Phillips, Gregory John
In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...
Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft
Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T
The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....
Cueva, Katie; Revels, Laura; Cueva, Melany; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C
To address a desire for timely, medically accurate cancer education in rural Alaska, ten culturally relevant online learning modules were developed with, and for, Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps). The project was guided by the framework of Community-Based Participatory Action Research, honored Indigenous Ways of Knowing, and was informed by Empowerment Theory. A total of 428 end-of-module evaluation surveys were completed by 89 unique Alaska CHA/Ps between January and December 2016. CHA/Ps shared that as a result of completing the modules, they were empowered to share cancer information with their patients, families, friends, and communities, as well as engage in cancer risk reduction behaviors such as eating healthier, getting cancer screenings, exercising more, and quitting tobacco. CHA/Ps also reported the modules were informative and respectful of their diverse cultures. These results from end-of-module evaluation surveys suggest that the collaboratively developed, culturally relevant, online cancer education modules have empowered CHA/Ps to reduce cancer risk and disseminate cancer information. "brought me to tears couple of times, and I think it will help in destroying the silence that surrounds cancer".
Drake, Miriam A.
This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…
Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.
Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese
Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper
This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...
Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P
Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Russell E. Jackson
Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura
Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…
E. G. Belyakova
Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of interaction between schoolchildren and possible informational risks transmitted on the Internet. Considering the lack of external filters on the way of harmful information streams, it is actually necessary to develop information culture of schoolchildren, their abilities to sensibly and critically interpret the information on the Internet, and choice of adequate behaviour models surfing the Web. The aim of the present research is to analyze the state of informational safety of schoolchildren while using the Internet; gaining an understanding of the role of external restrictions and opportunities of intrapersonal filtration of the harmful Internet content depending on children age. Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the research is based on modern methods aimed to consider the problem of personal socialization in modern information society. Thus, the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF questionnaire let the authors define the level of awareness of recipients on the problem under consideration. Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical analysis helped the authors predict the correlation of basic methods in order to guarantee personal safety of schoolchildren taking into account the process of maturity as well as the decrease of external filters that may stop harmful content. Empirical part of the research has enabled to reveal decrease in external control of staying of a child in network in the process of growing up against the background of restrictive attitudes prevalence among teachers and parents. Therefore, the research supposed to improve information culture of schoolchildren from the earliest ages encouraging them to sensibly and correctly interpret the information on the Internet. Practical significance. The practical recommendations to parents and teachers in order to improve informational personal safety of schoolchildren are proposed. The relevancy
Goodman, Kela; Hooks, Laura
The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's experience using an integrated approach to provide preservice teachers with both knowledge of and experience with diverse cultures. Included are three important components within this program that strive to assist preservice teachers as they develop an understanding of…
Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…
Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.
This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…
Individuals cope with their worlds by using information. In humans in particular, an important potential source of information is cultural tradition. Evolutionary models have examined when it is advantageous to use cultural information, and psychological studies have examined the cognitive biases and priorities that may transform cultural traditions over time. However, these studies have not generally incorporated the idea that individuals vary in state. I argue that variation in state is likely to influence the relative payoffs of using cultural information versus gathering personal information; and also that people in different states will have different cognitive biases and priorities, leading them to transform cultural information in different ways. I explore hunger as one example of state variable likely to have consequences for cultural evolution. Variation in state has the potential to explain why cultural traditions and dynamics are so variable between individuals and populations. It offers evolutionarily-grounded links between the ecology in which individuals live, individual-level cognitive processes, and patterns of culture. However, incorporating heterogeneity of state also makes the modelling of cultural evolution more complex, particularly if the distribution of states is itself influenced by the distribution of cultural beliefs and practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public inspection of relevant information. 556.9... NONCOMPLIANCE § 556.9 Public inspection of relevant information. Information relevant to a petition under this... Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. Copies of available information may be obtained in...
Howard, Tyrone C.; Rodriguez-Scheel, Andrea
In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and makes recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse…
Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .
Smiraglia, Richard P
Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social
Paisley, Judy; Greenberg, Marlene; Haines, Jess
Canada's multicultural population poses challenges for culturally competent nutrition research and practice. In this qualitative study, the cultural relevance of a widely used semi-quantitative fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was examined among convenience samples of adults from Toronto's Cantonese-, Mandarin-, Portuguese-, and Vietnamese-speaking communities. Eighty-nine participants were recruited through community-based organizations, programs, and advertisements to participate in semi-structured interviews moderated in their native language. Data from the interviews were translated into English and transcribed for analysis using the constant comparative approach. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: the cultural relevance of the foods listed on the FFQ, words with multiple meanings, the need for culturally appropriate portion-size prompts, and the telephone survey as a Western concept. This research highlights the importance of investing resources to develop culturally relevant dietary assessment tools that ensure dietary assessment accuracy and, more important, reduce ethnocentric biases in food and nutrition research and practice. The transferability of findings must be established through further research.
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...
Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot
We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...
Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.
Ocampo, Brenda; Kahan, Todd A
Our everyday decisions and memories are inadvertently influenced by self-relevant information. For example, we are faster and more accurate at making perceptual judgments about stimuli associated with ourselves, such as our own face or name, as compared with familiar non-self-relevant stimuli. Humphreys and Sui propose a "self-attention network" to account for these effects, wherein self-relevant stimuli automatically capture our attention and subsequently enhance the perceptual processing of self-relevant information. We propose that the masked priming paradigm and continuous flash suppression represent two ways to experimentally examine these controversial claims.
Jamal Barzegari Khanagha
Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.
Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.
Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.
Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…
Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C
Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.
Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy
This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…
Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin
In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.
ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine
The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...
Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James
The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.
Petry, Frederick E.; And Others
Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…
Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C
Culturally relevant health promotion is an opportunity to reduce health inequities in diseases with modifiable risks, such as cancer. Alaska Native people bear a disproportionate cancer burden, and Alaska's rural tribal health workers consequently requested cancer education accessible online. In response, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium cancer education team sought to create a framework for culturally relevant online learning to inform the creation of distance-delivered cancer education. Guided by the principles of community-based participatory action research and grounded in empowerment theory, the project team conducted a focus group with 10 Alaska Native education experts, 12 culturally diverse key informant interviews, a key stakeholder survey of 62 Alaska Native tribal health workers and their instructors/supervisors, and a literature review on distance-delivered education with Alaska Native or American Indian people. Qualitative findings were analyzed in Atlas.ti, with common themes presented in this article as a framework for culturally relevant online education. This proposed framework includes four principles: collaborative development, interactive content delivery, contextualizing learning, and creating connection. As an Alaskan tribal health worker shared "we're all in this together. All about conversations, relationships. Always learn from you/with you, together what we know and understand from the center of our experience, our ways of knowing, being, caring." The proposed framework has been applied to support cancer education and promote cancer control with Alaska Native people and has motivated health behavior change to reduce cancer risk. This framework may be adaptable to other populations to guide effective and culturally relevant online interventions.
Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie
ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.
Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun
Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.
Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…
The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies in Libraries Services ... Technologies in Libraries Services and Librarianship Profession in the 21th Century ... This paper therefore, examines the importance of ICT in librarianship as a ... for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.
Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.
Brey, Philip A.E.; Zaphiris, P.; Ang, C.
In this article, I examine whether information ethics is culture relative. If it is, different approaches to information ethics are required in different cultures and societies. This would have major implications for the current, predominantly Western approach to information ethics. If it is not,
Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel
Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077
PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN
Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.
Clark, Lee Anna
Asserts that mainstream and cross-cultural psychology address many of the same basic issues and that cross-cultural studies may be a direct and logical extension of the search for causes of variation in human psychology and psychopathology. Discusses differences in theoretical orientation and methodological approach and barriers to communication…
Schrodt, Katie; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam; Hasty, Michelle
This article shares a monthly curricular model that can help teachers and families bridge the gap between home and school by using literature and response inspired from the cultures in the classroom. Integrating culturally responsive texts and family response journals into the classroom and the home can help children, their families, and peers…
The publication attempts to describe the so far discussion concerning the feature of pricing relevance and to develop it further with the aid of new research approaches. First, a theoretical outline is presented of the elementary regulation problem of insider trading, its historical development, and the regulation goals of the WpHG. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete specifications of the law. In view of the exemplarity of US law, a country with long experience in regulation of the capital market, the materiality doctrine of US insider law is gone into in some detail. The goals and development of the doctrine are reviewed in the light of court rulings. The third part outlines the requirements of German law in order to forecast the pricing relevance of insider information, while the final part presents a critical review of the current regulations on pricing relevance. (orig./RHM)
Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R
Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.
This paper aims at explaining the outcomes of information technology education for international students using anthropological theories of cultural schemas. Even though computer science and engineering are usually assumed to be culture-independent, the practice in classrooms seems to indicate that learning patterns depend on culture. The…
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.
Miller, G.; Schoof, J. T.; Therrell, M. D.
Even though climate change and an unhealthy environment have a disproportionate affect on persons of color, there is a poor record of diversity in geoscience-related fields where researchers are investigating ways to improve the quality of the environment and human health. This low percentage of representation in the geosciences is equally troubling at the university where we are beginning the third and final year of a project funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG). The purpose of this project is to explore a novel approach to using the social sciences to help students, specifically underrepresented minorities, discover the geosciences' cultural relevance and consider a career in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. To date, over 800 college freshmen have participated in a design study to evaluate the curriculum efficacy of a geoscience reader. Over half of these participants are students of color. The reader we designed allows students to analyze multiple, and sometimes conflicting, sources such as peer-reviewed journal articles, political cartoons, and newspaper articles. The topic for investigation in the reader is the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave, a tragic event that killed over 700 residents. Students use this reader in a core university course required for entering freshmen with low reading comprehension scores on standardized tests. To support students' comprehension, evaluation, and corroboration of these sources, we incorporated instructional supports aligned with the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), reciprocal teaching, historical reasoning, media literacy, and quantitative reasoning. Using a digital format allows students to access multiple versions of the sources they are analyzing and definitions of challenging vocabulary and scientific concepts. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from participating students and their instructors included focus
Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory
How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.
Christ, Tanya; Sharma, Sue Ann
Culturally relevant text selection and pedagogy support students' motivation, engagement, literacy outcomes, and positive identity formation. Nevertheless, there is limited research on teacher preparation that fosters these outcomes. We explore 17 preservice teachers' challenges and successes with culturally relevant text selection and pedagogy…
Marinez, Diana I.; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernardo R.
There are many ways in which science can be made culturally relevant: archeoastronomy, mathematics, geology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and art can all be taught from a perspective celebrating the accomplishments of Mexican American and American Indian science and encouraging exploration. A culturally relevant curriculum provides teachers with…
Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz
Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics
Colvin, Janet Weston; Tobler, Nancy
From the earliest roots of rhetoric, practitioners emphasized the need for analyzing one's audience before developing a speech. Textbooks for most basic public speaking courses spend at least one chapter discussing audience analysis. Authors discuss adapting messages to various demographic, cultural, and individual differences. As a result,…
María Cristina Bayón
Full Text Available mensions affect both the relations between social classes, the public discourse on poverty, the representations and experiences, as policies and institutions that emerge in relation to it. In the contemporary debate on poverty, while recognizing their importance, these dimensions have not been suffi ciently explored in the literature on the subject. In order to investigate possible routes theoretical and empirical implications for their approach, we analyze the concepts of frames and cultural repertoires, symbolic boundaries, narratives and cultural capital, emphasizing its use in various poverty researches. The potential of these concepts lies in its openness to account for the heterogeneity of experiences, meanings and possible responses against similar structural constraints, allowing remove the stigmas and stereotypes about “the poor” and “their culture” emerging from the thesis of the “culture of poverty”. Finally, we emphasize the need to inquire about the mechanisms by which cultural dimensions contribute to generate and reproduce inequality in a particular society.
Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…
Full Text Available Efforts have been underway for years to find more effective ways to retrieve information from large knowledge domains. This effort is now being driven particularly by the Internet and the vast amount of information that is available to unsophisticated users. In the early days of the Internet, some effort involved allowing users to enter Boolean equations of search terms into search engines, for example, rather than just a list of keywords. More recently, effort has focused on understanding a user's desires from past search histories in order to narrow searches. Also there has been much effort to improve the ranking of results based on some measure of relevancy. This paper discusses using iterative filtering of retrieved information to focus in on useful information. This work was done for finding source code correlation and the author extends his findings to Internet searching and e-commerce. The paper presents specific information about a particular filtering application and then generalizes it to other forms of information retrieval.
Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa
Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.
Schot, P.; El Gebaly, A.; Tarvainen, M.
The increasing awareness of activities of transnational procurement networks to covertly acquire sensitive nuclear related dual use equipment prompted an evolution of safeguards methodologies. One of the responses to this challenge by the Department of Safeguards in the IAEA was to establish the Trade and Technology Unit (TTA) in November 2004 to analyse and report on these covert nuclear related trade activities. To obtain information relevant to this analysis, TTA is engaging States that might be willing to provide this information to the Secretariat on a voluntary basis. This paper will give an overview of current activities, sum up the results achieved and discuss suggestions to further improve this programme made by Member States. (author)
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.
Full Text Available Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. Analysis. Data were analysed with the help of software for qualitative analysis (NVivo, where all sentences from both interviews and field notes were coded. The conceptual framework used is the sociology of knowledge. Results. The model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour can show us how to think about the relationship between culture and human information behaviour. This model also identifies elements of the model, which are habitus, tradition and prejudice and suggests how we can apply the concepts of information fullness and emptiness to view the relationship between culture and human information behaviour. Conclusion. . Theoretically, this research puts forward a new model of information behaviour and focuses on the role and the importance of culture when thinking about and studying human information behaviour. Methodologically, this study demonstrates how an ethnographic research method can contribute to exploring the influence that culture has on human life and the details of the human life world and information behaviour.
Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J
Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.
It has been widely reported that issues related to organizational context appear frequently in discussions of information systems success. The statement that the information system did not fit the behavioral context in an organization is often part of the explanation of why particular information system encountered unanticipated resistance and never met expectation. While this context has been intensively studied, we still lack evidence on how this organizational context is affecting the success of information system from a managerial action perspective. This type of managerial involvement is often neglected to the extent that it became an essential obstacle to organizational performance. The objective of Creating a Culture for Information Systems Success is to assist CIOs and IT managers on how to use their managerial actions to create a suitable cultural environment in the organization, which leads to a successful implementation of information systems. This book will also provide guidelines fo...
Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree
This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…
Borrero, Noah; Ziauddin, Asra; Ahn, Alexandra
This paper presents the voices of thirteen pre- and in-service teachers to showcase their perspectives of culturally relevant pedagogy as a teaching framework. Positionality, critical consciousness, and cultural assets are used as foundations to explore social justice pedagogy. These new teachers discuss the challenges they face in making the…
Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...
Hollifield, Michael; Geppert, Cynthia; Johnson, Yuam; Fryer, Carol
Multiple cultural variables have effects on the psychobiology and behavioral manifestations of illness, as do patient and physician perceptions of illness. The interaction among these variables is at the heart of clinical psychiatry. This case of a Vietnamese man with selective mutism underscores the relevance of the 'cultures' of medicine, psychiatry, and war and trauma on the manifestations of illness and illness perceptions by patient and physician. The discussion focuses on how these cultures interact and play a crucial role in formulating diagnosis and treatment planning. Suggestions are given for shifts in medical education that will encourage relevant cultural paradigms to make their way into educational and clinical systems, which in turn should improve cultural competence in clinical psychiatry.
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.
Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.
Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620
Full Text Available Face recognition is not rooted in a universal eye movement information-gathering strategy. Western observers favor a local facial feature sampling strategy, whereas Eastern observers prefer sampling face information from a global, central fixation strategy. Yet, the precise qualitative (the diagnostic and quantitative (the amount information underlying these cultural perceptual biases in face recognition remains undetermined.To this end, we monitored the eye movements of Western and Eastern observers during a face recognition task, with a novel gaze-contingent technique: the Expanding Spotlight. We used 2° Gaussian apertures centered on the observers' fixations expanding dynamically at a rate of 1° every 25ms at each fixation - the longer the fixation duration, the larger the aperture size. Identity-specific face information was only displayed within the Gaussian aperture; outside the aperture, an average face template was displayed to facilitate saccade planning. Thus, the Expanding Spotlight simultaneously maps out the facial information span at each fixation location.Data obtained with the Expanding Spotlight technique confirmed that Westerners extract more information from the eye region, whereas Easterners extract more information from the nose region. Interestingly, this quantitative difference was paired with a qualitative disparity. Retinal filters based on spatial frequency decomposition built from the fixations maps revealed that Westerners used local high-spatial frequency information sampling, covering all the features critical for effective face recognition (the eyes and the mouth. In contrast, Easterners achieved a similar result by using global low-spatial frequency information from those facial features.Our data show that the face system flexibly engages into local or global eye movement strategies across cultures, by relying on distinct facial information span and culturally tuned spatially filtered information. Overall, our
Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will technological terms impede telemedicine use? C Jack, Y Hlombe, M Mars. Abstract. Background. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has ...
Full Text Available In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954, instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent research into lexicographical functions with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different types of situations: communicative needs, cognitive needs, and operative needs. This is a classification that is relevant and useful in general in our modern information society and therefore also relevant for information science, including lexicography.
This study employed a case study methodology to investigate a near-authentic intervention program designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy and its impact on pre-service science teachers' notions of culturally relevant pedagogy. The unit of analysis for this study was the discourse of pre-service science teachers enrolled in a second semester science methods course, which was the site of the intervention program. Data for this study was collected from videos of classroom observations, audio recordings of personal interviews, and artifacts created by the pre-service science teachers during the class. To determine how effective science teacher certification programs are at supporting the development of culturally relevant pedagogy without an immersion aspect, two research questions were investigated: 1) How do pre-service science teachers view and design pedagogy while participating in an intervention designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy? 2) How do pre-service science teachers view the importance of culturally relevant pedagogy for supporting student learning? How do their practices in the field change these initial views?
Sex education of adolescents should, therefore be provided in a cultural, community-based setting of which the guardian programme should be only one component. ... Education sexuelle d'adolescents pourrait, donc soit préveu à la culture, ...
Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon
This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.
... Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY... and obtain relevant information regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership... Identify and Obtain Relevant Information from Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance...
Paul L. Hover
This overview, the second article in an exploratory study of the information seeking (IS) behavior of a group of eighty-four reference librarians from Egypt and the USA, is intended to assist readers less familiar with Islamic history to better understand cross-cultural influences on Arab IS behavior. A description of pre-Islamic poetry and orality precedes a discussion of the importance of the Koran and Islamic traditions on the development of a religious, scribal society. Oral transmission ...
Marielos Vargas Morales
Full Text Available Indigenous education is becoming a priority to be dealt with in Higher Education. Therefore, efforts are oriented towards newly nourishing inclusive proposals for education; for them to take cultural diversity on and generate quality learning processes while also promoting the vindication of the right towards a culturally-relevant education for indigenous populations. Hence, the article sets forth an analysis of the pedagogical practice by an indigenous cabécar teacher, which unveils elements and cultural aspects that constitute valuable input to be considered in teacher education proposals. This research took place in the educative community of Sharabata, which is part of the High Chirripó Cábecar Indigenous Territory, which in turn is located in the province of Cartago in the Central American country of Costa Rica. The current research was conducted as a case study. Obtained results now create curricular content that responds to socio-cultural, linguistic and natural needs and characteristics of the cabécar culture. The present research recovers oral communication and the value of words, of learning by imitation, cosmovision as cultural heritage and the importance of recognizing mother languages in originary populations. It is forewarned that, though handled under the discourse of cultural displacement, practical and ritualistic practices still persist, all of which must be acknowledged and valued in school by young people in order for culture as ancestral heritage to be prolonged. It is given the mentioned situations where education must be made present; as a fight towards respect, inclusion and the strengthening of originary cultures. In that sense and in order to achieve cultural relevance, the process of the construction of knowledge with children must be inserted in its historical, social and cultural context, for which knowledge, experience and the practice of cabécar cosmovision is transcendental. As part of cultural relevance
Monsivais, Diane B
This article reviews the culture of biomedicine and current practices in pain management education, which often merge to create a hostile environment for effective chronic pain care. Areas of cultural tensions in chronic pain frequently involve the struggle to achieve credibility regarding one's complaints of pain (or being believed that the pain is real) and complying with pain medication protocols. The clinically relevant continuum model is presented as a framework allowing providers to approach care from an evidence-based, culturally appropriate (patient centered) perspective that takes into account the highest level of evidence available, provider expertise, and patient preferences and values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.
The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…
Ward, Shakoor; Webster, Nicole
This article helps Extension professionals consider the cultural relevant needs of inner city residents in hopes of achieving ongoing civic engagement and appropriate program activities in these communities. Having a deep understanding of how the various dimensions of marginalized community life among inner city populations affect participation in…
Based on concerns about the permanence of racism in our society and its impact on opportunities for children's equitable education, this empirical study used narrative inquiry to explore four preservice teachers' developing dispositions as they studied and implemented culturally relevant/responsive pedagogy (CR/RP) in an early literacy education…
For Gloria Ladson-Billings, culturally relevant pedagogy is characterized by three criteria: academic success, cultural competence and critical consciousness. Those engaged in culturally relevant pedagogy are connected by how they see themselves as teachers and how they see their students, how they view knowledge and how they structure social…
Prier, Darius D.
"Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…
Goodman, Ruth L; Webb, Thomas L; Stewart, Andrew J
Factual information is more frequently read and discussed than fictional information. However, research on the role of communication in shaping stereotypes has focused almost exclusively on fictional narratives. In Experiments 1 and 2 a newspaper article containing information about heroin users was communicated along chains of 4 people. No stereotype-consistency bias was observed. Instead, a greater proportion of stereotype-inconsistent information was communicated than was stereotype-consistent or -neutral information. Three further experiments investigated explanations for the difference between the communication of fictional and factual information. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that participants' beliefs about the validity of the information could influence the way that it is communicated. Experiments 4 and 5 divided information into concrete (a specific event or fact) or abstract (opinion). A stereotype-consistency bias emerged only for abstract information. In summary, linguistic abstraction moderates whether stereotype-consistency biases emerge in the communication of stereotype-relevant factual information.
Alexander, Charlene M.; Rivera, Lourdes M.; Collins, Laura J.
Videos celebrating Hispanic Heritage and Black History month were presented at two regionally and ethnically distinct college campuses. Students (N=62) were interviewed regarding what attracted them to the video. Students of color commented positively on the cultural content as well as the musical and dance components of each video. Presents…
Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)
Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Hopfgartner, F.
One of the main bottle-necks in providing more effective information access is the poverty of the query end. With an average query length of about two terms, users provide only a highly ambiguous statement of the, often complex, underlying information need. Implicit and explicit feedback can provide
Shin, Cha-Nam; Keller, Colleen; Sim, Jeongha
To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model. This review highlights how cultural contexts impact health and health behaviors of Korean Americans, and may contribute to health disparities in the United States. The key cultural contexts highlighted in this review include social support/social network, family, gender role expectations, and a holistic view of health and illness. These cultural contexts should be incorporated in designing culturally relevant, effective, and sustainable health interventions for Korean Americans, which will contribute to eliminating health disparities for this ethnic group who experience great obstacles to healthcare access and healthy behaviors.
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) could be used to improve .... accountable, efficient and effective interaction between the public, business and ... agencies, research institutions and private organizations, such as print and ...
Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo
Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce despite extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (2) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training principles, and (3) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. © FPI, Inc.
Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo
Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the US. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce in spite of extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (b) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training (PMT) principles, and (c) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. PMID:22428711
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning resources. Data within that personal information space enables learning from previous experience, sharing tacit and explicit knowledge, and allows for establishing context and context-aware delivery o...
Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.
The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs
Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.
The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs.
Critical infrastructure models, strategies and policies should take information ... gain an advantage over a competitor or adversary through the use of one's own .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, ..... performance degraded, causing an increase in traffic finding a new route.
ter Schure, S.M.M.
Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Zvára, K.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-46 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high-dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject, and...
Medical anthropology provides an excellent resource for nursing research that is relevant to clinical nursing. By expanding the understanding of ethnographic research beyond ethnicity, nurses can conduct research that explores patient's constructions and explanatory models of health and healing and how they make meaning out of chronic conditions and negotiate daily life. These findings can have applicability to culturally competent care at both the organizational or systems level, as well as in the patient/provider encounter. Individual patient care can be improved by applying ethnographic research findings to build provider expertise and then using a cultural negotiation process for individualized patient care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.
... contracting officers' access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee... ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from...
Redman, Elizabeth Horst
This qualitative study examined new science teachers' conceptualization of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP). The study followed six novice science teachers from their preservice teaching placements into their first jobs as instructors of record, observing in their classrooms and interviewing them about their use of CRP. The study sought to understand (1) how the participating teachers conceptualize CRP in science, and (2) what challenges the teachers faced in trying to implement CRP. Findings suggest that the teachers conceptualized CRP in ways that were consistent with Enyedy, Danish and Fields' (2011) interpretations of relevance: relevance of authentic purpose, relevance of content and/or context, and relevance of practices. The teachers, however, translated those interpretations of relevance into their conceptualizations and classroom practice in a variety of ways. While they encountered difficulties in conceptualizing and practicing CRP, they also made productive moves in their practice and evidenced positive elements in their conceptualizations of CRP. In order to address the challenges these teachers faced in implementing CRP, I suggest an approach to teacher preparation in CRP that builds upon the understandings and productive moves the teachers evidenced in this study.
Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno
Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the question to what extent the socio-cultural context is relevant for the appropriateness of emotions, while appropriateness of an emotion means that the emotion entails a correct, or adequate, evaluation of its object. In a first step, two adequacy conditions for theories of emotions are developed: the first condition ensures that the socio-cultural context is not neglected: theories must allow for the fact that appropriateness often depends on the social meaning of the emotion’s particular object. The second condition rules out implausible forms of cultural determinism. In a second step, an account that meets both conditions is presented: the Acceptance within Social Context account.
Full Text Available This article discusses Indonesian set phrases, a research area not previously investigated by Polish scholars. The aim is to analyze expressions which reveal the cultural specificity of the Indonesian speech community. Specifically, the author is concerned with two categories of multiword expressions. One of them is lexical combinations which preserve observations characteristic of the Indonesian speech community. These are reflected in a system of lexical connotations drawn upon in the process of semantic motivation of idioms. The other is expressions made up of units which are specific to Indonesian culture. The cultural relevance of Indonesian multi-word combinations is examined against the background of the Polish language. By examining research material derived from dictionaries of phrases and collocations and general dictionaries of the Indonesian language, the author provides insights into the way of thinking and responding to reality which is embedded in the language and in the collective experience of members of the Indonesian community.
Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S
The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Svetlana M. Maksimova
Full Text Available The article is about the question of information transparency as the quality characteristics of the organizational culture.The author describes the new propertiesof the organizational culture arising in theconditions of informatization of economic relations, the relation between information content and organizational culture, the roleand functions of information transparencyin a modern company. In study elaborated a model of interaction between the components of organizational culture throughinformation transparency.
Finucane, Melissa L; McMullen, Carmit K
The purpose of this study was to identify the cultural values, traditions, and perceptions of diabetes risk and self-care among Filipino Americans in Hawaii with type 2 diabetes that facilitate or impede engagement in diabetes self-management behaviors and education classes. This qualitative study used 2 rounds of semistructured focus groups and interviews. Participants included 15 patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from a large health-maintenance organization in Hawaii and 7 health care and cultural experts recruited from the community. The taped and transcribed focus groups and interviews were coded thematically. Participants evaluated example materials for diabetes self-management education (DSME) with Filipino Americans. Several aspects of Filipino American culture were identified as central to understanding the challenges of engaging in self-management behaviors and DSME: (1) undertaking self-management while prioritizing the family and maintaining social relationships, (2) modifying diet while upholding valued symbolic and social meanings of food, (3) participating in storytelling in the face of stigma associated with diabetes, and (4) reconciling spiritual and biomedical interpretations of disease causality and its management. Respondents also emphasized the role of several qualitative aspects of perceived risk (eg, dread, control) in moderating their behaviors. Participants suggested ways to make DSME culturally relevant. Awareness of cultural values and qualitative aspects of perceived risk that influence Filipino Americans' engagement in diabetes self-care behaviors and classes may help to improve teaching methods, materials, and recruitment strategies.
Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske
Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James
Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry
Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources
Ramirez, Olga; McCollough, Cherie A.; Diaz, Zulmaris
The following describes a culturally relevant mathematics and science content program implemented by preservice teachers (PSTs) at Family Math/Science Learning Events (FM/SLEs) conducted through two different university programs in south Texas. These experiences are required course activities designed to inform PSTs of the importance of…
Ng, Alexander; Fan, Weiqiao; Cheung, Fanny M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Cheung, Shu Fai
We examined whether the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), developed by the combined emic-etic approach, could provide useful information for us to understand the relations between personality and the key academic major groups in the Chinese context. Participants in this study included 989 university students…
Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.
Western parade, called " raojing " , the main spirit is passing through of these ranges in the process, to reach the people within bless range, many scholars and academic experts's folk research are dependent on such spatial information. 2012, GIS center applied WebGIS and GPS to gather raojing activities spatial information in cooperation with multi-units, aggregated seven sessions, 22 days, 442 temples had pass through . The atlas also published named "Atlas of the 2012 Religious Processions in the Tainan Region" in 2014. we also applied national cultural resources data form relevant government authorities, through the metadata design and data processing(geocoding), established cultural geospatial and thematic information ,such as 800 monuments, 1,100 historic buildings and 4,300 old trees data. In recent years, based on CRGIS technology and operational concepts, different domain experts or local culture-ahistory research worker/team had to cooperate with us to establish local or thematic material and cultural resources. As in collaboration with local culture-history research worker in Kinmen County in 2012, build Kinmen intangible cultural assets - Wind Lion God ,set metadata and build 122 wind lion god `s attribute data and maps through field survey, it is worth mention such fieldwork data integrity is more than the official registration data form Kinmen National Park, the number of is wind lion god more than 40; in 2013,we were in cooperation with academic experts to establish property data and map of the theatre during the Japanese colonial era in Taiwan, a total of 170 theatres ; we were in cooperation with Japanese scholars, used his 44 detaile field survey data of sugar refineries during the Japanese colonial era in Taiwan ,to produce a sugar refineries distribution map and extend to a thematic web(http://map.net.tw/) [The Cultural Heritage Maps of Taiwan Suger Factories in a Century]site according to CRGIS independent cultural concept. Deployment and operation
Montellano, B.O. de
This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.
Montellano, B.O. de
This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.
Full Text Available Abstract A critical approach to Balinese society presents a starkly different picturefrom the representations that Balinese usually tell themselves, whichare largely myths to disguise a painful reality. Bali no longer belongsto Balinese but to international capital, a process of alienation by whichBalinese energetically commoditize their culture while claiming theopposite. Even the frames of reference for discussing what is happeningare inadequate because they predate the rise of contemporary consumercapitalism and the mass media. That is why critical media and culturalstudies, disciplines designed precisely to address such phenomena, arepotentially so relevant for Indonesian intellectuals.
Piñeiro, Bárbara; Díaz, Diana R; Monsalve, Luis M; Martínez, Úrsula; Meade, Cathy D; Meltzer, Lauren R; Brandon, Karen O; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H; Simmons, Vani N
Smoking-related illnesses are the leading causes of death among Hispanics/Latinos. Yet, there are few smoking cessation interventions targeted for this population. The goal of this study was to "transcreate" an existing, previously validated, English language self-help smoking cessation intervention, titled Forever Free ® : Stop Smoking for Good, for Spanish-speaking smokers. Rather than simply translating the materials, our transcreation process involved culturally adapting the intervention to enhance acceptability and receptivity of the information. We utilized a multiphase qualitative approach (focus groups and learner verification interviews) to develop a linguistically and culturally relevant intervention for the diverse sub-ethnic groups of Hispanic/Latino smokers. Focus group findings indicated a need to underscore several additional cultural characteristics and themes such as the need to address familism and unique stressors faced by immigrants and to provide information regarding nicotine replacement therapy. Learner verification findings indicated a need to further emphasize financial and social benefits of quitting smoking and to discuss how family and friends can support the quit attempt. These steps led to the development of a Spanish-language smoking cessation intervention titled, Libre del cigarillo, por mi familia y por mí: Guía para dejar de fumar, that is currently being tested in a national randomized controlled trial.
This study integrated elements of culturally relevant pedagogy into a science learning progression framework, with the goal of enhancing teachers' cultural knowledge and thereby creating better teaching practices in an urban public high school science classroom. The study was conducted using teachers, an administrator, a science coach, and students involved in science courses in public high school. Through a qualitative intrinsic case study, data were collected and analyzed using traditional methods. Data from primary participants (educators) were analyzed through identification of big ideas, open coding, and themes. Through this process, patterns and emergent ideas were reported. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that educators lack knowledge about research-based academic frameworks and multicultural education strategies, but benefit through institutionally-based professional development. Students from diverse cultures responded positively to culturally-based instruction. Their progress was further manifested in better communication and discourse with their teacher and peers, and increased academic outcomes. This study has postulated and provided an exemplar for science teachers to expand and improve multicultural knowledge, ultimately transferring these skills to their pedagogical practice.
Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages.The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines.Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.
Lauri, Liia; Heidmets, Mati; Virkus, Sirje
Introduction: This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions in Estonia. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between information culture, information management and job satisfaction, leadership style, and self-reported individual performance. Method: A total of 160 faculty members from twelve…
Briant, Katherine J; Halter, Amy; Marchello, Nathan; Escareño, Monica; Thompson, Beti
Digital storytelling is an emergent method in health promotion. It addresses health inequities by combining technology with the voices of members of vulnerable, often underrepresented populations. The overall goal of this pilot project was to explore if digital storytelling could be a culturally relevant health promotion tool for Hispanics/Latinos to share their experiences with cancer, or other diseases. Promotores participated in a train-the-trainer workshop. Community members worked with trained promotores to create digital stories through community workshops. We conducted one-on-one interviews with digital story creators to elicit perspectives and assess their experience. One overarching theme among storytellers was the power of storytelling. Supporting subthemes that emerged in the interviews were (1) connection and communication, (2) lack of opportunities and barriers to telling stories, and (3) potential for disease prevention awareness and education. This study found digital storytelling to be culturally relevant for Hispanics/Latinos of Mexican origin. For these storytellers it was a uniquely valuable tool for sharing personal stories of overcoming or managing health issues. Participants found the digital story experience to be positive and beneficial. It provided a healing outlet to reflect on a difficult experience and find support within one's own community. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T
The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.
Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa
Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (PInformation Link (SHIL), a state-wide website and telephone line, were ranked significantly higher as a means of SHRI delivery on a Likert scale than newer technologies including Facebook (P<0.001), email (P<0.001), mobile phone applications (P<0.001), TVs in waiting rooms (P<0.001) and business cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.
Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…
Clark, Sheri L.
People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…
Dominicé Dao, Melissa; Inglin, Sophie; Vilpert, Sarah; Hudelson, Patricia
Training health professionals in culturally sensitive medical interviewing has been widely promoted as a strategy for improving intercultural communication and for helping clinicians to consider patients' social and cultural contexts and improve patient outcomes. Clinical ethnography encourages clinicians to explore the patient's explanatory model of illness, recourse to traditional and alternative healing practices, healthcare expectations and social context, and to use this information to negotiate a mutually acceptable treatment plan. However, while clinical ethnographic interviewing skills can be successfully taught and learned, the "real-world" context of medical practice may impose barriers to such patient-centered interviewing. Creating opportunities for role modeling and critical reflection may help overcome some of these barriers, and contribute to improved intercultural communication in healthcare. We report and reflect on a retrospective analysis of 10 years experience with a "cultural consultation service" (CCS) whose aim is to provide direct support to clinicians who encounter intercultural difficulties and to model the usefulness of clinical ethnographic interviewing for patient care. We analyzed 236 cultural consultation requests in order to identify key patient, provider and consultation characteristics, as well as the cross cultural communication challenges that motivate health care professionals to request a cultural consultation. In addition, we interviewed 51 clinicians about their experience and satisfaction with the CCS. Requests for cultural consultations tended to involve patient care situations with complex social, cultural and medical issues. All patients had a migration background, two-thirds spoke French less than fluently. In over half the cases, patients had a high degree of social vulnerability, compromising illness management. Effective communication was hindered by language barriers and undetected or underestimated patient
Ortiz de Montellano, B.
As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.
Lopera Broto, A. J.; Balbas Gomez, S.
This weekly publication intended to make it to all the people who work at the sites of Asco and Vandellos relevant information for security since we are all responsible for the safe and reliable operation of our plants.
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.
Full Text Available Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in pattern classification and machine learning, and mutual information is widely used to measure relevance between features and decision. However, it is difficult to directly calculate relevance between continuous or fuzzy features using mutual information. In this paper we introduce the fuzzy information entropy and fuzzy mutual information for computing relevance between numerical or fuzzy features and decision. The relationship between fuzzy information entropy and differential entropy is also discussed. Moreover, we combine fuzzy mutual information with qmin-Redundancy-Max-Relevanceq, qMax-Dependencyq and min-Redundancy-Max-Dependencyq algorithms. The performance and stability of the proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark data sets. Experimental results show the proposed algorithms are effective and stable.
Full Text Available During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, results critical to understand how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on ‘kept in mind’ rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge, and the lexical-semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments were independent of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E; Aboitiz, Francisco
During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on "kept in mind" rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Arlis Dewi Kuraesin
Full Text Available This article aims to know the culture of the organization and management accounting information system based on existing theories. The management information system is a collection of sub-systems which are interconnected with each other to work together in harmony to achieve one goal of process data into information needed by management in decision making. An important factor influencing the use of information systems is Cultural Organization. Management Information system success is influenced by several factors one of which is the organizations culture. Organizational culture has a very strong influence on the overall organizational and individual behavior due to the information system is a major component of the organization are influenced substantially by organizational culture.
Silva, Cristina; Fresco, Paula; Monteiro, Joaquim; Rama, Ana Cristina Ribeiro
Evidence-Based Practice requires health care decisions to be based on the best available evidence. The model "Information Mastery" proposes that clinicians should use sources of information that have previously evaluated relevance and validity, provided at the point of care. Drug databases (DB) allow easy and fast access to information and have the benefit of more frequent content updates. Relevant information, in the context of drug therapy, is that which supports safe and effective use of medicines. Accordingly, the European Guideline on the Summary of Product Characteristics (EG-SmPC) was used as a standard to evaluate the inclusion of relevant information contents in DB. To develop and test a method to evaluate relevancy of DB contents, by assessing the inclusion of information items deemed relevant for effective and safe drug use. Hierarchical organisation and selection of the principles defined in the EGSmPC; definition of criteria to assess inclusion of selected information items; creation of a categorisation and quantification system that allows score calculation; calculation of relative differences (RD) of scores for comparison with an "ideal" database, defined as the one that achieves the best quantification possible for each of the information items; pilot test on a sample of 9 drug databases, using 10 drugs frequently associated in literature with morbidity-mortality and also being widely consumed in Portugal. Main outcome measure Calculate individual and global scores for clinically relevant information items of drug monographs in databases, using the categorisation and quantification system created. A--Method development: selection of sections, subsections, relevant information items and corresponding requisites; system to categorise and quantify their inclusion; score and RD calculation procedure. B--Pilot test: calculated scores for the 9 databases; globally, all databases evaluated significantly differed from the "ideal" database; some DB performed
González-Espada, Wilson; Llerandi-Román, Pablo; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; Ortiz-Vega, Nicole; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Colón-Ramos, Daniel
Although researchers have argued that textbooks should be customized to local cultures and experiences, they rarely are. Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit group interested in promoting science literacy and education among Latino(a)s/Hispanics, identified a need to provide schools with culturally relevant materials. The result was the publication…
Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven
This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...
Chudyk, C.; Müller, H.; Uhler, M.; Würriehausen, F.
Since 2010, the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany has developed a cultural landscape information system as a process to secure and further enrich aggregate data about its cultural assets. In an open dialogue between governing authorities and citizens, the intention of the project is an active cooperation of public and private actors. A cultural landscape information system called KuLIS was designed as a web platform, combining semantic wiki software with a geographic information system. Based on data sets from public administrations, the information about cultural assets can be extended and enhanced by interested participants. The developed infrastructure facilitates local information accumulation through a crowdsourcing approach. This capability offers new possibilities for e-governance and open data developments. The collaborative approach allows governing authorities to manage and supervise official data, while public participation enables affordable information acquisition. Gathered cultural heritage information can provide incentives for touristic valorisation of communities or concepts for strengthening regional identification. It can also influence political decisions in defining significant cultural regions worth of protecting from industrial influences. The presented cultural landscape information allows citizens to influence the statewide development of cultural landscapes in a democratic way.
Chung, Chih-Hung; Angnakoon, Putthachat; Li, Jessica; Allen, Jeff
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide researchers with a better understanding of the cultural impact on information processing in virtual learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a causal loop diagram to depict the cultural impact on information processing in the virtual human resource development (VHRD)…
An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…
Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi
In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...
Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans
The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare. © The Author(s) 2011.
Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David
Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…
reported similar findings at Yaba College of. Technology, Lagos. However, in a ... values. In other words, current information sources resulted in the use of the library. Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems facing library users and has ... Bachelor's degree holders. That those with.
Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W
Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand.
Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi
Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.
Gayet, Surya; Brascamp, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Paffen, Chris L E
Only part of the visual information that impinges on our retinae reaches visual awareness. In a series of three experiments, we investigated how the task relevance of incoming visual information affects its access to visual awareness. On each trial, participants were instructed to memorize one of two presented hues, drawn from different color categories (e.g., red and green), for later recall. During the retention interval, participants were presented with a differently colored grating in each eye such as to elicit binocular rivalry. A grating matched either the task-relevant (memorized) color category or the task-irrelevant (nonmemorized) color category. We found that the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-relevant color category tended to dominate awareness over the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-irrelevant color category. This effect of task relevance persisted when participants reported the orientation of the rivalrous stimuli, even though in this case color information was completely irrelevant for the task of reporting perceptual dominance during rivalry. When participants memorized the shape of a colored stimulus, however, its color category did not affect predominance of rivalrous stimuli during retention. Taken together, these results indicate that the selection of task-relevant information is under volitional control but that visual input that matches this information is boosted into awareness irrespective of whether this is useful for the observer.
Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo
often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...
Camila Monteiro de Barros
Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.
Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C
Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.
Girelli, V. A.; Borgatti, L.; Dellapasqua, M.; Mandanici, E.; Spreafico, M. C.; Tini, M. A.; Bitelli, G.
The research activities described in this contribution were carried out at San Leo (Italy). The town is located on the top of a quadrangular rock slab affected by a complex system of fractures and has a wealth of cultural heritage, as evidenced by the UNESCO's nomination. The management of this fragile set requires a comprehensive system of geometrical information to analyse and preserve all the geological and cultural features. In this perspective, the latest Geomatics techniques were used to perform some detailed surveys and to manage the great amount of acquired geometrical knowledge of both natural (the cliff) and historical heritage. All the data were also georeferenced in a unique reference system. In particular, high accurate terrestrial laser scanner surveys were performed for the whole cliff, in order to obtain a dense point cloud useful for a large number of geological studies, among others the analyses of the last rockslide by comparing pre- and post-event data. Moreover, the geometrical representation of the historical centre was performed using different approaches, in order to generate an accurate DTM and DSM of the site. For these purposes, a large scale numerical map was used, integrating the data with GNSS and laser surveys of the area. Finally, many surveys were performed with different approaches on some of the most relevant monuments of the town. In fact, these surveys were performed by terrestrial laser scanner, light structured scanner and photogrammetry, the last mainly applied with the Structure from Motion approach.
Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...
Kenneth J. Knapp
Full Text Available This study proposes using an established common body of knowledge (CBK as one means of organizing information security literature.Â Consistent with calls for more relevant information systems (IS research, this industry-developed framework can motivate future research towards topics that are important to the security practitioner.Â In this review, forty-eight articles from ten IS journals from 1995 to 2004 are selected and cross-referenced to the ten domains of the information security CBK.Â Further, we distinguish articles as empirical research, frameworks, or tutorials.Â Generally, this study identified a need for additional empirical research in every CBK domain including topics related to legal aspects of information security.Â Specifically, this study identified a need for additional IS security research relating to applications development, physical security, operations security, and business continuity.Â The CBK framework is inherently practitioner oriented and using it will promote relevancy by steering IS research towards topics important to practitioners.Â This is important considering the frequent calls by prominent information systems scholars for more relevant research.Â Few research frameworks have emerged from the literature that specifically classify the diversity of security threats and range of problems that businesses today face.Â With the recent surge of interest in security, the need for a comprehensive framework that also promotes relevant research can be of great value.
Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal
A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...
Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.
Mateus Alexandre Costa dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Brazil on the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. International studies have shown that the adoption of IFRS improves the quality of accounting information compared with domestic accounting standards. Concurrent evidence is sparse in Brazil. Information relevance is understood herein as a multidimensional attribute that is closely related to the quality and usefulness of the information conveyed by accounting profits. The associative capacity and information timeliness of accounting profits in relation to share prices were examined. Furthermore, the level of conditional conservatism present in accounting profits was also analyzed because according to Basu (1997, this aspect is related to timeliness. The study used pooled regressions and panel data models to analyze the quarterly accounting profits of 246 companies between the first quarter of 1999 and the first quarter of 2013, resulting in 9,558 quarter-company observations. The results indicated that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil (1 increased the associative capacity of accounting profits; (2 reduced information timeliness to non-significant levels; and (3 had no effect on conditional conservatism. The joint analysis of the empirical evidence from the present study conclusively precludes stating that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies.
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.
Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel
Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.
Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford; Carlone, Heidi B.; Cooper, Jewell E.
This article is a response to Randy Yerrick and Joseph Johnson's article "Negotiating White Science in Rural Black America: A Case for Navigating the Landscape of Teacher Knowledge Domains". They write about research conducted by Yerrick in which videos of his teaching practice as a White educator in a predominately Black rural classroom were examined. Their analysis is framed through Shulman's (1986) work on "domains of teacher knowledge" and Ladson-Billings' (1999) critical race theory (CRT). Although we appreciate a framework that attends to issues of power, such as CRT, we see a heavier emphasis on Shulman's work in their analysis. We argue that a culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework has the potential to provide a more nuanced analysis of what occurred in Yerrick's classroom from a critical lens. Thus we examine Yerrick and Johnson's work through the five main CRP components (as defined by Brown-Jeffy and Cooper 2011) and ultimately argue that science educators who want to promote equity in their classrooms should engage in continuous critical reflexivity, aid students in claiming voice, and encourage students to become not only producers of scientific knowledge but also users and critics of such knowledge.
Kreps, Gary L.
Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960
Kreps, Gary L
This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.
Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting
An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10") and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10) for encoding video data and a corresponding video decoding device, wherein during decoding PPG relevant information shall be preserved. For this purpose the video coding device (10) comprises a first encoder (20) for encoding input video
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10'') and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
... NIOSH-244] Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA AGENCY: Department of Health...) is conducting a review of the processes of the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). In 2006, NORA entered its second decade with an industry sector-based structure. In 2011, as NORA reaches the...
Wiersema, D.V.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.
In this article we offer a new perspective on the contradictory findings in the literature on memory for attitude-relevant information. We propose that biases in memory are most likely to occur when the attitude involved is connected to personally important values and the self; i.e., if the attitude
Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…
Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.
Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San
We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...
Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo
Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Jade; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Woolgar, Alexandra
Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the frontoparietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J. An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829, 2001]. Could this provide a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention, the process by which we preferentially process one feature of a stimulus over another? We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data during a perceptually challenging categorization task to investigate whether the representation of visual object features in the MD regions flexibly adjusts according to task relevance. Participants were trained to categorize visually similar novel objects along two orthogonal stimulus dimensions (length/orientation) and performed short alternating blocks in which only one of these dimensions was relevant. We found that multivoxel patterns of activation in the MD regions encoded the task-relevant distinctions more strongly than the task-irrelevant distinctions: The MD regions discriminated between stimuli of different lengths when length was relevant and between the same objects according to orientation when orientation was relevant. The data suggest a flexible neural system that adjusts its representation of visual objects to preferentially encode stimulus features that are currently relevant for behavior, providing a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention.
Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J
To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.
Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Lee, Janet T; Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B
Automated methods for identifying clinically relevant new versus redundant information in electronic health record (EHR) clinical notes is useful for clinicians and researchers involved in patient care and clinical research, respectively. We evaluated methods to automatically identify clinically relevant new information in clinical notes, and compared the quantity of redundant information across specialties and clinical settings. Statistical language models augmented with semantic similarity measures were evaluated as a means to detect and quantify clinically relevant new and redundant information over longitudinal clinical notes for a given patient. A corpus of 591 progress notes over 40 inpatient admissions was annotated for new information longitudinally by physicians to generate a reference standard. Note redundancy between various specialties was evaluated on 71,021 outpatient notes and 64,695 inpatient notes from 500 solid organ transplant patients (April 2015 through August 2015). Our best method achieved at best performance of 0.87 recall, 0.62 precision, and 0.72 F-measure. Addition of semantic similarity metrics compared to baseline improved recall but otherwise resulted in similar performance. While outpatient and inpatient notes had relatively similar levels of high redundancy (61% and 68%, respectively), redundancy differed by author specialty with mean redundancy of 75%, 66%, 57%, and 55% observed in pediatric, internal medicine, psychiatry and surgical notes, respectively. Automated techniques with statistical language models for detecting redundant versus clinically relevant new information in clinical notes do not improve with the addition of semantic similarity measures. While levels of redundancy seem relatively similar in the inpatient and ambulatory settings in the Fairview Health Services, clinical note redundancy appears to vary significantly with different medical specialties.
Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III
This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent, supplemental intervention on the reading fluency of second-grade African-American urban students who showed reading and special education risk. The packaged intervention combined repeated readings and culturally relevant stories, delivered through a novel computer software program to enhance…
Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.
A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…
Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.
A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex
Jaffee, Ashley Taylor
This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…
Ortiz, Patricio R.
This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…
This booklet, written for elementary teachers and counselors, provides information for a three-session stress and culture shock program for fifth and sixth grade students in overseas schools. Session 1 presents an introduction to the program, including discussion questions. Session 2 focuses on stress and culture shock through examples and…
Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel
We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies
Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older adults showed the reversed age pattern-they looked more toward factual cues than did young adults. This age difference disappeared after controlling for educational level. Additionally, education correlated with attentional pattern to decision-relevant information. We interpret this finding as an indication of the power of education: education may modify what are thought to be "typical" age differences in decision-making, and education may influence young and older people's decision-making via different paths.
Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J
The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.
Full Text Available The result of the application of effective accounting information system and provide quality and effective accounting information quality. Fundamental rule accounting information systems in an organization is generating accounting information quality through the process of collecting raw data and then processed and then presented in the form of accounting information useful for user information. The purpose of this study was to know how the effect of Use of information technology on the quality of accounting information systems organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems and the quality of accounting information system on the quality of accounting information. Based on the literature of some previous researchers proved that a technology affects the quality of accounting information systems using information system AIS Effectively requires an understanding of the organization management and information technology shaping the system. the use of information technology within an organization intended to provide information to the user. B. Organizational culture affects the quality of AIS at the stage of design and implementation of the system required careful consideration of the information attitude is the main component of the organization information systems can be substantially influenced by the culture of the organization. C accounting information quality influence on information accounting quality is built with the main purpose to process accounting data from various sources into the accounting information needed by a wide range of users to reduce risk when making decisions.
Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars
In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Calderon, Cristian B; Van Opstal, Filip; Peigneux, Philippe; Verguts, Tom; Gevers, Wim
Monkey neurophysiology research supports the affordance competition hypothesis (ACH) proposing that cognitive information useful for action selection is integrated in sensorimotor areas. In this view, action selection would emerge from the simultaneous representation of competing action plans, in parallel biased by relevant task factors. This biased competition would take place up to primary motor cortex (M1). Although ACH is plausible in environments affording choices between actions, its relevance for human decision making is less clear. To address this issue, we designed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment modeled after monkey neurophysiology studies in which human participants processed cues conveying predictive information about upcoming button presses. Our results demonstrate that, as predicted by the ACH, predictive information (i.e., the relevant task factor) biases activity of primary motor regions. Specifically, first, activity before movement onset in contralateral M1 increases as the competition is biased in favor of a specific button press relative to activity in ipsilateral M1. Second, motor regions were more tightly coupled with fronto-parietal regions when competition between potential actions was high, again suggesting that motor regions are also part of the biased competition network. Our findings support the idea that action planning dynamics as proposed in the ACH are valid both in human and non-human primates.
Doudoux, Hannah; Skaare, Kristina; Geay, Thomas; Kahane, Philippe; Bosson, Jean L; Sabourdy, Cécile; Vercueil, Laurent
The optimal duration of routine EEG (rEEG) has not been determined on a clinical basis. This study aims to determine the time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG with respect to the clinical request. All rEEGs performed over 3 months in unselected patients older than 14 years in an academic hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The latency required to obtain relevant information was determined for each rEEG by 2 independent readers blinded to the clinical data. EEG final diagnoses and latencies were analyzed with respect to the main clinical requests: subacute cognitive impairment, spells, transient focal neurologic manifestation or patients referred by epileptologists. From 430 rEEGs performed in the targeted period, 364 were analyzed: 92% of the pathological rEEGs were provided within the first 10 minutes of recording. Slowing background activity was diagnosed from the beginning, whereas interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded over time. Moreover, the time elapsed to demonstrate a pattern differed significantly in the clinical groups: in patients with subacute cognitive impairment, EEG abnormalities appeared within the first 10 minutes, whereas in the other groups, data could be provided over time. Patients with subacute cognitive impairment differed from those in the other groups significantly in the elapsed time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG, suggesting that 10-minute EEG recordings could be sufficient, arguing in favor of individualized rEEG. However, this conclusion does not apply to intensive care unit patients.
Sitnica, A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)
No industry, organization, individual or even the government is immune to the information security risks which are associated with nuclear power. It can no longer be ignored, delayed or treated as unimportant. Nuclear safety is paramount to our industry, and cyber security must be woven into the fabric of our safety culture in order to succeed. Achieving this in an environment which has remained relatively unchanged and conservative prior to digitalisation demands a shift in behavior and culture. (Author)
No industry, organization, individual or even the government is immune to the information security risks which are associated with nuclear power. It can no longer be ignored, delayed or treated as unimportant. Nuclear safety is paramount to our industry, and cyber security must be woven into the fabric of our safety culture in order to succeed. Achieving this in an environment which has remained relatively unchanged and conservative prior to digitalisation demands a shift in behavior and culture. (Author)
Meyer, Hester W. J.
Introduction: Sharing of information across cultural boundaries does not always live up to expectations. Information behaviour is an underlying factor, which can contribute to poor use or non-use of the information or information services at the disposal of indigenous people in a development context. Method: A literature study of information…
Antonio Paños Álvarez
Full Text Available Information Technologies are resources able to create competitive advantages for companies. In this analysis, the Resource-based perspective have taken special relevance, because it is argued that this advantages should be identified, reached and maintained. This work is positioned in the analysis of several contingent factors in the process of pointing the possible assesment of these advantages. It is aproaching a portfolio for helping to select what Information Technologies are valuable for what companies and in what activity areas and the study of in what way the sector, the technological innovation profile, the size and the financial capacity of the companies affects this process
... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1862-04 Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to..., maintain, and retain the following information in adequately organized and indexed records for each model...
Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific studies and experimental approbation of pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training taking into account the information culture of society. The nature and structure of the notion «future primary school teachers’ cultural training» are clarified. The indicated phenomenon is considered as the structure of four levels, the core of which is personality’s humanistic orientation, the totality of psychological-pedagogical and cultural knowledge and skills, the complex of professionally significant personal qualities. The author pointed out the criteria and related indicators of cultural proficiency, they are: value-motivational (vocational and humanistic orientation; the presence of values and professional motives; motivation for success; substantial and procedural (knowledge and skills in psycho-pedagogical disciplines; the body of knowledge regarding the content and components of cultural training, cultural skills; assessment and behavioral (the existence of communicative qualities, ability to empathy, tolerance. Levels of future primary school teachers’ cultural readiness: high, average and low are characterized. The experience of ICT using in students’ cultural training is presented. Pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training in University are identified, their effectiveness is proved by experimental testing
Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J
Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.
Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.
Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.
Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.
This research performed a partial test of the instrumental validity of the stakeholder model by examining the value relevance of value added relative to income and the incremental value relevance of two stakeholder compensation components of value added, wages and interest for Japan, Germany, United States, and United Kingdom.
Fallon, Lindsay M.; Cathcart, Sadie C.; DeFouw, Emily R.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George
Disproportionality in disciplinary actions for certain racial groups has been well documented for several decades. In an effort to support all students, specifically those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, many have called for adopting a multitiered system of support framework that is considerate of student culture and school context.…
Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .
Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D
The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.
Marcel Ginotti Pires
Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.
May 14, 2014 ... focus of recent debate around ethical issues relating to the standard of care and ... Forty-one key words relevant to computer terminology and concepts required to gain informed consent for a .... patients did not understand the meaning of the word 'consent' and ....  Lindegger and Richter looked at.
Based on the results of empirical research, which implemented and evaluated information to the public requested by law (HIO-Paragraph-11a) and based on the general findings of crisis- and risk-communication research, some disturbing elements in the relationship between entrepreneurs, administration and the public will be described in terms of cognitive dissonance, prejudice, fears and false expectations. The empirical example of public information in emergencies will evidence the conflicting views on types, styles, size and profoundity of such information as well as the differences in perception, motivation and interest of all parties involved. Finally, the cultural context of risk perception and of coping capabilities will be interrelated with historical changes of risk-management to prepare for the understanding that risk- and crisis communication has to be more than talking about safety. (orig.) [de
Research in Hospitality Management is co-published by NISC (Pty) Ltd and Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group ... Hofstede's research among current international business students ..... the different cultures of the students' country of origin.
Lai, Cristina Afán
The legacy of a colonialist, assimilationist educational system in countries such as Bolivia is the under-representation of the indigenous in the large sphere encompassed by the schools - knowledge, teachers, and modes of instruction. Many indigenous students feel alienated from schooling and experience limited academic success. The calculated intervention of transforming traditional knowledge into culturally-relevant curriculum material has been suggested as a way to fortify their identities...
Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer
This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.
Ventriglio, Antonio; Ayonrinde, Oyedeji; Bhugra, Dinesh
Culture-bound syndromes were first described over 60 years ago. The underlying premise was that certain psychiatric syndromes are confined to specific cultures. There is no doubt that cultures influence how symptoms are perceived, explained and from where help is sought. Cultures determine what idioms of distress are employed to express distress. Rapid globalization and industrialization have made the world a smaller place and cultures are being more influenced by other cultures. This has led to social and economic changes in parts of the world where such syndromes were seen more frequently. In this review we illustrate these changes using the example of dhat syndrome (semen-loss anxiety). The number of syndromes in the DSM-5 has been reduced, acknowledging that these syndromes may be changing their presentations. Clinicians need to be aware of social and economic changes that may affect presentation of various psychiatric syndromes. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö
Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.
Tan, J K; Modrow, R E
In this article, we discuss the traditional systems analysis perspective on end-user information requirements analysis and extend it to merge with the new accountability expectations perspective to guide the future planning and design of health organization information systems. Underlying the strategic relevance of health care information technology (HCIT) are three critical questions: (1) What is the ideal HCIT model for the health organization in terms of achieving strategic expertise and competitive advantage? Specifically, how does this model link industry performance standards with organizational performance and accountability expectations? (2) How should the limitations of past HCIT models be reconciled to the benefits presented by the superior arrangement of the ideal model in the context of changing accountability expectations? (3) How should alternative HCIT solutions be evaluated in light of evidence-based accountability and organizational performance benchmarking? Insights into these questions will ensure that health care managers, HCIT practitioners and researchers can continue to focus on the most critical issues in harnessing today's fast-paced changing technologies for evolving strategically relevant, performance-based health organization systems.
Effect of information and communication technology on culture of the people of Saki west local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. PO Eniola, Mf Siyanbola, OA Olaniyi. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (3) 2007: pp. 214-219. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...
Givens, Mark A.
Virtual work environments (VWEs) have been used in the private sector for more than a decade, but the United States Marine Corps (USMC), as a whole, has not yet taken advantage of associated benefits. The USMC construct parallels the bureaucratic organizational culture and uses an antiquated information technology (IT) infrastructure. During an…
Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…
Conflict ( Prosocial Behavior ) Cognitive Processes - Shared Team Mental Models, Transactive Memory Action Processes - Team Coordination...information sharing behaviors after the experiment unfolded. To explore this further, an independent sample t -test was conducted, where the difference in...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral , Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors
Blanke, Henry T.
Contends that an entrepreneurial model of librarianship contradicts traditional ideals of free and equal access to information and argues that such a model threatens the future of the library as a vital public sphere of democratic culture. Discusses broad trends of advanced capitalism to provide a context for the critical interpretation of issues…
Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B
Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…
Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.
Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars
This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W
Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.
Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa
We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.
Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812
Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.
Jouhet, V; Defossez, G; Ingrand, P
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a selection algorithm of relevant records for the notification of incident cases of cancer on the basis of the individual data available in a multi-source information system. This work was conducted on data for the year 2008 in the general cancer registry of Poitou-Charentes region (France). The selection algorithm hierarchizes information according to its level of relevance for tumoral topography and tumoral morphology independently. The selected data are combined to form composite records. These records are then grouped in respect with the notification rules of the International Agency for Research on Cancer for multiple primary cancers. The evaluation, based on recall, precision and F-measure confronted cases validated manually by the registry's physicians with tumours notified with and without records selection. The analysis involved 12,346 tumours validated among 11,971 individuals. The data used were hospital discharge data (104,474 records), pathology data (21,851 records), healthcare insurance data (7508 records) and cancer care centre's data (686 records). The selection algorithm permitted performances improvement for notification of tumour topography (F-measure 0.926 with vs. 0.857 without selection) and tumour morphology (F-measure 0.805 with vs. 0.750 without selection). These results show that selection of information according to its origin is efficient in reducing noise generated by imprecise coding. Further research is needed for solving the semantic problems relating to the integration of heterogeneous data and the use of non-structured information.
Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David
Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible
Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa
A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.
Beineke, John A.
"Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…
Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.
This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…
Shaw, Paul M
.... A culture change from a "need to know' to a "need to share" is the desired end state. This culture change is in contrast to known organizational and individual cultural biases to control information...
Burton, Suzanne L.
Strong school-university partnerships yield effective music teachers. However, music teacher preparation curriculum has undergone little reform over the years, resulting in a homogeneous P-12 curriculum. Encouraging preservice music teachers to consider cultural and pedagogical differences holds promise for changing music teacher preparation and…
Gilbert, Juan E.; Eugene, Wanda; Swanier, Cheryl; Arbuthnot, Keena; Hood, Stafford; Grant, Michael McKenzie; West, Melanie L.
When culture is integrated into the mathematics classroom, it improves students' academic achievement, helps move classrooms towards an equitable learning environment, helps students to have positive beliefs about mathematics, and integrates mathematics with other disciplines. Moreover, if you observe today's kids, the use of video games in their…
Davies, W. Martin
This paper outlines new work in cross-cultural psychology largely drawn from Nisbett, Choi, and Smith ("Cognition," 65, 15-32, 1997); Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, "Psychological Review," 108(2), 291-310, 2001; Nisbett, "The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why." New…
Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George
Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…
Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa
Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics…
В И Глизбург
Full Text Available Creative use of the potential of modern information and communication technologies for solving pedagogical, educational and training tasks is now an urgent problem of education. It is already impossible to isolate pupils from the modern means of communication (smartphones, tablets, etc.. The objective of a teacher to show how you can use the gadgets for educational purposes. Interest in their use as a source of useful information. Learn to evaluate and select information sources on various criteria: reliability, availability, adequacy and completeness of the information, response rate, etc. Theseand other skills to work with information are key in our rapidly changing world, and are part of the concept of information culture of the modern man. This article describes the use of educational technology of QR-codes to address these issues, as well as justification its effectiveness. The intellectual quest, which is the embodiment of the above ideas, combines the dynamism and kindness, interest and attentiveness, ability to work in a team and contribute to the common cause; aimed at the development of tolerance, inquisitiveness, activity, courtesy, accuracy, attention and thinking; as well as to broaden their horizons and the formation of information culture of schoolboys.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study
Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity
The Geneva Welcome Centre has the pleasure to inform you that the Cultural Kiosk at the UNOG is now able, thanks to a new partnership with FNAC, to sell tickets for a number of additional cultural events, among others those of the Grand Théâtre de Genève. To celebrate this new feature, the Grand Théâtre de Genève in association with the Geneva Welcome Centre and the magazine UN Special has decided to make a special offer for its next performance, Francesco Cavalli's " La Calisto " which will be represented from 13 April to 28 April 2010. This offer is meant for international civil servants, members of diplomatic missions as well as official delegates under presentation of their legitimation or accreditation card. The tickets at the reduced price can be bought at the Cultural Kiosk (door 6). This opera, rarely performed, will...
