WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally diverse urban

  1. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  2. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  4. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  5. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  6. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  7. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE......In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...

  8. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  9. Children's Friendships in Culturally Diverse Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    1993-01-01

    Draws attention to the potentially harmful effects of evaluating children's friendships on what are often negative outcomes, rather than on the efforts that children make to effectively negotiate their friendships. Describes a study of children's friendships in a fifth-grade, culturally diverse class in a large urban elementary school, revealing…

  10. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  11. Cultural diversity and patient teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cordell, B

    1994-01-01

    Cultural diversity challenges health care providers to facilitate bridging cross-cultural gaps with clients. It is through providing culturally relevant care that health care practitioners truly serve the needs of all clients in our diverse society. A theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality offers a framework for building linkages of clinical knowledge to cultural care. A four-step approach to providing culturally sensitive patient teaching is described: (1) health care providers should assess their own cultural beliefs and be aware of general ethnic, regional, and religious beliefs and practices in their area; (2) develop a teaching plan; (3) implement the plan; (4) evaluate the success of the teaching-learning process and make alterations based on evaluation. When providers assess clients' beliefs and practices and incorporate them into the teaching plan design, teaching becomes more relevant and clients become more successful at learning.

  12. Investigating engagement, thinking, and learning among culturally diverse, urban sixth graders experiencing an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sybil Schantz

    This mixed-methods study combined pragmatism, sociocultural perspectives, and systems thinking concepts to investigate students' engagement, thinking, and learning in science in an urban, K-8 arts, science, and technology magnet school. A grant-funded school-university partnership supported the implementation of an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment through field experiences. The researcher worked as co-teacher of 3 sixth-grade science classes and was deeply involved in the daily routines of the school. The purposes of the study were to build a deeper understanding of the complex interactions that take place in an urban science classroom, including challenges related to implementing culturally-relevant instruction; and to offer insight into the role educational systems play in supporting teaching and learning. The central hypothesis was that connecting learning to meaningful experiences in the local environment can provide culturally accessible points of engagement from which to build science learning. Descriptive measures provided an assessment of students' engagement in science activities, as well as their levels of thinking and learning throughout the school year. Combined with analyses of students' work files and focus group responses, these findings provided strong evidence of engagement attributable to the inquiry-based curriculum. In some instances, degree of engagement was found to be affected by student "reluctance" and "resistance," terms defined but needing further examination. A confounding result showed marked increases in thinking levels coupled with stasis or decrease in learning. Congruent with past studies, data indicated the presence of tension between the diverse cultures of students and the mainstream cultures of school and science. Findings were synthesized with existing literature to generate the study's principal product, a grounded theory model representing the complex, interacting factors involved in

  13. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Shuisong Ye; Yan Fang; Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG), ...

  14. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Addressing Challenges in Urban Teaching, Learning and Math Using Model-Strategy-Application with Reasoning Approach in Lingustically and Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhonghe; An, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using the Model-Strategy-Application with Reasoning Approach (MSAR) in teaching and learning mathematics in linguistically and culturally diverse elementary classrooms. Through learning mathematics via the MSAR, students from different language ability groups gained an understanding of mathematics from creating…

  16. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  17. Biological diversity in urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllin, Mats

    2004-01-01

    The thesis approaches the concept of urban biodiversity from different angles in an attempt to explain its significance. In a study from the constructed Toftanäs wetland park, methods of affecting local biodi-versity are demonstrated as integrated with other functions, such as water quality and stormwater detention. Vegetation analyses are provided to show the rapid and sometimes unexpected change in species composition. Both spontaneous and introduced species were followed in a five-year pro...

  18. Introducing Urban Cultural Heritage Management into Urban Planning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. Concept comparison of urban cultural heritage management and urban planning management 1.1 Urban cultural heritage managementUrban cultural heritage management is an important component of cultural heritage management which is a systematic conser-vation to maintain the cultural value of cul-tural heritages so as to meet the enjoyment demand of the current or future generations. At present, the cultural heritage conserva-tion principles have been defined by many worldwide laws or charters, such as the Venice Charter of ICOMOS, the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, etc., and have been brought into legislation or policies in many countries. The fi nal goal of urban cul-tural heritage management is to find a real sustainable approach to manage heritages, which could benefit the heritages them-selves, the heritage managers and the local communities as well. Cultural heritage man-agement includes the management of urban cultural heritages, that of natural heritages in non-urban areas and that of intangible cultural heritages.1.2 Urban planning managementUrban planning management is a type of urban management. From the practical viewpoint, urban management should be an overall management which includes urban planning management, urban infrastructure and public facility management, urban en-vironment and public order management, etc., takes urban infrastructures and public resources as management object, and ischaracterized by the goal of exerting the comprehensive effects of economy, society and environment. While from the techni-cal viewpoint, urban planning management refers to the planning management executed by urban governments based on the relevant laws and regulations, including the manage-ment of urban land-use and that of different types of constructions. It actually means the organizing, guiding, controlling and coordinating process focusing on different construction projects in cities. The urban cultural heritage mentioned here includes all the physical

