that are considered harmful. It is also realised, however, that the identification of a certain practice as harmful by an international body, even if agreed to by the State Party, is not sufficient to eradicate it. Cultural communities are crucial in promoting social and behavioural changes that may be needed to eradicate harmful practices. It is therefore important to involve the cultural communities concerned in the drafting, implementation and evaluation of health laws and policies. This could be more emphasised by the monitoring bodies. The involvement of the cultural community is also crucial to respecting and promoting the more positive cultural dimensions of the right to health. By consulting the cultural communities and individuals concerned, States can implement the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health in a culturally sensitive, appropriate and responsible way.

  13. When I grow up: Culturally sensitive graphic design explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Grace

    2013-01-01

    With a global village that is growing and a world that is getting smaller it becomes evermore important for graphic designers to successfully cross cultural borders, yet this is easier said than done. My theoretical work aims at making these cross-cultural design experiences easier for graphic designers, as well as creating higher awareness of the differences that exist within cultural constructions. An amalgamation of design practices, cultural and anthropological research, the theory e...

  14. Cross-cultural School Based Encounters as Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    : Qualitative analysis of 18 focus group discussions with 72 Danish and 36 Kenyan students. Results: Cross-cultural dialogues promoted students’ engagement and reflections on their own and peers’ health condition, access to education, food cultures, gender and family structures. Conclusion: Findings indicate......Objective: Drawing on the concepts of the cosmopolitan person and democratic health education, this article explores the merits of primary school–based, cross-cultural dialogues for global health education. Design: A qualitative study of the learning outcomes of the Move|Eat|Learn (MEL) project...... the merits of cross-cultural dialogues as a means of educating students to become global health agents with a cosmopolitan outlook....

  15. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...... characteristics of openness and flexibility and support networks facilitated the students transition and adjustment to the host culture. Reflection on their experiences with students from a similar background to themselves and clinical mentors from the host culture assisted the students in their understanding...

  16. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson PR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pamela Reed Gibson, Shannon Kovach, Alexis LupferDepartment of Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USAAbstract: Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability.Keywords: environmental sensitivity, chemical sensitivity, electrohypersensitivity, chemical hypersensitivity, chemical intolerance, contested illness

  17. Forming health culture as part of general education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines methods of forming health culture in the content of education as a theoretical-methodological area aimed at fostering a positive attitude, sustained motivation for health and personal responsibility for its preservation.

  18. Confucian bioethics and cross-cultural considerations in health care decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the similarities and differences between Beauchamp and Childress's principlism and Confucian bioethics in terms of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. The author presents sensitive approaches for culturally diverse groups in health care areas and cautions against dichotomy in cross-cultural studies, which ignores the dynamic nature and intravariations of cultures. As a way of health care providers to become engaged in cultural diversity in nursing practice and research, the author suggests that they do not only have a general knowledge about the theoretical differences among groups through "normative analysis" but also learn to appreciate each individual's particular beliefs and values through narratives of morality. Health care providers as well as legal professionals need to cultivate "cultural humility," which is the willingness to explore the similarities and differences between their own and each client's priorities and values and to develop courses of action with patients.

  19. Relevance of gender-sensitive policies and general health indicators to compare the status of South Asian women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Child care work. Organizational culture and health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, K S; Bright, K A; Cole, F L; Mackey, T; Lindenberg, J; Grimm, A

    2000-10-01

    A nonrandom sample of child care workers was surveyed to assess whether child care work represented an "at risk" health and safety culture and to measure the organizational dimensions contributing to the health and safety culture. The child care workers in Houston, Texas, were surveyed by mail, using an instrument developed by the research team. The sample population represented 34 child care centers (n = 240 respondents). The analysis yielded five factors related to determinants of health and safety culture. The participants had a favorable perception of the five health and safety determinants. The participants also reported high levels of injury and illness in their environments, suggesting a less than favorable situation. A culture, work, and health model was useful in examining the relationship between health and safety and organizational culture.

  1. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii) people in non-psychiatric treatment; iii) people in psychiatric treatment. They were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), modified to include 10 culturally specific items, and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS) as a criterion of psychopathology. Physicians also completed an encounter form about the presence of mental health symptoms in participants. To make the questions more culturespecific, the translation of 12 items on the SRQ was changed. The content, construct, and criterion validity of each question were also examined, leading to the deletion of five items. The validity of the revised instrument (SRQ-F) was superior to that of the original instrument (SRQ). This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items.

  2. "Fools Rush In": Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Using Film-Based Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Charles H., Jr.

    Although role playing games and self-awareness surveys are typical methods of developing cross-cultural sensitivity, this presentation advocates the use small group projects focusing on feature films such as "Fools Rush In" as an effective class or training exercise to develop sensitivity to other cultures. Despite some disadvantages…

  3. Dental Health Care Models of Southwest Cultures. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, Timothy J.; Solis, Enrique, Jr.

    The major goal of this research was the development and validation of cultural models of dental health practices. The specific objectives were to determine if 3 cultural groups (American Indians, Mexican Americans, and Anglo Americans) differ in the dental health hygiene indices, characteristics, psychological factors, or social factors; to…

  4. Technological Education as a Means of Developing Students' Health Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalimova, Alfiya R.; Luchinina, Anastasia O.; Ulengov, Ruslan A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research is due to the fact that health of school-age children in Russia is deteriorating. The development of health culture has become an integral part of students' general cultural development. The purpose of this article is to reveal the potential of "Technology" as a school subject for the development of students'…

  5. The relationship between the nursing environment and delivering culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J; Lindley, Lisa; Wallace, Heather; Fornehed, Mary Lou; Wool, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Wide variations exist among perinatal hospices, and barriers to perinatal palliative care exist at the healthcare level. Research in the area of culturally sensitive perinatal palliative care has been scarce, a gap which this study addresses. To evaluate the relationship between the nurse work environment and the delivery of culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care. This retrospective, correlational study used data from the National Home and Hospice Care Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample of hospice care providers. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between the delivery of culturally sensitive care and the nurse work environment. Accreditation, teaching status, and baccalaureate-prepared registered nurse staff had an impact on the provision of culturally sensitive perinatal care Conclusions: The hospice and nursing unit environments, specifically in regards to education and technology, may be important contributors to the delivery of culturally sensitive care.

  6. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  7. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  8. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  9. Cultural Sensitivity in ATOD Agencies: Administrator and Staff Perceptions in the Hispanic Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrator and staff perceptions (N = 72 of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD agency cultural sensitivity were explored in a predominantly Hispanic rural area with elevated levels of acculturation and high ATOD usage. While providers generally agreed that a relatively moderate need existed for training related to cultural issues, a more nuanced picture emerged in the purview of culturally- related barriers. Administrators viewed the lack of appropriate interpreters and language as a greater barrier than did the staff. Administrators also held higher perceptions of agencies’ cultural competency. The overall high assessment of cultural sensitivity may result from the substantial number of Latino providers.

  10. Promoting cultural competence through a health policy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Louise

    2010-01-01

    A healthcare system designed to support a culturally competent work force can contribute to the elimination of health disparities. Various courses were revised as part of a multicultural transformation of a college of nursing curricula. The author discusses a health policy course revised to promote development of cultural competencies. Examples of topics, teaching strategies, and assignments for integrating concepts and content related to cultural competencies as well as comments from students that reflect their learning experiences are provided.

  11. The relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress among nurses working with foreign patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Özge; Sevinç, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    To determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress of nurses working at Kilis State Hospital. As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate healthcare. Descriptive and cross-sectional design. This study was implemented at the State Hospital in Kilis on the southeast border of Turkey, between June-July 2014. The study sample consisted of 120 nurses. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of participants, the Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. The average score for nurse cultural sensitivity was 84·32 (SD, 11·40) and the average score for perceived stress was 27·97 (SD, 7·32), corresponding to a medium level. We identified negative correlation between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress. Nurses working at Kilis State Hospital have a medium level of cultural sensitivity and perceived stress, and cultural sensitivity tended to be affected by perceived stress. This study suggests that training programmes for cultural sensitivity and stress management should be available for nurses. Furthermore, patient care plans should be adapted to consider different cultural backgrounds of patients. These findings should be considered when designing nurses' education and continuing education programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-06-01

    A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a 'total difficulties score' and by classification as a 'probable clinical case'. A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11-13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005-06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and

  13. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-10-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies.

  14. Thermal sensitivity of Lamb waves for structural health monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J C; Inman, D J

    2013-03-01

    One of the drawbacks of the current Lamb wave structural health monitoring methods are the false positives due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature. To create an environmental insensitive damage detection scheme, the physics of thermal effects on Lamb waves must be understood. Dispersion and thermal sensitivity curves for an isotropic plate with thermal stress and thermally varying elastic modulus are presented. The thermal sensitivity of dispersion curves is analytically developed and validated by experimental measurements. The group velocity thermal sensitivity highlights temperature insensitive features at two critical frequencies. The thermal sensitivity gives us insight to how temperature affects Lamb wave speeds in different frequency ranges and will help those developing structural health monitoring algorithms.

  15. Cultural values and health service quality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsa, Pia; Fuxiang, Wei; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Shuyuan, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Several service quality studies show how cultural features may influence the way service quality is perceived. However, few studies specifically describe culture's influence on health service quality. Also, there are few studies that take into account patients' health service quality perceptions. This article seeks to present a first step to fill these gaps by examining patients' cultural values and their health service quality assessments. The study draws on published work and applies its ideas to Chinese healthcare settings. Data consist of hospital service perceptions in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a society that is socially, economically and culturally undergoing major changes. In total, 96 patients were surveyed. Data relationships were tested using partial least square (PLS) analysis. Findings show that Chinese patients' cultural values and their health service assessments are related and that the cultural values themselves seem to be changing. Additionally, further analyses provided interesting results pointing to which cultural values influenced service quality perceptions. The strongest service quality predictor was power distance. The sample is relatively small and collected from only one major hospital in China. Therefore, future research should extend the sample size and scope. Follow-up research could also include cross-cultural investigations of perceived health service quality to substantiate cultural influences on health service quality perceptions. In line with similar research in other contexts, the study confirms that power distance has a significant relationship with service quality perceptions. The study contributes to existing health service literature by offering patients' views on health service quality and by describing relationships between health service perceptions and cultural values--the study's main contribution.

  16. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  17. European higher health care education curriculum: development of a cultural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène Taylor; Bergknut, Eva; Lundberg, Pranee; Muir, Nita; Olt, Helen; Richardson, Eileen; Sairanen, Raija; De Vlieger, Lily

    2012-07-01

    This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher Education in Health and Rehabilitation, whose goal is to nurture educational development and networking among member institutions. The framework is the result of a collaborative endeavor by nine nurse educators from five different European countries. The production of the framework will be described in accordance with the following tenets: developing cultural competence is a continuing process, cultural competence is based on sensitivity toward others, and cultural competence is a process of progressive inquiry. Critique concerning the framework will be presented.

  18. Examination of Cultural Shock, Inter-Cultural Sensitivity and Willingness to Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clare; Singaraju, Stephen; Halimi, Tariq; Sillivan Mort, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify themes on international experiences that impact culture and how these findings will intervene in understanding cross-cultural training programs. Thereby an attempt is made to: evaluate cross-cultural insensitivity influences on cross-cultural shock and willingness to adapt, identify cultural…

  19. Defining the true sensitivity of culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis using Bayesian latent class models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Culture remains the diagnostic gold standard for many bacterial infections, and the method against which other tests are often evaluated. Specificity of culture is 100% if the pathogenic organism is not found in healthy subjects, but the sensitivity of culture is more difficult to determine and may be low. Here, we apply Bayesian latent class models (LCMs to data from patients with a single Gram-negative bacterial infection and define the true sensitivity of culture together with the impact of misclassification by culture on the reported accuracy of alternative diagnostic tests. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from published studies describing the application of five diagnostic tests (culture and four serological tests to a patient cohort with suspected melioidosis were re-analysed using several Bayesian LCMs. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs were calculated. Of 320 patients with suspected melioidosis, 119 (37% had culture confirmed melioidosis. Using the final model (Bayesian LCM with conditional dependence between serological tests, the sensitivity of culture was estimated to be 60.2%. Prediction accuracy of the final model was assessed using a classification tool to grade patients according to the likelihood of melioidosis, which indicated that an estimated disease prevalence of 61.6% was credible. Estimates of sensitivities, specificities, PPVs and NPVs of four serological tests were significantly different from previously published values in which culture was used as the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Culture has low sensitivity and low NPV for the diagnosis of melioidosis and is an imperfect gold standard against which to evaluate alternative tests. Models should be used to support the evaluation of diagnostic tests with an imperfect gold standard. It is likely that the poor sensitivity/specificity of culture is not specific for melioidosis, but rather a generic

  20. Outsiders in nursing education: cultural sensitivity in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Chun, Edna

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a stated value of nursing and nursing education. However, some institutional and traditional practices in nursing education can unintentionally impede nurses from achieving cultural competence. Both the literature and interviews with nurse educators show that despite educators' intentions to treat all students the same, nontraditional students may feel singled out and may in fact be singled out for closer scrutiny because of their difference from the demographic norms of nursing students. To ensure that the nursing profession reflects the composition of the patient population it serves, nurse educators must first acknowledge the Eurocentric culture of nursing education and, then, work to change the environment in which students are recruited, learn, and take on the role of beginning practicing nurses.

  1. Food and Health: Individual, Cultural, or Intellectual Matters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Nordström, Karin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    In personalized nutrition, food is a tool for good health, implying an instrumental relationship between food and health. Food receives a secondary value, while health would appear to be a descriptive biological concept. This article gives an introduction to cultural understandings of food and he...

  2. Impact of culture on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2011-10-01

    The diagnosis of cancer creates anticipatory grief and fear for the patient and the family, and the x cancer care experience is fraught with physical, emotional and spiritual challenges. The palliative care literature in Europe and North American is rapidly growing, but such literature is sparse in other parts of the world. Translating the findings from the West however, may be problematic in non-Western, and particularly, non-Christian cultures, for many of the assumptions that underlie the approach to suffering and death in the West are culturally based in the values and beliefs of western European society. Therefore this paper provides a means to explore how such translation across cultures might occur by: (1) providing a definition of culture so that the context for the subsequent discussion is framed, (2) describing how culture impacts the cancer experience, (3) how culture affects communication to relieve suffering and improve quality of life for patients and families. The paper closes with 8 recommended steps to improve communication cross-culturally to provide effective quality palliative care for patients and families from diverse backgrounds.

  3. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.

  4. Ethnicity and Diet of Children: Development of Culturally Sensitive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Applegate, Brooks; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing global concern. Examining dietary habits of individuals can facilitate the development of important prevention approaches, which are needed to decrease the incidence of obesity and other related diseases and improve quality of life indices. Because food preferences and dietary habits vary across cultures, it is essential that…

  5. Cultural Sensitivity: The Key to Teaching Global Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Judee A.

    2003-01-01

    More ethical practices in business begin with ethical training in business schools. International business education classes can compare corporate codes and actual behavior; explore the role of cultural differences in values, principles, and standards; and analyze ethical dilemmas in a global environment. (SK)

  6. Culturally Sensitive Best Practices for Sex Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Santiago, Verenice; Hund, Alycia M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues through the lifespan. Through family and peer interactions and media sources, youth learn about sexuality and relationships, and develop their own values. The learning process and trajectory, however, may differ among youth from diverse cultures. In fact,…

  7. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  8. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p organizational health culture on three dimensions of employee effectiveness were completely mediated by health behavior. The construct connections established in this multilevel model will help in

  9. Components of cultural competence in three mental health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole; Haugland, Gary; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Hopper, Kim

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify components of cultural competence in mental health programs developed for cultural groups by community and mental health professionals from these groups. Three programs were studied: a prevention program primarily serving African-American and Afro-Caribbean youth, a Latino adult acute inpatient unit, and a Chinese day treatment program in a community-based agency. Nine study-trained field researchers used a semistructured instrument that captures program genealogy, structure, processes, and cultural infusion. Program cultural elements were identified from field notes and from individual and group interviews of consumers and staff (N=104). A research-group consensus process with feedback from program staff was used to group elements by shared characteristics into the program components of cultural competence. Components included communication competencies (with use of colloquialisms and accepted forms of address); staff in culturally acceptable roles; culturally framed trust building (such as pairing youths with mentors), stigma reduction, friendly milieus (such as serving culturally familiar foods and playing music popular with the culture), and services; and peer, family, and community involvement (including use of peer counselors and mentors, hosting parent weekends, and linking clients with senior center and community services). Incorporating these components into any program in which underserved cultural populations are seen is recommended for improving cultural competence.

  10. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Moshé

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  11. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  12. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  13. Parenting and child mental health: a cross‐cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-01-01

    .... Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture...

  14. Cultural Dance and Health: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity has many physical and mental health outcomes. However, physical inactivity continues to be common. Dance, specifically cultural dance, is a type of physical activity that may appeal to some who are not otherwise active and may be a form of activity that is more acceptable than others in certain cultures. The purpose of this paper…

  15. Creating a culture for health care quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Velma; Perryman, Martha M

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 67% of hospital quality indicators require some type of laboratory testing to monitor compliance. Unfortunately, in many hospitals, laboratory data information systems remain an untapped resource in eliminating medical errors and improving patient safety. Using case scenarios, this article demonstrates potential consequences for patient safety and quality of care when information sharing between medical technologists and nurses is not a part of a hospital's culture. The outcome for this patient could have been avoided if a more inclusive health care quality and safety culture existed. Creating a culture for health care quality and safety requires consensus building by clinical and administrative leaders. Consensus building occurs by managing relationships among and between a team of independent, autonomous physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and health care administrators. These relationships are built on mutual respect and effective communication. Creating a quality culture is a challenging but necessary prerequisite for eliminating medical errors and ensuring patient safety. Physician leaders promoting and advancing cultural change in clinical care from one of exclusive decision making authority to a culture that is based on shared decision making are a necessary first step. Shared decision making requires mutual respect, trust, confidentiality, responsiveness, empathy, effective listening, and communication among all clinical team members. Physician and administrative leaders with a focus on patient safety and a willingness to change will ensure a culture of health care quality and safety.

  16. Dopamine-System Genes and Cultural Acquisition: The Norm Sensitivity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Hsu, Ming; Liberzon, Israel; Yoon, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in cultural psychology shows that cultures vary in the social orientation of independence and interdependence. To date, however, little is known about how people may acquire such global patterns of cultural behavior or cultural norms. Nor is it clear what genetic mechanisms may underlie the acquisition of cultural norms. Here, we draw on recent evidence for certain genetic variability in the susceptibility to environmental influences and propose a norm sensitivity hypothesis, which holds that people acquire culture, and rules of cultural behaviors, through reinforcement-mediated social learning processes. One corollary of the hypothesis is that the degree of cultural acquisition should be influenced by polymorphic variants of genes involved in dopaminergic neural pathways, which have been widely implicated in reinforcement learning. We reviewed initial evidence for this prediction and discussed challenges and directions for future research. PMID:28491931

  17. Learning Tolerance: The Impact of Comparative Politics Courses on Levels of Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In addition to exposing students to basic concepts, theories, and ideas, teachers of comparative politics often claim to foster and promote values of tolerance and cultural sensitivity through exposure to the histories, cultures, and societies of cases from around the world. This claim, however, has been largely speculative and unsupported by any…

  18. Health-Literacy-Sensitive Diabetes Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Low health literacy is a potential barrier to self-management among patients with diabetes. A variety of strategies for low health literacy have been proposed for diabetes self-management interventions, but interventions accommodating low health literacy have been heterogeneous in terms of content and have produced mixed results. To systematically review health-literacy-sensitive diabetes management interventions, with a focus on identifying strategies for accommodating patients with low health literacy, and to examine the efficacy of these interventions to improve health outcomes. PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched for intervention studies published between January 2000 and January 2015. Two authors separately identified full-texts according to the inclusion criteria and assessed study quality using the quantitative components of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The final list of studies to be analyzed was made through discussion. The meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model. Thirteen studies were selected from the 490 studies found in our initial search. We identified a range of strategies for accommodating those with low health literacy in diabetes self-management interventions, which encompassed four domains: written communication, spoken communication, empowerment, and language/cultural consideration. Using at least one of the spoken communication strategies led to positive cognitive/psychological, self-care, and health outcomes. We found that, overall, health-literacy-sensitive diabetes management interventions were effective in reducing HbA1C level in the meta-analysis. Healthcare providers should consider active implementation of strategies for accommodating people with low health literacy in diabetes self-management interventions. The routine use of spoken communication strategies would be necessary to achieve the best health outcomes in diabetes self-management interventions. More research is needed to determine the individual

  19. Cross cultural aspects of health interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝婷

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society, the migrant phenomenon occurs easily and frequently. In the host society, they will meet language difficulties in different sectors, for example, in the medical context. In this case we need the medical interpreters. As it has been known, medical interpretation is extremely challenging. For medical interpreters, how to overcome language and cultural obstacles becomes very important.

  20. Toward a multidimensional understanding of culture for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2015-11-01

    Although a substantial literature examines the relationship between culture and health in myriad individual contexts, a lack of comparative data across settings has resulted in disparate and imprecise conceptualizations of the concept for scholars and practitioners alike. This article examines scholars and practitioners' understandings of culture in relation to health interventions. Drawing on 169 interviews with officials from three different nongovernmental organizations working on health issues in multiple countries-Partners in Health, Oxfam America, and Sesame Workshop-we examine how these respondents' interpretations of culture converge or diverge with recent developments in the study of the concept, as well as how these understandings influence health interventions at three different stages-design, implementation, and evaluation-of a project. Based on these analyses, a tripartite definition of culture is built-as knowledge, practice, and change-and these distinct conceptualizations are linked to the success or failure of a project at each stage of an intervention. In so doing, the study provides a descriptive and analytical starting point for scholars interested in understanding the theoretical and empirical relevance of culture for health interventions, and sets forth concrete recommendations for practitioners working to achieve robust improvements in health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  2. Health-related quality of life and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Padilla, Geraldine V; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin

    2010-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and culture. Journal articles, proceedings, and clinical experience. QOL is a subjective, multidimensional experience of well-being that is culturally constructed as individuals seek safety and security, a sense of integrity and meaning in life, and a sense of belonging in one's social network. In a society where health disparities between diverse groups are known to exist, it is incumbent upon nurses to consider the impact of ethnicity/culture on the health care they deliver and on the QOL of their patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Culturally-Tailored Education Programs to Address Health Literacy Deficits and Pervasive Health Disparities among Hispanics in Rural Shelbyville, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Irma N; Ramos, Kenneth S; Boerner, Aisa; He, Qiang; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A

    2013-11-16

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of culturally-tailored education on health knowledge among Hispanic residents of rural, Shelbyville, KY. The program identified specific pathways to address health literacy deficits and disparities identified through a community-wide health assessment completed in 2010. A total of 43 Hispanic males who shared deficiencies in community-wide health infrastructure were enrolled in the program. The curriculum included an introductory session followed by five, subject-specific, sessions offered on a weekly basis from February to April 2011. Pre/post-test assessments showed marked improvement in knowledge base for all participants after each session, most notably related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The group reconvened in January 2012 for follow-up instruction on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global assessment of knowledge retention over a nine-month period. Comparisons of pre/post testing in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global health-related knowledge showed significant gains for all parameters. Health education programs that embrace perceptions of the community of their own health, and that integrate knowledge into culturally-sensitive education, significantly improved health knowledge among Hispanic residents in rural Kentucky. Such gains may translate into sustainable improvements in health literacy and help reduce health disparities.

  4. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede Fidan, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals,…

  5. [The new culture of dematerialized health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruzzi, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    With the Electronic Health Record, which has been provided by law by the Italian State, all health data and information regarding the citizens are dematerialized and move within regional networking eHealth graphs, which are interoperable at the national and then European level. Data generated by the interaction between a patient and a doctor - through a visit, a diagnostic exam or a hospitalization - are shared at the speed of light among all the professionals who are interested in the patient's care pathway, and then with the citizen, in a process producing his/her empowerment.This personalized information, stored and enriched online throughout one's life, makes it possible to reconstruct and actualize the clinical history of the assisted person's, through the demolition of space and time barriers. The interaction between the doctor and the assisted user is thus supported by the communicational power of Health networks, generating powerful data fluxes along the care pathway and serving the purposes of assistential continuity.

  6. THE GROWTH OF ASIBI STRAIN YELLOW FEVER VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURES. I. SENSITIVITY AND CAPACITY OF TISSUE CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    directed to HeLa cells . The following results were obtained: Of those cultures that were susceptible, three different patterns of dose response were...obtained that were interpreted as different possible manifestations of interference. HeLa cells , which were among the least sensitive to low infection

  7. Cultural Competence and Children's Mental Health Service Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancoske, Ronald J.; Lewis, Marva L.; Bowers-Stephens, Cheryll; Ford, Almarie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between clients' perception of cultural competency of mental health providers and service outcomes. A study was conducted of a public children's mental health program that used a community-based, systems of care approach. Data from a subsample (N = 111) of families with youths (average age 12.3) and primarily…

  8. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  9. Food and Health: Individual, Cultural, or Intellectual Matters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Nordström, Karin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    In personalized nutrition, food is a tool for good health, implying an instrumental relationship between food and health. Food receives a secondary value, whilehealth would appear to be a descriptive biological concept.This article gives an introduction to cultural understandings of food and heal...