Kosteniuk, Julie G; Morgan, Debra G; D'Arcy, Carl K
The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.
Argaud, J.P.; Bouriquet, B.; Clerc, T.; Lucet-Sanchez, F.; Poncot, A.
The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation procedure, and it is the main information about accuracy and sensitivity of the parameter optimal determination. We present some results collected in the field of neutronic simulation for PWR type reactor. We seek to optimise the reflector parameters that characterise the neutronic reflector surrounding the whole reactive core. On the basis of the configuration studies, it has been shown that with data assimilation we can determine a global strategy to optimise the quality of the result with respect to the amount of information provided. The consequence of this is a cost reduction in terms of measurement and/or computing time with respect to the basic approach. Another result is that using multi-campaign data rather data from a unique campaign significantly improves the efficiency of parameters optimisation
Plorde, J.J.; Carlson, L.G.; Dau, M.E.
During a 38-month period, 10,106 blood specimens were received in the laboratory for culture. These were inoculated into 26,424 vials and processed using the BACTEC radiometric detection system. Of these vials, 1,914 were eventually found to be microbiologically positive. Isolates from 836 vials were judged to be contaminants. In the remaining 1,078 vials, growth was first detected visually or radiometrically in 1,062 and by final subculture in 16. Growth from these sixteen bottles represented 12 clinically significant bacteremic episodes in as many patients. In nine of these episodes, other culture vials from the same patient were positive radiometrically. Therefore, 358 of 361 (99.2%) bacteremic episodes were detected without the benefit of routine final subcultures. The three patients whose bacteremia was missed were diagnosed clinically and placed on appropriate therapy prior to the detection of the bacteremias by final subculture
Gottwein, Judith Margarete; Bukh, Jens
described. Research on the viral life cycle, efficient therapeutics, and a vaccine has been hampered by the absence of suitable cell culture systems. The first system permitting studies of the full viral life cycle was intrahepatic transfection of RNA transcripts of HCV consensus complementary DNA (c...... studies of the function of viral proteins, their interaction with each other and host proteins, new antivirals, and neutralizing antibodies in the context of the full viral life cycle. However, several challenges remain, including development of cell culture systems for all major HCV genotypes...... isolate JFH1, which for unknown reasons showed an exceptional replication capability and resulted in formation of infectious viral particles in the human hepatoma cell line Huh7, led in 2005 to the development of the first full viral life cycle in vitro systems. JFH1-based systems now enable in vitro...
Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven
It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.
Sanders Thompson, V. L.; Harris, J.; Clark, E.M.; Purnell, J.; Deshpande, A.D.
The importance of socio-cultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on efforts to explore alternatives to constructs previously associated with African American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these socio-cultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African Americans (N=1021), 50 to 75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Socio-cultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected socio-cultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism and empowerment) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was 0.062; 90% CI: 0.060-0.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed
The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked.
Suh, Sooyeon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Hom, Melanie A; Ringer, Fallon B; Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Soohyun; Joiner, Thomas E
This study investigated the cross-cultural relevance and validity of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) utilizing young adult samples from South Korea (n =554) and the United States (U.S.; n =390). To examine the ITS, all participants completed self-report questionnaires measuring Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide. We examined whether each construct significantly predicted the severity of suicidal risk in both samples. We also determined whether the strength of the effects of Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness on suicidal ideation differed between the two samples due to the greater degree of importance placed on interpersonal relationships in collectivistic cultures such as South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to examine these hypotheses. Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide significantly predicted elevated suicidal risk. However, there were no significant differences in the paths from Thwarted Belongingness or Perceived Burdensomeness to suicide risk between the South Korean and U.S. These findings support the cross-cultural relevance and applicability of the ITS, whereby Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness serve as indicators of suicide risk in both Western (U.S.) and East Asian (Korean) samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha
Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.
K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya
The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make budgeting. This method that...
Oleksandr A. Ratsul
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of foreign experience of systemic development of future social pedagogists’ informational culture. A number of cultural universals are identified, each of them is treated as the core of culture. A list of components of future social pedagogists’ information culture is given. Personality traits that enable future social pedagogists to participate effectively in all kinds of work with information are characterized. Two structural levels (contents and functions in future social pedagogists’ information culture are singled out. Main functions of future social pedagogists’ information culture are defined. The structural organization of future social pedagogists’ information culture is analyzed.
Hess, Thomas M; Queen, Tara L; Ennis, Gilda E
We investigated how information search strategies used to support decision making were influenced by self-related implications of the task to the individual. Consistent with the notion of selective engagement, we hypothesized that increased self-relevance would result in more adaptive search behaviors and that this effect would be stronger in older adults than in younger adults. We examined search behaviors in 79 younger and 81 older adults using a process-tracing procedure with 2 different decision tasks. The impact of motivation (i.e., self-related task implications) was examined by manipulating social accountability and the age-related relevance of the task. Although age differences in search strategies were not great, older adults were more likely than younger adults to use simpler strategies in contexts with minimal self-implications. Contrary to expectations, young and old alike were more likely to use noncompensatory than compensatory strategies, even when engaged in systematic search, with education being the most important determinant of search behavior. The results support the notion that older adults are adaptive decision makers and that factors other than age may be more important determinants of performance in situations where knowledge can be used to support performance.
Yang, Lixia; Chen, Wenfeng; Ng, Andy H; Fu, Xiaolan
Literature on cross-cultural differences in cognition suggests that categorization, as an information processing and organization strategy, was more often used by Westerners than by East Asians, particularly for older adults. This study examines East-West cultural differences in memory for categorically processed items and sources in young and older Canadians and native Chinese with a conceptual source memory task (Experiment 1) and a reality monitoring task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants encoded photographic faces of their own ethnicity that were artificially categorized into GOOD or EVIL characters and then completed a source memory task in which they identified faces as old-GOOD, old-EVIL, or new. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a series of words, each followed either by a corresponding image (i.e., SEEN) or by a blank square within which they imagined an image for the word (i.e., IMAGINED). At test, they decided whether the test words were old-SEEN, old-IMAGINED, or new. In general, Canadians outperformed Chinese in memory for categorically processed information, an effect more pronounced for older than for young adults. Extensive exercise of culturally preferred categorization strategy differentially benefits Canadians and reduces their age group differences in memory for categorically processed information.
Barata, Paula C; Gucciardi, Enza; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
This study examined Portuguese Canadian and Caribbean Canadian immigrants' perceptions of health research and informed consent procedures. Six focus groups (three in each cultural group) involving 42 participants and two individual interviews were conducted. The focus groups began with a general question about health research. This was followed by three short role-plays between the moderator and the assistant. The role-plays involved a fictional health research study in which a patient is approached for recruitment, is read a consent form, and is asked to sign. The role-plays stopped at key moments at which time focus group participants were asked questions about their understanding and their perceptions. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NUDIST software using open coding and then compared across cultural groups. Six overriding themes emerged: two were common in both the Portuguese and Caribbean transcripts, one emphasized the importance of trust and mistrust, and the other highlighted the need and desire for more information about health research. However, these themes were expressed somewhat differently in the two groups. In addition, there were four overriding themes that were specific to only one cultural group. In the Portuguese groups, there was an overwhelming positive regard for the research process and an emphasis on verbal as opposed to written information. The Caribbean participants qualified their participation in research studies and repeatedly raised images of invasive research.
Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A
While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving
The possibility of obtaining the photodisintegration cross section using the equivalent-photon number method first deduced and employed for the Coulomb disintegration processes has been suggested. This is very interesting because there exist radioactive capture processes, related to the photodisintegration through time reversal, that are relevant in astrophysics. In this paper, the recent results of the Karlsruhe and the Texas A and M groups on the Coulomb disintegration of 6 Li and 7 Li and the problems of the method are discussed. The ideas developed in a previous paper (Nucl. Phys. A458 (1986) 188) are confirmed qualitatively. To understand the process quantitatively it is necessary to use a quantum treatment that would imply the introduction of Coulomb excitation effects of higher orders. The Coulomb disintegration of exotic secondary beams is also studied. It is particularly interesting the question about what kind of nuclear structure information, as binding energies of momentum distributions, may be obtained. (Author) [es
Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.
van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil
The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
It is generally accepted that the addition of vitamin C to cell culture medium improves cell growth. However, once added, the vitamin C concentration declines rapidly. This situation differs from the in vivo environment where the endothelium is constantly supplied with ascorbate from the blood....... With a focus on intracellular vitamin C, we simulated constant supply of ascorbate by the hourly addition of freshly prepared medium containing 75 lM ascorbate and subsequently compared it with more practical regimens using combinations of ascorbate and 2-phosphoascorbate. We found that a single supplement...... of ascorbate and 2-phosphoascorbate adequately maintains intracellular vitamin C at physiological levels for up to 72 h....
Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization movement in the West brought about community care movement of mentally ill. Because of this, caring for the mentally ill became an important aspect. In resource-rich countries, caregiving is done by trained persons and in resource-poor country (like India, caregiving was done by untrained family members. Cross-cultural factors such as interdependence and greater family involvement in care have contributed for family members′ decision-making in caregiving in India. Nevertheless, cross-cultural similarities in caregiving are more striking than differences. Genuine caregiving of mentally ill will make significant difference to the recipient. In India, majority of the persons with mental illness are cared by family members. Family members lack knowledge about the nature of the illness, have little support and advice by the medical professional, and have difficulties in understanding illness-related behavior. Hence, in India, there is need to develop effective, user-friendly, educational modules in all languages; to increase the knowledge of the carers about the mental illness, and help in decreasing their distress.
Hofmann, H; Braun, K
The persistence of morphological features of neurons in slice cultures of the imprinting-relevant forebrain area MNH (mediorostral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale) of the domestic chick was analysed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in vitro. After having been explanted and kept in culture the neurons in vitro have larger soma areas, longer and more extensively branched dendritic trees and lower spine frequencies compared to the neurons in vivo. During the analyzed culturing period, the parameters soma area, total and mean dendritic length, number of dendrites, number of dendritic nodes per dendrite and per neuron as well as the spine densities in different dendritic segments showed no significant differences between early and late periods. Highly correlated in every age group were the total dendritic length and the number of dendritic nodes per neuron, indicating regular ramification during dendritic growth. Since these morphological parameters remain stable during the first 4 weeks in vitro, this culture system may provide a suitable model to investigate experimentally induced morphological changes.
Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.
The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies) generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH). The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: - for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; - for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; - for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.
Borg, M A; Waisfisz, B; Frank, U
It has been suggested that organizational culture (OC) is an important driver of infection prevention and control (IPC) behaviour among healthcare workers. This study examined OC in seven European hospitals using a validated assessment tool based on Hofstede's model, and identified significant variations in OC scores. Hospitals with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exhibited high scores for change facilitation and change readiness, whereas hospitals with high prevalence of MRSA exhibited low scores for these determinants. It is possible to use tools, available outside health care, to study OC within hospitals and gain better insight into IPC behaviour change strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Within the last years there has been an ongoing change in the energy domain. The German renewable energies law EnWG requires a liberalization that leads to a strict separation of domains such as transportation, supply and conversion of energy. Furthermore, climate and environmental protection as well as cost transparency and energy saving in combination with efficiency of resources leads to new challenges for the energy industry. The so called smart grid vision and the concluding design of an ICT-based information structure for the energy domain will help to reach these goals by integrating renewable energy resources, saving fuels and getting a higher energy efficiency. In order to reach these goals, information about current energy generation, energy storage and energy demand is required. Through an efficient network and fast information exchange by means of an energy information network an efficient energy use can be gained. The federated networking of an energy information network like this can tend to a weakness for cyber security within the energy domain. The growing number of people involved and data exchanges will create more potential points of attacks than before. Therefore, a suitable protection of an energy information network is necessary. Through paragraph 9 EnWG the protection goal confidentiality is particularly important. But the implementation of confidentiality must not lead to a violation of availability requirements, which are very important at some point of the energy domain. Additionally to the identification of such crucial side effects, the implementation of confidentiality for distributed, decentral systems is a challenge for the domain. The ENERTRUST security model includes a knowledge base construction, which allows the identification of such side effects or conflicts in the energy domain by applying reasoning techniques. Moreover, it allows the realization of confidentiality from distributed locations through a use and combination of
Bales, R. C.; Bernacchi, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Viers, J. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Kiparsky, M.
California's historic drought of 2011-2015 provided excellent conditions for researchers to listen to water-management challenges from decision makers, particularly with regard to data and information needs for improved decision making. Through the UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative (http://ucwater.org/) we began a multi-year dialog with water-resources decision makers and state agencies that provide data and technical support for water management. Near-term products of that collaboration will be both a vision for a 21st-century water data and information system, and near-term steps to meet immediate legislative deadlines in a way that is consistent with the longer-term vision. While many university-based water researchers engage with state and local agencies on both science and policy challenges, UC Water's focus was on: i) integrated system management, from headwaters through groundwater and agriculture, and on ii) improved decision making through better water information systems. This focus aligned with the recognition by water leaders that fundamental changes in the way the state manages water were overdue. UC Water is focused on three "I"s: improved water information, empowering Institutions to use and to create new information, and enabling decision makers to make smart investments in both green and grey Infrastructure. Effective communication with water decision makers has led to engagement on high-priority programs where large knowledge gaps remain, including more-widespread groundwater recharge of storm flows, restoration of mountain forests in important source-water areas, governance structures for groundwater sustainability, and filling information gaps by bringing new technology to bear on measurement and data programs. Continuing engagement of UC Water researchers in public dialog around water resources, through opinion pieces, feature articles, blogs, white papers, social media, video clips and a feature documentary film have
Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C
Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.
Rubin, Geoffrey D; Krishnaraj, Arun; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Rajendran, Ramji R; Fishman, Elliot K
RadiologyInfo.org is a public information portal designed to support patient care and broaden public awareness of the essential role radiology plays in overall patient health care. Over the past 14 years, RadiologyInfo.org has evolved considerably to provide access to more than 220 mixed-media descriptions of tests, treatments, and diseases through a spectrum of mobile and desktop platforms, social media, and downloadable documents in both English and Spanish. In 2014, the RSNA-ACR Public Information Website Committee, which stewards RadiologyInfo.org, developed 3- to 5-year strategic and implementation plans for the website. The process was informed by RadiologyInfo.org user surveys, formal stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and usability testing. Metrics were established as key performance indicators to assess progress toward the stated goals of (1) optimizing content to enhance patient-centeredness, (2) enhancing reach and engagement, and (3) maintaining sustainability. Major changes resulting from this process include a complete redesign of the website, the replacement of text-rich PowerPoint presentations with conversational videos, and the development of an affiliate network. Over the past year, visits to RadiologyInfo.org have increased by 60.27% to 1,424,523 in August 2016 from 235 countries and territories. Twenty-two organizations have affiliated with RadiologyInfo.org with new organizations being added on a monthly basis. RadiologyInfo provides a tangible demonstration of how radiologists can engage directly with the global public to educate them on the value of radiology in their health care and to allay concerns and dispel misconceptions. Regular self-assessment and responsive planning will ensure its continued growth and relevance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rohal, C B; Kettenring, K M; Sims, K; Hazelton, E L G; Ma, Z
more pertinent to manager needs and trusted by managers. Such an approach that integrates manager surveys to inform management experiments could be adapted to any developing research program seeking to be relevant to management audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.
Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald
The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.
Full Text Available In this paper we survey the recent activities and achievements of our research group in the deployment of XMLrelated technologies in Cultural Heritage applications concerning the encoding of temporal semantics in Web documents. In particular we will review "The Valid Web", which is an XML/XSL infrastructure we defined and implemented for the definition and management of historical information within multimedia documents available on the Web, and its further extension to the effective encoding of advanced temporal features like indeterminacy, multiple granularities and calendars, enabling an efficient processing in a user-friendly Web-based environment. Potential uses of the developed infrastructures include a broad range of applications in the cultural heritage domain, where the historical perspective is relevant, with potentially positive impacts on E-Education and E-Science.
Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations.
Nardi, Valentina; Pulluqi, Olja; Abramson, Jeremy S; Dal Cin, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P
Bone marrow (BM) evaluation is an important part of lymphoma staging, which guides patient management. Although positive staging marrow is defined as morphologically identifiable disease, such samples often also include flow cytometric analysis and conventional karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis is a labor-intensive and costly procedure and its utility in this setting is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed pathological reports of 526 staging marrow specimens in which conventional karyotyping had been performed. All samples originated from a single institution from patients with previously untreated Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas presenting in an extramedullary site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal abnormalities in only eight marrow samples (1.5%), all of which were positive for lymphoma by morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry showed a small clonal lymphoid population in three of the 443 morphologically negative marrow samples (0.7%). Conventional karyotyping is rarely positive in lymphoma staging marrow samples and, in our cohort, the BM karyotype did not contribute clinically relevant information in the vast majority of cases. Our findings suggest that karyotyping should not be performed routinely on BM samples taken to stage previously diagnosed extramedullary lymphomas unless there is pathological evidence of BM involvement by lymphoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme
Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E
This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M
The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
The article deals with concepts such as universal entrepreneurial culture and integrative entrepreneurial culture. In article studied main characteristics of universal entrepreneurial culture and integrative entrepreneurial culture. In article explores the concept of «knowledge management» and « diversity management». In the article presents real examples of the integrative entrepreneurial culture in companies.
Digital Information Culture is an introduction to the cultural, social and political impact of digital information and digital resources. The book is organised around themes, rather than theories and is arranged into three sections: culture, society and the individual. Each explores key elements of the social, cultural and political impact of digital information. The culture section outlines the origins of cyber culture in fifties pulp-fiction through to the modern day. It explores the issues of information overload, the threat of a digital dark age, and the criminal underbelly of digital culture. Section two, society, explores the economic and social impact of digital information, outlining key theories of the Information Age. Section three explores the impact of digital information and digital resources on the individual, exploring the changing nature of identity in a digital world. Written by a leading author in the field Focuses on digital information and its social, cultural and political impact is uniqu...
Crooks, Claire V.; Burleigh, Dawn; Snowshoe, Angela; Lapp, Andrea; Hughes, Ray; Sisco, Ashley
Schools are expected to promote social and emotional learning skills among youth; however, there is a lack of culturally-relevant programming available. The Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations programs for Aboriginal youth include strengths-based programs designed to promote healthy relationships and cultural connectedness, and improve school success…
Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany
The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.
Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.
Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie
Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice
Del Rosso, James Q; Zeichner, Joshua
This article is the first in a periodic series of therapeutic topics with short reviews gleaned from major dermatology meetings, especially Scientific Poster Sessions, and is designed to provide information that may assist the readers in adapting information from the literature to their clinical practice. The topics covered in this issue are discussions of the clinical relevance of newer information about acne pathophysiology, acne in adult women, and topical corticosteroid spray formulations for chronic plaque psoriasis.
Márcio André Veras Machado
Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy
Adjapong, Edmund S.
This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I
Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.
Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed
Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C
This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.
Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available In the music cultures of the world we encounter both tacit and verbalized musical knowledge to various degrees. In order to reconstruct emic views on musical concepts and practices which are a prerequisite of any seriously culturally informed musical analysis we need to disclose local knowledge by appropriate means even if it is not directly open to verbal discourse. Current computer technology enables us to set up interactive experiments where local experts can verbally address relevant musical features in discussing audio examples which have been prepared by the researcher. The performance of virtual musicians can be evaluated by the local experts and various relevant parameters may be investigated individually if suitable versions of customary pieces are available. Thus aspects which seem to be tacit knowledge because they usually elude verbal discourse can be made accessible and transformed into verbalized, declarative knowledge. The paper presents preliminary results of a case study on Central Javanese gamelan music (karawitan where renowned Javanese musicians commented on computer-generated versions of traditional compositions regarding the idiomatically appropriate performance practice of the virtual ensemble as well as the tuning and sound of various virtual gamelan sets emulated by the computer.
Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Xiao, Lily; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley
Developed countries worldwide are facing an unprecedented demand for aged care services, with recent migrants of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds increasingly recruited as care workers while at the same time there is growing cultural diversity among aged care residents. This situation is compounded by rapidly changing technology and varied educational levels of care workers from diverse backgrounds. The objectives were threefold: to identify staff learning needs to enable them to provide high-quality cross-cultural care; to improve team cohesion; and identify preferred learning approaches. An interpretive qualitative study utilising focus group and interview data informed the development of an education resource. Fifty six care workers from four residential aged care facilities participated in either focus groups or interviews conducted in private meeting rooms within the care facilities. Participants included personal care attendants, registered and clinical nurses, managers, hospitality staff and allied health professionals. Focus group and interview data were categorised and thematically analysed. Data relevant to cross-cultural care, team cohesion and preferred learning approaches informed education resource development, including case studies. Major themes identified the need to promote cultural awareness and understanding, and strategies for cross-cultural care and communication. Themes related to team cohesion demonstrated that staff were already sympathetic and sensitive to cross-cultural issues, and that culturally and linguistically diverse staff add value to the workforce and are supported by the organisation. Staff required clear, uncomplicated education resources to equip them with skills to address problematic cultural situations. Preferred learning approaches varied and highlighted the need for varied educational materials and approaches, as well as time efficient, opportunistic education strategies for the busy workplace. An education
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.