  19. Finding Urban Identity through Culture-led Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hong Hwang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A city experiencing a cycle from growth to decline cannot maintain sustainable development without the type of urban identity that could be consolidated by culture-led urban regeneration. A plan for urban regeneration in a declining urban area should be practiced partially or on the whole according to the characteristics of the community. By transforming a low-value and deteriorated area into a highly valued district, the local community can simultaneously restore its social pride, revive the local economy, and realize an urban identity.Firstly, this paper examines urban decline in order to better understand urban regeneration and the need for multidisciplinary management, and also, by considering the necessity for and universal types of urban regeneration, investigates the characteristics of culture-led urban regeneration as a tool for realizing socio-economic revival and urban identity. In particular, this study suggests the action techniques and benchmarking points for urban regeneration by analyzing cases of culture-led urban regeneration in Korea. Three subjects were considered as case studies in this paper: 1 Hanok village in Jeonju city, which changed from a twilight zone to a tourist attraction; 2 Changdong district in Changwon city, which recovered from an area of declining and dark alleyways that had been the hub for arts and culture in the 1970s to become a new artist village; and 3 Cheongju city, which is being transformed from an idle industrial facility into a cultural space. This thesis suggests the implementation process of culture-led urban regeneration to find an urban identity through analysis of the causes of urban decline, the methods of regeneration, and the results of urban regeneration in the three aforementioned cases. In the conclusion section of this paper, the implementation process for culture-led urban regeneration is summarized as consisting of 5 phases: Phase 1, the diagnosis of decline; Phase 2

  20. Cultural diversity in nanotechnology ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However unlike science and engineering issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international dialogue on nanotechnology. At the same time I pose the general question of ethical relativism in engineering ethics, that is to say whether or not different ethical views are irreconcilable on a fundamental level.

  1. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Gröschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  2. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  3. Exploring Cultural Diversity with Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Jonna; Julkunen, Saara

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Business Communication, Intercultural Communication. Objectives: Students will demonstrate understanding of some of the effects of culture on business communication. Students will explore cultural diversity in customer-seller relationships.

  4. Cultural political economy and urban heritage tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Rui; Bramwell, Bill; Whalley, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper explains a cultural political economy “framing” for interpreting heritage tourism in urban contexts. Key ideas behind this research perspective are explained and illustrated through discussion of past research studies of urban heritage tourism. It is underpinned by a relational view of the inter-connectedness of societal relations, and an emphasis on taking seriously both the cultural/semiotic and the economic/political in the co-constitution of urban heritage tourism’s social pract...

  5. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  6. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  7. Urban tree diversity - Taking stock and looking ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, J.; Östberg, Johan; Bosch, C. Konijnendijk van den

    2016-01-01

    The first International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity hosted in June 2014 by the Swedish University of Agricultural Science in Alnarp, Sweden highlighted the need for a better understanding of the current state of urban tree diversity. Here we present and discuss a selection of urban tree...... diversity themes with the intention of developing and sharing knowledge in a research area that is gaining momentum. We begin by discussing the specific role of species diversity in ecosystem service provision and ecosystem stability. This is followed by exploring the urban conditions that affect species...... richness. Having determined that many ecosystem services depend on urban tree species diversity and that urban environments are capable of supporting high species diversity, we conclude by addressing how to govern for urban tree diversity....

  8. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  9. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  10. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  11. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  12. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  13. An Ethnography of Children's Friendships in a Fifth-Grade Culturally Diverse Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine friendships of early adolescents in a culturally diverse fifth grade class in an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States. The study described and interpreted the experiences of being a friend and having a friend in a culturally diverse classroom. The approach was grounded in…

  14. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  15. Working well in a culturally diverse team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Calder, Mandy

    2016-10-05

    Cooperative working is a core part of the nursing role, and it involves respecting your colleagues' needs and values. If you are part of a diverse team, you may need to develop your cultural competence, treating everyone compassionately and respectfully.

  16. Managing cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J

    1993-07-01

    Cultural diversity is a strength of the American work force. Due to the increasing cultural diversity in the workplace, organizations find it in their best interest to move beyond affirmative action to effective management to achieve higher employee retention and develops an employee cultural mix that better matches the mix of the available labor force and customer base. To manage a diverse work force, managers need to have the proper tools, training and evaluation and monitoring programs. Important initiatives to successful management of cultural diversity include eliciting support and commitment from the board of directors, the CEO and other top management; organizing subcommittees to research and monitor demographic changes to determine what the organization's goals should be and to decide what changes are to be made. Employees must be trained to be aware of prejudices and how to manage their own actions.

  17. Leadership Training for Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Searetha

    1996-01-01

    Addresses leadership in a diverse society, especially in schools and the workplace, and examines one school administrator's success at getting a resistant faculty and principal to incorporate multicultural education into the school environment and curriculum. A 10-day multicultural leadership training program is described. (GR)

  18. Independence and Interdependence in Diverse Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the individualistic-collectivistic dichotomy results in mislabeling both cultures and individuals. Discusses ways in which individualistic concerns with independence and collectivistic concerns with interdependence coexist in Western and non-Western cultures. Outlines a theoretical framework explaining the coexistence of diverse social…

  19. Approaches to measuring cultural diversity in recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Yi-Chung Hsu; Alan R. Graefe

    2008-01-01

    Measuring cultural diversity in recreation has become an important topic because of the increasing coverage of and interest in ethnicity and cross-cultural aspects of recreation. Introducing theories and methods from established disciplines other than leisure studies/recreation and park studies is necessary to understand this important issue. In this article, we first...

  20. Issues of Cultural Diversity in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Explores cultural diversity in school mathematics and the issues raised for mathematics education. Examines the curricular roots of school mathematics in relation to scholarly mathematics, and the mathematics of past generations and different social groups. Notes some of the complexities in seeking to 'culturalize' school mathematics by bringing…

  1. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  2. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the large inflow of immigrants to the US during the 1870–1920 period to examine the effects that within-county changes in the cultural composition of the US population had on output growth. We construct measures of fractionalization and polarization to distinguish between the different...

  3. Cultural diversity in hospitality management : how to improve cultural diversity workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Korjala, Veera

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor´s thesis investigates cultural diversity in the hospitality management. It aims at presenting effective ways to improve cultural diversity in a workplace. This study was commissioned by JW Marriott San Antonio Hill Country Resort & Spa in Texas, USA and three hotels in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA: Atherton Hotel, Hampton Inn & Suites and Residence Inn. The bachelor´s thesis incorporates culture theories and their applications to the workplace. Additionally, it focuses on cultural d...