  10. Research culture in allied health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry

    2016-06-07

    Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.

  11. Assumptions on culture in discourse on ethnic minority health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse...

  12. Burmese culture, personality and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, R T

    1985-09-01

    As Australia, shaped by new policies of immigration and multiculturalism, grows more cosmopolitan, the challenge for psychiatry is to gain greater familiarity with the new ethnic minority groups, including their cultural personalities and backgrounds. The problem faced by the Burmese group in Australia is distinctive and poignant. Some 20,000 Burmese immigrated following World War II, chiefly to Western Australia in the first place, uniting and consolidating their families. Following the military coup and the Revolutionary Council Government of the early 60s, further emigration from Burma was cut off. This meant that the Burmese in Australia, already under stress arising from cultural differences, were prevented from developing the extensive internal social support systems that characterise other major ethnic groups. The author, a Burmese doctor working in a psychiatric setting in Sydney, draws attention to aspects of his country and its people which should be helpful for psychiatric and related professions.

  13. Cross cultural aspects of health interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝婷

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society,the migrant phenomenon occurs easily and frequently.In the host society,they will meet language difficulties in different sectors,for example,in the medical context.In this case we need the medical interpreters.As it has been known,medical interpretation is extremely challenging.For medical interpreters,how to overcome language and cultural obstacles becomes very important.

  14. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  15. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  16. Demystifying and improving organizational culture in health-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Karen L; Currey, Hal S

    2011-01-01

    Organizational culture is defined as the shared values and beliefs that guide behavior within each organization, and it matters because it is related to performance. While culture is generally considered important, it is mysterious and intangible to most leaders. The first step toward understanding organizational culture is to measure it properly. This chapter describes methods for measuring culture in health-care organizations and how these methods were implemented in a large academic medical center. Because of the consistent empirical link between the dimension of communication, other culture dimensions, and employee satisfaction, special attention is focused in this area. Specifically, a case study of successful communication behaviors during a major "change management" initiative at a large academic medical center is described. In summary, the purpose of this chapter is to demystify the concept of culture and demonstrate how to improve it.

  17. Cultured stem cells are sensitive to gravity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Konstantinova, N. A.; Buravkov, S. V.; Gershovich, Yu. G.; Grivennikov, I. A.

    2008-09-01

    Stem and precursor cells play an important role in development and regeneration. The state of these cells is regulated by biochemical substances, mechanical stimuli and cellular interactions. To estimate gravity effects we used two types of cultured stem cells: human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow and mice embryonic stem (mESC) line R1. Gravity changes were simulated by long-term (4-7 days) slow clinorotation and leaded to decreased hMSC proliferation, changes of cell morphology and modified F-actin cytoskeleton. We did not find the shifts in cell phenotype except for decreased expression of HLA 1 and CD105 but excretion of IL-6 into medium increased significantly. Remodeling of cytoskeleton started after first 4 h and was similar to preapoptotic changes. This data suggested the modification in cell adhesion and possible commitment of hMSC. It was observed that expression of alkaline phosphatase by MSC in osteogenic medium was more intensive in control. On the contrary, clinorotation did not change formation of mESC colonies and increased proliferation activity in LIF+-medium. However, the number of embryonic bodies after clinorotation was less than in static control. It is suggested that ESCs kept the viability and proliferative potential but decreased the differentiation ability after changes in gravity stimulation.

  18. 'I still believe...' Reconstructing spirituality, culture and mental health across cultural divides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Viviers, Rian

    2014-06-01

    Whilst striving to create a balanced and healthy life, individuals experience challenges across their life span. Spirituality can contribute to mental health and well-being, as can cultural constructs. In South Africa, apartheid categories are still vivid, which affect spiritual, cultural and racial mental constructs and impact on the mental health of individuals across cultural groups. This article focuses on the long-term development of spiritual and cultural concepts within a selected individual in Cape Town, South Africa, during 11 years of field work. It also explores the impact of spirituality and culture on the researcher-researched relationship. A mixed-method approach was used, including various qualitative methods of data collection as well as content analysis to analyse the data and intersubjective validation to interpret them. Findings show a strong intrapersonal interlinkage of spirituality, culture and mental health and the researcher-researched relationship having a strong impact on spiritual, cultural and mental health constructions. We are not human beings having a spiritual experience. We are spiritual beings having a human experience. (Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 1976).

  19. Cultural Health Capital on the margins: Cultural resources for navigating healthcare in communities with limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Erin Fanning

    2015-05-01

    Communities struggling with access to healthcare in the U.S. are often considered to be disadvantaged and lacking in resources. Yet, these communities develop and nurture valuable strategies for healthcare access that are underrecognized by health scholars. Combining medical sociology and critical race theory perspectives on cultural capital, this paper examines the health-relevant cultural resources, or Cultural Health Capital, in South Texas Mexican American border communities. Ethnographic data collected during 2011-2013 in Cameron and Hidalgo counties on the U.S.-Mexico border provide empirical evidence for expanding existing notions of health-relevant cultural capital. These Mexican American communities use a range of cultural resources to manage healthcare exclusion and negotiate care in alternative healthcare spaces like community clinics, flea markets and Mexican pharmacies. Navigational, social, familial, and linguistic skills and knowledge are used to access doctors and prescription drugs in these spaces despite social barriers to mainstream healthcare (e.g. cost, English language skills, etc.). Cultural capital used in marginalized communities to navigate limited healthcare options may not always fully counteract healthcare exclusion. Nevertheless, recognizing the cultural resources used in Mexican American communities to facilitate healthcare challenges deficit views and yields important findings for policymakers, healthcare providers, and advocates seeking to capitalize on community resources to improve healthcare access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards an occupational safety and health culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Steijger, N.

    2014-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a highly regulated area that appears to be based on rational planning and logical management approaches, e.g. OSM Management Systems: employers and employees of organisations should be aware of OSH risks, assess these risks systematically, provide the necessar

  1. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study

    2002-01-01

    to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts were studied in relation to childhood residence and father's occupation, current residence, and language. The statistical methods included logistic regression and graphical independence models. The results indicated a U...

  2. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  3. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample

  4. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample o

  5. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-12-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  6. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  7. Culture and religious beliefs in relation to reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of contemporary research publications acknowledge the influence of religion and culture on sexual and reproductive behavior and health-care utilization. It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcomes. In this paper, we will pay particular attention to Muslims in sexual and reproductive health care. This review reveals that knowledge about devout Muslims' own experience of sexual and reproductive health-care matters is limited, thus providing weak evidence for modeling of efficient practical guidelines for sexual and reproductive health care directed at Muslim patients. Successful outcomes in sexual and reproductive health of Muslims require both researchers and practitioners to acknowledge religious heterogeneity and variability, and individuals' possibilities to negotiate Islamic edicts. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate health-care provision and, in the worst case, to suboptimal encounters between migrants with Muslim background and the health-care providers in the receiving country.

  8. Anthropology, health and illness: an introduction to the concept of culture applied to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Wiik, Flávio Braune

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a reflection as to how notions and behavior related to the processes of health and illness are an integral part of the culture of the social group in which they occur. It is argued that medical and health care systems are cultural systems consonant with the groups and social realities that produce them. Such a comprehension is fundamental for the health care professional training.

  9. Cultural Variations in the Effect of Interview Privacy and the Need for Social Conformity on Reporting Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mneimneh Zeina M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is an important feature of the interview interaction mainly due to its potential effect on reporting information, especially sensitive information. Here we examine the effect of third-party presence on reporting both sensitive and relatively neutral outcomes. We investigate whether the effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the respondent’s need for social conformity and the respondent’s country of residence. Three types of outcomes are investigated: behavioral, attitudinal, and relatively neutral health events. Using data from 22,070 interviews and nine countries in the cross-national World Mental Health Survey Initiative, we fit multilevel logistic regression to study reporting effects on questions about suicidal behavior and marital ratings, and contrast these with questions about having high blood pressure, asthma, or arthritis. We find that there is an effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information and no effect on reporting of neutral information. Further, the effect of the interview privacy setting on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the need for social conformity and the cultural setting.

  10. Organizational culture, intersectoral collaboration and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Penelope Fay; Pattison, Philippa Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether and how organizational culture moderates the influence of other organizational capacities on the uptake of new mental health care roles by non-medical primary health and social care services. Using a cross-sectional survey design, data were collected in 2004 from providers in 41 services in Victoria, Australia, recruited using purposeful sampling. Respondents within each service worked as a group to complete a structured interview that collected quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. Five domains of organizational capacity were analyzed: leadership, moral support and participation; organizational culture; shared concepts, policies, processes and structures; access to resource support; and social model of health. A principal components analysis explored the structure of data about roles and capacities, and multiple regression analysis examined relationships between them. The unit of analysis was the service (n = 41). Organizational culture was directly associated with involvement in two types of mental health care roles and moderated the influence of factors in the inter-organizational environment on role involvement. Congruence between the values embodied in organizational culture, communicated in messages from the environment, and underlying particular mental health care activities may play a critical role in shaping the emergence of intersectoral working and the uptake of new roles. This study is the first to demonstrate the importance of organizational culture to intersectoral collaboration in health care, and one of very few to examine organizational culture as a predictor of performance, compared with other organizational-level factors, in a multivariate analysis. Theory is developed to explain the findings.

  11. Culture and healthcare in medical education: migrants' health and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Michael; Akinci, Secil; Soydan, Nedim

    2010-01-01

    One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of "culture" into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on "migrants' health" established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru). The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of "think global and teach local" into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like "culture", "ethnicity" and "migration background". A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as "cultural". The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities.

  12. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  13. Isolated hippocampal neurons in cryopreserved long-term cultures: development of neuroarchitecture and sensitivity to NMDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Kater, S B

    1988-01-01

    Isolated neurons in long-term culture provide a unique opportunity to address important problems in neuronal development. In the present study we established conditions for cryopreservation and long-term primary culture of isolated embryonic hippocampal neurons. This culture system was then used for initial characterizations of the development of neuroarchitecture and neurotransmitter response systems. Cryoprotection with 8% dimethylsulfoxide, slow freezing, and rapid thawing provided high-yield cultures which appeared normal in terms of cell types, mitotic ability, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and sensitivity to glutamate neurotoxicity. A reduced medium volume and moderate elevation in extracellular K+ to 20 mM promoted survival of isolated neurons through 3 weeks of culture. The outgrowth of axons and dendrites in pyramidal-like neurons was found to differ over a 3-week culture period such that axons continued to grow at a relatively constant rate while dendritic outgrowth slowed during the second week and ceased by the end of week 3. Developmental changes were also observed in the sensitivity of pyramidal neurons to glutamate neurotoxicity; functional kainate/quisqualate receptors were present during the first week of culture, while responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) did not appear until the second week. The technologies for cryopreservation and long-term culture of isolated hippocampal neurons reported here provide a useful system in which to address a variety of problems in development neuroscience.

  14. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    1997-03-01

    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  15. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study

    2002-01-01

    to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts were studied in relation to childhood residence and father's occupation, current residence, and language. The statistical methods included logistic regression and graphical independence models. The results indicated a U......-shaped association in Greenland of GHQ-cases with age and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among young people; a low prevalence of GHQ-cases among those who were bilingual or spoke only Danish; and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among migrants who grew up in Denmark and among residents of the capital...... of Greenland. In Greenland, women were more often GHQ-cases and had suicidal thoughts more often than men. The association between language and GHQ-cases is presumed to operate through socioeconomic factors. It is necessary to modify the common notion that rapid societal development is in itself a cause...

  16. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  17. Overcoming health care disparities via better cross-cultural communication and health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Isaacson, J Harry

    2012-02-01

    Health care disparities have multiple causes; the dynamics of the physician-patient encounter is one of the causes that can be modified. Here, we discuss specific recommendations related to cross-cultural communication and health literacy as practical steps to providing more equitable health care to all patients.

  18. A Culturally Sensitive Analysis of Culture in the Context of Context: When Is Enough Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    Cultural context is not the sole source of human knowledge. Postmodern theory, in both its deconstructionist and affirmative approaches, offers an incomplete basis by which to study race, class, and gender, and undermines ethical interaction. Deconstructionism calls for the abandonment of generalizable research findings, asserting that the concept…

  19. Culture Shock—A Review of Vietnamese Culture and Its Concepts of Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Misunderstandings of Vietnamese culture and beliefs have led to many unfortunate incidents in the United States, including court cases for child abuse and even suicide. These can be avoided by an awareness of the cultural background of the Vietnamese, their philosophy of life and the influence of religion and beliefs on their personalities, both as individual persons and as members of extended family units. The Vietnamese concepts of health and disease are presented, along with brief descript...

  20. Innovations in public health education: promoting professional development and a culture of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Marian; Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health.

  1. The ethical self-fashioning of physicians and health care systems in culturally appropriate health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie

    2011-06-01

    Diverse advocacy groups have pushed for the recognition of cultural differences in health care as a means to redress inequalities in the U.S., elaborating a form of biocitizenship that draws on evidence of racial and ethnic health disparities to make claims on both the state and health care providers. These efforts led to federal regulations developed by the U.S. Office of Minority Health requiring health care organizations to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. Based on ethnographic research at workshops and conferences, in-depth interviews with cultural competence trainers, and an analysis of postings to a moderated listserv with 2,000 members, we explore cultural competence trainings as a new type of social technology in which health care providers and institutions are urged to engage in ethical self-fashioning to eliminate prejudice and embody the values of cultural relativism. Health care providers are called on to re-orient their practice (such as habits of gaze, touch, and decision-making) and to act on their own subjectivities to develop an orientation toward Others that is "culturally competent." We explore the diverse methods that cultural competence trainings use to foster a health care provider's ability to be self-reflexive, including face-to-face workshops and classes and self-guided on-line modules. We argue that the hybrid formation of culturally appropriate health care is becoming detached from its social justice origins as it becomes rationalized by and more firmly embedded in the operations of the health care marketplace.

  2. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. ...

  3. Creating quality improvement culture in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary V; Mahanna, Elizabeth; Joly, Brenda; Zelek, Michael; Riley, William; Verma, Pooja; Fisher, Jessica Solomon

    2014-01-01

    We conducted case studies of 10 agencies that participated in early quality improvement efforts. The agencies participated in a project conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (2007-2008). Case study participants included health directors and quality improvement team leaders and members. We implemented multiple qualitative analysis processes, including cross-case analysis and logic modeling. We categorized agencies according to the extent to which they had developed a quality improvement culture. Agencies were conducting informal quality improvement projects (n = 4), conducting formal quality improvement projects (n = 3), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national quality improvement initiatives, had a greater number of staff trained in quality improvement and quality improvement teams that met regularly with decision-making authority. Agencies conducting informal quality improvement were likely to report that accreditation is the major driver for quality improvement work. Agencies creating a quality improvement culture were more likely to have a history of evidence-based decision-making and use quality improvement to address emerging issues. Our findings support previous research and add the roles of national public health accreditation and emerging issues as factors in agencies' ability to create and sustain a quality improvement culture.

  4. Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews available studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. We search electronic databases and conducted a thematic analysis of empirical studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Studies were mapped to describe their methods, target population and the health behaviors or health outcomes studied. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies reviewed used the PEN-3 model as a theoretical framework to centralize culture in the study of health behaviors and to integrate culturally relevant factors in the development of interventions. The model was also used as an analysis tool, to sift through text and data in order to separate, define and delineate emerging themes. PEN-3 model was also significant with exploring not only how cultural context shapes health beliefs and practices, but also how family systems play a critical role in enabling or nurturing positive health behaviors and health outcomes. Finally, the studies reviewed highlighted the utility of the model with examining cultural practices that are critical to positive health behaviors, unique practices that have a neutral impact on health and the negative factors that are likely to have an adverse influence on health. The limitations of model and the role for future studies are discussed relative to the importance of using PEN-3 cultural model to explore the influence of culture in promoting positive health behaviors, eliminating health disparities and designing and implementing sustainable public health interventions.

  5. Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this 60 second Public Service Announcement, Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, highlights the wisdom of cultural knowledge to promote health and prevent type 2 diabetes.  Created: 3/4/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  6. Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this 30 second Public Service Announcement, Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, highlights the wisdom of cultural knowledge to promote health and prevent type 2 diabetes.  Created: 3/4/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  7. Individualization of forming health culture in schoolchildren of Polish schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermakova T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to highlight the issues of gender education and individual characteristics of schoolchildren in the formation of their health culture due to school conditions. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Results . Determined that the peculiarities of forming health culture of schoolchildren make for the specifics of school age (primary school age - 6/7 - 10/11 years; teen school age - 12/13 - 15/16 years. It is found that the level of formation of health culture in childhood will depend on the next person’s lifestyle, the level of his personal potential. Gender approach in pedagogy can overcome entrenched negative gender stereotypes, to develop a set of approaches aimed at helping children to easily go through the process of socialization and gender identity. Conclusions: information about formation schoolchildren health culture should be provided necessarily considering age and individual characteristics of schoolchildren, because otherwise it can be confusing for them and as a consequence is not only beneficial, but also harm.

  8. Practitioners' Perspectives on Cultural Sensitivity in Latina/o Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…

  9. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  10. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian Populations : A Culturally-Sensitive Psychiatric Screening Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii)

  11. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  12. The Effects of the Japan Bridge Project on Third Graders' Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lindsay; Sherman, Lilian; MaKinster, James

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the Japan BRIDGE Project, a global education program, on its third grade participants. Characterization of lessons and analysis of student interviews were used to investigate the nature of the curriculum and whether or not student participants were more culturally sensitive due to participation. Results indicate…

  13. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers;

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...

  14. Developing Culturally Sensitive HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse Prevention Curricula for Native American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Critical steps in developing these curricula included: selecting integrative theory to address multidimensional antecedents of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse among Native Americans; using ethnography to obtain input from target groups and community members to ensure developmental and cultural sensitivity; and using process and outcome evaluations of…

  15. Cultural adaptations to augment health and mental health services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Priscilla; Stager, Megan L; Woodmass, Kyler; Dettlaff, Alan J; Vergara, Andrew; Janke, Robert; Wells, Susan J

    2017-01-05

    Membership in diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups is often associated with inequitable health and mental health outcomes for diverse populations. Yet, little is known about how cultural adaptations of standard services affect health and mental health outcomes for service recipients. This systematic review identified extant themes in the research regarding cultural adaptations across a broad range of health and mental health services and synthesized the most rigorous experimental research available to isolate and evaluate potential efficacy gains of cultural adaptations to service delivery. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and grey literature sources were searched for English-language studies published between January 1955 and January 2015. Cultural adaptations to any aspect of a service delivery were considered. Outcomes of interest included changes in service provider behavior or changes in the behavioral, medical, or self-reported experience of recipients. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently tested adaptation occurred in preventive services and consisted of modifying the content of materials or services delivered. None of the included studies focused on making changes in the provider's behavior. Many different populations were studied but most research was concerned with the experiences and outcomes of African Americans. Seventeen of the 31 retained studies observed at least one significant effect in favor of a culturally adapted service. However there were also findings that favored the control group or showed no difference. Researchers did not find consistent evidence supporting implementation of any specific type of adaptation nor increased efficacy with any particular cultural group. Conceptual frameworks to classify cultural adaptations and their resultant health/mental health outcomes were developed and applied in a variety of ways. This review synthesizes the most rigorous research in the field and identifies

  16. Development of a culture of sustainability in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernardo; West, Daniel J; Costell, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the concept of sustainability in health care organizations and the key managerial competencies and change management strategies needed to implant a culture of sustainability. Competencies and management development strategies needed to engrain this corporate culture of sustainability are analyzed in this document. This paper draws on the experience of the authors as health care executives and educators developing managerial competencies with interdisciplinary and international groups of executives in the last 25 years, using direct observation, interviews, discussions and bibliographic evidence. With a holistic framework for sustainability, health care managers can implement strategies for multidisciplinary teams to respond to the constant change, fine-tune operations and successfully manage quality of care. Managers can mentor students and provide in-service learning experiences that integrate knowledge, skills, and abilities. Further empirical research needs to be conducted on these interrelated innovative topics. Health care organizations around the world are under stakeholders' pressure to provide high quality, cost-effective, accessible and sustainable services. Professional organizations and health care providers can collaborate with university graduate health management education programs to prepare competent managers in all the dimensions of sustainability. The newly designated accountable care organizations represent an opportunity for managers to address the need for sustainability. Sustainability of health care organizations with the holistic approach discussed in this paper is an innovative and practical approach to quality improvement that merits further development.

  17. Listening to the third voices of Pangasinan students: designing and enacting culturally sensitive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    This response builds upon Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" by exploring how an expanded understanding of the ubiquitous nature of adolescent literacy practices and identities challenge traditional notions of "in school" and "out of school" cultural spaces. Listening to the "third voices" of adolescents can promote a deeper understanding of the complex literate lives of Pangasinan students and inform both the official and the enacted culturally sensitive curriculum. To hear the literate lives of adolescents is to push back against politically dehumanizing and "de-literacizing" neo-liberal educational policies and practices which privilege a singular, whitewashed view of literacy in order to standardize curriculum and instruction, preserve power in the hands of the powerful, and exacerbate socio-economic, racial, ethnic, and linguistic divisions.

  18. Health care provider and consumer understandings of cultural safety and cultural competency in health care: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in Australia that racial and ethnic minority groups experience significant disparities in health and health care compared with the average population and that the Australian health care system needs to be more responsive to the health and care needs of these groups. The paper presents the findings of a year long study that explored what providers and recipients of health care know and understand about the nature and implications of providing culturally safe and competent health care to minority racial and ethnic groups in Victoria, Australia. Analysis of the data obtained from interviewing 145 participants recruited from over 17 different organizational sites revealed a paucity of knowledge and understanding of this issue and the need for a new approach to redress the status quo.

  19. PRIMARY TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF CULTURAL DİVERSITY AND INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Rengi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The teachers’ perception of cultural diversity is important to provide justice and equality in education, prevent the cultural conflicts and communication productivity of interactions in schools that there are cultural differences. This study aims to determine primary teachers’ perception of cultural diversity and observe teachers’ levels of “intercultural sensitivity” in relation to their students. The working group in this research is 286 primary teachers who work public schools province of Kocaeli (Çayırova in 2013-2014 acedemic year. The mixed model is used. The research data was collected by using the “İntercultural Sensitivity Scale” (Chen and Starosta, 2000. It is used t-tests, test of ANOVA and arithmetic average for composing quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected by using the teachers’ answers that “ What do you think the cultural differences of students?”. It is provided content analysis for qualitative data. It is seen that the teachers’ intercultural sensitivity is high. Morever ‘‘differences of languages’’ are the most striking the perception of primary teachers’ cultural differences.

  20. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  1. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  2. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Tuah, Rodianson; Riskione, Patricia; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Effendy, Christantie

    2016-01-01

    A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of socio-culturally hierarchical gap between health providers and clients in Indonesian context, (2) to provide attention to the unspoken concerns especially in the context of indirect communication which mostly using non-verbal signs and politeness etiquettes, and (3) to initiate dialog in the society which hold a more community-oriented decision making. Our aim is to compare the communication skills of nursing students who had and had not received a training using a culture-sensitive Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. This was a quasi experimental randomized control study to the fifth semester students of a nursing school at Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The intervention group was trained by the Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. Both intervention and the control group had learned general nurse-client communication guidelines. The training was 4h with role-plays, supportive information and feedback sessions. An objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted 1week after the training, in seven stations, with seven simulated clients. Observers judged the communication skills of the students using a checklist of 5-point Likert scale, whereas simulated clients judged their satisfaction using 4-point Likert scale represented in colorful ribbons. There were significant mean differences in each domain of communication guideline observed between the trained and the control groups as judged by the teachers (p≤0.05) and simulated clients. Training using a culture-sensitive communication skills guideline could improve the communication skills of the nursing students and may increase satisfaction of the clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. [Cultural diversity in Montreal: a range of public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, B; Hemlin, I; Gravel, S; Roy, S; Dupéré, S

    2005-09-01

    Increasing immigration to Quebec has brought to the surface the need for adapting its public health systems and services, particularly in the area of primary care. The challenge is to take the heterogeneous nature of the population into account and to integrate diverse values, experience and know-how into the development of programmes and delivery of services, whilst simultaneously respecting the values of the various care providers and the norms of the institutions in the host country. This article addresses the question of adaptation strategies for health services, and namely the development of prevention and heath promotion programmes in public health within the framework of primary health care services within the intercultural context of Montreal. The issue of adaptation falls within the perspective and mandate of the Quebec government's policy on health and well-being (La politique de santé et du bien-être, 1992). Furthermore, it is a response to frequent demands from various health professionals and groups concerned with the adaptation of public services with respect to intercultural relationships confronted with the emerging realities associated with immigration. The article provides a reflection on specific ways of adapting prevention and health promotion initiatives targeting cultural communities and those who are undergoing immigration procedures or transitions. It also examines the development of ethno-cultural or other indicators which make it possible to capture migration experiences and their health impact. Since the Quebec health and social services system is currently in the process of major reform, it is hoped that it will seize this opportunity in order to make health and social service centres accountable for the adaptation of their programmes and services to the diversity of the populations they serve.

  4. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Kathryn J.; Bond, Kathy S.; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian...