Communicating Across Cultures, (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996), 24. 44 Ibid. 45 Marieke de Mooij, Global Marketing and Advertising...United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1992. De Mooij, Marieke. Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes
Regulations require that all reasonable efforts must be made to maintain exposure to radiation as far below the limits specified in 10 CFR Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. Information is provided relevant to attaining goals and objectives for planning, designing, constructing, operating and decommissioning a light-water-cooled nuclear power station to meet that criterion. Much of the information presented is also applicable to other than light-water-cooled nuclear power stations
... Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the Review of the Lead National Ambient Air.... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing that a workshop entitled, ``Workshop to Discuss Policy... workshop will be open to attendance by interested public observers on a first-come, first-served basis up...
Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien
Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…
This study uses the human approach to examine the sources and effectiveness of search terms selected during 40 mediated interactive database searches and focuses on determining the retrieval effectiveness of search terms identified by users and intermediaries from retrieved items during term relevance feedback. (Author/JKP)
Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T
Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long
similar to Western parade, called " raojing " , the main spirit is passing through of these ranges in the process, to reach the people within bless range, many scholars and academic experts's folk research are dependent on such spatial information. 2012, GIS center applied WebGIS and GPS to gather raojing activities spatial information in cooperation with multi-units, aggregated seven sessions, 22 days, 442 temples had pass through . The atlas also published named "Atlas of the 2012 Religious Processions in the Tainan Region" in 2014. we also applied national cultural resources data form relevant government authorities, through the metadata design and data processing(geocoding, established cultural geospatial and thematic information ,such as 800 monuments, 1,100 historic buildings and 4,300 old trees data. In recent years, based on CRGIS technology and operational concepts, different domain experts or local culture-ahistory research worker/team had to cooperate with us to establish local or thematic material and cultural resources. As in collaboration with local culture-history research worker in Kinmen County in 2012, build Kinmen intangible cultural assets - Wind Lion God ,set metadata and build 122 wind lion god ‘s attribute data and maps through field survey, it is worth mention such fieldwork data integrity is more than the official registration data form Kinmen National Park, the number of is wind lion god more than 40; in 2013,we were in cooperation with academic experts to establish property data and map of the theatre during the Japanese colonial era in Taiwan, a total of 170 theatres ; we were in cooperation with Japanese scholars, used his 44 detaile field survey data of sugar refineries during the Japanese colonial era in Taiwan ,to produce a sugar refineries distribution map and extend to a thematic web(http://map.net.tw/ [The Cultural Heritage Maps of Taiwan Suger Factories in a Century]site according to CRGIS independent cultural concept. Deployment and
Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)
Prades, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.
This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)
Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo
Full Text Available Law 11.638/07 marked the start of a series of changes in the laws that regulate Brazilian accounting practices. The main reason for these changes is the convergence process of local with international accounting standards. As a result of Law 11.638/07, the legal precedent was established to achieve convergence. In that context, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the convergence process with international accounting standards on the relevance of financial information, based on data for 2007, without and with the alterations Law 11.638/07 introduced and according to the CPC Pronouncements, applicable as from 2008 onwards. Therefore, a value relevance study is used, applying regression analysis to annual stock price information (dependent variable and net profit per share (NPPS and net equity per share (NEPS as independent variables. The main results show that financial information on NPPS and NEPS for 2007, with and without the legal alterations, are relevant for the capital market. A comparison between both regressions used in the analysis, however, shows an information gain for financial information that includes the changes introduced in the first phase of the accounting convergence process with the international standards.
Parinov, A. V.; Korotkikh, L. P.; Desyatov, D. B.; Stepanov, L. V.
The uniqueness of information processing mechanisms in special-purpose infocommunication systems and the increased interest of intruders lead to an increase in the relevance of the problems associated with their protection. The paper considers the issues of building risk-models for the violation of the relevance and value of information in infocommunication systems for special purposes. Also, special attention is paid to the connection between the qualities of relevance and the value of information obtained as a result of the operation of infocommunication systems for special purposes. Analytical expressions for the risk and damage function in the time range in special-purpose infocommunication systems are obtained, which can serve as a mathematical basis for risk assessment. Further, an analytical expression is obtained to assess the chance of obtaining up-to-date information in the operation of infocommunication systems up to the time the information quality is violated. An analytical expression for estimating the chance can be used to calculate the effectiveness of a special-purpose infocommunication system.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess the compliance with the characteristic of the relevance of disclosure in Management Reports, particularly dealing with Human Capital (HC information.Design/methodology/approach: We codify all instances where narratives of IBEX-35 stock index companies over a five year period in Spain comply with the recommendations for a “high quality” Management Commentary (MC in terms of the relevance characteristic of the information disclosed (IASB, 2005.Findings: The analysis results show that a greater quantity of information about HC in terms of the number of pages devoted is not always indicative of higher quality in terms of relevance if we look for the application of IASB recommendations.Research limitations/implications: Further research could assess compliance with other qualitative characteristics required by other standards or guidances that were internationaly generaly accepted.Practical implications: Among the areas that require improvement in HC disclosures we highlight forward-looking information.Social implications: We propose that an internationally accepted agreement must be struck to unite all the efforts that are being made to improve narrative information in the MC section, and specifically with reference to HC.Originality/value: This work compiles the HC disclosures identified as best practices that may serve as a reference to other companies.
Goto, Y.; Namekawa, M.; Kumekawa, H.; Usui, A.; Sano, K.
The provision of the safeguards relevant reports and information in accordance with the comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) and the additional protocol (AP) is the basis for the IAEA safeguards. The government of Japan (Japan Safeguards Office, JSGO) has believed that the correct reports contribute to effective and efficient safeguards therefore the domestic quality assurance system for the reporting to the IAEA was already established at the time of the accession of the CSA in 1977. It consists of Code 10 interpretation (including the seminars for operators in Japan), SSAC's checks for syntax error, code and internal consistency (computer based consistency check between facilities) and the discussion with the IAEA on the facilities' measurement system for bulk-handling facilities, which contributes to the more accurate reports from operators. This spirit has been maintained for the entry into force of the AP. For example, questions and amplification from the IAEA will be taken into account the review of the AP declaration before sending to the IAEA and the open source information such as news article and scientific literature in Japanese is collected and translated into English, and the translated information is provided to the IAEA as the supplementary information, which may contribute to broadening the IAEA information source and to their comprehensive evaluation. The other safeguards relevant information, such as the mail-box information for SNRI at LEU fuel fabrication plants, is also checked by the JSGO's QC software before posting. The software was developed by JSGO and it checks data format, batch IDs, birth/death date, shipper/receiver information and material description code. This paper explains the history of the development of the Japanese quality assurance system regarding the reports and the safeguards relevant information to the IAEA. (author)
Full Text Available Over the last 2-3 decades, investments in the new information technology (NIT have left a deep impression on the life of organisations, that goes beyond ample differences in each organisation’s degree of automatisation. Furthermore, although the generalisation of NIT investment has not produced, on short and medium term, the expected effects on financial and organisational performance, its trend has remained on the increase, and the preoccupation with the development and the implementation of new technologies remains associated with the 'ice-breaker' imagine in almost any field. The ensuing connection between NIT investment and performance is compressed in the celebrated productivity paradox (Solow’s paradox: 'We can see the computer age everywhere, except for productivity statistics'. Solow contradicts the supposition that the large scale use of computers will radically and directly influence productivity. Research has demonstrated that although technology is one of the most important factors that influence productivity and that, although at least in theory, all countries have equal access to technological innovation, in fact, productivity is influenced by many other factors (acquiring physical and human capital, infrastructure, the structure of the market, demographic evolutions, the degree of competition etc. NIT has radically changed the business environment, and consequently, the organisational culture; however, this change cannot be equated with increased efficiency or increased welfare.
Hedner, Charlotta; Sundgren, Pia C; Kelly, Aine Marie
The purpose of this study was to assess if the presence of information including the pretest probability (Wells score), other known risk factors, and symptoms given on referrals for computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography correlated with prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism (PE). Also, to evaluate for differences between a university and a regional hospital setting regarding patient characteristics, amount of relevant information provided on referrals, and prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism. Retrospective review of all consecutive referrals (emergency room, inpatient, and outpatient) for CT performed on children and adults for suspected PE from two sites: a tertiary (university) hospital (site 1) and a secondary (regional) hospital (site 2) over a 5-year period. The overall prevalence rate was 510/3641 or 14% of all referrals. Significantly higher number of males had a positive CT compared to women (18% versus 12%, P relevant information on the referral and the probability for positive finding existed, a slight trend was noted (P = .09). In two categories, "hypoxia" and "signs of deep vein thrombosis," the presence of this information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism, P information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism. The amount of relevant clinical information on the request did not correlate with prevalence rates, which may reflect a lack of documentation on the part of emergency physicians who may use a "gestalt" approach. Request forms likely did not capture all relevant patient risks and many factors may interact with each other, both positively and negatively. Pretest probability estimations were rarely performed, despite their inclusion in major society guidelines. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
First of all, this paper focuses on different definitions and theories associated with corporate culture. As the term corporate culture is not clearly defined and definitions are rather vague, the most appropriate and proper definitions with respect to the research question will be presented in the first chapter. In addition, the first chapter also aims at identifying the correlation between value and corporate culture and lays the foundation for the second chapter. Within the second part, I ...
Griffiths, Thomas L.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Kalish, Michael L.
Information changes as it is passed from person to person, with this process of cultural transmission allowing the minds of individuals to shape the information that they transmit. We present mathematical models of cultural transmission which predict that the amount of information passed from person to person should affect the rate at which that…
Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.
The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT. The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96. A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69, suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The
Lizier, Joseph T; Heinzle, Jakob; Horstmann, Annette; Haynes, John-Dylan; Prokopenko, Mikhail
The human brain undertakes highly sophisticated information processing facilitated by the interaction between its sub-regions. We present a novel method for interregional connectivity analysis, using multivariate extensions to the mutual information and transfer entropy. The method allows us to identify the underlying directed information structure between brain regions, and how that structure changes according to behavioral conditions. This method is distinguished in using asymmetric, multivariate, information-theoretical analysis, which captures not only directional and non-linear relationships, but also collective interactions. Importantly, the method is able to estimate multivariate information measures with only relatively little data. We demonstrate the method to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging time series to establish the directed information structure between brain regions involved in a visuo-motor tracking task. Importantly, this results in a tiered structure, with known movement planning regions driving visual and motor control regions. Also, we examine the changes in this structure as the difficulty of the tracking task is increased. We find that task difficulty modulates the coupling strength between regions of a cortical network involved in movement planning and between motor cortex and the cerebellum which is involved in the fine-tuning of motor control. It is likely these methods will find utility in identifying interregional structure (and experimentally induced changes in this structure) in other cognitive tasks and data modalities.
Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy
Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.
the essential elements of the sensor selection problem is defined from the Fisher information matrix. An example application consisting in a commercial turbofan engine illustrates the enhancement that can be expected from a wise selection of the sensor set.
Kamiyama, Akikazu; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki
Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanism underlying the gating of task-relevant information in V1. To address this issue, we focus on task-dependent tuning modulations of V1 neurons in two tasks of perceptual learning. We develop a model of the V1, which receives feedforward input from lateral geniculate nucleus and top-down input from a higher visual area. We show here that the change in a balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity is necessary for gating task-relevant information in V1. The balance change well accounts for the modulations of tuning characteristic and temporal properties of V1 neuronal responses. We also show that the balance change of V1 connectivity is shaped by top-down signals with temporal correlations reflecting the perceptual strategies of the two tasks. We propose a learning mechanism by which synaptic balance is modulated. To conclude, top-down signal changes the synaptic balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity, enabling early visual area such as V1 to gate context-dependent information under multiple task performances. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masaki, Sakiko; Ishimoto, Hiroko; Asai, Atsushi
Since Japan adopted the concept of informed consent from the West, its inappropriate acquisition from patients in the Japanese clinical setting has continued, due in part to cultural aspects. Here, we discuss the current status of and contemporary issues surrounding informed consent in Japan, and how these are influenced by Japanese culture. Current legal norms towards informed consent and information disclosure are obscure in Japan. For instance, physicians in Japan do not have a legal duty to inform patients of a cancer diagnosis. To gain a better understanding of these issues, we present five court decisions related to informed consent and information disclosure. We then discuss Japanese culture through reviews of published opinions and commentaries regarding how culture affects decision making and obtaining informed consent. We focus on two contemporary problems involving informed consent and relevant issues in clinical settings: the misuse of informed consent and persistence in obtaining consent. For the former issue, the phrase "informed consent" is often used to express an opportunity to disclose medical conditions and recommended treatment choices. The casual use of the expression "informed consent" likely reflects deep-rooted cultural influences. For the latter issue, physicians may try to obtain a signature by doing whatever it takes, lacking a deep understanding of important ethical principles, such as protecting human dignity, serving the patient's best interest, and doing no harm in decision-making for patients.There is clearly a misunderstanding of the concept of informed consent and a lack of complete understanding of ethical principles among Japanese healthcare professionals. Although similar in some respects to informed consent as it originated in the United States, our review makes it clear that informed consent in Japan has clear distinguishing features. Japanese healthcare professionals should aim to understand the basic nature of informed
Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter
Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.
Ramsay, M M; Broughton Pipkin, F; Rubin, P C; Skidmore, R
1. Doppler recordings were made from the brachial artery of healthy female subjects during a series of manoeuvres which altered the pressure-flow characteristics of the vessel. 2. Changes were induced in the peripheral circulation of the forearm by the application of heat or ice-packs. A sphygmomanometer cuff was used to create graded occlusion of the vessel above and below the point of measurement. Recordings were also made whilst the subjects performed a standardized Valsalva manoeuvre. 3. The Doppler recordings were analysed both with the standard waveform indices (systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index and resistance index) and by the method of Laplace transform analysis. 4. The waveform parameters obtained by Laplace transform analysis distinguished the different changes in flow conditions; they thus had direct physiological relevance, unlike the standard waveform indices.
Allen, Donald M.
This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.
Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G
Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Maguire, Jane; Levett-Jones, Tracy
The hierarchical nature of healthcare environments presents a key risk factor for effective interprofessional communication. Power differentials evident in traditional healthcare cultures can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to raise concerns and be assertive when they have concerns about patient safety. This issue is of particular concern in Japan where inherent cultural and social norms discourage assertive communication. The aim of this study was to (a) explore nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments; and (b) identify the factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication by Japanese nurses. A belief elicitation qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was conducted and reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research. Twenty-three practicing Japanese registered nurses were recruited by snowball sampling from October 2016 to January 2017. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed in Japanese and then translated into English. Two researchers independently conducted a directed content analysis informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants' responses were labelled in order of frequency for behavioural beliefs about the consequences of assertive communication, sources of social pressure, and factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments. Although person-centred care and patient advocacy were core values for many of the participants, strict hierarchies, age-based seniority, and concerns about offending a colleague or causing team disharmony impeded their use of assertive communication. Novice nurses were particularly reluctant to speak up because of their perception of having limited knowledge and experience. This study identified Japanese nurses' behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to assertive
So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori
The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.
... Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Sports Envoys Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of... Evaluation, Sports Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection. Originating Office...: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Kennedy Center (KC) Cultural Visitors Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type...
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-6 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Kalina_en.pdf
Moss, Jarrod; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan
There have been a number of recent findings indicating that unsolved problems, or open goals more generally, influence cognition even when the current task has no relation to the task in which the goal was originally set. It was hypothesized that open goals would influence what information entered the problem-solving process. Three studies were…
Bunget Ovidiu Constantin
The objective of IAS 29 is to establish specific standards for entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, so that the financial information provided is meaningful. Our empirical analysis encompasses a hyperinflationary economy covering a wide variety of hyperinflationary conditions.
Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio
During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase.
Rea, Stephen Campbell
This ethnography explores the practical experiences and institutional entanglements of online games, gaming, and gamers in contemporary South Korean culture and society. Korean online gaming culture is encountered at numerous sites and scales of experience, from the virtual worlds of online games, to the offline spaces where gaming happens, to societal practices and discourses around the management of online gaming and gamers backed by competing institutional interests. Online gaming is conte...
Dill, Vanderson; Klein, Pedro Costa; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Pinho, Márcio Sarroglia
Current state-of-the-art methods for whole and subfield hippocampus segmentation use pre-segmented templates, also known as atlases, in the pre-processing stages. Typically, the input image is registered to the template, which provides prior information for the segmentation process. Using a single standard atlas increases the difficulty in dealing with individuals who have a brain anatomy that is morphologically different from the atlas, especially in older brains. To increase the segmentation precision in these cases, without any manual intervention, multiple atlases can be used. However, registration to many templates leads to a high computational cost. Researchers have proposed to use an atlas pre-selection technique based on meta-information followed by the selection of an atlas based on image similarity. Unfortunately, this method also presents a high computational cost due to the image-similarity process. Thus, it is desirable to pre-select a smaller number of atlases as long as this does not impact on the segmentation quality. To pick out an atlas that provides the best registration, we evaluate the use of three meta-information parameters (medical condition, age range, and gender) to choose the atlas. In this work, 24 atlases were defined and each is based on the combination of the three meta-information parameters. These atlases were used to segment 352 vol from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Hippocampus segmentation with each of these atlases was evaluated and compared to reference segmentations of the hippocampus, which are available from ADNI. The use of atlas selection by meta-information led to a significant gain in the Dice similarity coefficient, which reached 0.68 ± 0.11, compared to 0.62 ± 0.12 when using only the standard MNI152 atlas. Statistical analysis showed that the three meta-information parameters provided a significant improvement in the segmentation accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Jiménez Molero, María Consuelo; Miranda Alonso, Miguel Ángel
The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and alpha(1)-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external...
Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as
Sundén, Erika; Dufva, Martina; Dahlberg, Joakim
A number of universities, research institutions, hospitals, and other businesses are in possession of relatively small amounts of nuclear material. In some cases the material is in activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, but there is also a wide variety of other applications. Regardless of application, material accountancy must be reported to the European Commission (EC) and, in Sweden, to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). However, checking the completeness and correctness of the reports from operators with very small amounts of nuclear material can easily be forgotten or viewed as being less important. Starting in the beginning of 2013 SSM increased its effort in this area and began working more actively gathering information and checking its correctness. Informing the operators in possession of nuclear material of the rules and regulations is a major part of this work, as it has been noted that the knowledge level of safeguarding nuclear material in many locations is very low. This paper will give a description of the work being performed by SSM to ensure that information related to the possession of nuclear material are gathered and correctly declared. It will give an overview of the different procedures that are applied to different categories of small holders in Sweden (where the differences are mostly due to historical reasons). It will also entail some of the challenges met along the way; such as explaining to radiographers that for nuclear non-proliferation purposes it is the shielding uranium container which is of interest, not the isotope emitting the radiation. What we have experienced being the major differences between collecting information from small holders as compared to larger nuclear facilities will also be outlined. The paper ends with an outline for future work.
Stephen J. Connor
Full Text Available Good health status is one of the primary aspirations of human social development and, as a consequence, health indicators are key components of the human development indices by which we measure progress toward sustainable development. Certain diseases and ill health are associated with particular environmental and climate conditions. The timeframe of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs demands that the risks to health associated with current climate variability are more fully understood and acted upon to improve the focus of resources in climate sensitive disease control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where good epidemiological surveillance data are lacking. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological data on malaria distribution in Africa, climate information has long been used to develop malaria risk maps illustrating the climatic suitability boundaries for endemic transmission. However, experience to date has shown that it is difficult in terms of availability, timing and cost to obtain meteorological observations from national meteorological services in Africa. National health services generally find the costs of purchasing these data prohibitive given their competing demands for resources across the spectrum of health service requirements. Some national health services have tried to overcome this access problem by using proxies derived from satellites, which tend to be available freely, in 'near-real-time' and therefore offer much promise for monitoring applications. This paper discusses the issues related to climate and health, reviews the current use of climate information for malaria endemic and epidemic surveillance, and presents examples of operational use of climate information for malaria control in Africa based on Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing.
Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van
When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.
Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon
This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured.
Miller, Hilary E; Simmering, Vanessa R
Children's spatial language reliably predicts their spatial skills, but the nature of this relation is a source of debate. This investigation examined whether the mechanisms accounting for such relations are specific to language use or reflect a domain-general mechanism of selective attention. Experiment 1 examined whether 4-year-olds' spatial skills were predicted by their selective attention or their adaptive language use. Children completed (a) an attention task assessing attention to task-relevant color, size, and location cues; (b) a description task assessing adaptive language use to describe scenes varying in color, size, and location; and (c) three spatial tasks. There was correspondence between the cue types that children attended to and produced across description and attention tasks. Adaptive language use was predicted by both children's attention and task-related language production, suggesting that selective attention underlies skills in using language adaptively. After controlling for age, gender, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive language use, spatial skills were predicted by children's selective attention. The attention score predicted variance in spatial performance previously accounted for by adaptive language use. Experiment 2 followed up on the attention task (Experiment 2a) and description task (Experiment 2b) from Experiment 1 to assess whether performance in the tasks related to selective attention or task-specific demands. Performance in Experiments 2a and 2b paralleled that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the effects in Experiment 1 reflected children's selective attention skills. These findings show that selective attention is a central factor supporting spatial skill development that could account for many effects previously attributed to children's language use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine
J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.
Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Marcello, Ida
The number of new chemicals synthesized and marketed increases exponentially. The database CAS REGISTRY at present contains more than 33 million organic and inorganic substances. However, the little information regarding the potential hazard associated with a large amount of chemicals is an old known problem in the European Union and also in the United States. This critical problem may find a solution in the collaboration of the different involved countries and in a planned task setting at international level. Both in the United States (e.g., the "Gore Initiative") and in European Union (the REACH policy) a big effort has been dedicated to this solution, within standardized procedures and an appropriate collaboration.