  4. Microsatellite markers suggest high genetic diversity in an urban ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FRANCISCO MORINHA

    diversity in an urban population of Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii). J. Genet. 95, e19–e24. ... high quality habitat for this species (Boggie and Mannan. 2014) and the rapid ... The high densities of birds in urban populations can result in the ..... comparing urban and rural Cooper's hawk populations are mandatory to ...

  5. Shakespeare’s Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibińska Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 400 hundred years of Shakespeare's presence in world-wide theatres, schools, literature, film, and even languages must give us pause. It is worth reflecting on what there is in the texts that have come down to us that answers this great and obviously most diversified horizon of reception. The paper will try to present Shakespearean plots, characters and themes and examine them for their potential to become appropriated into the very centres of multiple cultural polysystems.

  6. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  7. Leading change in diversity and cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an expanded leadership role needed in schools of nursing as the nurse of the 21st century is prepared to assume expanded roles in a diverse society. With schools of nursing becoming more global, and the diverse population of the United States rapidly growing, a critical need exists for nurses who are ready to partner in the health care that multicultural communities need locally, nationally, and globally. Diversity and cultural competence have now become central issues in nursing education, research, practice, and health policy. Diversity leadership in a school of nursing can no longer concentrate only on issues of affirmative action, recruitment, and retention. The purpose of this article is to discuss how diversity leadership must increasingly focus on building a corporate environment in schools of nursing that integrates diversity and cultural competence with the strategic plan of the School's Chief Nursing Officer, across academic programs, research, practice, and public policy to eliminate health disparities in partnership with faculty, students, staff, the University infrastructure, and the community at large. The theoretical framework that guided the strategic planning is based on the model used by the Robert Wood Johnson Executive Nurse Fellowship Program. Examples of program initiatives designed to implement the strategic plan to strengthen the diversity and cultural competence of one school of nursing environment are described.

  8. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  9. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  10. Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of

  11. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract “the creative class” and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital and what their interests are (their cultural capital. For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York over 5 years. In so doing, we are able to show that economic capital alone does not explain urban development. The combination of cultural capital and economic capital, instead, is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point as it comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  12. Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management

    OpenAIRE

    Donatus I. Amaram

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of cul...

  13. Task Force on Culture and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    differences. Key words: work motivation, (sub) cultural differences, meta-representation. Email: kolman@pef.czu.cz 3.Abstract for presentation in Symposium Case conceptualization, relationship building and intervention challenges with culturally diverse clients among clinical psychologists: a case...... of knowledge originating from different geographical contexts. The initiative taken by the psychology students in Århus University, the specific course dynamic developed and the evaluation is to be delineated in the paper. In addition, both pedagogical psychological aspects and long term consequences...

  14. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students’ language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of technology on teens, and scant literature is available that incorporates the perspective of urban and linguistically diverse students on the feasibility of applying new technologies in teaching and learning literacy in intact classrooms. This paper reports urban adolescents’ perspectives on the use of technology within teen culture, for learning in general and for literacy instruction in particular. Focus group interviews were conducted among linguistically diverse urban students in grades 6, 7 and 8 in a lower income neighborhood in the Northeastern region of the United States. The major findings of the study were that 1 urban teens primarily and almost exclusively used social media and technology devices for peer socializing, 2 they were interested in using technology to improve their literacy skills, but did not appear to voluntarily or independently integrate technology into learning, and 3 8th graders were considerably more sophisticated in their use of technology and their suggestions for application of technology to literacy learning than 6th and 7th graders. These findings lead to suggestions for developing effective literacy instruction using new technologies.

  15. Leadership Diversity: A Study of Urban Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Mark; Li, Haipeng

    2007-01-01

    Diversity has been identified as a priority in library and information services for some time. The limited published research on diversity programs in libraries, though, has focused on academic libraries. This article represents the results of a study of leadership diversity in large, urban public libraries. In the study of members of the Urban…

  16. Capitalism and Culture in Ibadan Urban Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Dan R.

    1978-01-01

    An extended case analysis of a 1973 single land sale in the Yoruba city of Ibadan illustrates the role of Yoruba cultural patterns in Nigerian capitalist growth. This analysis also provides insight into the nature of the social relationships being established in the urbanization of Ibadan. (EB)

  17. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Desislava; Aiello, Luca M.; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract `the creative class' and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital) and what their interests are (their cultural capital). For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York City over five years. In so doing, we are able to show that cultural capital rather than economic capital is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point. Cultural capital also comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  18. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  19. School, Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Camilla; Robustelli, Francesco; Martinelli, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The basic assumption of this paper is that school's potential to improve cross-cultural relations, as well as interpersonal relations in general, is enormous. This assumption is supported by a number of theoretical considerations and by the analysis of data we obtained from a study we conducted on the attitudes toward diversity and…

  20. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  1. Cultural Diversity: "Reports from Brazil and Argentina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tells two experiences of projects carried through in schools of basic education whose thematic it was the work with the cultural diversity, the valuation of other cultures and reflections on the proper culture The work was carried through in two schools: one in the state of São Paulo, the city of Rio Claro where as the thematic one worked was the Hip-Hop and cultural manifestations local Brazilians the second in the capital of a Argentina province, in the city of Paraná where it worked the contact and the relation enter the cultural manifestations of Brazil and Argentina The central objective of this work was to think ways that could lead to the construction of a school that it considered the differences and the learning that happens when these (the differences they are in relation.

  2. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  3. Exploring the Personal Cultures of Rural Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Doris; Fletcher-Carter, Ruth

    Culturally diverse minority groups make up 40 percent of America's deaf and hearing-impaired school population but only 14 percent of special education teachers. In addition, 90 percent of deaf students have parents who can hear, and one-third reside in rural areas. Although they are primarily Euro-American, hearing, and untrained in deaf…

  4. History and Local Management of a Biodiversity-Rich, Urban Cultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Barthel; Johan Colding; Thomas Elmqvist; Carl Folke

    2005-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the co-evolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region ...