  5. Performance measures of cultural competency in mental health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, C; Davis-Chambers, E; Haugland, G; Bank, R; Aponte, C; McCombs, H

    2000-11-01

    The authors utilized numerous documents created by advisory groups, expert panels and multicultural focus groups to develop performance measures for assessing the cultural competency of mental health systems. Competency was measured within three levels of organizational structure: administrative, provider network, and individual caregiver. Indicators, measures and data sources for needs assessment, information exchange, services, human resources, plans and policies, and outcomes were identified. Procedures for selection and implementation of the most critical measures are suggested. The products of this project are broadly applicable to the concerns of all cultural groups.

  6. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  7. Sensitivity of primary fibroblasts in culture to atmospheric oxygen does not correlate with species lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alison; Seluanov, Michael; Hwang, Chaewon; Tam, Jonathan; Khan, Tanya; Morgenstern, Ari; Wiener, Lauren; Vazquez, Juan M.; Zafar, Hiba; Wen, Robert; Muratkalyeva, Malika; Doerig, Katherine; Zagorulya, Maria; Cole, Lauren; Catalano, Sophia; Lobo Ladd, Aliny AB; Coppi, A. Augusto; Coşkun, Yüksel; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Nevo, Eviatar; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the way human and mouse fibroblasts experience senescence in culture had long puzzled researchers. While senescence of human cells is mediated by telomere shortening, Parrinello et al. demonstrated that senescence of mouse cells is caused by extreme oxygen sensitivity. It was hypothesized that the striking difference in oxygen sensitivity between mouse and human cells explains their different rates of aging. To test if this hypothesis is broadly applicable, we cultured cells from 16 rodent species with diverse lifespans in 3% and 21% oxygen and compared their growth rates. Unexpectedly, fibroblasts derived from laboratory mouse strains were the only cells demonstrating extreme sensitivity to oxygen. Cells from hamster, muskrat, woodchuck, capybara, blind mole rat, paca, squirrel, beaver, naked mole rat and wild-caught mice were mildly sensitive to oxygen, while cells from rat, gerbil, deer mouse, chipmunk, guinea pig and chinchilla showed no difference in the growth rate between 3% and 21% oxygen. We conclude that, although the growth of primary fibroblasts is generally improved by maintaining cells in 3% oxygen, the extreme oxygen sensitivity is a peculiarity of laboratory mouse strains, possibly related to their very long telomeres, and fibroblast oxygen sensitivity does not directly correlate with species' lifespan. PMID:27163160

  8. CULTURE OF HEALTH OF TEACHERS OF INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Kutseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of teachers’ health culture in inclusive educational environments. The special attention is given to a definition of the term «health». The objective and subjective reasons of professional deformations, their manifestations in the behavior of the teacher are shown. Deformations in the professional consciousness, thinking and behavior lead to disadaptation of the teaching profession, have a negative impact on the quality of the work with the pupils. The article analyses the difficulties in the pedagogical activity of teachers of inclusive school. The contents and technology of  the  methodological  and  psychological support of teachers shown briefly. The article discusses the methods of optimization (reduction of occupational stress: physical, biochemical and psychological. The author emphasizes the importance of harmonization of the individual teacher in the rehabilitation and restoration of mental and physical resources. Main content and technological aspects of formation of future teachers’ health culture at the pedagogical University are disclosed. Рrofessional-pedagogical readiness in inclusive educational conditions is formed in the education and upbringing of the specialists on the basis of competence assessment. Competence of the future teachers of inclusive education is a set of professional knowledge and skills in the fields of teaching, education and correctional-educational work with children with disabilities. Building a culture of health of future specialists is carried out from the position of a systemic approach to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual levels. Of great importance is the harmonization and humanization of the identity of the future teachers. The author emphasizes the role of interactive technologies in creating a culture of health students.

  9. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  10. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  11. CANCER PATIENT’S EXPERIENCE CROSSING THE HEALTH CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura G. Felea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive anthropology does not predict human behavior, but tries to access principles that rule behavior. Cross-cultural communication is a skill acquired through a learning process, and it can improve doctor-patient relationship and enhance the outcomes of care. The unfulfilled expectations of a patient may influence the patient self-esteem and his perceived role in the society. For some patients living with cancer, it was found as an unforeseen benefit of learning to be closer to God. Based on a narrative communication, we tried to underline cross-cultural differences in cancer patients from different countries with various backgrounds. We described the patient reactions, his way of interpreting the things that happened to him, and his actions regarding adaptive changes in behavior. The originality of the study resides in understanding cross-cultural patterns of cancer patients. The innovative element is the use of qualitative research and its application in health care.

  12. An investigation of Helicobacter pylori using culture, histopathological and serological examination methods and its antimicrobial sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Asuman; Gulsun, Serda; Guveli, Hakan; Tascioglu, Jale; Goktas, Pasa

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the determination of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by culture, histopathological and serological methods in cases of endoscopically diagnosed as duodenitis and duodenal ulcer (DU), a comparison of their relative advantages, and its antibiotic sensitivities were investigated. Helicobacter pylori was investigated using 3 methods (culture, histopathological and serological examination) in 50 patients (25 diagnosed with duodenitis and 25 with DU) at the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Hospital, Turkey between December 2000 and February 2001. An investigation into its antibiotic sensitivities to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and azithromycin by disc diffusion methods and to amoxicillin and clarithromycin by E-test were investigated. Helicobacter pylori bacteria were observed in Gram stained preparates prepared from biopsy material in 34 out of 50 patients (68%), and were able to be produced in active culture in all these cases. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of H. pylori in 80% cases of DU and 60% cases of duodenitis; anti-CagA(IgG) was positively determined in 88% DU cases and in 60% duodenitis cases. There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of diagnosis by histopathological and serological methods. The difference between the 2 groups produced in active culture in 84% cases of DU cases and 52% of duodenitis was statistically significant (p=0.0322). Using the E-test and disc diffusion methods, 8.8% of the strains that reproduced in culture were resistant to and 91.2% were sensitive to clarithromycin. All strains were determined to be sensitive to amoxicillin: 17.6% of the strains were determined to be resistant to metronidazole, 11.7% to azithromycin. It was observed that Gram staining is a rapid and reliable method of pre-diagnosis for H. pylori; that histopathological examination methods are of considerable importance in diagnosis; and that the investigation of

  13. Recognition rights, mental health consumers and reconstructive cultural semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radden Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry, offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved.

  14. [Urban culture and mental health: an anthropological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrès, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    This article is an anthropological reflection on the trans-cultural issues specific to large urban centers. The author questions how can a person develop and create an identity in this context. He then examines how proximity and isolation relative to urban settings contribute to the mental health of urban populations. Finally, he examines how characteristics of city life conditions assistance to people with mental disorders in urban settings.

  15. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing--complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Høyum, Per; Pettersen, Fred-Johan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wolff, Anders; Dufva, Martin; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Emnéus, Jenny

    2015-01-15

    A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the 3D cell culture volume, while the four 3T modes provide focus on the dynamics at the corners of the 3D culture chamber. By combining a number of electrode configurations, complementary spatially distributed information on a large 3D cell culture can be obtained with maximised sensitivity in the entire 3D space. The experimental results show that cell proliferation can be monitored within the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of 3D cell cultures and tissue engineering.

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURE POSITIVE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PROFILE IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Sreekumar Pius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection is very common all over the world and in India more than 10 million cases are reported per year. It is one of the common infections diagnosed in the outpatients as well as the hospitalised patients. Empirical treatment of community acquired urinary tract infections are determined by the antibiotic sensitivity in a population. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity amongst the uropathogens to help establish local guidelines on treatment of urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we collected 1306 samples from patients in whom we suspected to have urinary tract infection based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. with fever (greater than 38°C without another explanation or from a patient who had at least one urinary symptom (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic pain or tenderness in our hospital during January 2016-June 2016. RESULTS Urine cultures were positive for 18% of the patients. Among these cultures, Klebsiella pneumonia (41%, Escherichia coli (35% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7% were the common organisms found. Highest antimicrobial sensitivity amongst these pathogens was found with cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin. CONCLUSION Cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin were the highly sensitive systemic antibiotics while ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were the sensitive oral antibiotics in our locality.

  17. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  18. [Primary health care reform and implications for the organizational culture of Health Center Groups in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudia; Dussault, Gilles; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2014-01-01

    The health sector's increasing complexity poses major challenges for administrators. There is considerable consensus on workforce quality as a key determinant of success for any health reform. This study aimed to explore the changes introduced by an action-training intervention in the organizational culture of the 73 executive directors of Health Center Groups (ACES) in Portugal during the primary health care reform. The study covers two periods, before and after the one-year ACES training, during which the data were collected and analyzed. The Competing Values Framework allowed observing that after the ACES action-training intervention, the perceptions of the executive directors regarding their organizational culture were more aligned with the practices and values defended by the primary health care reform. The study highlights the need to continue monitoring results over different time periods to elaborate further conclusions.

  19. A clash of cultures: A&E and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J

    2000-01-01

    Accident and emergency (A&E) departments have attracted little attention from psychiatric services, with the exception of emergencies and the management of self harm. Emergency staff gravitate towards those attenders with concrete physical needs, typifying mental health attenders as low status. The aim of this project, which took place over a 12 month period, was to improve the quality of care provided to persons attending an A&E department with mental health needs, through a staff development programme. It was initiated for the generic A&E nurse with no formal training in mental health care. The programme was based on knowledge generated through a collaborative approach using an action research process. This article particularly focuses on the mindsets, values and strategies which evolved through the study. The project indicated that facets of the A&E culture such as staff values, technology, communication patterns and the environment give mental health a low status. Conflict is generated between the individual and the macro culture, dominated by the excitement of trauma care and the short-term, immediate nature of the work.

  20. [The sensitivity to antibiotics of biofilm cultures of toxigenic strains Corynebacterium diphtheriae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Ya N; Kharseyeva, G G; Mironov, A Yu

    2014-06-01

    The article presents analysis of sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm culture of museum strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae gravis tox+ SV-665. The strain was obtained from the L.A. Tarasevitch state research institute of standardization and control of medical biological preparations. The second strain C. diphtheriaecirculates gravis tox+ circulates in population of the Rostov oblast and it was recovered from patient with diagnosis of "localized form of diphtheria" by bacteriologic laboratory "1002 CGSEN SKVO" of Rostov-on-Don. The week and month biofilm cultures of both strains of C. diphtheriae gravis tox+ were used. The sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm cultures of museum and circulating in population strains of agent of diphtheria were detected using minimal suppressing concentration by technique of serial dilutions in fluid growth medium. It is demonstrated that the most effective in respect of C. diphtheriae are such preparations as cefotaxinum, gentamycinum, lincomycin, canamycin and cefasolin. The sensitivity of pathogen in composition of biofilm to these preparations has no changes.

  1. The culture of criticism and argument in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Barbara; Westwood, Geoffrey

    2002-03-01

    A programme to introduce skills in critical analytical reading and writing in postgraduate tertiary students in Public Health Management is described. The students had considerable professional experience, but their previous academic learning did not require a critical-analytical approach. The ability to review and analyse past theory and practice and to critically analyse and evaluate public health programmes is an essential element of the skills required by graduates. The paper describes and discusses the teaching and learning strategies used in critical analysis sessions. The personal and systemic barriers to achieving substantial change in cultures of learning are reviewed. As a limited response to a perceived problem, significant changes in the ability of students to critically analyse published material and write appropriate essays were achieved. The value of critical analysis in public health is described and the implication for medical education at all levels is considered.

  2. Balancing Culture, Ethics, and Methods in Qualitative Health Research with Aboriginal Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meadows

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Including Aboriginal women in qualitative health research expands our understanding of factors that contribute to their health and well-being. As part of the larger WHEALTH study, we gathered qualitative health data on midlife Aboriginal women living both on and off reserves. Despite careful planning and a commitment to methodological congruence and purposiveness we encountered a number of challenges that raised ethical questions. We present how we addressed these issues as we attempted to produce ethical, culturally sensitive, and sound research in a timely fashion. This article provides important considerations for other researchers and funding bodies while illustrating the benefits of working with Aboriginal women as an under researched population.

  3. Intersecting Cultures in Deaf Mental Health: An Ethnographic Study of NHS Professionals Diagnosing Autism in D/deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenman, Natassia F; Hiddinga, Anja; Wright, Barry

    2017-02-27

    Autism assessments for children who are deaf are particularly complex for a number of reasons, including overlapping cultural and clinical factors. We capture this in an ethnographic study of National Health Service child and adolescent mental health services in the United Kingdom, drawing on theoretical perspectives from transcultural psychiatry, which help to understand these services as a cultural system. Our objective was to analyse how mental health services interact with Deaf culture, as a source of cultural-linguistic identity. We ground the study in the practices and perceptions of 16 professionals, who have conducted autism assessments for deaf children aged 0-18. We adopt a framework of intersectionality to capture the multiple, mutually enforcing factors involved in this diagnostic process. We observed that professionals working in specialist Deaf services, or with experience working with the Deaf community, had intersectional understandings of assessments: the ways in which cultural, linguistic, sensory, and social factors work together to produce diagnoses. Working with a diagnostic system that focuses heavily on 'norms' based on populations from a hearing culture was a key source of frustration for professionals. We conclude that recognising the intersectionality of mental health and Deaf culture helps professionals provide sensitive diagnoses that acknowledge the multiplicity of D/deaf experiences.

  4. Why do Chinese Canadians not consult mental health services: health status, language or culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.

  5. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  6. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  7. Gender equality awareness and sensitiveness of health personnel and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesude Uluşen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of gender awareness and sensitiveness among health personnel and gender discriminatory approach of public on using health services. In this research descriptive methods were used with the qualitative and quantitative research techniques together. The research has two universes. First is the community living in the region of Kızılcahamam primary health care clinic and the second is health personnel working at hospital and primary health care clinic in Kızılcahamam. Data of the research was collected from a sample selected from the first population and a study group of the second population. Semi-structured questionnarie form prepared in line with the literature knowledge, developed by the researcher, was applied on 362 people who constitute the research sample by face-to-face interviews between May 2008 and June 2008. In-depth interwievs were applied to 27 health personel who constitutes the study group of the research between June 2008 and July 2008. In research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Quantitive data have been evaluated on computer by percentage and chisquare using SPSS programme. Qualitative data collected from the interwievs and open-ended questions were evaluated by the content analysis which suits research purposes. The result of the study: According to the data obtained both from the public and health personnel, gender discriminatory approaches were identified in utilization of health services and in delivery of the public serviceby health personnel. A large number of quantitative and qualitative data related to existence of gender-based discrimination and violence were achieved in research.   Özet Bu araştırma, sağlık hizmetlerinin sunumunda sağlık çalışanlarının toplumsal cinsiyet duyarlılığına ne derecede sahip olduklarının ve sağlık hizmetlerinden yararlanma konusunda toplumun cinsiyetçi yaklaşımlarının belirlenmesi amacıyla yap

  8. Organisational culture matters for system integration in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Samina K; Kay, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates the importance of organisational culture for Clinical Information Systems (CIS) integration. The study is based on data collected in intensive care units in the UK and Denmark. Data were collected using qualitative methods, i.e., observations, interviews and shadowing of health care providers, together with a questionnaire at each site. The data are analysed to extract salient variables for CIS integration, and it is shown that these variables can be separated into two categories that describe the 'Actual Usefulness' of the system and the 'Organisational Culture'. This model is then extended to show that CIS integration directly affects the work processes of the organisation, forming an iterative process of change as a CIS is introduced and integrated.

  9. [Science, technique, and culture: relations between risk and health practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeresnia, Dina

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.

  10. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges to culturally sensitive care for elderly chinese patients: a first-generation Chinese-American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Karen C

    2013-01-01

    Physicians and medical institutions in the United States are placing increasing emphasis on providing culturally sensitive care for patients, such as implementing a Confucian family-based model of medical decision making when caring for elderly Chinese patients. In this article, I articulate various reasons why deferring to the family is not a guarantee of culturally sensitive care, particularly when family members are first-generation Chinese-Americans. Nonetheless, I offer several suggestions to help physicians, medical institutions, and family members to provide more culturally sensitive care for elderly Chinese patients.

  12. Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS: Analyzing Participatory Culture-Centered Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dutta, Mohan J.

    2009-01-01

    An emerging trend in health communication research advocates the need to foreground articulations of health by participants who are at the core of any health campaign. Scholarly work suggests that the culture-centered approach to health communication can provide a theoretical and practical framework to achieve this objective. The culture-centered…

  13. Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS: Analyzing Participatory Culture-Centered Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dutta, Mohan J.

    2009-01-01

    An emerging trend in health communication research advocates the need to foreground articulations of health by participants who are at the core of any health campaign. Scholarly work suggests that the culture-centered approach to health communication can provide a theoretical and practical framework to achieve this objective. The culture-centered…

  14. Culture matters: a case of school health promotion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Read, Kendra; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2013-08-14

    Rising concerns of poor health behaviours of children and youth have stimulated international support for a comprehensive approach to promoting the development of healthy behaviours in the early years. Health promoting schools (HPS) is increasingly adopted as an approach to guide supportive practices, but there is limited research that has reported how to effectively implement HPS at a population level. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively explore the factors preventing and facilitating implementation of HPS practices in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Interviews (n = 23) were conducted with school stakeholders (principals, teachers and parents) from a diverse sample of schools (n = 9) and data were analysed to develop an understanding of how school circumstances and experiences influenced HPS implementation. At a broad level, the reported barriers were structural and systemic, whereas the facilitating factors were related to organizational capacity and political leadership. It was evident that implementing and sustaining HPS required a shift in values and integration of supportive school health practices into school priorities. The results suggest that, without addressing the competing culture, which is persistently reinforced by strict academic mandates and unhealthy community norms, HPS will be vulnerable to circumstances that prevent implementation. Considering the emerging importance of mental wellbeing, it will also be important to provide schools with adequate and appropriate staff capacity and support to address this issue. Sustaining the positive effects of HPS will require continuous engagement and collaboration with multiple stakeholders to embed health promotion into school community norms.

  15. [Mycrob-1000: an alternative for the rapid determination of urine culture in the primary health level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Rolando Contreras; Ruiz, Fernando Travieso; Tamayo, Angela Zayas; Carmona, Gloria Roura; Varela, Estrella Alvarez; Ochoa, Gilberto Tillán; Frómeta, Nardo Ramírez

    2004-01-01

    The use of equipment Mycrob-1000 in detecting urinary infections in 4 hours in a primary health care center is evaluated. Two hundred fifty eight urine samples obtained from spontaneous miction were processed; the reference method was counting of colony-forming units per urine millimeter inoculated in Petri plaque in CLED medium. The coincidence rate between both methods was 92,31, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 79,00% and 96,95% respectively. The level of sensitivity was affected by factors not directly dependent on the equipment. High values of specificity and of coincidence achieved by this equipment in relation to the reference method facilitates its use in urine culture, making possible to differentiate negative urine samples in 4 or 5 hours and to focus work and resources on positive samples.

  16. Barriers to accessing the culturally sensitive healthcare that could decrease the disabling effects of arthritis in a rural Mayan community: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Wilkins, Seanne; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-05-01

    The impact of living with arthritis in a rural Mexican Mayan community along with the barriers encountered by people living with this chronic condition were investigated in this study. The community needs around this health issue were investigated by conducting an ethnographic study using data obtained during two time periods (August 2012-April 2013 and December 2013-December 2014). During the first period, fieldwork observations and interviews with 65 individuals, which included people with arthritis, health professionals, traditional health providers, and community leaders were undertaken. During the second period, 46 community meetings were conducted to identify the needs associated with arthritis in the municipality. Data were analyzed following a modified version of the Framework approach. The results show that arthritis reduces the health-related quality of life of the people in Chankom through a process of disablement, conditioning a need to access culturally sensitive healthcare. Availability, attainability, and acceptability barriers prevent access to this type of healthcare and result from power imbalance between indigenous and non-indigenous people. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive rehabilitation services for people living with arthritis in Chankom. Mayan people should be involved in the design and implementation of these services. Moreover, it is important to improve our understanding of the processes behind the healthcare access inequities identified in this study by attending to the historical generation of current social, economical, cultural, and political structures.

  17. Religious culture and health promotion: care, practice, object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Timm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment

  18. The promotion of mental health through cultural values, institutions, and practices: a reflection on some aspects of botswana culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabone, Motshedisi B

    2009-12-01

    Botswana has seen rapid socioeconomic development since the 1970s that has contributed to the erosion of the values, institutions, and practices that are believed to be supportive of mental health. In this paper, the author argues that the aspects of culture that are supportive of mental health have been diluted by the process of urbanization and the interactions of Batswana (the indigenous people of Botswana) with other cultural groups, particularly those from the western hemisphere. The paper further highlights some of the values, institutions, and practices native to Botswana and describes how they promote mental health. Lastly, recommendations for reviving the cultural values, institutions, and practices of Botswana are discussed.

  19. The role of culture in health literacy and chronic disease screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Susan J; Huebner, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Orzech, Kathryn; Orzech, Katherine; Vivian, James

    2009-12-01

    Cultural and language differences and socioeconomic status interact with and contribute to low health literacy, defined as the inability to understand or act on medical/therapeutic instructions. Health literacy is increasingly recognized as an important factor in patient compliance, cancer screening utilization, and chronic disease outcomes. Commendable efforts have been initiated by the American Medical Association and other organizations to address low health literacy among patients. Less work has been done, however, to place health literacy in the broader context of socioeconomic and cultural differences among patients and providers that hinder communication and compliance. This review examines cultural influences on health literacy, cancer screening and chronic disease outcomes. We argue that cultural beliefs around health and illness contribute to an individual's ability to understand and act on a health care provider's instructions. This paper proposes key aspects of the intersection between health literacy and culturally varying beliefs about health which merit further exploration.

  20. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, 3rd, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated...

  1. Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the

  2. Laying the foundations of a culture of health as a pedagogical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalajtsan A.P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to show the dominant influence of educational - educational process lay the groundwork for a culture of health students. Material : processed more than 40 references, conducted a survey, questionnaires and observation of the living conditions of students. Results : named main reasons for creating a culture of health of students should be considered as primary pedagogical problem. The preconditions and conditions of the foundations of the culture of youth health, namely: social, educational, health, environmental, economic, geographic, individual. Traced the sequence and phasing of the pedagogical process of building a culture of health of students in the course of many years of teaching in higher education. Conclusions : proven pedagogical influence priority basis forming a culture of health of students in the individual development and identity formation for learning in higher education. The sequence and structure of the solution of pedagogical problems of forming the foundations of a culture of health students.

  3. Integrating Literacy, Culture, and Language to Improve Health Care Quality for Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulis, Dennis P.; Brach, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the interrelationship of literacy, culture, and language and the importance of addressing their intersection. Methods Health literacy, cultural competence, and linguistic competence strategies to quality improvement were analyzed. Results Strategies to improve health literacy for low-literate individuals are distinct from strategies for culturally diverse and individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). The lack of integration results in health care that is unresponsive to some vulnerable groups’ needs. A vision for integrated care is presented. Conclusion Clinicians, the health care team, and health care organizations have important roles to play in addressing challenges related to literacy, culture, and language. PMID:17931131

  4. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  5. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  6. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  7. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  8. Faith in the 'cultural fix': limits to a planned cultural change program in a rural health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper, by way of a narrative on the author's participation, explains the limits to a planned cultural change program in a large rural health service. Cultural change was identified by the CEO as crucial to the success of a major restructuring of the service, and the attitudes and beliefs of the 'old guard' were considered to be constraining progress. Advocates of cultural integration contend that shared core values across an organisation can overcome such obstacles. This is a matter of faith. An application of Habermasian theory suggests that organisational leaders are drawing on traditional/religious beliefs and practices to bolster their visions and missions at a time of motivational crisis. Though a need for cultural change in some sectors of the health services is acknowledged, the particular challenges in attempting to manipulate the traditionally embedded culture and sub-cultures of the health services is highlighted. An analysis of some of the ideas and beliefs surrounding authority, deference and discipline is undertaken. It is argued that the ritualistic reinforcement of these beliefs and the reproduction of sub-cultures along material and ideal interests militate against the implementation of objectives delineated by the CEO. While cultural analysis has revealed the irrational face of organisations and can bring to conscious awareness the taken-for-granted beliefs which inform behaviour, the cultural integrationists have a further agenda. They aim to manipulate organisational culture to subtly control employees' beliefs and hence behaviour. Cultural control is a covert form of top down authority that can be just as directive and centralizing as bureaucratic control. The author also maintains that cultural change programs alone cannot fix a problem that arose in the macro-economic sphere: a chronic lack of resources ever since the state responded to the economic crisis by cutting funds to health and welfare services.

  9. Culture clash: alcohol marketing and public health aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey; de Wever, Johanna

    2008-03-01

    It is of no coincidence that a number of recent Harm Reduction Digests have addressed the issue of the reduction of alcohol-related harm. Despite the dominant focus on illicit drug use in the popular discourse, alcohol remains Australia's number one drug problem, as it is in many other developed countries. In this Digest Munro and de Wever use the 'four Ps' of marketing: product, price, place and promotion, to critique the two decades industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing. They conclude that if we are going to develop policies which effectively change Australian drinking culture to reduce alcohol-related harm, we need first to accept that the alcohol industry and the health field have separate and conflicting interests.