Castaño Eduardo M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is implicated in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ steady-state levels in the brain, and its deficient expression and/or activity may be a risk factor in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although IDE sub-cellular localization has been well studied, the compartments relevant to Aβ degradation remain to be determined. Results Our results of live immunofluorescence, immuno gold electron-microscopy and gradient fractionation concurred to the demonstration that endogenous IDE from brain tissues and cell cultures is, in addition to its other localizations, a detergent-resistant membrane (DRM-associated metallopeptidase. Our pulse chase experiments were in accordance with the existence of two pools of IDE: the cytosolic one with a longer half-life and the membrane-IDE with a faster turn-over. DRMs-associated IDE co-localized with Aβ and its distribution (DRMs vs. non-DRMs and activity was sensitive to manipulation of lipid composition in vitro and in vivo. When IDE was mis-located from DRMs by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, endogenous Aβ accumulated in the extracellular space and exogenous Aβ proteolysis was impaired. We detected a reduced amount of IDE in DRMs of membranes isolated from mice brain with endogenous reduced levels of cholesterol (Chol due to targeted deletion of one seladin-1 allele. We confirmed that a moderate shift of IDE from DRMs induced a substantial decrement on IDE-mediated insulin and Aβ degradation in vitro. Conclusion Our results support the notion that optimal substrate degradation by IDE may require its association with organized-DRMs. Alternatively, DRMs but not other plasma membrane regions, may act as platforms where Aβ accumulates, due to its hydrophobic properties, reaching local concentration close to its Km for IDE facilitating its clearance. Structural integrity of DRMs may also be required to tightly retain insulin receptor and IDE for
Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora
Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given.
Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, David A.
Describes an application of the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) to measure the effects of two ways to teach about German culture in beginning language courses. Qualitative analysis of results established that the treatment group, taught with constructivist, process-oriented tasks experienced significantly positive results on the CCAI…
Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J
Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.
Paulo Danelon Lopes
Full Text Available Introduction: Includes a documentary research on the relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization. Objective: The goal is to check the influence of information, considering the organizational culture, decision making in an organization. Methodology: The literature review include authors specialized in the areas of information (Belkin; Borko; Capurro; Choo; Tarapanoff; among others; culture (Fleury et al.; Moraes and Fadel; Nassar and Schein, decision making (Angeloni; Hoppen; Leitão and Nassif; Lousada and Valentim and Oliveira and organization (Bernardes and Marcondes and Maximiano. Results: That there may be a strong interdependency between information, culture and decision making in an organization. Conclusions: The information can facilitate understanding of the culture of an organization, how the processes of change occur and what alternatives can be raised so that she can achieve success in their decision-making process in order to ensure its perpetuation over time.
Full Text Available In this paper we chose to present two components of the financial statements: the profit and loss account and the cash flow statement. These summary documents and different indicators calculated based on them allow us to formulate assessments on the performance and profitability on various functions and levels of the companyâ€™s activity. This paper aims to support the hypothesis that the accounting information presented in the profit and loss account and in the cash flow statement is an appropriate source for assessing company performance. The purpose of this research is to answer the question linked to the main hypothesis: Is it the profit and loss statement or the cash flow account that reflects better the performance of a business? Based on the literature of specialty studied we tried a conceptual, analytical and practical approach of the term performance, overviewing some terminological acceptations of the term performance as well as the main indicators of performance analysis on the basis of the profit and loss account and of the cash flow statement: aggregated indicators, also known as intermediary balances of administration, economic rate of return, rate of financial profitability, rate of return through cash flows, operating cash flow rate, rate of generating operating cash out of gross operating result. At the same time we had a comparative approach of the profit and loss account and cash flow statement, outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of these documents. In order to demonstrate the above theoretical assessments, we chose to analyze these indicators based on information from the financial statements of SC Sinteza SA, a company in Bihor county, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.
Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…
This paper uses the example of foreign languages to explore the integration of critical information literacy into the curriculum of various disciplines. By closely examining the practices and values inherent in the foreign language information environment, the paper suggests that a critical vision of information literacy provides the most…
Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A
The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.
Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi
CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.
Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Greimel, Eva; Chie, Wei-Chu; Sezer, Orhan; Bergenmar, Mia; Costantini, Anna; Young, Teresa; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic; Velikova, Galina
Informational needs among cancer patients are similar, but the degree of information disclosure in different cultural areas varies. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-cultural study on information received. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25, was administered during the treatment process. This questionnaire evaluates the information that patients report they have received. Cross-cultural differences in information have been evaluated using statistical tests such as Kruskall-Wallis and multivariate models with covariates to account for differences in clinical and demographic characteristics across areas. Four hundred and fifty-one patients from three cultural areas, North-Middle Europe, South Europe, and Taiwan, were included in the study. Significant differences among the three cultural areas appeared in eight QLQ-INFO25 dimensions: information about the disease; medical tests; places of care; written information; information on CD/tape/video; satisfaction; wish for more information; and information helpfulness. North-Middle Europe patients received more written information (mean = 67.2 (North) and 33.8 (South)) and South Europe patients received more information on different places of care (mean = 24.7 (North) and 35.0 (South)). Patients from North-Middle Europe and South Europe received more information than patients from Taiwan about the disease (mean = 57.9, 60.6, and 47.1, respectively) and medical tests (70.9, 70.4, and 54.5), showed more satisfaction (64.8, 70.2, and 35.0), and considered the information more helpful (71.9, 73.9, and 50.4). These results were confirmed when adjusting for age, education, and disease stage. There are cross-cultural differences in information received. Some of these differences are based on the characteristics of each culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R
Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild
Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…
The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant
Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin
For this special article, we reviewed the computer code, used to extract the data, and the text of all 47 studies published between January 2006 and August 2017 using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH). Data from this institution were used in the largest number (P = .0007) of papers describing the use of AIMS published in this time frame. The AIMS was replaced in April 2017, making this finite sample finite. The objective of the current article was to identify factors that made TJUH successful in publishing anesthesia informatics studies. We examined the structured query language used for each study to examine the extent to which databases outside of the AIMS were used. We examined data quality from the perspectives of completeness, correctness, concordance, plausibility, and currency. Our results were that most could not have been completed without external database sources (36/47, 76.6%; P = .0003 compared with 50%). The operating room management system was linked to the AIMS and was used significantly more frequently (26/36, 72%) than other external sources. Access to these external data sources was provided, allowing exploration of data quality. The TJUH AIMS used high-resolution timestamps (to the nearest 3 milliseconds) and created audit tables to track changes to clinical documentation. Automatic data were recorded at 1-minute intervals and were not editable; data cleaning occurred during analysis. Few paired events with an expected order were out of sequence. Although most data elements were of high quality, there were notable exceptions, such as frequent missing values for estimated blood loss, height, and weight. Some values were duplicated with different units, and others were stored in varying locations. Our conclusions are that linking the TJUH AIMS to the operating room management system was a critical step in enabling publication of multiple studies using AIMS data. Access to this and
Individualist cultures represent loose ties between individuals where the interests of individuals prevail over the interests of the group and the...independence of individuals is emphasized. Individual accomplishments are valued whereas in collectivist cultures the group’s well being and common...goals and objectives are valued more. Collectivist cultures are characterized by tight social networks in which individuals strongly distinguish
Mwakalinga, G Jeffy; Kowalski, Stewart; Yngström, Louise
In this paper, we describe a methodology for considering culture of users and environments when developing information security systems. We discuss the problem of how researchers and developers of security for information systems have had difficulties in considering culture of users and environments when they develop information security systems. This has created environments where people serve technology instead of technology serving people. Users have been considered just as any other compo...
Taking into consideration the complex biology of bone tissue it is quite clear that the understanding of the cellular interactions that regulate the homeostasis and regeneration of this remarkable tissue is essential for a successful Tissue Engineering strategy. The in vitro study of these cellular interactions relies on co-culture systems, a tremendously useful methodology where two or more cell types are cultured at the same time. Such strategy increases the complexity of typ...
Muhammad Yusuf Alkali
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS as a new accounting reporting among Nigerian listed firms. This study uses book value, earnings and dividends to fill in the gap using a sample of 126 Nigerian listed firms in the stock market from 2009 to 2013 (pre and Post-IFRS adoption. Data was collected from Thompson Reuters, Bank scope DataStreams and annual reports. The study adopted Ohlson (1995 [Ohlson, J. (1995. Earnings, book-value, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 11(2, 661–687.] price model that has been frequently used in determining the quality of accounting information studies. The study finds that combined book value, earnings and dividends do not provide statistical significance effects on IFRS after adoption on the quality of accounting information. This could be possible, as dividends do not provide a significant effect in the presence of earnings. Furthermore, the audit big 4 quality provided an effect on the quality of accounting information because of IFRS adoption. Therefore, findings of this study provide additional literature on the decreasing quality of accounting information in an emerging market setting like Nigeria. The study implication is to the policy makers, regulators, and government that accounting information do not provide value relevance among Nigerian listed firms after IFRS adoption.
Alhayyan, Khalid N.
There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…
Goodrum, Sarah; Woodward, William; Thompson, Andrew J.
Much of the research on school shootings emphasizes the need for peers, not school officials, to share information about students of concern. This qualitative case study examined the information school officials had prior to a school shooting, which left two students dead. The data came from school officials' deposition testimony and school…
Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane
The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.
Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea
The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.
Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd
Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.
Mitchell, Gail J; Tregunno, Deborah; Gray, Julia; Ginsberg, Liane
The purpose of this paper is to describe patterns of patient safety culture that emerged from an innovative collaboration among health services researchers and fine arts colleagues. The group engaged in an arts-informed knowledge translation project to produce a dramatic expression of patient safety culture research for inclusion in a symposium. Scholars have called for a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationships among structure, process and outcomes relating to patient safety. Four patterns of patient safety culture--blinding familiarity, unyielding determination, illusion of control and dismissive urgency--are described with respect to how they informed creation of an arts-informed project for knowledge translation.
Dragnev Y. V.
Full Text Available A role and value of informative educational space in the professional becoming of future teacher of physical culture is considered. It is well-proven that such environment is characterized: by the volume of educational services, power, intensity, set of terms. It is shown that higher professional education requires perfection of the use of information technologies, programmatic and informative providing of educational process. It is set that modern information technologies are the mean of increase of efficiency of management all of spheres of public activity. It is marked that the process of forming of informative culture needs the personally oriented and differentiated going near the choice of the teaching programs. Directions of the use of information technologies in the controlled from distance teaching are selected. The ways of intensification of educational process are recommended through the increase of interest of students to the study of concrete discipline, increase of volume of independent work, increase of closeness of educational material.
Full Text Available In recent years, pluvial floods caused by extreme rainfall events have occurred frequently. Especially in urban areas, they lead to serious damages and endanger the citizens’ safety. Therefore, real-time information about such events is desirable. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms, such as Twitter or Instagram, information provided by voluntary users becomes a valuable source for emergency response. Many applications have been built for disaster detection and flood mapping using crowdsourcing. Most of the applications so far have merely used keyword filtering or classical language processing methods to identify disaster relevant documents based on user generated texts. As the reliability of social media information is often under criticism, the precision of information retrieval plays a significant role for further analyses. Thus, in this paper, high quality eyewitnesses of rainfall and flooding events are retrieved from social media by applying deep learning approaches on user generated texts and photos. Subsequently, events are detected through spatiotemporal clustering and visualized together with these high quality eyewitnesses in a web map application. Analyses and case studies are conducted during flooding events in Paris, London and Berlin.
Full Text Available Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025 and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001. The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.
Yuri V. Dragnev
Full Text Available The article examines information environment as an integral element of information space in the process of professional development of future teacher of physical culture, notes that the strategic objective of the system of higher education is training of competent future teacher of physical culture in the field of information technologies, when information competence and information culture are major components of professionalism in modern information-oriented society
Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Valdivia-Nuno, Jose de Jesus; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar
Education is a major health determinant and one of the main independent outcome predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of the Internet by patients has grown exponentially in the last decade. To assess the characteristics, legibility and quality of the information available in Spanish in the Internet regarding to rheumatoid arthritis. The search was performed in Google using the phrase rheumatoid arthritis. Information from the first 30 pages was evaluated according to a pre-established format (relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication and financial objective). The quality and legibility of the pages were assessed using two validated tools, DISCERN and INFLESZ respectively. Data extraction was performed by senior medical students and evaluation was achieved by consensus. The Google search returned 323 hits but only 63% were considered relevant; 80% of them were information sites (71% discussed exclusively RA, 44% conventional treatment and 12% alternative therapies) and 12.5% had a primary financial interest. 60% of the sites were created by nonprofit organizations and 15% by medical associations. Web sites posted by medical institutions from the United States of America were better positioned in Spanish (Arthritis Foundation 4th position and American College of Rheumatology 10th position) than web sites posted by Spanish speaking countries. There is a risk of disinformation for patients with RA that use the Internet. We identified a window of opportunity for rheumatology medical institutions from Spanish-speaking countries to have a more prominent societal involvement in the education of their patients with RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…
Williams, Edith Ellison; Ellison, Florence
Culturally informed social work health and mental health interventions directed toward American Indian clients must be harmonious with their environment and acculturation. Discusses American Indian beliefs about health and illness and degrees of acculturation. Guidelines are offered to help non-Indian social workers design culturally appropriate…
... Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request... data on the nation's transportation system is an important component of BTS' responsibility to the...
This booklet examines U.S. involvement with cultural diplomacy, emphasizing exchanges of persons and ideas that have lasting effects on relatively small numbers of people and information programs using the mass media to influence large numbers of people. Whereas the cultural exchange programs are internationalist in nature, promoting mutual and…
of consent practices on Facebook, the article argues that with the growing importance and use of these services the consent culture of the internet has turned into a blind non-informed consent culture, heavily relying on social incentives and group dynamics in decision-making that are not adequately...
This research generates new knowledge about how 24 educational leaders in the USA and England used their doctoral research to build narrative capital to inform strategies to steer their organizations towards cultural alignment. Cultural alignment prevents forms of segregation rooted in nation-states' wider historiography of education segregation…
Coppola, Angela M.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F.
The purpose of the article is to discuss and reflect upon a process of building relationships and conducting community consultations to co-create a relevant community-based participatory research agenda exploring Indigenous youth activity-promoting programming. Four consultations were conducted with approximately 30 community members in Edmonton,…
The aim of this paper is to offer a critical discussion of the role of native and foreign accents in L2 pronunciation teaching. Several studies concluded that classroom practices of grammar instruction are strongly influenced by teaching cultures. We will examine whether this is also the case for pronunciation teaching. While the CEFR…
Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Bashir-Ali, Khadar; Abdi, Nimo; Witherspoon Arnold, Noelle
This article examines school leadership behaviors and understandings of Somaliland school principals. By using postcolonial theory and critical phenomenology, we explore culturally responsive leadership in Northern Somalia; we expound on the unique ways that school leaders enact school leadership, and interact with the students, families, and…
Isaacson, Mary J; Lynch, Anna R
American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) have higher rates of chronic illness and lack access to palliative/end-of-life (EOL) care. This integrative review ascertained the state of the science on culturally acceptable palliative/EOL care options for Indigenous persons in the United States. Databases searched: CINAHL, PubMed/MEDLINE, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and EBSCO Discovery Service 1880s-Present. Key terms used: palliative care, EOL care, and AI/AN. peer-reviewed articles published in English. Findings/Results: Twenty-nine articles were identified, 17 remained that described culturally specific palliative/EOL care for AIs/ANs. Synthesis revealed four themes: Communication, Cultural Awareness/Sensitivity, Community Guidance for Palliative/EOL Care Programs, Barriers and two subthemes: Trust/Respect and Mistrust. Limitations are lack of research funding, geographic isolation, and stringent government requirements. Palliative/EOL care must draw on a different set of skills that honor care beyond cure provided in a culturally sensitive manner.
Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Grenouillet, Frédéric; François, Nadine; Skana, Florence; Millon, Laurence
With the increasing incidence and diverse etiologies of fungal infections, chromogenic yeast culture media are increasingly used for routine diagnosis. Rhodotorula species, which are characterized by the production of carotenoid pigments, are considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens. We recently diagnosed two fungemia due to Rhodotorula spp. and noticed that in both cases, the yeast failed to grow in subculture on the chromogenic yeast culture medium. This study was thus undertaken to investigate more thoroughly the ability (or inability) of Rhodotorula species to grow on different commercially available chromogenic media for yeast. Eighteen Rhodotorula spp. were checked for their ability to grow on four chromogenic yeast culture media: CHROMagar Candida (BD), Candi 4 Select (Biorad), Brilliance Candida (Oxoid), and Candida ID 2 (BioMerieux). All the Rhodotorula spp. strains grew on Brilliance and Candida ID 2, while only six isolates grew on Candi 4, and seven on CHROMagar. Two chromogenic yeast culture media showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula species. As all Rhodotorula species are resistant to echinocandins and fluconazole, it is essential to isolate and identify these yeast quickly to initiate appropriate amphotericin B antifungal treatment as early as possible. The choice of media for routine use should take into account the ability of different media to allow all emerging fungal pathogens to grow. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murphy, Joel P.; Murphy, Shirley A.
A convergent mixed methods research design addressed the extent of benefit obtained from reading culturally inclusive prompts (i.e., four brief essays written by Latino authors) to improve essay writing in a developmental (pre-college) English course. Participants were 45 Latino students who provided quantitative data. Chi square analysis showed…
Adjapong, Edmund S.
This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates…
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.
Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.
The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.
One of the most important components of effective safety and risk management for nuclear power stations is a healthy safety culture. DNV has developed an approach for risk informed safety culture assessment that combines two complementary paradigms for safety and risk management: loss prevention - for preventing and intervening in accidents; and critical function management - for achieving safety and performance goals. Combining these two paradigms makes it possible to provide more robust systems for safety management and to support a healthy safety culture. This approach is being applied to safety culture assessment in partnership with a Canadian nuclear utility. (author)
The result of the application of effective accounting information system and provide quality and effective accounting information quality. Fundamental rule accounting information systems in an organization is generating accounting information quality through the process of collecting raw data and then processed and then presented in the form of accounting information useful for user information. The purpose of this study was to know how the effect of Use of information technology on the qual...
Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska; Applegate, Dawn; Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Naughton, Brian; Roth, Adrian
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity
Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Applegate, Dawn [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Naughton, Brian [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roth, Adrian, E-mail: email@example.com [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland)
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity
A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.
Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J
Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. © 2016 The Author(s).
Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.
Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken
Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.