  5. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  6. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  7. An investigation of the relationship between innovation and cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.

  8. Teachers for Inclusive, Diverse Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Leslie; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Hansuvadha, Nat; Pavri, Shireen; Xu, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the creation of an Urban Dual Credential Program (UDCP) at a large, comprehensive state university in California, a program meant to prepare dually-certified teachers in general education (California Multiple Subject Credential) and special education (California Education Specialist Credential in mild/moderate…

  9. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, L M

    2014-04-03

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia.

  10. Mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in urban green spaces: implications for urban wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Fidino, Mason; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Magle, Seth B

    2017-12-01

    As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, Illinois, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates. For example, coyotes (Canis latrans) had the highest, but white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) the lowest probability of persistence in golf courses compared to other green space types. Further, most species had a difficult time colonizing city parks even when sites were seemingly available. Our results indicate that urban green spaces contribute different, but collectively important, habitats for maintaining and conserving biodiversity in cities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  12. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Living Diversity: Developing a Typology of Consumer Cultural Orientations in Culturally Diverse Marketplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnis, Eva; Emontspool, Julie; Broderick, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    -cultural orientations and use these orientations as informants of their consumption choices. Our findings suggest that the study of consumption implications of cultural diversity should be extended beyond mainstream/migrant differentiation which loses its significance in today’s globalized world...... framework for ethnic consumption and subsequently apply it in an empirical study. The findings indicate that through differential deployment of local, global and foreign cultures affinities for identity negotiation, mainstream and migrant consumers alike can develop or maintain uni-, bi- and multi...

  14. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  15. Urbanization and stream ecology: Diverse mechanisms of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Capps, Krista A.; El-Sabaawi, Rana W.; Jones, Krista L.; Parr, Thomas B.; Ramirez, Alonso; Smith, Robert F.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Wenger, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    The field of urban stream ecology has evolved rapidly in the last 3 decades, and it now includes natural scientists from numerous disciplines working with social scientists, landscape planners and designers, and land and water managers to address complex, socioecological problems that have manifested in urban landscapes. Over the last decade, stream ecologists have met 3 times at the Symposium on Urbanization and Stream Ecology (SUSE) to discuss current research, identify knowledge gaps, and promote future research collaborations. The papers in this special series on urbanization and stream ecology include both primary research studies and conceptual synthesis papers spurred from discussions at SUSE in May 2014. The themes of the meeting are reflected in the papers in this series emphasizing global differences in mechanisms and responses of stream ecosystems to urbanization and management solutions in diverse urban streams. Our hope is that this series will encourage continued interdisciplinary and collaborative research to increase the global understanding of urban stream ecology toward stream protection and restoration in urban landscapes.

  16. Biotic diversity interfaces with urbanization in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia N. Manley; Dennis D. Murphy; Lori A. Campbell; Kirsten E. Heckmann; Susan Merideth; Sean A. Parks; Monte P. Sanford; Matthew D. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    In the Lake Tahoe Basin, the retention of native ecosystems within urban areas may greatly enhance the landscape’s ability to maintain biotic diversity. Our study of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate species showed that many native species were present in remnant forest stands in developed areas; however, their richness and abundance declined in association with...

  17. Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

  18. Improving Achievement for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Learners through an Inquiry-Based Earth Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie; Ariza, Eileen N. Whelan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an inquiry-based Earth systems curriculum and strategies for teaching diverse students, which were embedded in the curriculum. The curriculum was implemented with 5th-grade students with varied linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds in five schools in a large, southeastern U.S., urban school district. At the end…

  19. Regenerare urbană prin cultură

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Anca BABOŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural urban regeneration, is it myth or reality? This paper aims at analyzing whether the trend of urban regeneration through culture was successfully adopted in the past and if it can be used in the case of Eastern-European cities, like Cluj-Napoca. First, the theoretical aspects with regard to urban regeneration through culture are presented in order to develop a broader vision upon the topic. Second, a case study of Cluj-Napoca is considered in relation to urban regeneration and culture. By analyzing the literature available it was concluded that cultural urban regeneration exists for more than 40 years in the Western societies and more recently started to influence the post-socialist states in a notable way. Cultural urban regeneration became an important aspect to be considered in the decision-making process as it influences the quality of life of the citizens. The countries that initiated cultural programs for regenerating the urban setting used this approach in such a way to better suit the needs of their citizens. By undertaking a case study which focused on culturally rehabilitating the downtown area of Cluj-Napoca through the perceptions of the youth, it was demonstrated that there is a high possibility for success when it comes to art and culture and the urban layout.

  20. Internet use among urban Malaysians: Network diversity effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rycker Antoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines social network diversity in urban areas relative to residents’ usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs. Individual-level variation in social network diversity was measured using position generator data collected as part of a survey conducted in Malaysia’s Klang Valley (N = 808. Regression analyses were performed to assess the extent to which network diversity is related to ICTs. We find that most ICTs have a negative effect on diversity. Only frequent use of the Internet at work, mobile access to the Internet, and reading online news or blogs contribute positively to diversity. Findings support both a tendency toward ‘networked individualism’ and the more recent ‘glocalization’ thesis that some ICTs may also afford participation within local space rather than only across distant space.

  1. Organizational and Managerial Outcomes of a Cultural Diversity Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Romanski-Livingston, Linda G.

    1998-01-01

    Workforce parity among cultural groups in America has been an unobtainable goal for years. The present diversity in our society dictates a new mandate for majority managers in their approach toward working beside and supervising these cultural groups. In order to achieve full inclusion and reach their fullest potential many employees, minorities and women, in these cultural groups, along with managers, are attending or participating in diversity training classes. Although diversity has sev...