  10. The cultural adjustment and mental health of Japanese immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J; Arora, Agnes K; Inose, Mayuko; Okubo, Yuki; Li, Robin H; Greene, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with eight Japanese immigrant youth about their experiences with respect to adjusting to life in the United States, dealing with discrimination, and coping with cultural challenges. They were also questioned about their mental health and family and peer relations. Results indicate that participants managed to maintain bicultural identities and to cope with the problems that they encountered. Nevertheless, they experienced the following difficulties: racism and prejudice, language barriers, and conflict regarding identity and values. In terms of coping, participants mostly relied on friends for support; only one had sought the help of a professional counselor. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of working with immigrant youth from Japan.

  11. Jedi Public Health: Co-creating an Identity-Safe Culture to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; James, Sherman A; Destin, Mesmin; Graham, Louis A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Murphy, Mary; Pearson, Jay A; Omari, Amel; Thompson, James Phillip

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which socially-assigned and culturally mediated social identity affects health depends on contingencies of social identity that vary across and within populations in day-to-day life. These contingencies are structurally rooted and health damaging inasmuch as they activate physiological stress responses. They also have adverse effects on cognition and emotion, undermining self-confidence and diminishing academic performance. This impact reduces opportunities for social mobility, while ensuring those who "beat the odds" pay a physical price for their positive efforts. Recent applications of social identity theory toward closing racial, ethnic, and gender academic achievement gaps through changing features of educational settings, rather than individual students, have proved fruitful. We sought to integrate this evidence with growing social epidemiological evidence that structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes have population health effects. We explicate an emergent framework, Jedi Public Health (JPH). JPH focuses on changing features of settings in everyday life, rather than individuals, to promote population health equity, a high priority, yet, elusive national public health objective. We call for an expansion and, in some ways, a re-orienting of efforts to eliminate population health inequity. Policies and interventions to remove and replace discrediting cues in everyday settings hold promise for disrupting the repeated physiological stress process activation that fuels population health inequities with potentially wide application.

  12. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  13. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit: Development and Evaluation of Novel Literacy and Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a "superior" score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Sensitizing nurses for a changing environmental health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, L B; Wood, J

    1995-12-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a broader environmental health role for nursing by focusing on the health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants and of global environmental change. This evolving role is reviewed through the examination of selected community health nursing texts published during the last several decades. Key role strategies based on this expanded and evolving environmental role are proposed. Finally, a survey is described that is intended to heighten awareness of personal and professional attitudes and behaviors related to the environment.

  15. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-09-01

    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schreckenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic, perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

  17. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Griefahn, Barbara; Meis, Markus

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations) and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic) rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

  18. Participation in a trauma-focused epidemiological investigation may result in sensitization for current health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, M.J.; Spinhoven, Ph.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives - Participation in health survey research may result in a worsening of self-assessed health status and enhanced service-use by increasing self-awareness of current health status. The present study investigated whether participation in a traumafocused epidemiological study sensitized parti

  19. Does health care role and experience influence perception of safety culture related to preventing infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Barbara I; Harris, Anthony D; Richards, Cheryl L; Belton, Beverly M; Dembry, Louise-Marie; Morton, David J; Xiao, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence reveals the importance of improving safety culture in efforts to eliminate health care-associated infections. This multisite, cross-sectional survey examined the association between professional role and health care experience on infection prevention safety culture at 5 hospitals. The findings suggest that frontline health care technicians are less directly engaged in improvement efforts and safety education than other staff and that infection prevention safety culture varies more by hospital than by staff position and experience.

  20. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  1. Cultural health capital and the interactional dynamics of patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbin, Leslie A; Chang, Jamie Suki; Shim, Janet K

    2013-09-01

    As intuitive and inviting as it may appear, the concept of patient-centered care has been difficult to conceptualize, institutionalize and operationalize. Informed by Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, we employ the framework of cultural health capital to uncover the ways in which both patients' and providers' cultural resources, assets, and interactional styles influence their abilities to mutually achieve patient-centered care. Cultural health capital is defined as a specialized collection of cultural skills, attitudes, behaviors and interactional styles that are valued, leveraged, and exchanged by both patients and providers during clinical interactions. In this paper, we report the findings of a qualitative study conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the Western United States. We investigated the various elements of cultural health capital, how patients and providers used cultural health capital to engage with each other, and how this process shaped the patient-centeredness of interactions. We find that the accomplishment of patient-centered care is highly dependent upon habitus and the cultural health capital that both patients and providers bring to health care interactions. Not only are some cultural resources more highly valued than others, their differential mobilization can facilitate or impede engagement and communication between patients and their providers. The focus of cultural health capital on the ways fundamental social inequalities are manifest in clinical interactions enables providers, patients, and health care organizations to consider how such inequalities can confound patient-centered care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultural competence: a literature review and conceptual model for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mario; Nesman, Teresa; Mowery, Debra; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Callejas, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of organizational cultural competence for use in mental health services that resulted from a comprehensive review of the research literature. The model identifies four factors associated with cultural competence in mental health services (community context, cultural characteristics of local populations, organizational infrastructure, and direct service support) and redefines cultural competence as the degree of compatibility among these factors. A strength of this model of organizational cultural competence is that it facilitates future research and practice in psychiatric services settings and links culturally competent practices to service parity.

  3. Experience of using an interdisciplinary task force to develop a culturally sensitive multipronged tool to improve stroke outcomes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedunni S. Arulogun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily and nurses (secondarily with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.

  4. The relationship between drivers and policy in the implementation of cultural competency training in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Betancourt, Joseph R; Park, Elyse R; Sprague-Martinez, Linda

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, cultural competence has appeared on the agendas of the medical profession as well as other health care providers. Through semistructured interviews with staff at different types of health care institutions, we explored the motivation for and barriers against the implementation of cultural competence training. The findings show that while some progress has been made, there is still work to be done in making cultural competency an integral part of the organizational fabric of health care. National organizations need to consider their leadership role in helping health care organizations translate broad statements of cultural competence into meaningful action.

  5. Evaluation on Sensitivity of the Human Sperm Motility Assay for Detecting Endotoxin in Culture Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-jie ZHU; Jing LI; Wen-hong ZHANG; Kang-shou YAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay for detecting endotoxin in culture medium Materials & Methods Motile sperm were separated and exposed to different concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 1 000 ng/mL, 10 000 ng/mL, and 50 000 ng/mL), and sperm motility was determined after incubation. Effects of endotoxin on sperm motility in media without albumin were also examined. In addition, at the same concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, and 10 ng/mL), the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay was compared to those of 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryo bioassays.Results At levels of 0.5 ng/mL~1 000 ng/mL endotoxin in media with 2 mg/mL albumin, sperm did not show significant change in motility during 24 h of incubation when compared with the control (P>0.05). However, the sperm motility was significantly inhibited at endotoxin dosages of 10 000 and 50 000 ng/mL. In the absence of albumin supplementation, at endotoxin levels of 50 000 ng/mL, and 1 000 ng/mL, there was a marked decrease in sperm motility compared with the control after 2 h or 8 h of incubation, respectively (P<0.01). In media containing 0.5 ng/mL and 1 ng/mL endotoxin, 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos had significantly reduced developmental rates in all developmental stages, and at the level of 10 ng/mL, the development of the embryos was arrested.Conclusion The human sperm motility assay could detect high levels of endotoxin in culture medium but its sensitivity to endotoxin would be inferior to that of the 1-cell or 2-cell mouse embryo bioassay. In the absence of albumin supplementation, the sensitivity of the sperm motility assay could be improved.

  6. Emerging contaminants: a potential human health concern for sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi P; He, Ke; Blaney, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotic molecules are being increasingly detected in drinking water, food crops, and breast milk. This issue represents a novel toxicological concern, especially for sensitive populations like pregnant women and breastfeeding infants. This commentary calls for more interdisciplinary research efforts focused on elucidating the transfer of contaminants of emerging concern from mother to child, as well as the relevant toxicological impacts on the child. The need for more tangible efforts to reduce pharmaceutical loads in environmental systems is also highlighted.

  7. Evaluation of the organizational cultural competence of a community health center: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca; Olavarria, Marcela; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim; Marchant, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Cultural competence is an important component of client-centered care in health promotion and community health services, especially considering the changing demographics of North America. Although a number of tools for evaluating cultural competence have been developed, few studies have reported on the results of organizational cultural competence evaluations in health care or social services settings. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a description of a cultural competence evaluation of a community health center serving a diverse population. Data collection included reviewing documents, and surveying staff, management, and the Board of Directors. The organization fully met 28 of 53 standards of cultural competence, partially met 21 standards, and did not meet 2 standards, and 2 standards could not be assessed due to missing information. The advantages and lessons learned from this organizational cultural competence evaluation are discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. A Sensitive Competitive ELISA for Determination of Biotin in Transformed Yeast Culture Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong

    2003-01-01

    Aim To develop a sensitive competitive ELISA for the determination of biotin in transformed yeast culture media.Methods The ELISA plate was firstly coated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and then successively incubated with rabbit ami-Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae serum and goat anti-rabbit IgG-biotin to form the solid biotin, which competed with the biotin in the solution (standard or sample) for the limited streptavidin-horse radish peroxidase conjugate. The standard calibration curve for biotin analysis was constructed in the range of 50-2000ng·L-1. Results The detection limit for biotin was found to be 83 ng·L-1 , which waa about 1000 times lower than the lowest determination concenlration in the reported ELISA for biotin analysis. The relative standard deviations for the spiked samples at biotin concerarations of 200 ng·L-1, 500 ng·L-1 , and 1000 ng·L-1 were 24.87%, 6.15%, and 7.86%, respectively, with the average recovery of 101.13%. The wild yeast and its sixty-three transformed yeast culture media were applied to the developed ELISA for the determination of biotin. It was found that the biotin concentrations in more than 85 % of the tested samples were enhanced with different increase factors after transformation. Conclusion Utilization of Mycoplasma hyopnetunoniae as the coating protein improves the precision and accmacy oftbe ELISA assay, which might be used for the biotin assay in other media.

  9. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  10. NRSF causes cAMP-sensitive suppression of sodium current in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, H.; Lester, H. A.

    2002-01-01

    The neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST) has been shown to bind to the promoters of many neuron-specific genes and is able to suppress transcription of Na(+) channels in PC12 cells, although its functional effect in terminally differentiated neurons is unknown. We constructed lentiviral vectors to express NRSF as a bicistronic message with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and followed infected hippocampal neurons in culture over a period of 1-2 wk. NRSF-expressing neurons showed a time-dependent suppression of Na(+) channel function as measured by whole cell electrophysiology. Suppression was reversed or prevented by the addition of membrane-permeable cAMP analogues and enhanced by cAMP antagonists but not affected by increasing protein expression with a viral enhancer. Secondary effects, including altered sensitivity to glutamate and GABA and reduced outward K(+) currents, were duplicated by culturing GFP-infected control neurons in TTX. The striking similarity of the phenotypes makes NRSF potentially useful as a genetic "silencer" and also suggests avenues of further exploration that may elucidate the transcription factor's in vivo role in neuronal plasticity.

  11. [Home care in a culturally sensitive environment: perspectives of caregivers of Haitian elderly patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Paquet, Mario; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Carpentier, Normand; Lévesque, Louise; Trudeau, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the care provided by families occurs in an increasingly multiethnic context. Against this backdrop, the present qualitative study aims to explore the needs/expectations and solutions not only of (female) natural caregivers of an elderly relative hailing from Haiti (presented in terms of tracking cases) but also of remunerated home care providers - all with a view to developing a culturally sensitive service offering. As such, this study works from a conceptual framework centring on the negotiation of a common area of agreement between the stakeholders involved (i.e., natural caregivers and home care providers). To this end, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among 15 caregivers and 37 home care providers. The three recurrent themes emerging from the data analysis concern, in context, the needs/expectations and solutions surrounding the experience of service use, barriers to use, and the relationships between natural caregivers and home care providers. The statements of both groups evidenced a consistency of views and have thus provided a basis for developing some recommendations acceptable to all stakeholders from the perspective of making culturally-based adjustments to the service offering.

  12. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature...

  13. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised.Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers.Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts.Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list.Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork.Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  14. Community health center provider and staff's Spanish language ability and cultural awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-05-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.

  15. Isolates and antibiotic sensitivity of eighty culture-proven endophthalmitis cases from Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ilker; Kapran, Ziya; Altan, Tugrul; Ozel Karatas, Meltem; Aydin, Derya; Okaygun, Eda; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the spectrum of organisms causing endophthalmitis and their sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Medical records of 80 consecutive patients treated at Beyoglu Eye Hospital for endophthalmitis from January 2001 to April 2006 were reviewed. Specimens were obtained from either the vitreous (93%, 81/87) or anterior chamber (7%, 6/87) during pars plana vitrectomy or vitreous tap, and were inoculated into blood culture bottles. A Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility. The outcome measures included isolates identified and antibiotic sensitivity of the specimens. Fifty-six of 87 (64.4%) isolates were Gram-positive organisms, 29 (33.3%) were Gram-negative organisms, and 2 (2.3%) were fungi. The most common organism group identified was coagulase-negative staphylococci in 26.4% (23/87). While vancomycin was active against all Gram-positive isolates tested (100%), ceftazidime had the highest susceptibility rate (100%) for Gram-negative organisms isolated. Although coagulase-negative micrococci predominated in this series, a high isolation rate for Gram-negative organisms was obtained. High susceptibility rates for ofloxacin make it an alternative to ceftazidime and vancomycin in both Gram-negative- and Gram-positive-derived endophthalmitis, respectively. Studies with larger series and additional antibiotics are needed to confirm these findings. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Potential interactions of calcium-sensitive reagents with zinc ion in different cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Fukumori, Ryo; Nakamura, Saki; Kutsukake, Takaya; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been widely used to evaluate the involvement of free Ca(2+) in mechanisms underlying a variety of biological responses for decades. Here, we report high reactivity to zinc of well-known Ca(2+)-sensitive reagents in diverse cultured cells. In rat astrocytic C6 glioma cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) dye Fluo-3, the addition of ZnCl2 gradually increased the fluorescence intensity in a manner sensitive to the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA irrespective of added CaCl2. The addition of the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 drastically increased Fluo-3 fluorescence in the absence of ZnCl2, while the addition of the Zn(2+) ionophore pyrithione rapidly and additionally increased the fluorescence in the presence of ZnCl2, but not in its absence. In cells loaded with the zinc dye FluoZin-3 along with Fluo-3, a similarly gradual increase was seen in the fluorescence of Fluo-3, but not of FluoZin-3, in the presence of both CaCl2 and ZnCl2. Further addition of pyrithione drastically increased the fluorescence intensity of both dyes, while the addition of the Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) rapidly and drastically decreased FluoZin-3 fluorescence. In cells loaded with FluoZin-3 alone, the addition of ZnCl2 induced a gradual increase in the fluorescence in a fashion independent of added CaCl2 but sensitive to EGTA. Significant inhibition was found in the vitality to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide in a manner sensitive to TPEN, EDTA and BAPTA in C6 glioma cells exposed to ZnCl2, with pyrithione accelerating the inhibition. Similar inhibition occurred in an EGTA-sensitive fashion after brief exposure to ZnCl2 in pluripotent P19 cells, neuronal Neuro2A cells and microglial BV2 cells, which all expressed mRNA for particular zinc transporters. Taken together, comprehensive analysis is absolutely required for the demonstration of a variety of physiological and pathological responses

  17. SOCIAL AND HEALTH-IMPROVING SERVICES AS A FACTOR OF CULTURE HEALTH ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseevna Zaplatina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available At present time mankindis entering upon a new information age, and therefore the foundations of culture health organization is considered as the perspective to distribute intellectual and information resources as ecologically sustainable development and modernizing of Russian society. Great attention in this regard is given to a higher education system, the aim of which is to prepare a specialist with fundamental knowledge, professionally important qualities, environmental culture and culture of health.Though information resources in the sphere of continuous environmental and valeological education, from the point of their socio-philosophical justification, are varied and quite extensional, these trends are just beginning to penetrate in all areas of social life (including the educational environment and are not sufficiently reflected in continuing professional education, especially technical and, as it is know, technical education is preparing professionals of new type, adequate to changing conditions.In this regard, the ecologization аnd valeologization of continuous training acquires the greatest relevance in modernization of higher education. Also one of the urgent tasks is training of specialists, having high level of ecological and valeological consciousness development and ecological thinking; all these determine the functioning of the system «society-production-environment». According to these facts, it is possible to mention the necessity to solve the problems of environmental and valeological education in professional training of specialists, by means of global process modeling directly and indirectly related to this field.Since ecological and valeological education in higher schools must be based on regulatory support, as an important tool, used by the state in order to preserve the national health, as well as balances environmental management, it is necessary to note that at the state level the most important task is to promote

  18. The first study of patient safety culture in Iranian primary health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizchi, Narges; Sedaghat, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Although the error in health care has received attention recently, patient safety culture in health centers has been relatively neglected. To measure the patient safety culture in primary health centers. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the modified version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a demographic questionnaire. Healthcare staffs from health centers were participated in the survey. The patient safety culture score including subscores on 11 dimensions and 39 items; patient safety grade and number of events reported. The overall positive response rate of patient safety culture was 57 ± 16.8 (CI (95)55%-59%). The dimensions that received higher positive response rate were "Teamwork across units of health center", "Teamwork within units", "Head of center support for patient safety". The lowest percentage of positive responses was "Non punitive response to error". There were no relationship between working years and patients safely culture score. Similarly, no relationship was found between professional, gender and total patients safely culture score. Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Iranian health centers and the US hospitals in three dimensions. For improving patient safety culture in health centers, it is necessary to have enough staff and establish an environment to be open and fair with staff which helps report errors spontaneously and without any fear. The findings of this study could be used to measure changes in patient safety culture over the time.

  19. The First Study of Patient Safety Culture in Iranian Primary Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sedaghat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the error in health care has received attention recently, patient safety culture in health centers has been relatively neglected. To measure the patient safety culture in primary health centers. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the modified version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ and a demographic questionnaire. Healthcare staffs from health centers were participated in the survey. The patient safety culture score including subscores on 11 dimensions and 39 items; patient safety grade and number of events reported. The overall positive response rate of patient safety culture was 57 ±16.8 (CI 9555%-59%. The dimensions that received higher positive response rate were "Teamwork across units of health center", "Teamwork within units", "Head of center support for patient safety". The lowest percentage of positive responses was "Non punitive response to error". There were no relationship between working years and patients safely culture score. Similarly, no relationship was found between professional, gender and total patients safely culture score. Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Iranian health centers and the US hospitals in three dimensions. For improving patient safety culture in health centers, it is necessary to have enough staff and establish an environment to be open and fair with staff which helps report errors spontaneously and without any fear. The findings of this study could be used to measure changes in patient safety culture over the time.

  20. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  1. The Impact of Service-Learning on Health Education Students' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Meaney, Karen S.; Wilcox, Michelle; Cavazos, Arnoldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of cultural competence in future health educators is often mentioned as a goal of health education preparation programs; however research demonstrating evidence-based methods for development of cultural competence is limited. Purpose: To determine the impact of a service-learning project on development of cultural…

  2. Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding

  3. Culturally tailored postsecondary nutrition and health education curricula for indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McConnell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In preparation for the initial offering of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF, Interior–Aleutians Campus Rural Nutrition Services (RNS program, a literature review was conducted to establish the need for the proposed program and to substantiate the methodology for delivering integrated, culturally tailored postsecondary education and extension to Alaska Natives and rural Alaskans. There was a striking absence of peer-reviewed journal articles describing culturally tailored postsecondary health curricula for indigenous populations. Objective . To complete and discuss a current (November 2012 literature review for culturally tailored postsecondary health curricula designed and delivered for indigenous populations. Methods/Design . The author conducted an expanded online search that employed multiple configurations of key terms using Google and Google Scholar, as well as pertinent sources. The author located archived reports in person and contacted authors by email. Results . The expanded search produced a modest amount of additional literature for review. A disappointing number of publications describing or evaluating culturally tailored postsecondary health curricula in mainstream institutions are available. Related resources on culturally tailored extension and resources for the development and delivery of culturally tailored nutrition and health curricula were identified. Conclusions . The present results demonstrate a significant absence of literature on the topic, which may or may not indicate the absence of sufficient culturally tailored postsecondary health curricula for indigenous populations. There are indications that culturally tailored postsecondary health curricula for indigenous populations have the potential to effectively address certain issues of health literacy and health disparities.

  4. In praise of cultural-competence training for mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Mental health practitioners in Israel encounter clients from a variety of ethnic groups and cultural backgrounds. Yet, culturally-informed practice standards have neither been defined nor promoted by the professional establishment. A model for cultural-competence training for mental health professionals is presented and evaluated based on self-reports of 51 trainees. An increase in the trainees' understanding of their clients' cultural experiences is elicited, as well as the expansion of their cultural self-awareness, empathy and respect for cultural diversity. this is a qualitative evaluation with a limited number of respondents and provides data only on short term effects of the training. the evaluation demonstrates positive training effects on the practice. Hopefully, this experience will encourage addressing cultural issues in the practice and training of mental health professionals in Israel.

  5. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  6. Linking Cultural Competence to Functional Life Outcomes in Mental Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Butkus, Michael; Zeman, Lori; Vershave, Judy; Arfken, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Minorities in the United States have well-documented health disparities. Cultural barriers and biases by health care providers may contribute to lower quality of services which may contribute to these disparities. However, evidence linking cultural competency and health outcomes is lacking. This study, part of an ongoing quality improvement effort, tested the mediation hypothesis that patients' perception of provider cultural competency indirectly influences patients' health outcomes through process of care. Data were from patient satisfaction surveys collected in seven mental health clinics (n=94 minority patients). Consistent with our hypothesis, patients' perception of clinicians' cultural competency was indirectly associated with patients' self-reported improvements in social interactions, improvements in performance at work or school, and improvements in managing life problems through the patients' experience of respect, trust, and communication with the clinician. These findings indicate that process of care characteristics during the clinical encounter influence patients' perceptions of clinicians' cultural competency and affect functional outcomes.

  7. Salud de Corazon: Cultural Resources for Cardiovascular Health among Older Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.

  8. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care.

  9. Investigating the Reliability and Validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) against Chinese Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涵; Salasiah Che Lah

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), as one of the research ifelds of intercultural communication, has been given much importance from scholars all around the world. Intercultural sensitivity is one of the three dimensions in Dr Chen’s ICC model. This research investigates the reliability and validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) (2000) against Chinese cultural background by using Chinese university students majoring in English as respondents.

  10. Nursing, Pharmacy, or Medicine? Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Career Interest among Trainee Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Windsor, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Given global demand on health workforces, understanding student enrollment motivations are critical. Prior studies have concentrated on variation in career and lifestyle values; the current work evaluated the importance of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of health career interests. We argue that emotional proclivities may be important and…

  11. Nursing, Pharmacy, or Medicine? Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Career Interest among Trainee Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Windsor, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Given global demand on health workforces, understanding student enrollment motivations are critical. Prior studies have concentrated on variation in career and lifestyle values; the current work evaluated the importance of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of health career interests. We argue that emotional proclivities may be important and…

  12. Sensory Processing Sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Their relationships to Personality and Subjective Health Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listou Grimen, Hanne; Diseth, Åge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST). Furthermore, the result showed than an overall SPS factor (EOE, LST, and AES combined) was predicted positively by neuroticism and openness and negatively by extraversion. With respect to SHC, the results showed that EOE and LST were positively associated with psychological health complaints. However, the personality trait of neuroticism contributed more than the SPS factors as predictor of SHC. In conclusion, the present study supported a shortened version of the HSPS and its relation to personality factors and SHC.

  13. Redirecting traditional professional values to support safety: changing organisational culture in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, J.; Quijada, M.

    2004-01-01

    Professionals in healthcare organisations who seek to enhance safety and quality in an increasingly demanding industry environment often identify culture as a barrier to change. The cultural focus on individual autonomy, for example, seems to conflict with desired norms of teamwork, problem reporting, and learning. We offer a definition and explication of why culture is important to change efforts. A cultural analysis of health care suggests professional values that can be redirected to suppo...

  14. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  15. Sr/Ca Sensitivity to Aragonite Saturation in Cultured Coral Measured by NanoSIMS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; Adkins, J. F.; Erez, J.

    2010-12-01

    NanoSIMS was used to identify and com¬positionally characterize the micron scale region of skeletal growth resulting from a short coral culture experiment. Using this technique we quantify the sensitivity of Sr/Ca, a proxy for temperature, to aragonite saturation (Ω), a parameter that varied in the past ocean and is predicted to change with continued ocean acidification. Five adult branches of the surface coral Stylophora sp. were all grown at 25 °C but at different and near constant carbonate ion concentrations, from 180 to 400 µM (pH of 7.9 to 8.5), yielding a two-fold range in calcification rate. Despite the range of Ωs and calcification rates, the average Sr/Ca of nanoSIMS spot measurements corresponding to each condition are within 1.2% (2σ std. dev. of the 5 means). Furthermore, the average Sr/Ca measured in this study agrees with two previous coral culture experiments conducted at the same temperature but where Ω was not controlled. These results suggest carbonate ion concentration is not a complicating factor to Sr/Ca paleothermometry over this range of Ω. Within the framework of a closed system (Rayleigh) model for biomineralization, similar Sr/Ca ratios suggest similar amounts of Rayleigh fractionation. Combined with existing data for low Ω conditions, the extent of Rayleigh fractionation is used to test alternative biomineralization models governing the acid-base chemistry of the calcifying fluid. Assuming that coral use alkalinity pumping to increase local calcifying fluid carbonate ion concentration, we try to understand what controls this pumping. Under most conditions, Sr/Ca ratios are consistent with a scenario where calcifying fluid alkalinity increases until reaching a target pH. However, under conditions of very low seawater Ω, coral cannot pump enough alkalinity to reach the target pH. Below this threshold value, between approximately 1<Ω<2.4, coral pump a maximal and finite amount of alkalinity. The interaction between these rules

  16. Redirecting traditional professional values to support safety: changing organisational culture in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J S; Quijada, M A

    2004-12-01

    Professionals in healthcare organisations who seek to enhance safety and quality in an increasingly demanding industry environment often identify culture as a barrier to change. The cultural focus on individual autonomy, for example, seems to conflict with desired norms of teamwork, problem reporting, and learning. We offer a definition and explication of why culture is important to change efforts. A cultural analysis of health care suggests professional values that can be redirected to support change. We offer examples of organisations that drew upon cultural strengths to create new ways of working and gradually shifted the culture.