A. A. Malyuk
Full Text Available In the context of ever increasing information dependence of all spheres of activity of the company reliability and dependability of information and communication technologies (ICT, quality of information, which is used by members of the information society, saving secrets is of paramount importance. Users must trust all information services they use. Otherwise, the consequences for society and each individual can be simply disastrous. Thus, one of the main problems of the development of the information society is to ensure the information security of the individual, society and state. In order to successfully resist the flow of threats and challenges, each member of the information society must have a certain minimum knowledge, culture and appropriate information to be prepared for an active struggle for the purity of the various types of ICT cyber-hawks, cybercriminals, cyber-terrorists and just cyber-bullies. At the same time, as shown by statistics and sociological research, while rapidly increasing the level of the use of global information and communication networks the level of information literacy of users and their information culture is extremely low. Only about 10 percent of people are more or less aware of the dangers they face while working on the Internet, or they (unwillingly is subjected to its correspondents. Thus, today the key issue of the Information Society becomes the formation of information culture of users and, above all, raising their awareness in this area. Analysis of approaches and expertise to solve this problem (especially overseas is the subject of this article. The conceptual and substantive plans for the material of the article is based on a UN General Assembly resolution that approved in December 2002 the principles of formation of global culture of cybersecurity
HUANG Caiwen; LIANG Rui
In recent years , following the rap-id social and economic development and the impact of globalization , the traditional modes of production and lifestyle of the minorities on the border of Yun-nan have undergone unprecedented changes .Many non -renewable ethnic traditional cultural re-sources are decreasing or in danger of disappea-ring , especially among ethnic minorities with small populations .The situation of their traditional cul-ture is much more serious than other minorities . How to strengthen the protection and transmission of the cultures of ethnic minorities with small popu-lations has already become a hot topic in academic circles.Taking the Bulang as an example , a mi-nority with a small population in Yunnan , this arti-cle discusses the approaches and methods of pro-tection and transmission of the Bulang ’ s ethnic culture by using modern technology to systematize information resource management ” , so as to pro-vide a framework for the digitization of the ethnic minorities’ cultural resource . The Bulang are one of the 15 unique ethnic minorities in Yunnan , and are also a cross -border minority with a small population .The digital re-sources of Bulang ’ s cultural heritage can be di-vided into two categories:The first category is ma-terial culture and tangible cultural heritage .This mainly includes:1 ) historical sites;and 2 ) secu-lar architecture .The second category is oral and intangible cultural heritage .It mainly includes:1) language and words; 2 ) folk costume; 3 ) folk songs and dances;4 ) folk literature;5 ) religious culture;6 ) traditional technologies ; 7 ) folklore and festivals ;and 8) folk medicine. Different from “hard” resources, such as nat-ural resource and economic resource , ethnic cul-tural resources are a kind of “soft” resource which is difficult to quantify or assess .It depends on the people’ s subjective assessment .In addition, we should notice two issues related to the digitization of ethnic cultural
Dombrowsky, W.R. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Katastrophenforschungsstelle
Based on the results of empirical research, which implemented and evaluated information to the public requested by law (HIO-Paragraph-11a) and based on the general findings of crisis- and risk-communication research, some disturbing elements in the relationship between entrepreneurs, administration and the public will be described in terms of cognitive dissonance, prejudice, fears and false expectations. The empirical example of public information in emergencies will evidence the conflicting views on types, styles, size and profoundity of such information as well as the differences in perception, motivation and interest of all parties involved. Finally, the cultural context of risk perception and of coping capabilities will be interrelated with historical changes of risk-management to prepare for the understanding that risk- and crisis communication has to be more than talking about safety. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel einer Implementations- und Evaluationsforschung zur Erstellung von Stoerfallinformationen nach Paragraph 11a BimSchG fuer zwei Unternehmen und auf Basis des Kenntnisstandes der internationalen Forschung zur Krisen- und Risikokommunikation wird verdeutlicht, welche kognitiven Dissonanzen zwischen Anlagenbetreibern, Behoerden und Bevoelkerung ueber Art, Umfang und Gestaltung von Gefahrinformationen bestehen, welche Vorurteile und Aengste eine sachliche Kommunikation behindern, welche gesellschaftlichen Faktoren bislang weitgehend uebersehen wurden, was von wem fuer `stoer- und unfallrelevant` gehalten wird und welche gesellschaftlichen, sozialen `settings`, d.h. welche menschlichen Bedingungen die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung welcher Informationen beeinflussen. Darin liegt die empirische Bestaetigung der Hypothese, dass sich die Wahrnehmung von Risiken und Bedrohungen historisch kurzfristig (bereits innerhalb einer Generation) veraendert und es keine `one-for-all`-Strategie der Risiko- und Krisenkommunikation geben kann, wohl aber allgemeine
Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C
Preferences for topics and means of access to health information among newly arrived, culturally and linguistically diverse women in Perth, Western Australia, were explored. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Qualitative material obtained from focus groups and interviews with 22 service providers and 26 migrant women was used to develop a questionnaire, which was then administered to 268 newly arrived migrant and refugee women from 50 countries. Participants' information and support priorities were ascertained from a ranking exercise conducted in a non-threatening context. Responses of migrant and refugee women were compared quantitatively. Women's top priorities for information and support included employment advice, as well as information regarding mental health issues, women's health, exercise and nutrition, family violence and alcohol and other drug issues. Their preferred methods for receiving information were interactive talks or presentations, with written material support. Audiovisual and Web-based material were also considered useful. There were differences between refugee women's and other migrants' preferences for means of receiving information and topics of most concern. The use of a non-threatening ranking process encouraged women to prioritise sensitive topics, such as family violence, and revealed a need for such topics to be incorporated within general health information presentations. Internet-based technologies are becoming increasingly important methods for disseminating information to migrant women. SO WHAT? Differences between migrant and refugee women's priority health issues and their preferred methods for receiving information highlight the desirability of tailoring information to particular groups. Although advice on employment pathways and mental health concerns were top priorities, the study revealed a need for more discussion on other sensitive topics, such as family violence and alcohol-related issues, and that ideally these should
Hamamura, Takeshi; Meijer, Zita; Heine, Steven J; Kamaya, Kengo; Hori, Izumi
Much recent research suggests that North Americans more frequently experience approach motivations and East Asians more frequently experience avoidance motivations. The current research explores some cognitive implications of this cultural difference. North Americans should be more attentive to approach-oriented information, whereas East Asians should be more attentive to avoidance-oriented information. Three studies confirmed this hypothesis. When asked to recall information framed in either approach or avoidance terms, a predicted interaction between culture and information frame was observed (Study 1 and 2). Moreover, analyses of consumer book reviews found that among reviews that were rated as helpful, approach-focused content was more prevalent in American reviews compared to Japanese reviews, in which avoidance-focused content was more prevalent (Study 3). Findings from the current research add to the growing literature of cross-cultural research on approach-avoidance motivations.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the
Paul, David; Ewen, Shaun C; Jones, Rhys
The concept of cultural competence has become reified by inclusion as an accreditation standard in the US and Canada, in New Zealand it is demanded through an Act of Parliament, and it pervades discussion in Australian medical education discourse. However, there is evidence that medical graduates feel poorly prepared to deliver cross-cultural care (Weissman et al. in J Am Med Assoc 294(9):1058-1067, 2005) and many commentators have questioned the effectiveness of cultural competence curricula. In this paper we apply Hafferty's taxonomy of curricula, the formal, informal and hidden curriculum (Hafferty in Acad Med 73(4):403-407, 1998), to cultural competence. Using an example across each of these curricular domains, we highlight the need for curricular congruence to support cultural competence development among learners. We argue that much of the focus on cultural competence has been in the realm of formal curricula, with existing informal and hidden curricula which may be at odds with the formal curriculum. The focus of the formal, informal and hidden curriculum, we contend, should be to address disparities in health care outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that without congruence between formal, informal and hidden curricula, approaches to addressing disparity in health care outcomes in medical education may continue to represent reform without change.
Karamanidou, Christina; Dimopoulos, Kostas
Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals' role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants' accounts. Five major themes were identified: health care professionals' perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use), animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations), health care professionals' perceptions of the public's attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals' attitudes, media and family), the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations) and their own role (provision of health information, sex education). Health professionals' concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have resulted in the confusion of the general public, as manifested by low vaccination
Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals’ role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. Methods This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants’ accounts. Results Five major themes were identified: health care professionals’ perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use, animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations, health care professionals’ perceptions of the public’s attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals’ attitudes, media and family, the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations and their own role (provision of health information, sex education. Conclusions Health professionals’ concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have
Djonko-Moore, Cara M.; Leonard, Jacqueline; Holifield, Quintaniay; Bailey, Elsa B.; Almughyirah, Sultan M.
Background: Children living in urban areas often have limited opportunities to experience informal science environments. As a result, some do not have a deep understanding of the environment, natural resources, ecosystems, and the ways human activities affect nature. Purpose: This article examines how experiential science education supported urban…
Fortune, Nicola; Madden, Richard; Almborg, Ann-Helene
Development of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is currently underway. Once finalised, ICHI will provide a standard basis for collecting, aggregating, analysing, and comparing data on health interventions across all sectors of the health system. In this paper, we introduce the classification, describing its underlying tri-axial structure, organisation and content. We then discuss the potential value of ICHI for capturing information on met and unmet need for health interventions relevant to people with a disability, with a particular focus on interventions to support functioning and health promotion interventions. Early experiences of use of the Swedish National Classification of Social Care Interventions and Activities, which is based closely on ICHI, illustrate the value of a standard classification to support practice and collect statistical data. Testing of the ICHI beta version in a wide range of countries and contexts is now needed so that improvements can be made before it is finalised. Input from those with an interest in the health of people with disabilities and health promotion more broadly is welcomed.
Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen
The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al., 2013). Here, we discuss the translation and cultural adaptation (CA) of this intervention in local and international contexts, which required systematic consideration of cultural differences that could affect program acceptability. First, we conducted a translation and CA of our program to serve Latino families in the United States using the Cultural Adaptation Process (CAP), a model that works closely with stakeholders in a systematic, iterative process. Second, to implement the adapted program in Medellín, Colombia, we conducted a subsequent adaptation for Colombian culture using the same CAP. Our experience underscores the importance of consideration of cultural differences and a systematic approach to adaptation before assessing the efficacy of neurobiologically informed interventions in different cultural contexts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boisot, Max H
In this book the author lays the foundations for a new political economy of information. The information space, or I-Space is the conceptual framework in which organizations, institutions and cultures are being transformed by new information and communication technologies. In the penultimate chapter, the I-Space's usefulness as an explanatory framework is illustrated with an application: a case study of China's modernization. Information Space proposes a radical shift in the way that we approach the emerging information age and the implications it holds for societies, organizations and individuals.
Kim, Young-Hoon; Cohen, Dov
People's judgments about their own moral status and well-being were made differently by those from a Dignity culture (Anglo-Americans) and by those from a Face culture (Asian Americans). Face culture participants were more influenced by information processed from a third-person (compared with first-person) perspective, with information about the self having a powerful effect only when seen through another's eyes. Thus, (a) Asian Americans felt the greatest need for moral cleansing when thinking about how others would judge their many (vs. few) transgressions, but this effect did not hold when others were not invoked, and (b) Asian Americans defined themselves as having a rich social network and worthwhile life when thinking about how others would evaluate their many (vs. few) friendships, but again, effects did not hold when others were not invoked. In contrast, Anglo-Americans responded to information about their transgressions or friendships, but effects were pronounced only when other people were not invoked.
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper
train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....
Full Text Available As an invaluable source of knowledge about the past, cultural heritage may be an important element of the humanities research infrastructure, along with other elements, such as spatial references. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an answer to the questions concerning the ways in which spatial information can contribute to the development of this infrastructure and the aspects of storytelling based on cultural resources that can be supported by such infrastructure. The objective of the methodology that was used was to combine the aspects that refer to spatial information and cultural items into a single, common issue, and to describe them in a formalized way with use of Unified Modeling Language (UML. As a result, the study presents a proposal of the Humanities Infrastructure Architecture based on spatially-oriented movable cultural items, taking into account their use in the context of interoperability, along with the concept of creating spatial databases that would include movable monuments. The authors also demonstrate that the ISO 19100 series of geographical information standards may be a source of interesting conceptual solutions that may be used in the process of the standardization of geographical information that was recorded in the descriptions of cultural heritage items in form of metadata and data structure descriptions.
Full Text Available Information technology and its consequent virtual space are opening up a new sphere in psychological, sociological and cultural studies associated with the mutual effect of technology, culture and human beings in general, and the interaction of cyberspace and culture, identity and human relationships. Recent studies in this field should be examined at least to realize whether the psychological and social outcomes and the pathology of virtual spaces are the result of the overflow of problems and issues of society and the real space into virtual space, and to decide if the challenges and the social problems in question are due to the development and growth of electronic media and virtual space? While describing and explaining the effect of culture, society and their consequent traditions on virtual spaces, relationships and their content, and examining the effect of virtual space on culture, social actions, identity, attitudes and individual and collective behavior, the present article stresses that considering the short history and the little experience of the interaction between human and information technology and virtual space, it seems too soon to speak decisively about the outcomes of information technology and virtual spaces. Therefore, two principles are suggested to be established in cultural and social research on cyberspace. First, in the study of virtual space, priorities should be identified correctly and one should not merely focus on the problems resulting from information and communication technology instead of dealing with fundamental issues. Second, both in the theoretical and the methodological aspects of studies on virtual space, in different social and cultural spheres, one cannot rely merely on traditional theories and method, and new methods, in terms of theory, methodology and tools, should be applied.
J. Scott Foott
Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and
Keller, Carmen; Junghans, Alex
Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension. In an eye-tracker experiment ( N = 110) involving a sample from the general population, we presented participants with 2 hypothetical scenarios (stomach cancer, leukemia) showing survival curves for 2 treatments. In the training condition, participants received written instructions on how to read the graph. In the control condition, participants received another text. We tracked participants' eye movements while they answered 9 knowledge questions. The sum constituted graph comprehension. We analyzed visual attention to task-relevant graphical elements by using relative fixation durations and relative fixation counts. The mediation analysis revealed a significant ( P attention to task-relevant information, which did not differ between the 2 conditions. Training had a significant main effect on visual attention ( P attention to task-relevant graphical elements than individuals with low numeracy. With appropriate instructions, both groups can be trained to improve their graph-processing efficiency. Future research should examine (e.g., motivational) mediators between visual attention and graph comprehension to develop appropriate instructions that also result in higher graph comprehension.
Hammami, Muhammad M; Al-Jawarneh, Yussuf; Hammami, Muhammad B; Al Qadire, Mohammad
The current doctrine of informed consent for clinical care has been developed in cultures characterized by low-context communication and monitoring-style coping. There are scarce empirical data on patients' norm perception of information disclosure in other cultures. We surveyed 470 adults who were planning to undergo or had recently undergone a written informed consent-requiring procedure in a tertiary healthcare hospital in Saudi Arabia. Perceptions of norm and current practice were explored using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly agree with disclosure) and 30 information items in 7 domains: practitioners' details, benefits, risks, complications' management, available alternatives, procedure's description, and post-procedure's issues. Respondents' mean (SD) age was 38.4 (12.5); 50.2% were males, 57.2% had ≥ college education, and 37.9% had undergone a procedure. According to norm perception, strongly agree/agree responses ranged from 98.0% (major benefits) to 50.5% (assistant/trainee's name). Overall, items related to benefits and post-procedure's issues were ranked better (more agreeable) than items related to risks and available alternatives. Ranking scores were better in post-procedure respondents for 4 (13.3%) items (p s name) to 13.9% (lead practitioner's training place), ranking scores were worse for all items compared to norm perception (p norm, 2) the focus of the desired information is closer to benefits and post-procedure's issues than risks and available alternatives, 3) male, post-procedure, and older patients are in favor of more information disclosure, 4) male, older, and more educated patients may be particularly dissatisfied with current information disclosure. The focus and extent of information disclosure for clinical informed consent may need to be adjusted if a "reasonable" patient's standard is to be met.
Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Conde-Ocazionez, Sergio A; Feitosa, Anatildes; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an
Friedman, C P
Persons and groups within academic medical centers bring consistent and predictable viewpoints to planning and decision making. The varied professional and academic cultures of these individuals appear to account primarily for the diversity of their viewpoints. Understanding these professional cultures can help leaders achieve some predictability in the complex environments for which they are responsible. Leaders in information technology in particular, in order to be successful, must become part-time anthropologists, immersing themselves in the varied workplaces of their constituents to understand the work they do and the cultures that have grown up around this work. Only in this way will they be able to manage the challenges that arise continuously as the technology and the needs it can address change over time. In this article, the author briefly describes the concept of culture, portrays four specific professional cultures that typically coexist in academic medical centers, and argues that understanding these cultures is absolutely critical to effective management and use of information resources.
Companies and organizations world-wide depend more and more on IT infrastructure and operations. Computer systems store vital information and sensitive data; computing services are essential for main business processes. This high dependency comes with a number of security risks, which have to be managed correctly on technological, organizational and human levels. Addressing the human aspects of information security often boils down just to procedures, training and awareness raising. On the other hand, employees and collaborators do not adopt security attitude and habits simply when told to do so – a real change in behaviour requires an established security culture. But how to introduce a security culture? This thesis outlines the need of developing or improving security culture, and discusses how this can be done. The proposed approach is to gradually build security knowledge and awareness, and influence behaviours. The way to achieve this is to make security communication pervasive by embedding security me...
Gardner, John Wallace
This dissertation examines the effects of safety culture, including operational climate and practices, as well as the adoption and use of information systems for delivering high quality healthcare and improved patient experience. Chapter 2 studies the influence of both general and outcome-specific hospital climate and quality practices on process…
Walters, W Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen
Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.
Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…
Granito, Francis A.
Organizational change and organizational culture have been studied and written about by many authors, most notably by Edgar Schein (1990, 1992), and are named as critical components of organizational maturity through such industry standards as The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Control Objectives for Information and Related…
Science education reform focuses on learner-centered instruction within contexts that support learners' sociocultural experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore Hispanic mothers' experiences as accompanying adults at an informal science center within the context of culturally sustaining experiences, which include the fluidity…
Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy
This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control
Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…
Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco
Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.
Playing a musical instrument is generally considered to be a complex human behaviour involving the integration and coordination of a broad range of human functions such as perception, imagination, memory, information processing, emotion, communication, and dexterity. From this perspective, it seems
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Hofer, Ira S; Rodriguez, Luis I; Schwenk, Eric S; Maga, Joni M; Hindman, Bradley J
Perioperative hypothermia may increase the incidences of wound infection, blood loss, transfusion, and cardiac morbidity. US national quality programs for perioperative normothermia specify the presence of at least 1 "body temperature" ≥35.5°C during the interval from 30 minutes before to 15 minutes after the anesthesia end time. Using data from 4 academic hospitals, we evaluated timing and measurement considerations relevant to the current requirements to guide hospitals wishing to report perioperative temperature measures using electronic data sources. Anesthesia information management system databases from 4 hospitals were queried to obtain intraoperative temperatures and intervals to the anesthesia end time from discontinuation of temperature monitoring, end of surgery, and extubation. Inclusion criteria included age >16 years, use of a tracheal tube or supraglottic airway, and case duration ≥60 minutes. The end-of-case temperature was determined as the maximum intraoperative temperature recorded within 30 minutes before the anesthesia end time (ie, the temperature that would be used for reporting purposes). The fractions of cases with intervals >30 minutes between the last intraoperative temperature and the anesthesia end time were determined. Among the hospitals, averages (binned by quarters) of 34.5% to 59.5% of cases had intraoperative temperature monitoring discontinued >30 minutes before the anesthesia end time. Even if temperature measurement had been continued until extubation, averages of 5.9% to 20.8% of cases would have exceeded the allowed 30-minute window. Averages of 8.9% to 21.3% of cases had end-of-case intraoperative temperatures <35.5°C (ie, a quality measure failure). Because of timing considerations, a substantial fraction of cases would have been ineligible to use the end-of-case intraoperative temperature for national quality program reporting. Thus, retrieval of postanesthesia care unit temperatures would have been necessary. A
Treagust, David F.; Qureshi, Sheila S.; Vishnumolakala, Venkat Rao; Ojeil, Joseph; Mocerino, Mauro; Southam, Daniel C.
Educational reforms in Qatar have seen the implementation of inquiry-based learning and other student-centred pedagogies. However, there have been few efforts to investigate how these adopted western pedagogies are aligned with the high context culture of Qatar. The study presented in this article highlights the implementation of a student-centred intervention called Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in selected independent Arabic government schools in Qatar. The study followed a theoretical framework composed of culturally relevant pedagogical practice and social constructivism in teaching and learning. A mixed method research design involving experimental and comparison groups was utilised. Carefully structured learning materials when implemented systematically in a POGIL intervention helped Grade 10 science students improve their perceptions of chemistry learning measured from pre- and post-tests as measured by the What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) questionnaire and school-administered achievement test. The study further provided school-based mentoring and professional development opportunities for teachers in the region. Significantly, POGIL was found to be adaptable in the Arabic context.
Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert
South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.
Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara
Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.
Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin
Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.
Roubinov, Danielle S; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Crnic, Keith A
An increasing body of research has documented the significant influence of father involvement on children's development and overall well-being. However, extant research has predominately focused on middle-class Caucasian samples with little examination of fathering in ethnic minority and low-income families, particularly during the infancy period. The present study evaluated measures of early father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) that were adapted to capture important cultural values relevant to the paternal role in Mexican-origin families. A sample of 180 Mexican-origin mothers (M age = 28.3) and 83 Mexican-origin fathers (M age = 31.5) were interviewed during the perinatal period. Descriptive analyses indicated that Mexican-origin fathers are involved in meaningful levels of direct interaction with their infant. A 2-factor model of paternal responsibility was supported by factor analyses, consisting of a behavioral responsibility factor aligned with previous literature and culturally derived positive machismo factor. Qualities of the romantic relationship, cultural orientation, and maternal employment status were related to indices of father involvement. These preliminary results contribute to understanding of the transition to fatherhood among low-income Mexican-origin men and bring attention to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts in which varying levels of father involvement may emerge. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Roubinov, Danielle S.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.
Objectives An increasing body of research has documented the significant influence of father involvement on children’s development and overall well-being. However, extant research has predominately focused on middle-class Caucasian samples with little examination of fathering in ethnic minority and low-income families, particularly during the infancy period. The present study evaluated measures of early father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) that were adapted to capture important cultural values relevant to the paternal role in Mexican origin families. Methods A sample of 180 Mexican origin mothers (M age = 28.3) and 83 Mexican origin fathers (M age = 31.5) were interviewed during the perinatal period. Results Descriptive analyses indicated that Mexican origin fathers are involved in meaningful levels of direct interaction with their infant. A two-factor model of paternal responsibility was supported by factor analyses, consisting of a behavioral responsibility factor aligned with previous literature and culturally-derived positive machismo factor. Qualities of the romantic relationship, cultural orientation, and maternal employment status were related to indices of father involvement. Conclusions These preliminary results contribute to understanding of the transition to fatherhood among low-income Mexican origin men and bring attention to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts in which varying levels of father involvement may emerge. PMID:26237543
Dragnev Y. V.
Full Text Available It is marked that reformation of higher education is an objective necessity. It is marked that the educational system of Ukraine answers the new requirements of informative society not fully. It is certain that optimization of professional education of future teacher of physical culture must be characterized the choice of the most favourable variant of terms and teaching facilities. It is set that transitions within the limits of one informative space have an influence on professional development of future teacher during his studies. The followings terms of optimization of professional education of teacher are selected: system use of active and interactive methods; bringing in to the advanced study; the increase of role is informative of communication technologies in an educational process. The concordance of maintenance of curriculum of education of teachers of physical culture with the programs of education of the European countries and standardization is recommended them within the limits of Ukraine.
Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A; Ainsworth, Barbara E
African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women. Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction. All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = -74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = -34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P's .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P program to a friend
Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kenny, Raelene; Van der Riet, Pamela; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley; Bourgeois, Sharon; Luxford, Yoni
This paper profiles a study that explored nursing students' information and communication technology competence and confidence. It presents selected findings that focus on students' attitudes towards information and communication technology as an educational methodology and their perceptions of its relevance to clinical practice. Information and communication technology is integral to contemporary nursing practice. Development of these skills is important to ensure that graduates are 'work ready' and adequately prepared to practice in increasingly technological healthcare environments. This was a mixed methods study. Students (n=971) from three Australian universities were surveyed using an instrument designed specifically for the study, and 24 students participated in focus groups. The focus group data revealed that a number of students were resistant to the use of information and communication technology as an educational methodology and lacked the requisite skills and confidence to engage successfully with this educational approach. Survey results indicated that 26 per cent of students were unsure about the relevance of information and communication technology to clinical practice and only 50 per cent felt 'very confident' using a computer. While the importance of information and communication technology to student's learning and to their preparedness for practice has been established, it is evident that students' motivation is influenced by their level of confidence and competence, and their understanding of the relevance of information and communication technology to their future careers.