  2. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  3. Urbanization Reduces Transfer of Diverse Environmental Microbiota Indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanding urbanization is a major factor behind rapidly declining biodiversity. It has been proposed that in urbanized societies, the rarity of contact with diverse environmental microbiota negatively impacts immune function and ultimately increases the risk for allergies and other immune-mediated disorders. Surprisingly, the basic assumption that urbanization reduces exposure to environmental microbiota and its transfer indoors has rarely been examined. We investigated if the land use type around Finnish homes affects the diversity, richness, and abundance of bacterial communities indoors. Debris deposited on standardized doormats was collected in 30 rural and 26 urban households in and near the city of Lahti, Finland, in August 2015. Debris was weighed, bacterial community composition determined by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and the percentage of four different land use types (i.e., built area, forest, transitional, and open area within 200 m and 2000 m radiuses from each household was characterized. The quantity of doormat debris was inversely correlated with coverage of built area. The diversity of total bacterial, Proteobacterial, Actinobacterial, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes communities decreased as the percentage of built area increased. Their richness followed the same pattern except for Firmicutes for which no association was observed. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and particularly Gammaproteobacteria increased, whereas that of Actinobacteria decreased with increasing built area. Neither Phylum Firmicutes nor Bacteroidetes varied with coverage of built area. Additionally, the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacterial families and genera increased as the percentage of built area increased. Interestingly, having domestic animals (including pets only altered the association between the richness of Gammaproteobacteria and diversity of

  4. URBAN AGRICULTURE DIVERSITY IN BRITAIN: BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrard , Ailbhe

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Diversity of urban agriculture (UA) in Britain could reduce food security impacts if a crisis occured in industrial food production systems. Industrial agriculture (IA) both causes and suffers from a lack of resilience: environmental, financial and structural. In Britain, the allotment system, previously an important form of UA, now grossly insufficient to replace the output of industrial agriculture, particularly in London. With these poin...

  5. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P; O'Donnell, James L; Lowell, Natalie C; Shelton, Andrew O; Samhouri, Jameal F; Hennessey, Shannon M; Feist, Blake E; Williams, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed. Counter to conventional wisdom, we find strongly increasing richness and decreasing beta diversity with greater urbanization, and similar trends in the diversity of life histories with urbanization. We also find evidence that urbanization influences nearshore communities at local (hundreds of meters) rather than regional (tens of km) scales. Given that different survey methods sample different components of an ecosystem, we then discuss the advantages of eDNA-which we use here to detect hundreds of taxa simultaneously-as a complement to traditional ecological sampling, particularly in the context of broad ecological assessments where exhaustive manual sampling is impractical. Genetic data are a powerful means of uncovering human-ecosystem interactions that might otherwise remain hidden; nevertheless, no sampling method reveals the whole of a biological community.

  6. Urbanity and Urbanization: An Interdisciplinary Review Combining Cultural and Physical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper focuses on research schemes regarding urbanity and urbanization, and brings together both cultural and physical approaches. First, we review the cultural and social construction of urbanity (as related to urbanization in Germany. In the early 20th century, urbanity was mainly the result of identity derived from a historical perspective in cities. This has changed profoundly in recent decades as urbanity stems more and more from various urban lifestyles and the staging of societal experiences, as summarized in the German term, “Erlebnisgesellschaft” (thrill-seeking society. The discussion is extended by an assessment of the recent state of the art regarding physical urban research. The focus lies on different fields of research; we address topics such as biodiversity, urban climate, air pollution, and resilience, as well as their impact on urban planning and governance. In conclusion, in order to tackle recent developments and future challenges regarding social and environmental issues, an integrative approach urges novel cross- and inter-disciplinary research efforts in urban studies, including urban-rural linkages. A newly constituted assessment of urbanization and city quarter development is proposed; the assessment focuses on the conjoint analysis of mobility, “Energiewende” (energy transition, cultural drivers, demographic development, and environmental issues.

  7. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  8. Exploring Strategies in Facilitating Cultural Diversity: A Freirean Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Zenobia; Guo, Shibao

    2008-01-01

    The student population in Canada's higher education institutions is becoming increasingly racially and culturally diverse. Canadian higher education has the obligation to build inclusive teaching and learning environments where the needs and aspirations of students from diverse cultures and backgrounds can be addressed in an equitable manner.…

  9. Cultural Diversity and Teamwork. ERIC Digest No. 152.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    In today's society, when increasing numbers of employees are being expected to work in teams and when cultural diversity is becoming commonplace in schools and workplaces, it is imperative that vocational and career educators prepare students for future interactions in a culturally diverse workplace. Communication differences between generations,…

  10. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  11. Designing Transition Programs for Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Sparks, Shannon L.; Aldridge, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Parents from culturally diverse backgrounds need to feel that they play a vital role in the future success of their sons or daughters with disabilities. Differences in culture and ethnicity can affect families' involvement in transition planning and the goals that they emphasize for their children. Families of diverse backgrounds were surveyed and…

  12. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  13. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  14. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  15. Critical reflections on managing cultural diversity in workplaces in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Brezigar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on managing cultural diversity at workplaces in Slovenia. The author critically reflects on some aspects of research and studies that have been carried out both on discrimination as well as managing diversity in Slovenia between 2007 and 2013, and finds the cause of the inability of organisations to adopt policies on managing diversity in the lack of competences and skills associated with cultural sensibility. The author maintains that whereas workplaces are bound to become more and more diverse, the predominant approach towards diversity in workplaces in Slovenia tends to either dismiss (cultural diversity as inconsequential or treat it as a nuisance that needs to be dealt with, thus failing to grasp the advantages which such diversity could bring.