  17. Development of Cross-cultural Sensitivity in Business Courses: The Culturelog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr-Glass, David

    1995-01-01

    Foreign students in a business administration and marketing program in Israel are required to keep a journal noting observations of cultural differences and examine them in relation to their own cultures and the Israeli culture. Non-Americans also note cross-cultural concepts raised by their American textbooks. The log helps students perceive,…

  18. Different sensitivities of cultured mammalian cells towards aphidicolin-enhanced DNA effects in the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Bausinger, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The comet assay in combination with the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APC) has been used to measure DNA excision repair activity, DNA repair kinetics and individual DNA repair capacity. Since APC can enhance genotoxic effects of mutagens measured by the comet assay, this approach has been proposed for increasing the sensitivity of the comet assay in human biomonitoring. The APC-modified comet assay has mainly been performed with human blood and it was shown that it not only enhances the detection of DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) but also damage typically repaired by base excision repair (BER). Recently, we reported that in contrast to blood leukocytes, A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) seem to be insensitive towards the repair-inhibiting action of APC. To further elucidate the general usefulness of the APC-modified comet assay for studying repair in cultured mammalian cells, we comparatively investigated further cell lines (HeLa, TK6, V79). DNA damage was induced by BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in the absence and presence of APC (3 or 15μM). APC was either added for 2h together with the mutagen or cells were pre-incubated for 30min with APC before the mutagen was added. The results indicate that the cell lines tested differ fundamentally with regard to their sensitivity and specificity towards the repair-inhibiting effect of APC. The actual cause for these differences is still unclear but potential molecular explanations are discussed. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism(s), our study revealed practical limitations of the use of the APC-modified comet assay.

  19. Reducing Disparities through Culturally Competent Health Care: An Analysis of the Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Cindy; Fraser, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to deliver high-quality health care to an increasingly diverse population is a major challenge for the American health care system. The persistence of racial and ethnic disparities in health care access, quality, and outcomes has prompted considerable interest in increasing the cultural competence of health care, both as an end in its own right and as a potential means to reduce disparities. This article reviews the potential role of cultural competence in reducing racial and ethnic health disparities, the strength of health care organizations’ current incentives to adopt cultural competence techniques, and the limitations inherent in these incentives that will need to be overcome if cultural competence techniques are to become widely adopted. PMID:12938253

  20. Sensitive hospitalizations to primary care and care in the health care network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Kássia de Oliveira Borges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to check the profile of sensitive causes hospitalizations for primary care. Methods: this is an ecological, epidemiological study. Data was collected in the Hospital Information System at the Department of Health System Information, grouped according to the admissions list for Sensitive to Primary Causes of Health System. Results: there were 227,014 hospitalizations, 25.8% of them were sensitive to Primary care. The illnesses which caused sensitive admissions were pneumonia (n=19,832; 33.7%, heart failure (n=6,688, 11.3%, and gastroenteritis (n=6,287, 10.7%. Conclusion: sensitive hospitalizations for primary care have decreasing historical trend in the study area. Primary care services, with guidelines and principles, well conducted could minimize the risk of exacerbation of chronic conditions and also endorse lower rates of infection transmitted diseases.

  1. Components of Population Vulnerability and Their Relationship With Climate-Sensitive Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, P B; Richardson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is increasingly being framed as risks that will impact the poorest and most vulnerable communities among us. This has led to more efforts to estimate climate change risks across populations and in the context of human health and health equity. We describe the public health dimensions of climate vulnerability-exposure, population sensitivity, and adaptive capacity-and explore how these dimensions can modify population health impacts and their distribution. An overview of health disparities associated with specific climate risks is presented, and we offer potential solutions grounded in equitable urban development and improved characterization of climate vulnerabilities.

  2. Culture, health, and bigotry: How exposure to cultural accounts of fatness shape attitudes about health risk, health policies, and weight-based prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Saguy, Abigail C; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2016-09-01

    We conducted three experiments to examine how cultural frames shape attitudes about health, focusing on obesity, which is considered a public health crisis and is imbued with symbolic meaning. College students (Ns = 99, 114, and 293) read news articles that presented high body weight according to one or more of the following frames: 1) public health crisis; 2) personal responsibility; 3) health at every size (HAES); or 4) fat rights. Compared to people who read the HAES and Fat Rights articles, those who read the Public Health Crisis and Personal Responsibility articles expressed more belief in the health risks of being fat (ds = 1.28 to 1.79), belief that fat people should pay more for insurance (ds = 0.53 to 0.71), anti-fat prejudice (ds = 0.61 to 0.69), willingness to discriminate against fat people (ds = 0.41 to 0.59), and less willingness to celebrate body-size diversity (ds = 0.77 to 1.07). They were less willing to say women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy. Exposure to these articles increased support for price-raising policies to curb obesity but not support for redistributive or compensatory policies. In Experiment 3, in comparison to a control condition, exposure to HAES or Fat Rights frames significantly reduced beliefs in the risks of obesity and support for charging fat people more for insurance. However, only people exposed to the Fat Rights frame expressed fewer anti-fat attitudes and more willingness to celebrate body-size diversity. Our findings suggest that simply disseminating information that people can be both fat and healthy will not suffice to reduce prejudice. Given that anti-fat stigma is a health risk and barrier to collective solidarity, fat rights viewpoints can buffer against the negative consequences of anti-fat stigma and promote a culture of health by fostering empathy and social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The appearance culture between friends and adolescent appearance-based rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to signs of rejection based on one's appearance, and is associated with a number of psychological and social problems (Park, 2007). This study of 380 adolescents (Mage = 13.84) examined a model linking the appearance culture between friends with appearance-RS in adolescent boys and girls, via internalisation of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Gender differences were also tested. Consistent with expectations, appearance-focused characteristics of the friendship context were associated with heightened appearance-RS via internalization of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. The appearance-focused friend characteristics that were associated with appearance-RS included exposure to friends' appearance conversations, appearance teasing that caused distress, and perceived pressure to be attractive. Notably, associations rarely differed for boys and girls, with one exception: the association between BMI and body dissatisfaction was stronger in girls than in boys.

  4. Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of a Plant Disease Model with Continuous Cultural Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a plant disease model with continuous cultural control strategy and time delay is formulated. Then, how the time delay affects the overall disease progression and, mathematically, how the delay affects the dynamics of the model are investigated. By analyzing the transendental characteristic equation, stability conditions related to the time delay are derived for the disease-free equilibrium. Specially, when R0=1, the Jacobi matrix of the model at the disease-free equilibrium always has a simple zero eigenvalue for all τ≥0. The center manifold reduction and the normal form theory are used to discuss the stability and the steady-state bifurcations of the model near the nonhyperbolic disease-free equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity analysis of the threshold parameter R0 and the positive equilibrium E* is carried out in order to determine the relative importance of different factors responsible for disease transmission. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to support the qualitative results.

  5. Simple and sensitive method for monitoring drug-induced cell injury in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirhatti, V.; Krishna, G.

    1985-06-01

    A simple, sensitive method has been developed for evaluating cell injury noninvasively in monolayer cells in culture. The cell ATP pool was radiolabeled by incubating the cells with (/sup 14/C)adenine. The uptake and incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine was shown to proportional to the number of cells. As determined by HPLC, about 65-70% of the incorporated /sup 14/C label was in the ATP pool, 15-20% was in the ADP pool, and the rest was in the 5'-AMP pool. When prelabeled cells were exposed to toxic drugs (acetaminophen, calcium ionophore A-23187, or daunomycin) there was a marked decrease in cell ATP with a concomitant increase in leakage of labeled nucleotides, mainly 5'-AMP and 5'IMP. The authors have shown that leakage of /sup 14/C label into the medium from the prelabeled cells may be employed for quantitation of cell injury. This new measure of toxicity was shown to correlate very well with LDH leakage from the cells, which is a well accepted measure of cell injury. The leakage of 5'-(/sup 14/C)AMP also correlated very well with the reduction of cell ATP in cardiac myocytes. This method has been used for monitoring drug-induced toxicity in liver cells, cardiac myocytes, and LB cells.

  6. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Tuah, R.; Riskione, P.; Prabandari, Y.S.; Effendy, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of

  7. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  8. Coping with a New Health Culture: Acculturation and Online Health Information Seeking Among Chinese Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society.

  9. [Preserving the cultural heritage of health in Brazil: an emerging question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Juliane Conceição Primon

    2015-12-01

    In a discussion that applies the category "heritage" to goods within the realm of health, the article problematizes the recent recognition and incipient protection of the cultural heritage of health in Brazil. It presents a roster of assets that receive federal protection through Brazil's Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), including hospitals and health-related buildings as well as inventories conducted in a number of state capitals by the Brazilian Network for Cultural Heritage in Health. This approach suggests that preserving this valuable heritage is a matter of importance for the history of health in Brazil.

  10. Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Kohrt; A. Rasmussen; B.N. Kaiser; E.E. Haroz; S.M. Maharjan; B.B. Mutamba; J.T.V.M. de Jong; D.E. Hinton

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study's goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndrom

  11. Promoting Cultural Competence, Health Behaviors, and Professional Practice in Undergraduate Education through Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence (CC) has been identified as an important skill for all healthcare and public health professionals, and it must be integrated into all aspects of health practice. However, few university and college health education programs in North America have included CC education in their curriculums. This article describes an…

  12. Promoting Cultural Competence, Health Behaviors, and Professional Practice in Undergraduate Education through Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence (CC) has been identified as an important skill for all healthcare and public health professionals, and it must be integrated into all aspects of health practice. However, few university and college health education programs in North America have included CC education in their curriculums. This article describes an…

  13. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States.

  14. Cultural health beliefs in a rural family practice: a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Kamil M; Beng, Khoo S

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Includes traditional practices of 'hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes.

  15. Continuing Education Effects on Cultural Competence Knowledge and Skills Building among Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority health data from a national perspective indicates there is much to learn in the public health workforce about the ongoing health disparities crisis. This suggests a level of urgency to assist our public health professionals in obtaining specific skills sets that will assist them in working better with vulnerable populations. The purpose of this research is to assess cultural competence knowledge and programmatic skill sets, utilizing an explorational case study, of individuals employed within an urban public health department. In order to effectively evaluate these constructs, a quantitative research approach was employed to examine participants’ knowledge and competencies of the subject matter. This data was further analyzed to determine if continuing education participation and training was correlated to the levels of culturally competent practice engagement and self-reported confidence. In addition, researchers obtained data on the availability of employer sponsored training opportunities. The data suggested when health professionals engage in cultural competence education, their level of awareness of unique characteristics between ethnic and racial minorities increased. Those who exhibited the healthiest behaviors, as it relates to effectively working with diverse populations, had a heightened sense of knowledge related to culture and healthcare services. Continuing education in cultural competence is an essential strategy for improving public health employees’ effectiveness in working with diverse clients and reducing racial and ethnic health disparities. As the finding illustrated, training programs must incorporate educational components which foster skill building to enable subsequent culturally appropriate clinical interactions.

  16. Teaching methods and an outcome tool for measuring cultural sensitivity in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen H; Hood, Lucy J

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge facing the nursing profession is to educate and assist nurses to develop the skills to provide culturally relevant care. This article describes one school's multicultural curriculum for baccalaureate nursing students and a tool to measure changes in behaviors and attitudes. The article presents the psychometric properties of the Cross-Cultural Evaluation Tool that yields a cross-cultural interaction score. Successful teaching strategies are presented that are substantiated by increased student cross-cultural interaction score scores.

  17. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  18. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  19. Working with Jewish ultra-orthodox patients: guidelines for a culturally sensitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilu, Y; Witztum, E

    1993-06-01

    The epistemological gap between the medical reality of mental health practitioners and the sacred reality of their Jewish ultra-orthodox patients poses a major challenge for therapy. Based on our work with psychiatric patients from the ultra-orthodox community of northern Jerusalem, we propose a set of guidelines to cope with this challenge. Basically, we seek to incorporate religiously congruent elements, composed of metaphoric images, narratives and actions, into the wide range of our "secular" treatment modalities in order to respond to the patient's suffering, often expressed through distinctively religious idioms of distress. This endeavor calls for "a temporary suspension of disbelief" on both sides. The guidelines presented include three sets of factors which appear pertinent to working with ultra-orthodox patients. The first set is contextual in nature, dealing with the image of the clinic and its physical setting; the second discusses the necessary role requisites of the therapists; and the third one, accorded a central importance, deals on various levels with the therapeutic interventions administered in terms of form and content. Several case vignettes are presented to illustrate three classes of religiously informed interventions: healing rituals, dream interpretation, and the use of culturally congruent metaphors and stories. In the concluding part we discuss ethical and instrumental issues that the proposed therapeutic guidelines may raise.

  20. The financial and health burden of diabetic ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisations in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Lugo-Palacios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To estimate the financial and health burden of diabetic ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisations (ACSH in Mexico during 2001-2011. Materials and methods. We identified ACSH due to diabetic complications in general hospitals run by local health ministries and estimated their financial cost using diagnostic related groups. The health burden estimation assumes that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received appropriate primary care and computes the associated DisabilityAdjusted Life Years (DALYs. Results. The financial cost of diabetic ACSH increased by 125% in real terms and their health burden in 2010 accounted for 4.2% of total DALYs associated with diabetes in Mexico. Conclusion. Avoiding preventable hospitalisations could free resources within the health system for other health purposes. In addition, patients with ACSH suffer preventable losses of health that should be considered when assessing the performance of any primary care intervention.

  1. The relationship between cultural competence and ethnocentrism of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Jen; Dean, Elizabeth; Veenstra, Gerry

    2008-04-01

    The study examined the relationship between cultural competence and ethnocentrism among health care professionals. Physical therapists, occupational therapists, and nurses ( N = 71) from three hospitals in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, participated in the survey research project. The survey questionnaire incorporated the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Revised and the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale. Cultural competence scores and ethnocentrism scores were inversely related (r = -.28, p = .017). Results suggest that cultural competence may not be entirely distinct from ethnocentrism. The construct of cultural competence warrants further study vis-à-vis its correlates and its impact on clinical outcomes.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life, Gender, and Culture of Older People Users of Health Services in the Multicultural Landscape of the City of Ceuta (Spain): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Sánchez-Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Aguilar Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Ruiz-Villaverde, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are influenced by sociodemographic variables and by cultural-religious concepts of health, disease, and old age, among others. To assess the HRQOL of older people in a population with a long history of multiculturalism, the city of Ceuta (Spain), and to compare the results with Spanish reference values. A total of 372 individuals (55.4% females) were interviewed using the Spanish version of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The subjects' mean age was 70.9 (SD = 5) years: 253 were Christians, 93 Muslims, and 26 Jews, representing the proportions in the overall population of these cultural-religious groups. HRQOL differs according to the cultural-religious affiliation, which specifically affects social and psychological dimensions. All groups obtained lower social function scores than the reference values, especially the Muslim and Jewish groups. Health care providers may consider integrating culturally sensitive interventions to improve HRQOL. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  4. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  5. Communication and cultural interaction in health promotion strategies to migrant populations in Italy: the cross-cultural phone counselling experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Taglieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the last 10 years migration processes have progressively increased worldwide and in Italy about 5 millions of residing migrants are estimated. To meet health needs of these new residents, effective relational and communication tools, which allow a reciprocal intercultural interaction within health care structures, are therefore necessary. AIM: This article faces the main features of the relational-communication processes associated with health promotion and care in the migrant population in Italy to the aim of identifying the key and critical points within the interaction between different cultures, focusing on the role of specific professional figures, including cultural mediators and health educators. RESULTS: Within the activity of HIV phone counselling operated by Psyco-socio-behavioural, Communication and Training Operating Unit of National Institute of Health in Italy, an intercultural approach was successfully experienced in a project targeted to migrants (2007-2008. Specifically, the presence of cultural mediators answering in the languages of main migrants' groups allowed the increase of calls from migrant people and of the information provided.

  6. West African immigrant families from Mauritania and Senegal in Cincinnati: a cultural primer on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Holloway, Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Similar to many cities in the US, the Greater Cincinnati area has recently had an increase in immigrants from other countries. In particular, there is a small but growing population of West African immigrants especially from Senegal and Mauritania. In order to better understand children's health of West African families in the Cincinnati area, in-depth, in-home narrative interviews were conducted with ten West African immigrant parents from Senegal and Mauritania. Four salient themes about cultural information related to children's health were derived from the qualitative analysis: (1) health care practice and expectations including barriers; (2) cultural values and identity; (3) health beliefs and traditions/customs; and (4) quality of life. It is essential that health care providers understand the nuances of working with West African immigrants including cultural differences, strengths, challenges and perceptions in order to provide these individuals with the most effective health care services.

  7. Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Pierre, Geraldine; Hilliard, Tandrea S

    2012-01-01

    Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The "conundrum of health disparities" refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans.

  8. Health and indigenous people: intercultural health as a new paradigm toward the reduction of cultural and social marginalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2010-01-01

    The precarious socio-economic and health conditions of indigenous populations legitimize claims of marginalization and attest to the inherent inequality that indigenous groups suffer. In the last few years, advocates have urged the use of traditional indigenous health practices as more culturally fitting for most indigenous populations. An intercultural health program can reduce the conditions of social and cultural marginalization in an indigenous population. However, accepting and integrating indigenous medicine into a westernized health system presents a major challenge to intercultural healthcare in Latin America. The objective of this paper is to analyze the case of Makewe hospital, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Chile. The paper will examine the implementation of this initiative and the main challenges in creating an effective intercultural health program.

  9. Mental health in marriage: the roles of need for affiliation, sensitivity to rejection, and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, P F; Spence, N D; Goldney, R D

    1986-01-01

    This study reports on the associations between a number of personality factors and spouse mental health, happiness, and communication (N = 78). Lower Affiliative Drive and higher Sensitivity to Rejection emerge in this sample as being associated in wives (but not husbands) with increased psychological morbidity. Wives had higher levels of both Need for Affiliation and Sensitivity to Rejection than husbands, which possibly may lead to higher internal conflict for them. Although causality cannot necessarily be assumed, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that wives' mental health is more "relationship related" than that of husbands.

  10. Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy Part 3B: emphasis on pharmacy education policy, procedures, and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary Beth; Jackson, Anita N; Karaoui, Lamis R; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly; Chen, Aleda M H; Echeverri, Margarita; Vyas, Deepti; Poirier, Therese; Lee, Shin-Yu; O'Neil, Christine K

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that greater diversity within health care professionals leads to improved patient outcomes. Therefore, greater diversity within academia and student bodies is required to create future diverse health care professionals. Cultural sensitivity is required from recruitment to physical environment for administrators, faculty, staff, and students. University, college, and department recruitment, search committees, hiring practices, and admissions policies and procedures need to be assessed to determine whether they reflect the applicant pool and patient populations in their regions and whether they are culturally sensitive to a wide variety of cultures. The mission, vision, policies, procedures, curriculums, and environments should also be created or reviewed, modified, and/or expanded to ensure that no administrator, faculty member, staff member, or student is discriminated against or disadvantaged because of cultural beliefs or practices. In addition to discussing the interplay between cultural sensitivity and academic policies, procedures, and environments, this article briefly discusses specific cultural issues related to religion, spirituality, race, ethnicity, gender, age, marital status, veterans, physical, mental, and learning disabilities, and sexual orientation diversity. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Rhamnolipids elicit the same cytotoxic sensitivity between cancer cell and normal cell by reducing surface tension of culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifang; Shen, Chong; Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant rhamnolipids have been claimed to show biological activities of inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxicity of rhamnolipids was examined on four cancer cells (HepG2, Caco-2, Hela, MCF-7 cells) and two normal cells (HK-2 cell, primary hepatocyte). Interestingly, both cancer cells and normal cells exhibited similar sensitivities to the addition of rhamnolipids in culture medium, and the cytotoxicity was largely attenuated by the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium. In correlation of the mono-/di-rhamnolipid cytotoxicity with the surface tension of culture medium, it was found that rhamnolipids triggered cytotoxicity whenever the surface tension of culture medium decreased below 41 mN/m irrespective of the FBS content in culture medium, cell line, or rhamnolipid congener. Similarly, each chemical surfactant (Tween-80, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) could cause cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells whenever its addition made the surface tension under 41 mN/m in culture medium with or without the presence of FBS. It seems that rhamnolipids, like chemical surfactants, exhibited cytotoxicity by reducing the surface tension of culture medium rather than by changing its specific molecular structure, which had no selection on tumor cells. This study could offer helps to correct the misleading biological activity of rhamnolipids and to avoid the possible large wastes of time and expenses on developing the applications in antitumor drugs.

  12. Exploring the concepts of privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Asiri, Hanan; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly sharing their personal information on social networks such as Facebook. Patients, in particular, join online support groups for specific conditions to get support and share their experience with other members of a social media group. Throughout this process, sensitive health information could be shared by group members as a part of this information exchange and privacy concerns can arise as a result. The purpose of this study is to explore various aspects relating to privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information through social media platforms. Our review found that social media such as Facebook already plays a large role in patients' lives as it helps patients to understand their health conditions and gain support from other people who suffer from the same condition. However, there are major concerns for those patients as their privacy and confidentiality can be harmed by improper use of their posted sensitive health information by governments, hospitals or individuals. More importantly, there is an increased need for laws and legislations that protect and empower patients. We recommend that healthcare organizations collaborate with social media software companies and create educational and awareness campaigns on the impacts of sharing sensitive health information through social media.

  13. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  14. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  16. Associations between rejection sensitivity and mental health outcomes: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuling; Assink, Mark; Cipriani, Andrea; Lin, Kangguang

    2017-08-15

    Rejection sensitivity is a personality disposition characterized by oversensitivity to social rejection. Using a three-level meta-analytic model, 75 studies were reviewed that examined associations between rejection sensitivity and five mental health outcomes: depression, anxiety, loneliness, borderline personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder. The results showed significant and moderate associations between rejection sensitivity and depression (pooled r=0.332; p<0.001), anxiety (pooled r=0.407; p<0.001), loneliness (pooled r=0.386; p<0.001), borderline personality disorder (pooled r=0.413; p<0.001), and body dysmorphic disorder (pooled r=0.428; p<0.001). The associations between rejection sensitivity and depression, anxiety, and borderline personality disorder varied by type of sample, but the associations were similar for clinical and non-clinical (i.e., community) samples. The association between rejection sensitivity and anxiety was negatively moderated by percentage of females in samples. The association between rejection sensitivity and depression was negatively moderated by length of follow-up. The longitudinal associations between rejection sensitivity and depression, anxiety, and loneliness were stable over time. Implications of the findings for both risk assessment and prevention and intervention strategies in mental health practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Addressing health disparities through patient education: the development of culturally-tailored health education materials at Puentes de Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Isobel; O'Brien, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The availability of culturally appropriate written health information is essential for promoting health in diverse populations. Lack of English fluency has been shown to negatively impact health outcomes for Latinos in the United States. The authors conducted a needs assessment at a clinic serving Latino immigrants, focusing on patients' health and previous experiences with written health information. Based on these results and a literature review, we developed 10 Spanish language brochures to better serve the target population. This article outlines the process of developing and implementing this intervention, which can serve as a model for similar projects targeting diverse populations.

  18. Refuah Shlema: a cross-cultural programme for promoting communication and health among Ethiopian immigrants in the primary health care setting in Israel: evidence and lessons learned from over a decade of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Keret, Sandra; Yaakovson, Orit; Lev, Boaz; Kay, Calanit; Verber, Giora; Lieberman, Niki

    2011-03-01

    The Refuah Shlema programme was established to reduce health disparities, promote health literacy and health indicators of the Ethiopian immigrant community in Israel, and included: (i) integrating Ethiopian immigrant liaisons in primary care as inter-cultural mediators; (ii) in-service training of clinical staff to increase cultural awareness and sensitivity; and (iii) health education community activities. Qualitative and quantitative evidence showed improvements in: (i) clinic staff–patient relations; (ii) availability and accessibility of health services, and health system navigation without increasing service expenditure; (iii) perception of general well-being; and (iv) self-care practice with regards to chronic conditions. Evidence significantly contributed to sustaining the programme for over 13 years.

  19. Continuing Education Effects on Cultural Competence Knowledge and Skills Building among Health Professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marla B. Hall; Jeffrey J. Guidry; E. Lisako J. McKyer; Corliss Outley; Danny Ballard

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to assess cultural competence knowledge and programmatic skill sets, utilizing an explorational case study, of individuals employed within an urban public health department...