Алла Борисовна Денисова
Full Text Available The corporate culture of high school possesses a powerful educational potential and it is a condition of formation of readiness and successful adaptation of the graduating student in his life after studies to environment. The corporate culture is formed by means of all forms of student's activity, but is the most effective in nonlearning sphere. To be modern and actual, the nonlearning activity, directed on formation of the corporate competence of students, demands making a system of technical and informational support.
Anderson, Olympia; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel
Objective The culture by which public health professionals work defines their organizational objectives, expectations, policies, and values. These aspects of culture are often intangible and difficult to qualify. The introduction of an information system could further complicate the culture of a jurisdiction if the intangibles of a culture are not clearly understood. This report describes how cultural modeling can be used to capture intangible elements or factors that may affect NEDSS-compatible (NC) system functionalities within the culture of public health jurisdictions. Introduction The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) comprises many activities including collaborations, processes, standards, and systems which support gathering data from US states and territories. As part of NNDSS, the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) provides the standards, tools, and resources to support reporting public health jurisdictions (jurisdictions). The NEDSS Base System (NBS) is a CDC-developed, software application available to jurisdictions to collect, manage, analyze and report national notifiable disease (NND) data. An evaluation of NEDSS with the objective of identifying the functionalities of NC systems and the impact of these features on the user’s culture is underway. Methods We used cultural models to capture additional NC system functionality gaps within the culture of the user. Cultural modeling is a process of graphically depicting people and organizations referred to as influencers and the intangible factors that affect the user’s operations or work as influences. Influencers are denoted as bubbles while influences are depicted as arrows penetrating the bubbles. In the cultural model, influence can be seen by the size and proximity (or lack of) in the model. We restricted the models to secondary data sources and interviews of CDC programs (data users) and public health jurisdictions (data reporters). Results Three cultural
Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen
This paper presents the relevance voxel machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatially...
Whitley, Meredith A.
While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…
Lyu, Hongbo; Zhang, Zuopeng Justin
This research presents and examines an analytical model of knowledge management in which organisational culture dynamically improves with knowledge-sharing and learning activities within organisations. We investigate the effects of organisational incentives and the level of information technology on the motivation of knowledge sharing. We derive a linear incentive reward structure for knowledge sharing under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. In addition, we show how the organisational culture and the optimum linear sharing reward change with several crucial factors, and summarise three sets of methods (strong IT support, congruent organisational culture, and effective employee assessment) to complement the best linear incentive. Our research provides valuable insights for practitioners in terms of implementing knowledge-management initiatives.
Nuno Miguel Barroso Rodrigues
Full Text Available This research investigates the possible existence of an association between the cultural values proposed by Gray (1988 and the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting found in the Review of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting jointly developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. Data was collected from the annual reports and consolidated accounts for 2013 and 2014 disclosed by non-financial firms listed in the following stock indexes for financial markets of the European Union: PSI-20, IBEX-35, FTSE-100, DAX-30 and OMX-S30. After screening for determined selection criteria, the final population of this study was made up of 137 entities. Content analysis was carried out and, after applying the Mann-Whitney-U test, findings suggest that conservatism is negatively associated with the relevance of financial information. The assessment of the impact of culture on the process of international convergence, as well as the elements associated with this question, are among the scientific contributions of this study.
This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…
Kousathana, L; Kousathana, F; Karamanou, M; Kousoulis, A A
To discuss the current official legal position of the Greek Council and the official international statement on the subject, as well as the emerging cultural and moral aspects on the issue of informing the cancer patient. Perusal of national and international legal and ethics sources, under a multidisciplinary perspective. According to the Council of State of Greece the violation of informing the patient by the physician constitutes urban liability and disciplinary offence. The Greek Code of Medical Ethics declares that the physician is obliged to inform his patient about his health and respect the desire of the patient who decides not to be informed. The UNESCO declaration does not seem to clarify the subject. In Greece, physicians have the tendency to tell the truth more often today than in the past, reflecting the global tendency, although the majority still discloses the truth to the next of kin. The difference in the tactics of informing in several nations reflects huge cultural, social, economic and religious differences in each society. Well informed and knowledgeable health-care and legal professionals, alongside with patients and ethical directors, should sit at the same table in order to productively discuss the most sensitive matters of the contemporary medical practice.
Arvonio, Maria Marra
The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as Reiki is on the rise in healthcare centers. Reiki is associated with a spirituality that conflicts with some belief systems. Catholic healthcare facilities are restricted from offering this therapy because it conflicts with the teachings of the Catholic Church. However, hospitals are offering it without disclosing the spiritual aspects of it to patients. This article will address the ethical concerns and possible legal implications associated with the present process of offering Reiki. It will address these concerns based on the Joint Commission's Standard of Cultural Competency and the ethical principles of autonomy and informed consent. A proposal will also be introduced identifying specific information which Reiki/CAM practitioners should offer to their patients out of respect of their autonomy as well as their cultural, spiritual, and religious beliefs. PMID:24899738
..., information about changes to the safety culture of the affected workplaces will be used as one of several data...: RITA-2008-0002] Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture.... mail to Federal offices in Washington, DC, we recommend that persons consider an alternative method...
Thomas, Julie George
The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…
Maseleno, Andino; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabani, Noraisikin; Suhaili, Nabilah
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.
Full Text Available This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv creativity skills and problem solving skills; v motivation; and vi students’ background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.
Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...
Ramírez, A Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana
The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin. We conducted a census of all available print news sources and then used content analysis to identify and characterize all health information printed in a 6-month study period. A total of 570 health-related articles were published. Five newspapers accounted for more than 80% of published health-related articles (n = 466); only one targeted the majority Latino population. The most common topic was access to health care/insurance/policy (33%), followed by diet/nutrition (13%), infectious disease (10%), and general prevention (9%). Just over one-quarter of health-related articles included useful information. Differences across newspaper types existed: independent newspapers reported more on health-related events compared with chain newspapers, and both ethnic-targeted newspapers and independently-published papers were more likely to include useful information compared with chain newspapers. While this region suffers from high rates of obesity and diabetes, there were relatively few articles on obesity and diabetes themselves, or linking behavioral risk factors with these conditions. One area we found absent from coverage pertained to the numerous environmental health threats prevalent in this heavily polluted, agricultural area (just 40 articles discussed environmental health threats). We also discovered that coverage of social determinants of health was lacking (just 24 of the 570 health articles), which was notable in a
Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching
Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B; Kim, Tae Hoon
Research on causal reasoning has focused on the influence of covariation between candidate causes and effects on causal judgments. We suggest that the type of covariation information to which people attend is affected by the task being performed. For this, we manipulated the test questions for the evaluation of contingency information and observed its influence on both contingency learning and subsequent causal selections. When people select one cause related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the absence of alternative causes. When people select two causes related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the presence of alternative causes. We demonstrated this use of contingency information in four experiments.
In his book, ‘Information Inequality’ (1996) Herbert Schiller argues that, by the mid-1990s, information had become another commodity of the newly global political system of market capitalism and this development was instrumental in widening the gap between the poorest and the best off in American society. This paper reviews Schiller’s claims and examines its bearing on society in the decade and half since the publication of his book.
Full Text Available This research study examines the importance of financial information and information contained in the ISA’s New Audit Report effective from 2016 for lenders as capital providers. We base our findings on a survey conducted in September of 2016 with corporate loan officers for medium-large corporate clients in Macedonia. The results show that the annual report of the company, except for the management report and notes to the financial statements, has consistently high importance and usability for respondents’ decision making. Various accounting ratios related to liquidity, financial stability and profitability of the company are considered very important and regularly used in credit analysis. However, respondents were not consistent in their shared perceptions regarding high importance of projected profits and historical information on operating cash flows. All loan officers gave high importance to the information found in existent auditor’s report format regardless of the form of expressed opinion. Also, information on key audit matters, additional information on going concern and related auditor’s judgement, procedures related to fraud risk were considered of high importance. Lenders rated as less important the disclosure of the name of engagement partner, auditor’s statement on independence and compliance with ethical requirements and the level of materiality used in the audit.
Pian, Wenjing; Khoo, Christopher Sg; Chang, Yun-Ke
People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people's health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants' eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people's eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants' comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster's symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people's health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot topics, and rare health issues (P=.01, .01, and .01
Khoo, Christopher SG; Chang, Yun-Ke
Background People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. Objective The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people’s health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. Methods A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants’ eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people’s eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants’ comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. Results It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster’s symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people’s health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot
Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim
are related not only to individual traits of the subjects, but to their nationality and cultural background as well. Cultural differences in information and communication needs of Russian and European crewmembers led to necessity of adaptation of psychological support to the specifics of each group. The results of the study suggest that the problem of information, communication and media-related needs should be studied thoroughly, with consequent development of recommendations for psychological support of international crews.
Cognition in living entities-and their social groupings or institutional artifacts-is necessarily as complicated as their embedding environments, which, for humans, includes a particularly rich cultural milieu. The asymptotic limit theorems of information and control theories permit construction of a new class of empirical 'regression-like' statistical models for cognitive developmental processes, their dynamics, and modes of dysfunction. Such models may, as have their simpler analogs, prove useful in the study and re-mediation of cognitive failure at and across the scales and levels of organization that constitute and drive the phenomena of life. These new models particularly focus on the roles of sociocultural environment and stress, in a large sense, as both trigger for the failure of the regulation of bio-cognition and as 'riverbanks' determining the channels of pathology, with implications across life-course developmental trajectories. We examine the effects of an embedding cultural milieu and its socioeconomic implementations using the 'lenses' of metabolic optimization, control system theory, and an extension of symmetry-breaking appropriate to information systems. A central implication is that most, if not all, human developmental disorders are fundamentally culture-bound syndromes. This has deep implications for both individual treatment and public health policy.
N. Y. Hirlina
Full Text Available Integrated within the social and philosophical discourse interdisciplinary methodology, based on the classic philosophical methodology for the analysis of socio-cultural phenomena enables a holistic understanding of the studied phenomenon. From a methodological point of view it is important to determine the social and philosophical understanding of the impact medіa cultural space of personality in conditions of dynamically changing socio-cultural environment. important social and philosophical methodological guideline should be considered on a thesis constant presence in the media culture of human space as being due to the fact that man is a social being, and the information society without media culture as its attribute exists. Philosophical «core» study of the spiritual culture of youth is humanism in its broadest sense, that is, understanding of the studied phenomenon primarily as a multi-dimensional culturing of human values. Submission materialistic determinant factors medіa cultural spiritual space is only possible under the dominance of humanistic values. With all the variety to understanding the spiritual dimension of the relationship of the individual with the socio-cultural environment common dominant philosophical idea of guidelines is the recognition of the spiritual and cultural autonomy rights. Globalization and its associated civilization and processes are seen as foreign in relation to social rights, while the internal spiritual content is cultural processes. Anthropological oriented cultural space of socialization based on interpersonal cultural interaction that produces unique and distinctive personality.
Hahn, Rebecca T
Functional or secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common etiology of severe TR in the western world. The presence of functional TR, either isolated or in combination with left heart disease is associated with unfavorable natural history however surgical mortality for isolated tricuspid valve interventions remain higher than for any other single valve surgery. Determining the severity of TR remains a controversial area and will continue to evolve as new techniques for assessing this valve as well as the right ventricle, are investigated. The following review will describe tricuspid anatomy, define echocardiographic views for evaluating tricuspid valve and right heart morphology and function, that are relevant to the pre-procedural assessment of functional TR.
Sium, Aman; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet
Since the early 2000s, web and digital health information and education has progressed in both volume and innovation (Dutta-Bergman 2006; Mano, Computers in Human Behavior 39 404 412, 2014). A growing number of leading Canadian health institutions (e.g., hospitals, community health centers, and health ministries) are migrating much of their vital public health information and education, once restricted to pamphlets and other physically distributed materials, to online platforms. Examples of these platforms are websites and web pages, eLearning modules, eBooks, streamed classrooms, audiobooks, and online health videos. The steady migration of health information to online platforms is raising important questions for fields of patient education, such as cancer education. These questions include, but are not limited to (a) are pamphlets still a useful modality for patient information and education when so much is available on the Internet? (b) If so, what should be the relationship between print-based and online health information and education, and when should one modality take precedence over the other? This article responds to these questions within the Canadian health care context.
Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John
In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There is consensus that verbal informed consent must be gained prior to testing, individually, in private, confidentially, in the presence of a health care provider. All guidelines recommend pre-test information/discussion delivered verbally or via other methods (information sheet). There is agreement about a minimum standard of information to be provided before a test, but guidelines differ regarding discussion about issues encouraging patients to think about implications of the result. There is heavy reliance on expert consultation in guideline development. Referenced scientific evidence is often more than ten years old and based on US/UK research. Eight new papers are reviewed. Current HIV testing and counselling guidelines have inconsistencies regarding the extent and type of information that is recommended during pre-test discussions. The lack of new research underscores a need for new evidence from a range of European settings to support the process of expert consultation in guideline development. © The Author(s) 2015.
ABSTRACT For reaching the target for the increase of managerial performance to consider factors that can influence the issue, among others, the participation of the budget. Participation budget can not walk alone in influencing managerial performance, but there are other factors that synergize, including organizational commitment and job relevant information (JRI). Researchs on the factors that influence managerial performance such as participation of the budget, organizational commitment and...
OLUSOJI STEPHEN Ph.D
Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to informal education in Yoruba traditional music using the master musician as an important agent for propagating traditional knowledge and values. The study is an ethnographic research and uses oral interviews and other qualitative techniques for eliciting information. As part of its findings, the study found out that informal education in Yoruba culture follows a typical pattern of instruction which is acquired through heredity, apprentice under a well-known artist, observation and participation in communal activities. In the case of music, which is the focus of the study, it is promoted by the master musician, a position that could be occupied by men or women depending on the nature of the ensemble and the societal norms approved for such groups. In conclusion, it was suggested in the study that contemporary music educators and curriculum planners should tailor their curriculum to reflect the traditional values and practices of their people.
OLUSOJI STEPHEN Ph.D
Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to informal education in Yoruba traditional music using the master musician as an important agent for propagating traditional knowledge and values. The study is an ethnographic research and uses oral interviews and other qualitative techniques for eliciting information. As part of its findings, the study found out that informal education in Yoruba culture follows a typical pattern of instruction which is acquired through heredity, apprentice under a well-known artist, observation and participation in communal activities. In the case of music, which is the focus of the study, it is promoted by the master musician, a position that could be occupied by men or women depending on the nature of the ensemble and the societal norms approved for such groups. In conclusion, it was suggested in the study that contemporary music educators and curriculum planners should tailor their curriculum to reflect the traditional values and practices of their people.
Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin
The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Taghva, Alexander; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W
Identification of functional dependence among neurons is a necessary component in both the rational design of neural prostheses as well as in the characterization of network physiology. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial for neurosurgeons regarding information theory, specifically time-delayed mutual information, and to compare time-delayed mutual information, an information theoretic quantity based on statistical dependence, with cross-correlation, a commonly used metric for this task in a preliminary analysis of rat hippocampal neurons. Spike trains were recorded from rats performing delayed nonmatch-to-sample task using an array of electrodes surgically implanted into the hippocampus of each hemisphere of the brain. In addition, spike train simulations of positively correlated neurons, negatively correlated neurons, and neurons correlated by nonlinear functions were generated. These were evaluated by time-delayed mutual information (MI) and cross-correlation. Application of time-delayed MI to experimental data indicated the optimal bin size for information capture in the CA3-CA1 system was 40 ms, which may provide some insight into the spatiotemporal nature of encoding in the rat hippocampus. On simulated data, time-delayed MI showed peak values at appropriate time lags in positively correlated, negatively correlated, and complexly correlated data. Cross-correlation showed peak and troughs with positively correlated and negatively correlated data, but failed to capture some higher order correlations. Comparison of time-delayed MI to cross-correlation in identification of functionally dependent neurons indicates that the methods are not equivalent. Time-delayed MI appeared to capture some interactions between CA3-CA1 neurons at physiologically plausible time delays missed by cross-correlation. It should be considered as a method for identification of functional dependence between neurons and may be useful in the development of neural
The National Museum of Nuclear Science and History (formerly National Atomic Museum) will soon open a new facility; the largest, broadest in scope and most comprehensive of all DOE affiliated museums or visitor centers. This new Museum facility is operated as a public-private partnership between a non-profit and governmental entity. Use of the museum as a place for presentation of various forms of historical and technical information, while attracting general audience interest is critical to financial viability. (authors)
Xuemin Zhuang; Yonggen Luo
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value....
Khramov Vitali. Technologie komputerowe na lekcji wychowania fizycznego = Information and communication technologies at a lesson of physical culture. Journal of Health Sciences. 2014;4(13):111-115. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/article/view/2014%3B4%2811%29%3A111-115 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2014%3B4%2811%29%3A111-115 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/509849 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.13254 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zeno...
Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.
Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this
Full Text Available Formal language planning is inevitably a top-down, highly technical process. Success for such planning would seem to depend on engaging productively with existing or readily developed social motivation within the society. This article reports on an informal investigation into how ordinary language practitioners and cultural workers in South Africa view the possibilities of contributing to the country's emerging language dispensation, what they regard as their most useful possible contributions, and what they expect from the language planners and 'government' in support of South Africa's Language Policy and Plan.
Yuriy V. Dragnev
In the article the aspects of professional development of future teacher of physical culture are examined in the informatively-educational environment of higher educational establishment. Importance of introduction of information and telecommunication technologies opens up in the sphere of higher education; the components of informatively-educational environment are given; a concept „Professional development” and „informatively-educational environment opens up”. Specified, that informative su...
Nathan Paula M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. Methods 65 adults were asked to record their social encounters in each location visited during 6 study days using a novel method whereby a change in physical location of the study participant triggered data entry. Using a cross-over design, all participants recorded encounters on 3 days in a paper diary and 3 days using an electronic recording device (PDA. Participants were randomised to first prospective recording method. Results Both methods captured more contacts than a pre-study questionnaire, but ascertainment using the paper diary was superior to the PDA (mean difference: 4.52 (95% CI 0.28, 8.77. Paper diaries were found more acceptable to the participants compared with the PDA. Statistical analysis confirms that our results are broadly consistent with those reported from large-scale European based surveys. An association between household size (trend 0.14, 95% CI (0.06, 0.22, P P Conclusions The study's location-based reporting design allows greater scope compared to other methods for examining differences in the characteristics of encounters over a range of environments. Improved parameterisation of dynamic transmission models gained from work of this type will aid in the development of more robust decision support tools to assist health policy makers and planners.
Benchmarking and Its Relevance to the Library and Information Sector. Interim Findings of "Best Practice Benchmarking in the Library and Information Sector," a British Library Research and Development Department Project.
Kinnell, Margaret; Garrod, Penny
This British Library Research and Development Department study assesses current activities and attitudes toward quality management in library and information services (LIS) in the academic sector as well as the commercial/industrial sector. Definitions and types of benchmarking are described, and the relevance of benchmarking to LIS is evaluated.…
Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta; Corbett, Sally; Welfare, Mark
Older patients with dementia and delirium receive suboptimal hospital care. Policy calls for more effective education to address this though there is little consensus on what this entails. The purpose of this clarification study is to explore how practice gaps are constructed in relation to managing the confused hospitalised older patient. The intent is to inform educational processes in the work-place beyond traditional approaches such as training. Adopting grounded theory as a research method and working within a social constructionist paradigm we explored the practice gaps of 15 healthcare professionals by interview and conducted five focus groups with patients, carers and Liaison mental health professionals. Data were thematically analysed by constant comparison and theoretical sampling was undertaken until saturation reached. Categories were identified and pragmatic concepts developed grounded within the data. Findings were then further analysed using cultural historical activity theory as a deductive lens. Practice gaps in relation to managing the confused older patient are determined by factors operating at individual (knowledge and skill gaps, personal philosophy, task based practice), team (leadership, time and ward environmental factors) and organisational (power relationships, dominance of medical model, fragmentation of care services) levels. Conceptually, practice appeared to be influenced by socio-cultural ward factors and compounded by a failure to join up existing "patient" knowledge amongst professionals. Applying cultural historical activity theory to further illuminate the findings, the central object is defined as learning about the patient and the mediating artifacts are the care relationships. The overarching medical dominance emerges as an important cultural historical factor at play and staff rules and divisions of labour are exposed. Lastly key contradictions and tensions in the system that work against learning about the patient are
Arnrich, Bert; Ersoy, Cem; Mayora, Oscar; Dey, Anind; Berthouze, Nadia; Kunze, Kai
This accompanying editorial provides a brief introduction into the focus theme "Wearable Therapy". The focus theme "Wearable Therapy" aims to present contributions which target wearable and mobile technologies to support clinical and self-directed therapy. A call for papers was announced to all participants of the "9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare" and was published in November 2015. A peer review process was conducted to select the papers for the focus theme. Six papers were selected to be included in this focus theme. The paper topics cover a broad range including an approach to build a health informatics research program, a comprehensive literature review of self-quantification for health self-management, methods for affective state detection of informal care givers, social-aware handling of falls, smart shoes for supporting self-directed therapy of alcohol addicts, and reference information model for pervasive health systems. More empirical evidence is needed that confirms sustainable effects of employing wearable and mobile technology for clinical and self-directed therapy. Inconsistencies between different conceptual approaches need to be revealed in order to enable more systematic investigations and comparisons.