  16. Exploring Culturally Sustaining Writing Pedagogy in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca; Vaughan, Andrea; Machado, Emily

    2017-01-01

    We examine how culturally sustaining pedagogy that fosters linguistic and cultural pluralism might be taken up in writing instruction. Using data collected through semistructured interviews with nine urban elementary and middle school writing teachers, we document teachers' conceptualizations and enactments of culturally sustaining writing…

  17. The impact of cultural diversity forum on students' openness to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Susan; Baldwin, Dee; Cannella, Kathleen A S; Charles, Jennell; Parker, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    As the population demographics for the United States (U.S.) shift towards increasing diversity, it is essential that nurses provide culturally competent care. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as a major curricular element in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN) The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Thus it is imperative that nursing faculty use effective strategies to help nursing students develop cultural sensitivity and competence. Educational workshops focusing on cultural diversity are usually designed to increase people's cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cultural diversity forum on nursing students' cultural sensitivity as measured by their openness to diversity. A convenience sample of students was recruited from a public university in the southeastern United States. The workshop was designed as a forum that combined a keynote presentation, shared meal, and a small group interactional activity. Cultural sensitivity was measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (ODCS), and was administered to students before and after the forum. A convenience sample of 47 students agreed to participate and completed both the pretest and posttest. Following the workshop, the students had more cultural sensitivity as measured by their scores on the ODCS (Wilcoxin Signed-Rank test z= -3.286, p = 0.001). The findings suggested that an educational format like the cultural diversity forum can promote students' cultural sensitivity. Further research needs to continue to focus on the effectiveness of strategies to increase the cultural sensitivity of baccalaureate nursing students.

  18. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić; Dragan Bagić

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary w...

  19. Global forces, local identity: the economics of cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, Aloys; Steenge, A.E.; Hospers, Gerrit J.; Langen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While the economies of the world become more and more integrated, differences in the cultures remain. The economics of cultural diversity and of cultural interactions are the main theme of this volume. The essays originate from presentations at the binational Rothenberge seminar, organized by

  20. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  1. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural

  2. Premises of the Religious Cultural Tourism Development in the Galati – Braila Urban Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim at analyzing the possibilities of urban tourism development. In the urban areas Galati – Braila it begins to require cultural tourism. Religious tourism, as being the oldest manifestation of cultural tourism finds its resources in this area. The difference between this form of tourism and others is just the religious motivation of tourists. The forms of religious tourism are diverse, but it prevails in the area visiting the holy places. The two urban centers, Galati and Braila offers besides traditional cultural tourism resources, the promenade - Danube promenade trails, opportunities for health care, Lacul Sarat or recognized places of worship such as monasteries and Salt Lake subdued in the Archdiocese of Lower Danube.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sezerel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of diversity management practices relies on the combination of a series of variables properly. The relevant literature suggests that diversity management is highly depended on an adequate organizational culture. Thus, a research model that proposes that organizational culture has impact on diversity management perceptions of employees. There are two data sets in this research. The independent variable of the research is organizational culture and the dependent variable of the research is the level of diversity management perceptions. The research is adopted in quantitative method and the data collected via questionnaires. This research which is conducted in a hotel chain finds that the mission dimension of organizational culture impacts all three levels of diversity management.

  4. Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph

    2017-07-01

    As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Cultural rights in the Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: included or ignored?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.; Kono, T.; Van Uytsel, S.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted by the Member States of UNESCO. In this Declaration, cultural human rights were commended as an enabling environment for cultural diversity. After the Declaration, the Member States wished to adopt a legally binding instrument on

  6. Modeling Methodologies for Representing Urban Cultural Geographies in Stability Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferris, Todd P

    2008-01-01

    ... 2.0.0, in an effort to provide modeling methodologies for a single simulation tool capable of exploring the complex world of urban cultural geographies undergoing Stability Operations in an irregular warfare (IW) environment...

  7. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  8. Diversity and Complexity in the Classroom: Valuing Racial and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Pierre; Bisschoff, Tom

    2007-01-01

    From a diversity perspective, all students should receive an education that continuously affirms human diversity--one that embraces the history and culture of all racial groups and that teaches people of colour to take change of their own destinies. With regards to teaching, a diversity perspective assumes that teachers will hold high expectations…

  9. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  10. Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence. PMID:20143759

  11. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Anthropologists, biologists and linguists have all noted an apparent coincidence in species diversity and human cultural or linguistic diversity. We present, to our knowledge, one of the first quantitative descriptions of this coincidence and show that, for 2 degrees x 2 degrees grid cells across...... sub-Saharan Africa, cultural diversity and vertebrate species diversity exhibit marked similarities in their overall distribution. In addition, we show that 71% of the observed variation in species richness and 36% in language richness can be explained on the basis of environmental factors, suggesting...

  12. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  13. Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayani, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences.

  14. Considering the ways biocultural diversity helps enforce the urban green infrastructure in times of urban transformation : System dynamics and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierikko, Kati; Elands, Birgit; Niemelä, Jari; Andersson, Erik; Buijs, Arjen; Fischer, Leonie Katharina; Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Kowarik, Ingo; Luz, Ana Catarina; Olafsson Stahl, Anton; Száraz, Luca; van der Jagt, Sander; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, biocultural diversity (BCD) has been researched in non-western and indigenous societies. Recently, it has also been applied in urbanized and industrialized societies, in particular for the planning and management of urban green infrastructure (UGI). Diversity in human and biological

  15. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 research groups. One of the research groups identified the term cultural diversity to define. Method This was a qualitative study where a philosophical perspective was used to explore, explain and describe nursing practice. The combined method proposed by the International Council of Nurses (ICN was utilised to define and validate the term cultural diversity. Findings Validation and literature review provided sufficient support for the defined characteristics and the term was finally defined and submitted to ICN in November 2002 as: CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a type of CULTURE with the specific characteristics: co-existence of different groups, e.g. ethnic, religious, linguistic and other groups each with their own values and belief systems, traditions and different lifestyles. Conclusion The research group was informed in December 2003 of the ICNP® Evaluation Committee recommendation that the term cultural diversity will be included in the ICNP®.