  20. Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-02-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for youths and families. Correlation analyses and multilevel hierarchical regressions, controlling for effects of provider characteristics, showed that constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP and poor organizational climates with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP. Behavioral health organizations may benefit from consideration of how culture and climate affect staff attitudes toward change in practice.

  1. The influence of culture on immigrant women's mental health care experiences from the perspectives of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Joyce Maureen; Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2007-05-01

    It is well documented that serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders exist among immigrant women. Informed by Kleinman's explanatory model, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provided mental health services to immigrant women. Analysis of the data revealed that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties when accessing mental health care services due to cultural differences, social stigma, and unfamiliarity with Western biomedicine, (b) spiritual beliefs and practices that influence immigrant women's mental health care practices, and (c) the health care provider-client relationship, which exerts great influence on how immigrant women seek mental health care. The study also revealed that cultural background exerts both positive and negative influences on how immigrant women seek mental health care. We suggest that although cultural knowledge and practices influence immigrant women's coping choices and strategies, awareness of social and economic differences among diverse groups of immigrant women is necessary to improve the accessibility of mental health care for immigrant women.

  2. Insurance Accounts: The Cultural Logics of Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The financial exuberance that eventually culminated in the recent world economic crisis also ushered in dramatic shifts in how health care is financed, administered, and imagined. Drawing on research conducted in the mid-2000s at a health insurance company in Puerto Rico, this article shows how health care has been financialized in many ways that include: (1) privatizing public services; (2) engineering new insurance products like high deductible plans and health savings accounts; (3) applying financial techniques to premium payments to yield maximum profitability; (4) a managerial focus on shareholder value; and (5) prioritizing mergers and financial speculation. The article argues that financial techniques obfuscate how much health care costs, foster widespread gaming of reimbursement systems that drives up prices, and "unpool" risk by devolving financial and moral responsibility for health care onto individual consumers. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. [The preparation phosprenyl suppresses diarrhea and cattle infectious rhinotracheitis virus multiplication in sensitive cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozherelkov, S V; Belousova, R V; Danilov, L L; Deeva, A V; Mal'tsev, S D; Narovlianskiĭ, A N; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fosprenil suppressed the multiplication of cattle diarrhea virus in calf coronary vessel cell culture. Added to the culture of infected cells in a dose of 200 mg, the drug decreased the virus titer 30-fold in comparison with infected control cultures. Antiviral activity of fosprenil towards infective rhinotracheitis virus multiplication was still higher: in a dose of 100 mg it decreased the virus titer in fetal calf lung culture 100-fold in comparison with the control. Moreover, the cytopathogenic effects of the viruses in infected cultures were 24-48 h delayed under the effect of fosprenil in comparison with infected control cultures. These results recommend fosprenil for the treatment of cattle viral diseases.

  4. Occupational Safety and Health culture assessment - A review of main approaches and selected tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, T.N.; Eeckeleaert, L.; Starren, A.; Scheppingen, A. van; Fox, D.; Bruck, C.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational safety and health culture, or more briefly 'OSH culture', can be seen as a concept for exploring how informal organisational aspects influence OSH in a positive or negative way. The aim is to convey up-to-date information on this complex topic in a straightforward, condensed way, trying

  5. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  6. Incorporating the cultural diversity of family and close relationships into the study of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Kim, Heejung S

    2017-09-01

    Relationships are at the center of the human social environment, and their quality and longevity are now recognized to have particular relevance for health. The goal of this article is to bring attention to the role of culture in how relationships, particularly close relationships and family relationships, influence health. To this end, 2 contexts that are characterized by 2 distinct forms of cultural collectivism (East Asian and Latino) are spotlighted to highlight the unique patterns that underlie broader cultural categories (e.g., collectivism). In addition, related research on other understudied cultures and nonethnic or nonnational forms of culture (e.g., social class, religion) is also discussed. The review centers on social support, a key pathway through which relationships shape psychological and physical health, as the psychological process that has received the most empirical attention in this area. Overall, it is clear that new and more systematic approaches are needed to generate a more comprehensive, novel, and inclusive understanding of the role of culture in relationship processes that shape health. Three recommendations are offered for researchers and professionals to generate and incorporate knowledge of culture-specific relationship processes into their understanding of health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social Rhythm and Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Margraf

    Full Text Available Social rhythm refers to the regularity with which one engages in social activities throughout the week, and has established links with bipolar disorder, as well as some links with depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study is to examine social rhythm and its relationship to various aspects of health, including physical health, negative mental health, and positive mental health.Questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national sample of 8095 representative participants from the U.S., Russia, and Germany.Results indicated that social rhythm irregularity is related to increased reporting of health problems, depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, greater regularity is related to better overall health state, life satisfaction, and positive mental health. The effects are generally small in size, but hold even when controlling for gender, marital status, education, income, country, and social support. Further, social rhythm means differ across Russia, the U.S., and Germany. Relationships with mental health are present in all three countries, but differ in magnitude.Social rhythm irregularity is related to mental health in Russia, the U.S., and Germany.

  8. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.

  9. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1 explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2 examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3 recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  10. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  11. Sharing sensitive health information through social media in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Khalifa, Mohamed; Shabir, Syed-Abdul; Hossain, Md Nassif; Iqbal, Usman; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-02-01

    Sharing daily activities on social media has become a part of our lifestyle, but little is known about sharing sensitive health information in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to explore how social media users in the Arab world share sensitive health information through Facebook. A retrospective qualitative analysis was used in the study. A total of 110 Facebook groups, related to HIV, sickle cell and depression were screened between 5 June and 1 December 2014. Forty four Facebook groups met the inclusion criteria. 28 471 posts were extracted, of which 649 met inclusion criteria. Forty two percent of health information exchanged were related to HIV, 34% to depression and 24% to sickle cell diseases. The majority of postings were from Egypt 21.1%, Saudi Arabia 20%, Algeria 10% and Libya 9.2%. Male posts were 54.2% while 45.8% were posted by females. Individuals utilized Facebook groups to share personal experiences of their disease 31%, in addition to being used for seeking queries 13.6%, offering explicit advice 8.3%, reporting signs and symptoms of the disease 7.3% and posting their communication with the health-care provider 6.6%. Users in the Arab world use social media to exchange sensitive health information, which could have serious implications regarding the privacy of the information shared with other members of the group. On the other hand, sharing health information could have positive effects for patients, such as sharing disease experiences and peer support. However, more work is needed to ensure that Facebook users in the Arab world are aware of the potential consequences of sharing sensitive health information through social media.

  12. Are Patients With Cancer Less Willing to Share Their Health Information? Privacy, Sensitivity, and Social Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Asch, David A.; Wan, Fei; Bradbury, Angela R.; Jagsi, Reshma; Mitra, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing use of electronic health information increases opportunities to build population cancer databases for research and care delivery. Understanding patient views on reuse of health information is essential to shape privacy policies and build trust in these initiatives. Methods: We randomly assigned nationally representative participants (N = 3,336) with and without prior cancer to six of 18 scenarios describing different uses of electronic health information. The scenarios varied the user, use, and sensitivity of the information. Participants rated each scenario on a scale of 1 to 10 assessing their willingness to share their electronic health information. We used conjoint analysis to measure the relative importance of each attribute (ie, use, user, and sensitivity). Results: Participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer had a similar willingness to share health information (0.27; P = .42). Both cancer and noncancer participants rated the purpose of information use as the most important factor (importance weights, 67.1% and 45.6%, respectively). For cancer participants, the sensitivity of the information was more important (importance weights, 29.8% v 1.2%). However, cancer participants were more willing to share their health information when the information included more sensitive genetic information (0.48; P = .015). Cancer and noncancer respondents rated uses and users similarly. Conclusion: The information sharing preferences of participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer were driven mainly by the purpose of information reuse. Although conventional thinking suggests patients with cancer might be less willing to share their health information, we found participants with cancer were more willing to share their inherited genetic information. PMID:26265174

  13. Let's go outside: using photography to explore values and culture in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, K; de Goeas, S; Davies, S; Radcliffe, M; Christoforou, A

    2015-06-01

    Creative and imaginative approaches to mental healthcare education are known to help students explore emotions, empathy and others' experiences, as well as address ambivalence and ambiguity. Very few studies in mental health nursing education specifically utilise photography as a participatory pedagogic tool, with even fewer utilising photography to explore understandings of culture, values and diversity. Photography makes visible complex, collaborative forms of learning and previously unidentified, unarticulated ideas about culture and values. Photography as a critical pedagogic method helps develop critical, politicized understandings of culture and values. Increasing culturally diverse populations means complex and conflicting values have become a common feature in mental health nursing. In education the need to critically examine such topics necessitates creative and engaging pedagogy, and visual methods are readily acknowledged as such. Yet while many studies advocate and demonstrate the value of art-based methods in student learning, very few studies in mental health nursing specifically utilize photography as a participatory pedagogic tool, and fewer still use photography to explore understandings of culture, values and diversity. In this paper, we discuss a qualitative study where mental health nursing students used photography to create images in order to explore their own and often dominant culture and attendant values. Findings suggest that photography makes visible situated, relational and collaborative learning, and surfaces previously unidentified, unarticulated ideas about culture and values. These practices mimic important processes central to mental health nursing practice and contemporaneous understandings of diverse cultures. We argue that photography provides an important resource with which to unearth subjugated knowledge, promote critical understandings of culture and values, and thereby help address inequalities in mental health care.

  14. Why culture matters in health interventions: lessons from HIV/AIDS stigma and NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ford, Chandra L; Iwelunmor, Juliet I

    2014-02-01

    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.

  15. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, M.W.; Eastman, A.; Lo, S.; Hearon, B.A.; Bickel, W.K.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.; Doan, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors - anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC) - for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or ma

  16. Randomised Response Technique-An Innovative Method To Measure Culturally Sensitive Variables : Results From A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M. B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the advantage of Randomized Response Technique (RRT over the conventional Direct Interview (DI and Anonymous Questionnaire (AQ in the assessment of culturally sensitive variables? Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the three methods, namely RRT, DI and AQ in the measurement of prevalence of Pre/Extra marital sex. Study design: Cross sectional study, using the three methods. Setting: A pilot study in a given community in Pondicherry. Statistical analysis: Probability equations. Results: The prevalence of pre/extra marital sex in the study population by the DI, AQ and RRT methods were 0%, 6% and 10% respectively in this pilot study. Conclusion: RRT improves validity of measurement of culturally sensitive variables both by ensuring a high participation in the study and by enabling a true response by assuring full confidentiality of information.

  17. Rationale for the Cultural Construction of School Mental Health Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Leff, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of evidence-based psychological programming to meet the needs of a global population has been impeded by the translation of theories and research findings across populations and settings without due consideration of cultural factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for use of partnership-based methods in…

  18. Nature-culture-health activities as a method of rehabilitation: an evaluation of participants' health, quality of life and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt-Rawden, Kari Bjerke; Tellnes, Gunnar

    2005-06-01

    The dramatic increase in sickness absence and disability pensions in recent years are negative side-effects of our welfare society. Among others, people certified as long-term sick are offered participation in a programme of health-promoting activities (salutogenesis) in Asker, Norway. The aim of this study was to evaluate health, quality of life and function among participants included in a programme of community-based nature-culture-health activities. A qualitative evaluation study in 2003 included 30 men and 16 women aged 30-79 years old participating in 12 different health-promoting activities at the Nature-Culture-Health (NaCuHeal) Centre. The group activities were hiking, physical activities, gardening, music, singing, painting, dancing, dialogue groups for men or women, ethics, painting and local history. Around two-thirds of the participants reported to have improved their health status, quality of life and function, particularly when given the opportunity to utilize their own abilities and creativity. Belonging to a themed group seems to play a significant role in increasing self-efficacy and self-esteem. The majority of participants reported improved health, quality of life and functionality when considering returning to work due to their experiences in the NaCuHeal groups. Increasing the population's participation in health-promoting outdoor and cultural activities seem to be a useful method for enhance complete rehabilitation.

  19. Viewpoint: Cultural competence and the African American experience with health care: The case for specific content in cross-cultural education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R; Ellis, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Achieving cultural competence in the care of a patient who is a member of an ethnic or racial minority is a multifaceted project involving specific cultural knowledge as well as more general skills and attitude adjustments to advance cross-cultural communication in the clinical encounter. Using the important example of the African American patient, the authors examine relevant historical and cultural information as it relates to providing culturally competent health care. The authors identify key influences, including the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow discrimination, the Tuskegee syphilis study, religion's interaction with health care, the use of home remedies, distrust, racial concordance and discordance, and health literacy. The authors propose that the awareness of specific information pertaining to ethnicity and race enhances cross-cultural communication and ways to improve the cultural competence of physicians and other health care providers by providing a historical and social context for illness in another culture. Cultural education, modular in nature, can be geared to the specific populations served by groups of physicians and provider organizations. Educational methods should include both information about relevant social group history as well as some experiential component to emotively communicate particular cultural needs. The authors describe particular techniques that help bridge the cross-cultural clinical communication gaps that are created by patients' mistrust, lack of cultural understanding, differing paradigms for illness, and health illiteracy.

  20. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  1. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  2. The Health Culture Theory%健康文化论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    枟健康文化理论研究》课题组

    2015-01-01

    Health culture guides health behavior and the health behavior contributes to healthy condition . The traditional life‐preservation culture with a long history in China is an important ideological resource for the modern health culture construction ,and the pursuit for health is the strong internal motivation of the construction .The construction and transmission for health culture is the need of the cultural de‐velopment .Furthermore ,it is also the important foundation of the health promotion and the transfor‐mation from a big population country to strong human resource one .There are three core concepts of health culture put forward in this paper :health is a basic human right ,health is the basis of happy life , and health is an important human capital .The main contents of health culture are generalized into three aspects :health conception ,health behavior and health system ,w hich can be divided into nine points :the prevention being better than treatment ,the priority of taking care of the heart ,following nature , the unity of knowledge and action ,keeping a balanced diet ,enhancing personal hygiene ,combining work and rest ,doing proper exercises ,and health system .%健康文化引导健康行为,健康行为导致健康结局。我国悠久的传统养生文化是构建现代健康文化的重要思想资源,人们对健康的追求是构建健康文化的强大内在动力。构建和传播健康文化既是文化大发展大繁荣的需要,更是做好健康促进工作、变人口大国为人力资源强国的重要基础。健康文化的三大核心理念,即:健康是人的基本权利,健康是幸福生活的基础,健康是重要的人力资本;把健康文化的主要内容归纳为健康观念、健康行为和健康制度等三个方面,总结出了防重于治、养心为上、顺其自然、知行合一、合理饮食、讲究卫生、劳逸结合、适当运动、健康制度等九个方面的要点。

  3. Culturally Responsive: Exploring the Attributes of Islamic Health Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohd Khairie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the attributes (basis and values of faith-based communication strategy on health communication. Eight series of focus group studies on Muslim community were conducted to gather the data. The finding makes abundantly clear that the tawhidic (the belief in Oneness of God conception significantly determine the effectiveness of Islamic communication message. In addition, there were another six themes that contributes to Islamic health communication attributes which may influence the receiver’s attitudes and behaviours. The insights of this paper may contribute to the further development of health promotion strategies for Muslims community.

  4. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  5. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  6. A Cultural Competence Organizational Review for Community Health Services: Insights From a Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mandy; Gibbs, Lisa; Pradel, Veronika; Morris, Michal; Gwatirisa, Pauline; Tadic, Maryanne; de Silva, Andrea; Hall, Martin; Young, Dana; Riggs, Elisha; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Gondal, Iqbal; Waters, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Cultural competence is an important aspect of health service access and delivery in health promotion and community health. Although a number of frameworks and tools are available to assist health service organizations improve their services to diverse communities, there are few published studies describing organizational cultural competence assessments and the extent to which these tools facilitate cultural competence. This article addresses this gap by describing the development of a cultural competence assessment, intervention, and evaluation tool called the Cultural Competence Organizational Review (CORe) and its implementation in three community sector organizations. Baseline and follow-up staff surveys and document audits were conducted at each participating organization. Process data and organizational documentation were used to evaluate and monitor the experience of CORe within the organizations. Results at follow-up indicated an overall positive trend in organizational cultural competence at each organization in terms of both policy and practice. Organizations that are able to embed actions to improve organizational cultural competence within broader organizational plans increase the likelihood of sustainable changes to policies, procedures, and practice within the organization. The benefits and lessons learned from the implementation of CORe are discussed.

  7. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    Background Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-pe...

  8. Responsibility-sensitive fairness in health financing: judgments in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clainche, Christine; Wittwer, Jerome

    2015-04-01

    Risky health behaviours substantially increase medical and social costs. We document the extent to which a sample of European students (from Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden) consider that individuals should assume the financial burden of paying the costs of risky behaviour. We test the acceptability of different ways of financing costs because of ill health that is more or less associated with risky behaviour in accordance with a normative framework relating to responsibility-sensitive fairness. We find that the majority of students agree with assuming financial responsibility for risky behaviours and that there should be compensation for unfavourable circumstances. Students agree that two individuals with the same responsibility variables should make an equal financial contribution and that more effort in maintaining health for given circumstances should be rewarded with a lower financial contribution. The specific health context and the type of risky behaviours involved matter in determining perceptions of justice in health financing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The implications of culture shock for health educators: Reflections with Barer-Stein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arthur

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture shock is an intensely personal universal human experience that may emerge in any cross cultural social encounter. Therefore, it may be deduced that culture shock is an experience that may occur in all spheres of life in which individuals are confronted by world views and life styles that differ from their own whether in terms of health, education or occupation amongst others. It is a situation that calls for adaptation or adjustment on the part of the individual. TTtis article explores the relationship between culture shock and culture adaptation as an aspect of learning which has been developed by Thelma Barer-Stein. Stress is laid on the role of the individual, as health educator, and the choices must make if he/she is to gain an understanding of the community in which he/she serves and to attribute new meanings to the situation by which he/she is confronted

  10. Exploring the effect of organizational culture on consumer perceptions of agency support for mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clossey, Laurene; Rheinheimer, David

    2014-05-01

    This research explores the impact of mental health agency culture on consumers' perceptions of agency support for their recovery. This study hypothesized that a constructive organizational culture must be present for consumers to perceive agency support for recovery. A sample of 12 mental health agencies in rural Pennsylvania participated in the research. Agency administrators completed an instrument called the recovery oriented service environment, which measured the number of recovery model program components offered by the agency. Consumers completed the recovery oriented services indicators, which taps into their perception of agency support for recovery. Direct service staff completed the organizational social context, which measured their agency's culture. Results showed that in this sample stronger consumer perceptions of agency support for recovery were correlated with higher ratings of agency constructive culture. The results suggest that agency culture is an important variable to target when implementing recovery model programming.

  11. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Jungsun; Park, Mijin

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21(st) century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1) how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2) the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  12. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV health-care providers' burnout: can organizational culture make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Oetzel, John; Hill, Ricky; Avila, Magdalena; Archiopoli, Ashley; Wilcox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing those working with people living with HIV (PLWH) is the increased potential for burnout, which results in increased turnover and reduces quality of care provided for PLWH. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship among HIV health-care providers' burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and organizational culture including teamwork, involvement in decision-making, and critical appraisal. Health-care providers for PLWH (N = 47) in federally funded clinics in a southwestern state completed a cross-sectional survey questionnaire about their perceptions of organizational culture and burnout. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that positive organizational culture (i.e., teamwork) was negatively related to emotional burnout (p organizational culture (i.e., critical appraisal) was positively related to depersonalization (p < .005, R(2) = .18). These findings suggest that effective organizational communication interventions might protect HIV health-care providers from burnout.

  14. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangho Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21st century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1 how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2 the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  15. Cross-cultural medicine and diverse health beliefs. Ethiopians abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodes, R

    1997-01-01

    A large number of Ethiopians reside abroad as refugees, immigrants, or students. To provide adequate care, physicians must understand their beliefs about health and medicine. To Ethiopians, health is an equilibrium between the body and the outside. Excess sun is believed to cause mitch ("sunstroke"), leading to skin disease. Blowing winds are thought to cause pain wherever they hit. Sexually transmitted disease is attributed to urinating under a full moon. People with buda, "evil eye," are sa...

  16. The culture of mental health in a changing Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Whitney L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the causes and consequences of the recent growth in Euroamerican mental health practice in Oaxaca, one of Mexico's poorest and most ethnically diverse states with a thriving tradition of indigenous medicine. Based on 18 months of fieldwork in Oaxaca City and the Mixteca region, I explore how and why mental health services have grown so dramatically; what they consist of and what discourses they promote; for what problems they are being utilized; and what impacts the...

  17. Integrating Compliance, Communication, and Culture: Delivering Health Care to an Aging Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nieli

    2008-01-01

    Older adults often get lost in the process of assessment, diagnosis and service brokering. If our concern as care providers is to enable older persons to remain independent or in the community for as long as possible, we must tap into their personal values, cultural identity and health beliefs in order to foster enhanced health care communication.…

  18. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  19. Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 1998. Mental and Physical Health and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Tokyo (Japan).

    This annual publication introduces Japan's educational policies in education, science, sports, and culture. Part 1, "Trends in Education Reform," discusses fundamental concepts in educational reform. Part 2, "Mental and Physical Health and Sports," includes two chapters. Chapter 1, "Health and Sports into the Future,"…

  20. Forming a health culture of future teachers in Polish educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IERMAKOVA T.S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the experience of the structure and system of training of future teachers in Polish schools. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Used data from the survey of students of Polish universities. Also were used survey results through polish service ANKIETKA. For comparison, a questionnaire survey 35 students of the Faculty of Physical Education (future teachers of physical training and 30 students - the future teachers of elementary school of Ukrainian university. Results: the study of Polish teachers consider health culture of a person as the ability to assess individual and community health needs using in everyday life hygiene and health regulations. There have been some differences among Ukrainian and Polish students in their health and health culture. Among the respondents, Polish students - the future teachers of physical culture, is dominated motives such as the improvement of the physical condition, strengthen self-esteem, as well as improved health. Polish students from other disciplines believe that the most important motive for the adoption of physical activity is a concern for the physical well-being and mental health. The majority of Ukrainian students (future teachers of physical culture believe an important part of building health culture of their direct participation in various sports clubs, as well as the ability to organize physical culture, sports and educational work with students outside the classroom. Ukrainian students (other specialty noted the need to improve health, enhance knowledge in specific subjects humanities and promoting healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: It is recommended to use the experience of preparing students of Polish schools in modern Ukrainian higher education.

  1. A comparative study on the dental health status of five precolumbian Peruvian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzay, R P; Allison, M J; Pezzia, A

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of dental health status of ancient Southern Peru, 101 skeletal remains were studied from five cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Ica, and Inca. The Paracas and Ica cultures exhibited more missing antemortem teeth per mandible than the other cultures. Frequency of missing one or more third molars was less than expected and not as high as reported in peoples of Mongoloid heritage. The Paracas, Ica and Nazca, "coastal" cultures had a higher caries incidence than the "inland" cultures. Whether this relates to some difference in diet or water supply remains unresolved and warrants further investigation. Moderate attrition was noted in all the Precolumbian cultures but pulpal involvement was not observed. Osteitis, noted in all the cultures, was more pronounced in the Nazca, Paracas and Ica cultures. There appeared to be a direct relationship between caries involvement and the number of missing antemortem teeth to osteitis. Calculus was heavier in the Paracas and Ica cultures. In addition, the Paracas culture exhibited a dark brown stain on the teeth which may imply some difference between the cultures in either the food, water or social habits.

  2. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  3. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  4. Shear sensitivity of animal cells from a culture-medium perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der L.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, several groups have published data on the shear sensitivity of suspended animal cells and the protective effect of certain polymers. These findings did not, at the time, seem to have great practical application because shear sensitivity did not cause great problems for large-scale applicat

  5. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  6. Cultural Beliefs, Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Functioning among Vietnamese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Khanh Ngoc; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women occurs in all countries, with wide-ranging negative effects, including on mental health. IPV rates vary widely across countries, however, suggesting cultural factors may play a role in IPV. The primary purpose of the present study was to assess relations among IPV, mental health symptoms, and cultural beliefs among Vietnamese women, focusing on moderator effects of cultural beliefs on relations between IPV and mental health. IPV, anxious and depressive mental health symptoms, and culturally-related beliefs about IPV were cross-sectionally assessed in 105 married adult Vietnamese women randomly selected from public population registries in five provinces. IPV was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relations were moderated by wives' culturally-related beliefs about abuse (e.g., relations between IPV and mental health symptoms were smaller for women who believed that nothing could be done about abuse). Findings suggest that when attempting to prevent or treat effects of IPV, it will be important to consider that certain beliefs about IPV generally viewed as maladaptive (e.g., nothing can be done about abuse) may have adaptive effects, at least in the short-term, on relations between IPV and mental health functioning.

  7. One health from a social-ecological systems perspective: enriching social and cultural dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers insights from the environmental management paradigm of 'social-ecological systems' and related bodies of theory on people-environment relationships to assist the evolution of the One Health interdisciplinary endeavour of health promotion across human-animal ecosystem relationships. It also seeks to expand thinking about the social and cultural dimensions that are likely to prove important in the development of thinking and practice in the One Health field. It advocates consideration of cultural and economic relationships affecting people's interactions with domesticated and wild animal species and ecosystems, and exploration of the cognitive and behavioural aspects of these interactions.