  16. Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of Linaria vulgaris along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-03-30

    Microbes are common inhabitants of floral nectar and are capable of influencing plant-pollinator interactions. All studies so far investigated microbial communities in floral nectar in plant populations that were located in natural environments, but nothing is known about these communities in nectar of plants inhabiting urban environments. However, at least some microbes are vectored into floral nectar by pollinators, and because urbanization can have a profound impact on pollinator communities and plant-pollinator interactions, it can be expected that it affects nectar microbes as well. To test this hypothesis, we related microbial diversity in floral nectar to the degree of urbanization in the late-flowering plant Linaria vulgaris. Floral nectar was collected from twenty populations along an urbanization gradient and culturable bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the genes coding for small and large ribosome subunits, respectively. A total of seven yeast and 13 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found at 3 and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-offs, respectively. In agreement with previous studies, Metschnikowia reukaufii and M. gruessi were the main yeast constituents of nectar yeast communities, whereas Acinetobacter nectaris and Rosenbergiella epipactidis were the most frequently found bacterial species. Microbial incidence was high and did not change along the investigated urbanization gradient. However, microbial communities showed a nested subset structure, indicating that species-poor communities were a subset of species-rich communities. The level of urbanization was putatively identified as an important driver of nestedness, suggesting that environmental changes related to urbanization may impact microbial communities in floral nectar of plants growing in urban environments.

  17. Cultural differences and board gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco , Amélia; Francoeur , Claude; Réal , Isabelle; Laffarga , Joaquina; Ruiz-Barbadillo , Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    International audience; As evidence of the continuing interest raised by "board gender diversity", major studies (Catalyst, 2008; World Economic Forum, 2010; European Board Diversity Analysis, 2010) were recently carried out and have all led to reports confirming the imbalance of women on boards and the need to address this issue. Moreover, our analysis of these reports indicates that the low proportion of women observed on corporate boards varies across countries, which raises the question a...

  18. [Healthcare and culture, between diversity and universality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Interrelations exist between people's behaviour and the reasons for it as explained by culture. The healthcare theory put forward by the American nurse Madeleine Leininger, at the end of the 1970s, integrates anthropology Identifying and understanding the patient's culture enables nursing care to be adapted to the patient's own view of his/her disease.

  19. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  20. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  1. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: The State of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three broad categories of research on cultural diversity in the workplace: general overviews, theoretical perspectives, and empirical research studies. Offers an explanation for the paucity of research on the topic, and suggests topics and methods for future research. (SR)

  2. "Knowing Your Students" in the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Saltmarsh, David

    2016-01-01

    The population movement of globalization brings greater cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) to communities and education systems. To address the growing diversity in school classrooms, beginning teachers need an expanded set of skills and attitudes to support effective learning. It is an expectation today that teachers know their students and…

  3. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  4. PLURALITY AND DIVERSITY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the essence of the journal as a truly international platform that covers issues of interest and concern to the global academic and professional community, this issue of Archnet-IJAR, volume 11, issue # 2, July 2017 includes various topics that manifest plurality and diversity as inherent qualities of architectural and urban research published in the journal.  Topics include architectural education and design studio teaching, urban and rural slums, heritage and historic environments in various contexts, participatory planning and the charrette process, assessment of public spaces and plazas, and human perception of the built environment. These topics are debated and analytically discussed within cities, settlements, and urban environments in Bahrain, Bangladesh, California-USA, Libya, Scotland, and Spain. The issue also includes three papers selected from the Fifth Architectural Jordanian International Conference – 1-3 November 2016, which uniquely speak to the context of Jordan and the wider Middle East. The edition ends with a book review that highlights emerging issues related to border landscapes and social ecologies.

  5. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  6. Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education): CIEAEM 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afzal; Williams, Honor; Kraemer, Jean Marie

    The 51st meeting of the Commission Internationale pour L'Etude et L'Amelioration de L'Ensignment des Mathematiques (CIEAEM) was held July, 1999 at Chichester, UK and facilitated the collaboration of delegates from over 30 countries providing a variety of perspectives on the theme OCultural Diversity in Mathematics Education'. The papers in this…

  7. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  8. Cultural humility: measuring openness to culturally diverse clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Worthington, Everett L; Utsey, Shawn O

    2013-07-01

    Building on recent theory stressing multicultural orientation, as well as the development of virtues and dispositions associated with multicultural values, we introduce the construct of cultural humility, defined as having an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented rather than self-focused, characterized by respect and lack of superiority toward an individual's cultural background and experience. In 4 studies, we provide evidence for the estimated reliability and construct validity of a client-rated measure of a therapist's cultural humility, and we demonstrate that client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility are positively associated with developing a strong working alliance. Furthermore, client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility were positively associated with improvement in therapy, and this relationship was mediated by a strong working alliance. We consider implications for research, practice, and training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  10. Identity and Cultural Diversity in Conflict Resolution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which political stakeholders and social categories and classes feel com- pelled to express their ... formed in the interaction of social groups by the processes of inclusion ... It is not an unchanging bloc of beliefs, values, codes and behaviour. It is the ..... Cultural Expressions (2005) states in its preamble that cultural diversity.

  11. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  12. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: Managing a Multicultural Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.