  8. Building a culture of health: promoting healthy relationships and reducing teen dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Kristin

    2015-02-01

    Our society is faced with an epidemic of partner violence that has far-reaching consequences. As viewed through a public health lens, prevention of teen dating violence can thwart this epidemic from starting and spreading. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health strategy aims to reduce negative outcomes and promotes overall well-being. This supplement affirms our dedication to a Culture of Health by generating an evidence base to prevent teen dating violence and promote healthy relationships across the life span.

  9. Hospital admissions due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions among children by age group and health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Holanda Prezotto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE to describe hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children under five years of age in the State of Paraná, Brazil by condition type, age group and health region. METHOD a temporal ecological study was conducted using data from the Unified Health System Hospital Information System for the period 2000 to 2011. Conditions were grouped in accordance with the list of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Brazil. RESULTS there was an increase in the rate of admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in all age groups in 50% of the health regions, with a marked increase in children under the age of one. Pneumonia, gastroenteritis and asthma were the main causes of admissions. There was an increase in the proportion of overall admissions accounted for by pneumonia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION the increase in admissions reveals the need for actions to improve access to primary healthcare and provide effective treatment of the main ambulatory care sensitive conditions in order to prevent hospital admissions among children.

  10. The ethical dimensions of delivering culturally congruent nursing and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoucha, R; Husted, G L

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical parameters of giving culturally congruent care to individual patients by health care professionals. Leininger's Cultural Care Diversity and Universality theory (Leininger, 1995) is used to demonstrate the importance of culture in a person's life and Husted's and Husted's (1995) bioethical theory is used to create a mind-set of ethical interaction and to direct the analysis of a bioethical dilemma involving cultural differences between persons of the same culture, a depressed Mexican-American woman and her husband. The differences between transculturalism and multiculturalism are explored. We defend the position that a patient's culture is only a useful tool in caring for a patient if the individual person is made the primary focus of care.

  11. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope

  12. Sensitivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa to atrazine: effects of acclimation and mixed cultures, and their removal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifour, Annie; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured. We demonstrated that both strains of M. aeruginosa had higher growth rate-based EC50 values than S. obliquus when exposed to atrazine, even though their photosynthesis-based EC50 values were lower. After being exposed to 0.1 µM of atrazine for 1 month, only the photosynthesis-based EC50 of S. obliquus increased significantly. In mixed cultures, the growth rate of the non-toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was higher than S. obliquus at high concentrations of atrazine, resulting in a ratio of M. aeruginosa to total cell count of 0.6. This lower sensitivity might be related to the higher growth rate of cyanobacteria at low light intensity. Finally, a negligible fraction of atrazine was removed from the culture media by S. obliquus or M. aeruginosa over 6 days. These results bring new insights on the acclimation of some phytoplankton species to atrazine and its effect on the competition between S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in mixed cultures.

  13. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  14. Culture and the social construction of gender: mapping the intersection with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The social construction of gender is an important concept for better understanding the determinants of mental health in women and men. Going beyond physical and physiological differences and the traditional biomedical approach, interdisciplinary study of the complex factors related to culture and society, power and politics is necessary to be able to find solutions to situations of disparity in mental health, related to both prevalence of disorders, availability and response to treatment. Gender inequality continues to be a source of suffering for many women around the world, and this can lead to adverse mental health outcomes. This review focuses on developments in the literature on culture, gender and mental health over the past decade, focusing on themes around the social construction of gender, mental health and the media, a look at cultural competence through a gender lens, gender and the body, providing some examples of the intersection between mental health and gender in low-income countries as well as the more developed world, and the impact of migration and resettlement on mental health. At the clinical level, using a bio-psycho-social-spiritual model that can integrate and negotiate between both traditional and biomedical perspectives is necessary, combined with use of a cultural formulation that takes gender identity into account. Research involving both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, and in many cases an ethnographic framework, is essential in tackling these global issues.

  15. The relationship of perceived campus culture to mental health help-seeking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason I; Romero, Gabriela D; Karver, Marc S

    2016-11-01

    Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sensitivity of Direct Culture, Enrichment and PCR for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Broiler Flocks at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Simpkin, E; Lee, R; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Vidal, A B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. and for C. jejuni and C. coli individually. The sample was considered positive if at least one method detected the target and this interpretation was taken to represent a 'proxy gold standard' for detection in the absence of a gold standard reference test. The sensitivity of each individual method to detect Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. coli was then estimated relative to the proxy gold standard. Enrichment in adapted Exeter broth (deficient in polymyxin B) with a resuscitation step was 100% sensitive, whilst direct culture on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was highly sensitive (97.9%). Enrichment methods using Preston broth and Bolton broth were significantly less sensitive. Enrichment in Exeter broth promoted the recovery of C. jejuni, whilst enrichment in Bolton broth favoured C. coli. A RT-PCR detection test could identify 80% of flocks that were co-colonised with both species. This study found that 76.3% (n = 127) of flocks were colonised with Campylobacter spp. The majority (95.9%) of Campylobacter-positive flocks were colonised with C. jejuni; however, approximately one-third of positive flocks were simultaneously colonised with both C. jejuni and C. coli. The findings highlight the impact of different detection methodologies on the accuracy of the estimated incidence of both C. jejuni and C. coli entering the abattoir within broiler flocks and the associated

  17. Social and cultural influences on tobacco-related health disparities among South Asians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A; Snowden, Lonnie R; Ling, Pamela M; Ivey, Susan L

    2012-07-01

    To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the USA. Focus groups, with homogeneous compositions of gender, generational status and length of time in the USA, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding the availability of culturally specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18-65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status and region of origin, with the use of at least one culturally specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. A large number of culturally specific products were commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural values ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally framed behaviour in culturally diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is essential to ensure that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities.

  18. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2016-09-09

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  19. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Kayser, Lars; Nørgaard, Ole

    2016-01-01

    , composite scale reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cognitive testing revealed that only minor re-wording was required. The easiest scale to respond to positively was ‘Social support for health’, and the hardest were ‘Navigating the healthcare system’ and ‘Appraisal of health information...

  20. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical...

  1. Culturally-Based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food: Development and validation of the CHEF scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca R; Palmberg, Allison; Lydecker, Janet; Green, Brooke; Kelly, Nichole R; Trapp, Stephen; Bean, Melanie K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. To address this disparity, research has begun to investigate the role of culture, ethnicity, and experiences with racism on food choices and health interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new scale measuring the extent to which individuals' culture, as they perceive it, influences perceptions of food-related health messages. A diverse sample of 422 college students responded to the item pool, as well as surveys on race-related stress, self-efficacy in making healthy food choices, ethnic identity, and social support for health-related behaviors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a five-factor model: Connection (the extent to which food connected individuals with their culture), Authority (beliefs that health care providers were familiar with individuals' cultural foods), Unhealthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that individuals' cultural foods were perceived as unhealthy), Healthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that others perceive individuals' cultural foods to be healthy), and Social Value (the extent to which social relationships are improved by shared cultural food traditions). Authority and Healthy Food Perceptions were related to individuals' confidence in their ability to make healthy food choices. Authority was inversely correlated with negative coping with racism-related events. Ethnic identity was significantly correlated with all but Unhealthy Food Perceptions. Race/ethnicity differences were identified for Healthy Food Perceptions, Unhealthy Food Perceptions, Social Value, Connection, but not Authority. Applications and suggestions for further research using the Culturally-based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food (CHEF) Scale are proposed.

  2. The Cultural Dependence of the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire: The Case of Iranian Kurdish Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A good theory-based tool for measuring ethical sensitivity, which is usable in different contexts, is scarce. In this study, we examined the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ in line with its seven-dimension structure. The scale was presented to a sample of 556 Iranian Kurdish teachers in primary, middle, and high schools. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to scrutinize the original factor structure of the ESSQ. The results confirmed that the ESSQ supports a reasonable model fit to study the seven dimensions of ethical sensitivity as it was developed in the original study. However, some modifications were conducted to free high error covariance between four pairs of items in the scale. This modification increased the fit indices and thus resulted in a good model fit. In addition to examining the satiability of the ESSQ, a further analysis showed that the level of ethical sensitivity in the targeted sample was high.

  3. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  4. Towards malecentric communication: sensitizing health professionals to the realities of male childhood sexual abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teram, Eli; Stalker, Carol; Hovey, Angela; Schachter, Candice; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2006-06-01

    This article extends earlier reports of an ongoing qualitative inquiry on childhood sexual abuse survivors' experiences with health professionals. In this paper, we aim to enhance understanding of male survivors' experience. While male and female participants express similar anxieties and fears about their encounters with health professionals, there are gender-based differences related to the perceptions of victimhood and manhood; guilt and shame; homophobia; disclosure of abuse; and the expression of vulnerability. The implications of these differences for sensitive health care practice are analyzed within the context of gender relationships and the differential socialization of men. Malecentric communication is proposed as a method for addressing the specific experiences of male survivors in their encounters with health professionals.

  5. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p < .012) in young adulthood. Our findings highlight the importance of examining intragroup variability in culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Education of children in Polish family in a context of forming health culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IERMAKOVA T.S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.

  7. Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Culturally Sensitive Interventions to Improve African Americans' and Non-African Americans' Early, Shared, and Informed Consideration of Live Kidney Transplantation: The talking about Live Kidney Donation (TALK) study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underutilized, particularly among ethnic/racial minorities. The effectiveness of culturally sensitive educational and behavioral interventions to encourage patients' early, shared (with family and health care providers) and informed consideration of LKT and ameliorate disparities in consideration of LKT is unknown. Methods/Design We report the protocol of the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study, a two-phase study utilizing q...

  8. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing-Complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir

    2015-01-01

    configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance......A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation...... of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement...

  9. Adding silver to the rainbow: the development of the nurses' health education about LGBT elders (HEALE) cultural competency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacker, Cecilia T; Rubinstein, Betsy; Hotton, Anna; Houlberg, Magda

    2014-03-01

    In 2009, the Howard Brown Health Center received funding from the US Department of Health and Human Services, and Health Resources and Services Administration to develop and disseminate a peer-reviewed, six-module curriculum entitled, Health Education about LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) Elders (HEALE). The HEALE curriculum targets nurses and health-care staff and is focused on the treatment of LGBT elders, a population that is largely misunderstood and discriminated against in health-care settings. The HEALE curriculum was presented in hospital academic centres, community-based clinics and nursing homes over a three-year period, and training staff provided education to over 500 nurses and health-care providers. A pre-test and post-test was administered to participants, and all data were collected and archived to measure knowledge gained. Participants also completed an evaluation at the conclusion of the training to report change in personal attitude and individual response to the curriculum. From March 2011 to June 2012, 848 individuals attended HEALE curriculum sessions at 23 locations in Chicago and surrounding areas. Participants were 40% white, 25% black, 9% Hispanic/Latino and 25% Asian race/ethnicity. The majority of participants were female and approximately 25% were under the age of 30 years. There were statistically significant gains in knowledge in each of the six modules both in nursing home/home health-care settings and in hospital/educational settings, although participants in nursing home/home health care settings had lower pre-test scores and smaller knowledge gains in each of the six modules than those in hospital/educational settings. Mean increases ranged from 6.4 points (an 8.7% increase) in module 1-14.6 points (a 26.2% increase) in Module 6 (P LGBT cultural competency in geriatric education. As such, implementation of this cultural competency training will go a long way to establish fundamental concepts regarding LGBT elder care

  10. Changing health care culture: a prerequisite to improving patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Azizi, Faisal Siddiqui, Ithsham Iqbal Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UKWe read the recent article by Chua et al1 with great interest. We found it thought-provoking to read how novel interventions, such as sharing errors, among the team can reduce the frequency of error recurrence in the future. We are hopeful that if such interventions were applied to other areas of health care, it would yield similar results. Having said this, we strongly believe that an important prerequisite of openness among health care workers is required for such interventions to work. View the original paper by Chua et al 

  11. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  12. The Effects of Organizational Culture on Mental Health Service Engagement of Transition Age Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R

    2015-10-01

    Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.

  13. Cultural and noncultural predictors of health outcomes in Korean daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Eun-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    In Western cultures, adverse health effects resulting from providing care for impaired elders is well documented for family caregivers, but little is known about the health of Korean caregivers. This study examined the level of depression and physical health of 120 daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers who cared for cognitively or functionally impaired elderly in Korea. It was hypothesized that cultural factors would have a greater effect on caregivers' health outcomes than noncultural factors, but, contrary to this expectation, the effects of noncultural factors were found to outweigh those of cultural factors. Moreover, the caregivers in this study reported a relatively high level of depression, and more caregivers rated their own health as "poor" than did Western caregivers in previous studies. Family caregiving for the impaired elderly is stressful and negatively affects Korean caregivers' health outcomes regardless of societal values such as filial piety and familism regarding parent care in Korea. Culturally acceptable and sensible support programs may be useful in sustaining long-term care at home by Korean daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers. Further family caregiving studies in the Korean sociocultural context are recommended.

  14. A quality improvement evaluation case study: impact on public health outcomes and agency culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, William C; Sabbagh, Radwan; Spitzfaden, Steve; Hicks, Angela; Wells, Lucy; Puigdomenech, Suzannah; Kramer, Dale F; Butterfield, Ryan; Riley, William; Wood, David L

    2013-05-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to improve healthcare services and health outcomes, including reducing health disparities. However, there is a paucity of evidence documenting the value of QI to public health agencies and services. The purpose of this project was to support and assess the impact on the outcomes and organizational culture of a QI project to increase immunization rates among children aged 2 years (4:3:1:3:3:1 series) within a large public health agency with a major pediatric health mission. The intervention consisted of the use of a model-for-improvement approach to QI for the delivery of immunization services in public health clinics, utilizing plan-do-study-act cycles and multiple QI techniques. A mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) model of evaluation was used to collect and analyze data from June 2009 to July 2011 to support both summative and developmental evaluation. The Florida Immunization Registry (Florida SHOTS [State Health Online Tracking System]) was used to monitor and analyze changes in immunization rates from January 2009 to July 2012. An interrupted time-series application of covariance was used to assess significance of the change in immunization rates, and paired comparison using parametric and nonparametric statistics were used to assess significance of pre- and post-QI culture items. Up-to-date immunization rates increased from 75% to more than 90% for individual primary care clinics and the overall county health department. In addition, QI stakeholder scores on ten key items related to organizational culture increased from pre- to post-QI intervention. Statistical analysis confirmed significance of the changes. The application of QI combined with a summative and developmental evaluation supported refinement of the QI approach and documented the potential for QI to improve population health outcomes and improve public health agency culture. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of

  15. The Meanings of "Culture" in Health and Social Care: A Case Study of the Combined Trust in Somerset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Edward; Towell, David; Gulliver, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated how British health and local authorities integrated mental health services into general health and social services. Stakeholder interviews and surveys showed that the recurrent theme of culture meant different things to different people. Shared culture was widely believed to lead to seamless service and collaboration, but low staff…

  16. Communication Skills, Cultural Sensitivity, and Collaboration in an Experiential Language Village Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allen; Minami, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses five college students' experiences in a simulated full-immersion, Arabic-speaking language village and the impact of that experience on learners' beliefs about the power of collaborative learning, the critical importance of cultural awareness, the efficacy of learning languages within a functioning community of practice, and…

  17. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  18. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  19. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  20. The ESL Family Science Night: a model for culturally sensitive science education pedagogy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valadez, Gilbert; Moineau, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    ... general findings and suggestions for further research and pre-service teacher education as it relates to teaching science pedagogy in a way that better serves minority children and their parents and/or guardians. Here, we are defining minority children as those that come from non-mainstream Anglo-American culture and are second language learners. L...

  1. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  2. Self-starvation in context: towards a culturally sensitive understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    1995-07-01

    Extreme forms of self-starvation can be traced across time and place, and may be construed using a variety of explanatory models. Curiously, the prevailing biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa has assigned primacy to the exclusive use of 'fat phobia' by the affected subjects to justify their diminished food intake. This paper assembles evidence to show that this culturally constructed version of fat phobic anorexia nervosa has neglected the full metaphorical significance of self-starvation and, when applied in a cross-cultural context, may constitute a category fallacy. By delegitimizing other rationales for non-eating and thereby barring subjective expressions, this regnant interpretive strategy may obscure clinicians' understanding of patients' lived experience, and even jeopardize their treatment. Nonetheless, it is a relatively simple task to attune the extant diagnostic criteria to a polythetic approach which will avert cultural parochialism in psychiatric theory and practice. As a corollary of the archival and ethnocultural study of extreme self-starvation, there is, contrary to epistemological assumptions embedded in the biomedical culture of contemporary psychiatry, no 'core psychopathology' of anorexia nervosa.

  3. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  4. Human bone marrow cell culture: a sensitive method for determination of the biocompatibility of implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Landgraff, M; Orth, J; Poenitz, H; Kienapfel, H; Boelte, K; Griss, P; Franke, R P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a test method for determining the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of various biomaterials that are used in orthopaedic surgery. This method is based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and was developed as an alternative to animal experiments. Human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages over other cell culture models, as its results show a greater conformity with animal experimental results and clinical studies. Primary cell adherence, cell number, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, cell viability and cell differentiation were used as indicative parameters of biocompatibility. After 2 weeks in culture, differences could be observed between the biomaterials with respect to these parameters. Cell numbers were greatest on the hydroxyapatite ceramic specimens, but were decreased on the titanium alloy specimens. Extracellular matrix hydroxyapatite production was high for ceramics, but reduced for titanium specimens. The polymers allowed only a few cells to adhere, and there were no signs of extracellular matrix production. The influence of biomaterials on differentiation of large numbers of cells was analysed by using flow cytophotometry. There were similar populations of T cells and monocytes on all specimens. However, extended B cell and granulocyte populations were observed with titanium and polyethylene.

  5. Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: Findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Phiri, Peter; Munshi, Tariq; Rathod, Shanaya; Ayub, Muhhhamad; Gobbi, Mary; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) needs adaptation for it to be effective for patients from collectivistic cultures, as currently CBT is underpinned by individualistic values. In prior studies we have demonstrated that CBT could be adapted for Pakistani patients in Southampton, UK, and for local populations in Pakistan. Findings from these studies suggest that CBT can be adapted for patients from collectivistic cultures using a series of steps. In this paper we focus on these steps, and the process of adapting CBT for specific groups. The adaptation process should focus on three major areas of therapy, rather than simple translation of therapy manuals. These include (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy, (2) assessment and engagement, and (3) adjustments in therapy. We also discuss the best practice guidelines that evolved from this work to help therapists working with this population. We reiterate that CBT can be adapted effectively for patients from traditional cultures. This is, however, an emerging area in psychotherapy, and further work is required to refine the methodology and to test adapted CBT.

  6. Damage Detection Sensitivity of a Vehicle-based Bridge Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito; Lúcio, Válter J. G.

    2017-05-01

    As one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span (10-30m) reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (called “Bus monitoring system”) was proposed, along with safety indices, namely, “characteristic deflection”, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. In this study, to evaluate the practicality of the newly developed bus monitoring system, it has been field-tested over a period of about four years by using an in-service fixed-route bus operating on a bus route in the city of Ube, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. In here, although there are some useful monitoring methods for short and medium span bridges based on the qualitative or quantitative information, the sensitivity of damage detection was newly discussed for safety assessment based on long term health monitoring data. The verification results thus obtained are also described in this paper, and also evaluates the sensitivity of the “characteristic deflection”, which is a bridge (health) condition indicator used by the bus monitoring system, in damage detection. Sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by introducing artificial damage into a bridge that has ended its service life and is awaiting removal. Furthermore, the sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by 3D FEM analysis.

  7. Sensitivity of key factors and uncertainties in health risk assessment of benzene pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Predicting long-term potential human health risks from contaminants in the multimedia environment requires the use of models.However, there is uncertainty associated with these predictions of many parameters which can be represented by ranges or probability distributions rather than single value. Based on a case study with information from an actual site contaminated with benzene, this study describes the application of MMSOILS model to predict health risk and distributions of those predictions generated using Monte Carlo techniques. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate which of the random variables are most important in producing the predicted distributions of health risks. The sensitivity analysis shows that the predicted distributions can be accurately reproduced using a small subset of the random variables. The practical implication of this analysis is the ability to distinguish between important versus unimportant random variables in terms of their sensitivity to selected endpoints. This directly translates into a reduction in data collection and modeling effort. It was demonstrated that how correlation coefficient could be used to evaluate contributions to overall uncertainty from each parameter. The integrated uncertainty analysis shows that although drinking groundwater risk is similar with inhalation air risk, uncertainties of total risk come dominantly from drinking groundwater route. Most percent of the variance of total risk comes from four random variables.

  8. 'Following the word of God': Empirical insights into managerial perceptions on spirituality, culture and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Viviers, Rian

    2014-06-01

    This article focuses on managers in a selected South African organization and the connections they draw between mental health, culture and spirituality within the workplace. The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of the interrelationships in this complex and growing scientific discourse and to respond to the research question of how mental health, culture and spirituality are interrelated from a managerial perspective. The study follows an inductive single case study approach within the phenomenological paradigm. Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews and observation were used. The sample comprised 27 managers within the international South African automotive organization. The findings show that not only culture, but also spirituality and religion in particular, influence mental health and well-being of managers at work. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made.

  9. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  10. An anthropological approach to teaching health sciences students cultural competency in a field school program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Frank T; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Poulsen, Keith P

    2014-02-01

    International immersion experiences do not, in themselves, provide students with the opportunity to develop cultural competence. However, using an anthropological lens to educate students allows them to learn how to negotiate cultural differences by removing their own cultural filters and seeing events through the eyes of those who are culturally different. Faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Global Health Institute believed that an embedded experience, in which students engaged with local communities, would encourage them to adopt this Cultural Competency 2.0 position. With this goal in mind, they started the Field School for the Study of Language, Culture, and Community Health in Ecuador in 2003 to teach cultural competency to medical, veterinary, pharmacy, and nursing students. The program was rooted in medical anthropology and embraced the One Health initiative, which is a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to obtain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. In this article, the authors identify effective practices and challenges for using a biocultural approach to educating students. In a semester-long preparatory class, students study the Spanish language, region-specific topics, and community engagement principles. While in Ecuador for five weeks, students apply their knowledge during community visits that involve homestays and service learning projects, for which they partner with local communities to meet their health needs. This combination of language and anthropological course work and community-based service learning has led to positive outcomes for the local communities as well as professional development for students and faculty.

  11. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  12. Overseas-trained doctors in Indigenous rural health services: negotiating professional relationships across cultural domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Hill, Peter; Arkles, Rachelle; Gilles, Marisa; Peterson, Katia; Wearne, Susan; Canuto, Condy; Pulver, Lisa Jackson

    2008-12-01

    To examine how OTDs and staff in rural and remote Indigenous health contexts communicate and negotiate identity and relationships, and consider how this may influence OTDs' transition, integration and retention. Ten case studies were conducted in rural and remote settings across Australia, each of an OTD providing primary care in a substantially Indigenous practice population, his/her partner, co-workers and Indigenous board members associated with the health service. Cases were purposefully sampled to ensure diversity in gender, location and country of origin. Identity as 'fluid' emerged as a key theme in effective communication and building good relationships between OTDs and Indigenous staff. OTDs enter a social space where their own cultural and professional beliefs and practices intersect with the expectations of culturally safe practice shaped by the Australian Indigenous context. These are negotiated through differences in language, role expectation, practice, status and identification with locus with uncertain outcomes. Limited professional and cultural support often impeded this process. The reconstruction of OTDs' identities and mediating beyond predictable barriers to cultural engagement contributes significantly not only to OTDs' integration and, to a lesser extent, their retention, but also to maximising effective communication across cultural domains. Retention of OTDs working in Indigenous health contexts rests on a combination of OTDs' capacity to adapt culturally and professionally to this complex environment, and of effective strategies to support them.

  13. Cultural distance between peoples’ worldview and scientific knowledge in the area of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Gauhar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is an attempt to measure the public understanding of science in the area of health and hygiene and test the efficacy of “cultural distance model”. A pre-tested open-ended questionnaire was used for administering cross-sectional surveys at a religio-cultural festival in India. 3484 individuals were interviewed and responses were coded and entered to construct computer database. The data was used for determining the cultural distance of five scientific concepts from the quotidian life of the target population. In developing countries, the formal system of modern education operates as a strong determinant in shaping cultural structures of thoughts prevalent among the citizens. There exists a cultural distance between the scientific structure of configuring natural occurrences and peoples’ complexity of thoughts. The distance varies significantly across the concepts that were subjected to the inspection and is a function of the nature of scientific information.

  14. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  15. Asian Indians in America: The influence of values and culture on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rohit M; Arora, Lily; Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Asnaani, Anu; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    Asian Indians represent a significant portion of the largest growing race of Asians in the past decade in the United States. This selective review examines major cultural themes related to first- and second-generation Asian Indians living in the United States as they impact psychological and psychiatric dysfunction in this population. Specifically, we review the impact of Asian Indian culture on mental health, discuss the impact of acculturation and ethnic identity development on the mental health of Indian-Americans, and focus on typical mental health problems of Asian Indian adolescents, women and elderly in America. Finally, we provide a brief overview of empirically-supported treatment approaches and cultural considerations for additional treatments relevant to this population. This review is intended to provide an important foundation for more systematic empirically-driven investigation into better understanding how Asian Indian cultural themes impact mental health for Indian-Americans, and how to develop effective treatments for these issues in this cultural group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-cultural equivalence in translations of the oral health impact profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has been translated for comparisons across cultural boundaries. This report on a systematic search of literature published between 1994 and 2014 aims to identify an acceptable method of translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence, and how they were used to translate the OHIP. An electronic search used the keywords 'cultural adaptation', 'validation', 'Oral Health Impact Profile' and 'OHIP' in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases supplemented by reference links and grey literature. It included papers on methods of cross-cultural translation and translations of the OHIP for dentulous adults and adolescents, and excluded papers without translational details or limited to specific disorders. The search identified eight steps to cross-cultural equivalence, and 36 (plus three supplemental) translations of the OHIP. The steps involve assessment of (i) forward/backward translation by committee, (ii) constructs, (iii) item interpretations, (iv) interval scales, (v) convergent validity, (vi) discriminant validity, (vii) responsiveness to clinical change and (viii) pilot tests. Most (>60%) of the translations involved forward/backward translation by committee, item interpretations, interval scales, convergence, discrimination and pilot tests, but fewer assessed the underlying theory (47%) or responsiveness to clinical change (28%). An acceptable method for translating quality of life-related psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence has eight procedural steps, and most of the 36 OHIP translations involved at least five of the steps. Only translations to Saudi Arabian Arabic, Chinese Mandarin, German and Japanese used all eight steps to claim cultural equivalence with the original OHIP.

  17. Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Kwame

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competency is now a core requirement for mental health professionals working with culturally diverse patient groups. Cultural competency training may improve the quality of mental health care for ethnic groups. Methods A systematic review that included evaluated models of professional education or service delivery. Results Of 109 potential papers, only 9 included an evaluation of the model to improve the cultural competency practice and service delivery. All 9 studies were located in North America. Cultural competency included modification of clinical practice and organizational performance. Few studies published their teaching and learning methods. Only three studies used quantitative outcomes. One of these showed a change in attitudes and skills of staff following training. The cultural consultation model showed evidence of significant satisfaction by clinicians using the service. No studies investigated service user experiences and outcomes. Conclusion There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of cultural competency training and service delivery. Further work is required to evaluate improvement in service users' experiences and outcomes.

  18. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration.

  19. Nurses' perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, N; Paavilainen, E; McCormack, B; Helminen, M; Slater, P; Suominen, T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care. Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents' perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively. The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations. Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit's workplace culture. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  20. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive (n = 30) and at-risk women (n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  1. Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi; Henze, Daven K.; Waitz, Ian A.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-06-01

    We perform the first long-term (>1 year) continuous adjoint simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model focusing on population exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated risk of early death. Sensitivities relevant to intercontinental and high-altitude PM pollution are calculated with particular application to aircraft emissions. Specifically, the sensitivities of premature mortality risk in different regions to NOx, SOx, CO, VOC and primary PM2.5 emissions as a function of location are computed. We apply the resultant sensitivity matrices to aircraft emissions, finding that NOx emissions are responsible for 93% of population exposure to aircraft-attributable PM2.5. Aircraft NOx accounts for all of aircraft-attributable nitrate exposure (as expected) and 53% of aircraft-attributable sulfate exposure due to the strong "oxidative coupling" between aircraft NOx emissions and non-aviation SO2 emissions in terms of sulfate formation. Of the health risk-weighted human PM2.5 exposure attributable to aviation, 73% occurs in Asia, followed by 18% in Europe. 95% of the air quality impacts of aircraft emissions in the US are incurred outside the US. We also assess the impact of uncertainty or changes in (non-aviation) ammonia emissions on aviation-attributable PM2.5 exposure by calculating second-order sensitivities. We note the potential application of the sensitivity matrices as a rapid policy analysis tool in aviation environmental policy contexts.

  2. The combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms: Specificity to anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns among patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Kelley, Lance P; Griggs, Jackson O

    2016-05-30

    Prior research has found that health anxiety is related to poor patient outcomes in primary care settings. Health anxiety is characterized by at least two presentations: with either severe or no/mild somatic symptoms. Preliminary data indicate that anxiety sensitivity may be important for understanding the presentation of health anxiety with severe somatic symptoms. We further examined whether the combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms was related to anxiety sensitivity. Participants were adults presenting for treatment at a community health center (N=538). As predicted, the interactive effect between health anxiety and somatic symptoms was associated with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. Health anxiety shared a stronger association with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns when coupled with severe, relative to mild, somatic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, the interactive effect was not associated with the other dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. We discuss the potential relevancy of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns to the combined presentation of health anxiety and severe somatic symptoms, as well as how this dimension of anxiety sensitivity could be treated in primary care settings.

  3. Behavior of sensitivity and resistance in urine cultures of adult patients with urinary infection Manizales, 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Botero, Marcela; Coral Castro, Sayra Catalina; Castaño Castrillón, José Jaime; Profesor titular, facultad de ciencias de la salud, universidad de manizales.; Gallo Martínez, Ximena; Gañán Luque, Alejandra; García Fernández, Yandri Lorena; López Cardona, Viviana; Pineda Hernández, Paula Johana; Serna Osorio, Carlos Fernando; Villegas Arenas, Oscar Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: In medical practice, Urinary Infection is among the most common community-acquired infections, mainly affecting the female population and occupies between the second and third leading cause of consultations in health centers. This study aims to describe and analyze the epidemiology of this disease in adult patients who consulted in two health centers Manizales(Caldas, Colombia) 2009.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study which included clinical and laboratory findings of 1...

  4. Culture microtitration: a sensitive method for quantifying Leishmania infantum in tissues of infected mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, P. A.; Sulahian, A.; Garin, Y J; Nassar, N.; Derouin, F

    1995-01-01

    We developed a microtitration method to determine the parasite burdens in homogenized organs of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. This method proved more sensitive than direct enumeration of amastigotes in stained organs, was appropriate for describing the kinetics of infection, and can be considered for physiopathological or pharmaceutical experimental studies.

  5. Evaluation of culturally appropriate health counselling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and its modification for practical use as the new ABC model of culturally appropriate counselling for Japanese public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Tamura, Sugako; Miyazaki, Misako; Amamiya, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates culturally appropriate health counselling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and suggests modifications of the method for practical use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 public health nurses (PHNs) in seven cities with different cultural backgrounds. Data were analysed qualitatively with the following research questions: Do we need to add other cultural factors to the previous six categories or to improve their expression for practical use? Are the methods for using cultural factors valid and expressed in appropriate language for practical use? The original factors were re-categorized into three classifications-Values, Styles and Relationships-using colloquial expressions. The original methods of using cultural factors were re-categorized and modified into five phases: Assessment, Acceptance, Awareness, Balance and Connection. The names of the methods were also modified. Modified culturally appropriate health counselling is easily understandable by any PHN and highlights the unique Japanese culture and style of public health nurses.

  6. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  7. [The cultural aspects of the practice of Community Health Agents in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Maristela Oliveira; Brito, Maria José Menezes; Rezende, Lilian Cristina

    2012-06-01

    The daily practice of Community Health Agents (CHAs) is permeated with educational interventions aimed at preventive care and health promotion. The sociocultural universe of these professionals can affect the dynamics of their practice within the community, particularly in rural areas, where there is evidence that the population expects to obtain information relative to their health and/or disease by means of cultural rites. Based on a case study, we sought to analyze the influence of the cultural practices of the agents working in a rural area in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais. The analysis revealed the presence of a strong connection between the culture and their activities. Religious beliefs and knowledge developed from the fusion of biomedical information and values based on family tradition regarding the health-disease process have a direct effect on their practices. It is emphasized that they have an important role as facilitators in the practice of health care, with a positive effect stemming from the similarity of their life experiences and inherited cultures with those of the clients, thus making it possible to develop effective interventions.

  8. Correlations of health behaviors and factors with high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hong HOU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlations of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors with the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP in diabetic population. Methods A cross-sectional method was used in present study. Seven thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine workers with diabetes were recruited who participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination without history of cerebral and myocardial infarction and without data incompleted. All the information was obtained from the unified questionnaire and measurement of blood biochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors on the level of hsCRP. Results The hsCRP concentrations decreased with the increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors, the medians of hsCRP concentrations were 1.16mg/L, 1.11mg/L, 0.90mg/L and 0.76mg/L in 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health groups, respectively (P<0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjustment by age, gender, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, the risk of hsCRP level exceeding 3mg/L in the subjects having 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors was 0.60 times (95%CI 0.50-0.72 and 0.45 times (95%CI 0.34-0.61, respectively, than those having 0-1 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. Conclusion The hsCRP concentrations decreased with increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors; the risk of hsCRP exceeding 3mg/L can be reduced by ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.013

  9. Investigation of Various Tissue Culture Monolayers Sensitivity in Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibi­otic treatment, but sporadic cases can occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate five tissue culture monolayers sen­sitivity in detection of C. difficile-toxin. Methods: A total of 402 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in three hospitals of Tehran Uni­versity of Medical Sciences (TUMS were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 4 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by con­ventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on five tissue culture monolayers. Results: Our findings show that of the total patients, 24 toxigenic C. difficile (6% were isolated. All 24 C. difficile toxins showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:10 dilution on Hela, Hep2, Vero, McCoy and Mdck cells after 16, 20, 24, 24 and 30 hours, re­spectively. C. difficile toxin showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:100 dilutions only on Hela cell monolayer after 48 hours. Conclusion: Hela cell monolayer may be a satisfactory substitute for the detection of C. difficile toxin in clinical specimens.   

  10. Analysis of Culture and Drug Sensitivity Tests of Mycoplasmas for 387 Patients with Nongonococcal Urethritis (Cervicitis) in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟志芳; 郝飞; 钟白玉; 黄秀英; 唐书谦; 刁庆春

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mycoplasma infections and the sensitivity to antibiotics among patients with nongonococcal urethritis or cervicitis (NGU) in Chongqing. Methods: 387 NGU cases with mycoplasma-positive results upon culture were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: The majority of patients with mycoplasma infections were in the 20-40 year old age group. No significant difference was found between males and females. Ureaplasma urealyticum is the main pathogen of these NGU cases and no clear relationship between its concentration and pathogenic ability was noted. Drug sensitivity was tested against nine antibiotics; the sensitivity rates to josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline were 94.06%, 88.89% and 86.82% respectively, while the resistance rates to lincomycin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and roxthromycin were 74.94%, 42.12%, 41.60% and 40.31% in turn. Conclusions: Josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline could be used as the first choice to treat NGU with mycoplasma infections in Chongqing. It is important to select antibiotics for NGU treatment with mycoplasma infections based on the results of drug sensitivity tests.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Eastman, Abraham; Lo, Stephen; Hearon, Bridget A; Bickel, Warren K; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J; Doan, Stacey N

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors-anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC)-for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or maintenance of a range of negative health behaviors. AS is a distress-related risk factor that potentiates avoidance/coping motivations for negative health behaviors. Stress provides the conditions for negative somatic and affective states, and AS amplifies the aversiveness of these experiences and correspondingly hinders adaptive functioning. In contrast, low WMC is hypothesized to exert its effect by decreasing the capacity to filter out current temptations, attenuating a focus on longer-term goals and impairing the application of relevant coping skills at times of stress. In this review, we provide conceptual models for the separate roles of high AS and low WMC in negative health behaviors, review the influence of these factors on specific health behavior exemplars (eating behaviors/obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and sleep promotion), provide preliminary evidence for their value as independent treatment targets for health-behavior promotion, and encourage specific research directions in relation to these variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cultural Competence in Counseling the Muslim Patient: Implications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A culture-centered exploration of health: constructions from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Raihan; Dutta, Mohan J

    2012-01-01

    The traditional approach in health communication has historically adopted a linear model to explore and study health, without considering the voices of the subaltern sectors in academic discourse. Such linear models prescribe one-way knowledge, information, and transmission of beliefs from the core health sectors to the subalterns at the margins. The culture-centered approach to health focuses on co-constructing meanings of health through dialogic engagement with communities that are situated at the margins of mainstream discursive spaces. This co-constructive research investigates how members of a Bangladeshi rural community define, construct, and negotiate health issues in their everyday lives through their narratives of health, illness, and healing. The findings explicate how the community participants negotiate their health in terms of poverty, work, and structure, and highlights how the participants negotiate their marginalization through communicative practices. The in-depth narratives on their construction of health underscore possible entry points into constructing culture-centered praxis, pointing toward spaces of change.

  14. Long Distance Truck Drivers and the Structural Context of Health: A Culture-Centered Investigation of Indian Truckers' Health Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers (truckers) in India have been identified as a "high-risk" group for the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and are consequently the targets of prevention and education-based interventions. While such interventions have addressed risk at the level of individual behavior, little attention has been paid to the structural barriers to health for truckers. Research among truckers in India has ignored the economic, social, and cultural context of health. In this article, I employ the culture-centered approach (CCA) to health communication in documenting truckers' narratives of health, which are innately connected to social and institutional structures around their lives. The data included 36 narrative interviews that I conducted as part of my fieldwork with Indian truckers, in addition to field notes and a reflexive journal. Through a reflexive analysis of these narratives, I present three themes: (a) the everyday violence of trucking, (b) health as sacrifice, and (c) migration and HIV/AIDS. I discuss how communication interventions can attend to the relationship between trucker health and the structural barriers they encounter.

  15. Improving health care quality through culturally competent physicians: leadership and organizational diversity training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin B Horwitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Irwin B Horwitz1, Marilyn Sonilal2, Sujin K Horwitz31Cameron School of Business, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, USA; 2School of Public Health, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: The growing diversity of the population has resulted in substantial challenges for the US health care system. A substantial body of evidence has identified significant disparities in health care among culturally and ethnically diverse patients, irrespective of income, that negatively affects such factors as diagnostic precision, quality of care, adherence to healing protocols, and overall treatment outcomes. Diversity has also been shown to compromise the functionality of health care teams that are increasingly comprised of members with culturally different backgrounds, in which diversity produces misunderstanding and conflict. Many of the problems stem from a lack of cultural competence among both physicians and teams under their supervision. To reduce the numerous problems resulting from inadequate cultural competence among health care professionals, this article examines ways in which the issues of diversity can be effectively addressed in health care institutions. It is advocated that physicians adopt a proactive transformational leadership style to manage diversity because of its emphasis on understanding and aligning follower values which lie at the heart of diversity-related misunderstandings. It is also held that for leadership training among physicians to be fully effective, it should be integrated with organizational-wide diversity programs. By doing so, the complimentary effect could result in comprehensive change, resulting in substantial improvements in the quality of health care for all patients.Keywords: leadership, diversity, health care, disparities, medical education

  16. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  17. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Dabney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT program on pediatric health care providers’ self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers’ cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69. Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon’s signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001, 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002, and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06. Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population.

  18. Challenges in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees: towards integration of evidence-based treatments with contextual and culture-sensitive perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Drožđek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research shows that trauma-focused therapy and multimodal interventions are the two most often used strategies in treatment of refugees suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. While preliminary evidence suggests that trauma-focused approaches may have some efficacy, this could not be established for multimodal interventions. However, it may be that multimodal interventions have been studied in more treatment-resistant refugees with very high levels of psychopathology, disability, and chronicity. In the past decades, various models for understanding of the complex relationship between mental health problems and well-being have emerged. They aim at framing mental health problems in individualized, contextual, epigenetic, and culturally sensitive ways, and may be useful in tailoring content and timing of multimodal interventions. Objective: To draw clinicians’ attention to the possibility of using the Integrative Contextual Model for understanding and assessment of posttrauma mental health sequelae while tailoring multimodal interventions; to present a possible way of combining multimodal with evidence-based trauma-focused approaches; and to improve the understanding and treatment of PTSD and other mental health problems in refugee survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Method: Based on literature, clinical experience, and presentation of a fictional case, the use of the Integrative Contextual Model in tailoring the treatment of severe PTSD in a refugee patient is presented and discussed. Results: The Integrative Contextual Model for understanding and assessing factors, which may play a role in causing and maintaining of PTSD and comorbidity in refugees, may help tailoring of multimodal interventions. These interventions can be combined with evidence-based trauma-focused treatments. Conclusion: The field of refugee mental health intervention and clinical practice with traumatized refugees may be enriched with the use

  19. Evaluating the Linguistic Appropriateness and Cultural Sensitivity of a Self-Report System for Spanish-Speaking Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Tofthagen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL. For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C, a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable (x¯=3.0 for audiovisual material and acceptable (x¯=3.0 for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer.

  20. Effectiveness of a developmental curricular design to graduate culturally competent health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggis, Debra

    2012-01-01

    With the goal to facilitate cultural competency development of students enrolled in graduate-level health professional education, this study examined the effectiveness of a curricular program guided by the Intercultural Developmental Continuum (IDC) as measured by the Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI). The IDI was administered to 17 occupational therapy (OT) students and a control group of 25 non-OT health professional students upon matriculation into their respective programs of graduate study and again upon completion of 3 years of study. OT students participated in a cultural curricular design guided by the IDC, while the control group participated in cultural study not guided by the IDC. Though OT students did not show a significant change in overall developmental orientation mean scores from pre-test to post-test (t = 0.847, p = 0.41), the results indicate that the designed intercultural curriculum increased intercultural competence among those OT students who began their program with the monocultural mindset of polarization (an "us vs. them" evaluative viewpoint) and moved to the interculturally transitional mindset of minimization (recognizing cultural commonalities and elimination of the "us vs. them" mindset). The control group showed a significant decrease in developmental orientation mean scores at post-test (t = 6.1, p competency of OT students, appears to have mitigated a decrease in competence. Results suggest that the cultural challenges that students face appear to be considerable and, without targeted, integrated intercultural preparation, can overwhelm new health professionals' intercultural capability.

  1. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  2. Relationships between culture and health status: a multi-site study of the older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Tsang, Ka Tat; Chappell, Neena; Lai, David C Y; Chau, Shirley B Y

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses, by limitations in ADL and IADL, and by information on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form SF-36. Although cultural variables explained only a small proportion of variance in health status, having a stronger level of identification with traditional Chinese health beliefs was significant in predicting physical health, number of illnesses, and limitations on IADL. Other cultural variables, including religion, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada, were also significant in predicting some health variables. Interventions to improve health should focus on strategies to enhance cultural compatibility between users and the health delivery system.

  3. The Need for Culturally Sensitive Sexuality Education in a Pluralised Nigeria: But Which Kind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoro, Jude

    2017-01-01

    A substantial number of studies have been conducted on sexuality education in Nigeria. These provide evidence of the positive impact of sexuality education on the psychosocial well-being of children and youth and the value of sexuality education for the sexual health of young people. Yet another research has investigated the views of parents on…

  4. How does a culture of health change? Lessons from the war on cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudson, Michael; Baykurt, Burcu

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on one of the most dramatic changes in the culture of health in the U.S. since World War II: the reduction of adult cigarette smoking from close to half of the population to under 20 percent between the 1960s and the 1990s. What role does culture play in explaining this shift in smoking from socially accepted to socially stigmatized? After surveying how culture has been used to explain the decline in smoking in the fields of tobacco control and public health, we argue that existing concepts do not capture the complex transformation of smoking. We instead suggest a micro-sociological view which presumes that culture may change in response to spatially organized constraints, cajoling, and comradeship. By reviewing two major drivers of the transformation of smoking - the Surgeon General's Reports and the nonsmokers' rights movement - at this micro-sociological level, we show how culture works through social spaces and practices while institutionalizing collective or even legal pressures and constraints on behavior. This conclusion also seeks to explain the uneven adoption of non-smoking across classes, and to reflect on the utility of presuming that a uniform "culture" blankets a society.

  5. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Boruchovitch

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  6. Workforce ethnic diversity and culturally competent health care: the case of Arab physicians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.

  7. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraveto, Alice; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Giuliante, Felice; De Rose, Agostino Maria; Grazi, Gian Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Semeraro, Rossella; Lustri, Anna Maria; Costantini, Daniele; Nevi, Lorenzo; Di Matteo, Sabina; Renzi, Anastasia; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more

  8. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fraveto

    Full Text Available We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay and apoptosis (Caspase 3 after incubation (72 hours with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib

  9. Enhancing plant regeneration in tissue culture: a molecular approach through manipulation of cytokinin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-10-01

    Micropropagation is used for commercial purposes worldwide, but the capacity to undergo somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration varies greatly among species. The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin are critical for plant regeneration in tissue culture, with cytokinin playing an instrumental role in shoot organogenesis. Type-B response regulators govern the transcriptional output in response to cytokinin and are required for plant regeneration. In our paper published in Plant Physiology, we explored the functional redundancy among the 11 type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). Interestingly, we discovered that the enhanced expression of one family member, ARR10, induced hypersensitivity to cytokinin in multiple assays, including callus greening and shoot induction of explants. Here we 1) discuss the hormone dependence for in vitro plant regeneration, 2) how manipulation of the cytokinin response has been used to enhance plant regeneration, and 3) the potential of the ARR10 transgene as a tool to increase the regeneration capacity of agriculturally important crop plants. The efficacy of ARR10 for enhancing plant regeneration likely arises from its ability to transcriptionally regulate key cytokinin responsive genes combined with an enhanced protein stability of ARR10 compared with other type-B ARRs. By increasing the capacity of key tissues and cell types to respond to cytokinin, ARR10, or other type-B response regulators with similar properties, could be used as a tool to combat the recalcitrance of some crop species to tissue culture techniques.

  10. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-06-10

    Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.

  11. [Validity and reliability of the Culture of Quality Health Services questionnaire in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Kiengelher, L; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Austria-Corrales, F; Vázquez-Zarate, V M

    2013-01-01

    Patient Safety is a major public health problem worldwide and is responsibility of all those involved in health care. Establishing a Safety Culture has proved to be a factor that favors the integration of work teams, communication and construction of clear procedures in various organizations. Promote a culture of safety depends on several factors, such as organization, work unit and staff. Objective assessment of these factors will help to identify areas for improvement and establish strategic lines of action. [corrected] To adapt, validate and calibrate the questionnaire Culture of Quality in Health Services (CQHS) in Mexican population. A cross with a stratified representative sample of 522 health workers. The questionnaire was translated and adapted from Singer's. Content was validated by experts, internal consistency, confirmatory factorial validity and item calibration with Samejima's Graded Response Model. Convergent and divergent construct validity was confirmed from the CQHS, item calibration showed that the questionnaire is able to discriminate between patients and represent different levels of the hypothesized dimensions with greater accuracy and lower standard error. The CQHS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess patient safety culture in hospitals in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  13. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  14. Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-24

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Another Dimension, Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness.  Created: 4/24/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/24/2013.

  15. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  16. Practical implementation of the concept of "Culture of Health" in the process of physical education teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbludov I.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the usefulness and methodology of the use of psychotherapy in the formation of inner psycho-physiological mechanisms of personality that characterize the concept of "Culture of Health". Also, the article highlights the use of extra-curricular activities for physical education students of pedagogical universities to address problem. In experiment took part 178 male and female students.

  17. Humanism as Ideological Rebellion: Deconstructing the Dualisms of Contemporary Mental Health Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2006-01-01

    Humanistic thought has been oppressed by the dominant forces of contemporary mental health culture. The author argues that the rebellious essence of humanism must be incited to counter these reductive ideologies that have monopolized our times. A critical appraisal of the philosophical dualisms that support the prevailing mechanistic vision of…

  18. Vietnamese Americans' Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services: Relation to Cultural Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Charles X.; Anderson, Louis P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between culturally based variables and attitudes toward seeking mental health services among a community sample of Vietnamese Americans (N = 148) with at least 8 years' residence in the United States (U.S.). Variables included Stigma, Traditional Beliefs about Mental Illness, Help-Seeking Preferences, Problem…

  19. Building the Diversity Bridge Abroad: The Journey to Implement Cultural Competent Health Care in Lausanne, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Dory, Elody; Green, Alexander; Vu, Francis; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the United States has been central in bringing cultural competency into the discussion of high-quality care, health systems all over the world are faced with the effects of global immigration and the widening disparities gap between socioeconomic classes. Lausanne University Hospital is one of five Swiss academic medical…

  20. A culturally appropriate intervention to improve health behaviors in Hispanic mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Nader, Philip R; Kennedy, Christine; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-04-01

    Obesity interventions targeting Hispanic preschool children are still nascent, and few are culturally appropriate. We evaluated the feasibility of a culturally relevant 9-month intervention program to improve health behaviors in low-income Mexican mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children. A community engagement approach was used to culturally and linguistically tailor an intervention program that was pilot tested with 33 mother-child dyads enrolled from a large California urban health center. A one-group, pretest-posttest design assessed changes in children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), mothers' pedometer steps, and BMI. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention and at 6 months postintervention. At postintervention, SSB consumption had significantly decreased for soda and other sugary drinks with a modest reduction for 100% juice. Consumption of water had significantly increased, whereas milk had an increased trend. Maternal step counts significantly increased for weekdays by 69% and weekend days by 49%. Overall, maternal BMI decreased while children's BMI% remained stable. At 6 months postintervention, children's soda and juice consumption reverted toward baseline levels, as did maternal step counts, but children's consumption of sugary drinks remained lower, while water and milk remained higher. Findings suggest that a culturally relevant intervention was feasible for improving target health behaviors in a low-income Mexican community. Future work should assess an enhanced intervention including a maintenance phase for long-term adherence to health behavior changes and influence on maternal and child BMI.