    1990-01-01

    The influx of minorities into the workplace requires attention to their participation in workplace training, to race relations and organizational culture, and to potential communication difficulties. Human resource professionals must address cultural diversity issues as they affect the attainment of organizational goals. (SK)

  13. Usability Problem Identification in Culturally Diverse Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    There are indications that established methods for evaluating information system usability that have been developed for use in, e.g. Europe or the USA, fail to give reliable results in countries such as India, China or Malaysia. This paper presents the theoretical background, related work...... and a definition of culture that should be useful for studies of multiple-country usability testing. This includes a discussion of cultural fit and the consequences of cultural (in)consistencies between stakeholders in system development and use. As an illustrative example of the kind of academic research...... that needs to be done, a pilot study is described. The pilot study exemplifies themes to explore, who should be participants and where should the study be done, how to find examples of multiple-country usability testing, how to collect data and how to analyse that data and what kind of results and discussion...

  14. Reconstructing marginality: a new model of cultural diversity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Margaret; Polaschek, Nick

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a new model of cultural diversity in nursing that critically reconstructs the concept of marginality that underpins other models. Rather than viewing the marginal as "other," marginality is redefined as the space in between the dominant cultural reality and the cultural realities of minority groups located within a society. Members of a minority cultural group who become skilled in the difficult process of negotiating this in-between space open the possibility of transformation within nursing education and practice. This model has been applied in a study of the experience of nursing students of Pacific ethnicity in New Zealand. Subsequently, an undergraduate Pacific nursing program was developed, with greatly increased success rates in registration of Pacific nurses. This model of cultural diversity can also be used to understand nursing practice involving people from minority cultures or other socially excluded categories. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  16. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  17. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E.; Brown, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations. PMID:22072606

  18. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven

    2012-04-22

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations.

  19. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Ivory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  20. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months. PMID:29349320

  1. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students' thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students' perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  2. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  3. Cultures Around the World: A Unique Approach to Youth Cultural Diversity Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly diverse cultural trends have significant implications for the educational needs of American youth. Learning about and valuing diverse cultures will help prepare youth to become better citizens in an ever-changing society. Cultures Around the World was developed to meet the educational needs of youth in the area of cultural diversity. The Cultures Around the World program brings to life exciting cultures and customs from countries all over the world. Countries are presented in a unique format by teaching youth (ages 10 to 18 a specific country’s history, culture, food, music, dance, language, religion, and current issues. The Cultures Around the World program can be used by any youth educator. The program comes in a ready to use CD containing presentations, handicraft instructions, language guides, and resource guides for nine different countries (Armenia, Australia, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Ghana, Slovakia and Mexico.

  4. Indoor-air microbiome in an urban subway network: diversity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Wilkins, David; Li, Ellen K T; Kong, Fred K F; Lee, Patrick K H

    2014-11-01

    Subway systems are indispensable for urban societies, but microbiological characteristics of subway aerosols are relatively unknown. Previous studies investigating microbial compositions in subways employed methodologies that underestimated the diversity of microbial exposure for commuters, with little focus on factors governing subway air microbiology, which may have public health implications. Here, a culture-independent approach unraveling the bacterial diversity within the urban subway network in Hong Kong is presented. Aerosol samples from multiple subway lines and outdoor locations were collected. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V4 region, extensive taxonomic diversity was found, with the most common bacterial genera in the subway environment among those associated with skin. Overall, subway lines harbored different phylogenetic communities based on α- and β-diversity comparisons, and closer inspection suggests that each community within a line is dependent on architectural characteristics, nearby outdoor microbiomes, and connectedness with other lines. Microbial diversities and assemblages also varied depending on the day sampled, as well as the time of day, and changes in microbial communities between peak and nonpeak commuting hours were attributed largely to increases in skin-associated genera in peak samples. Microbial diversities within the subway were influenced by temperature and relative humidity, while carbon dioxide levels showed a positive correlation with abundances of commuter-associated genera. This Hong Kong data set and communities from previous studies conducted in the United States formed distinct community clusters, indicating that additional work is required to unravel the mechanisms that shape subway microbiomes around the globe. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The Effect of Urbanization on Ant Abundance and Diversity: A Temporal Examination of Factors Affecting Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "...

  6. Culturable gut microbiota diversity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantas, Leon; Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A-D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid conventional

  7. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Urbanization reduces and homogenizes trait diversity in stream macroinvertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Thomas R; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan

    2017-12-01

    More than one-half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition. We considered three levels of trait organization: individual traits, unique combinations of traits, and community metrics (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) and three levels of impervious surface coverage (low [10%]). The prevalence of an individual trait differed very little between low impervious surface and high impervious surface sites. The arrangement of trait combinations in community trait space for each ecoregion differed when impervious surface coverage was low, but the arrangement became more similar among ecoregions as impervious surface coverage increased. Furthermore, trait combinations that occurred only at low or medium impervious surface coverage were clustered in a subset of the community trait space, indicating that impervious surface affected the presence of only a subset of trait combinations. Functional richness declined with increasing impervious surface, providing evidence for environmental filtering. Community metrics that include abundance were also sensitive to increasing impervious surface coverage: functional divergence decreased while functional evenness increased. These changes demonstrate that increasing impervious surface coverage homogenizes the trait diversity of macroinvertebrate communities in streams, despite differences in initial community composition and stream geomorphology among ecoregions. Community

  9. Cultural competency and diversity among hospice palliative care volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Maja

    2012-05-01

    This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.

  10. Building effective working relationships across culturally and ethnically diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Cheryl A; Gensheimer, Linda; Yang, Mai

    2003-01-01

    Amherst H. Wilder Foundation's Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians is implementing two collaborative, best practice, mental health and substance abuse prevention service models in Minnesota. It faced several issues in effectively bridging multiple cultural groups, including building a diverse collaborative team, involving families and youth, reconciling cultural variation in meeting styles, and making best practice models culturally appropriate. Researchers and program staff used multiple strategies to address these challenges and build successful partnerships. Through shared goals, flexibility, and a willingness to explore and address challenges, collaboratives can promote stronger relationships across cultural communities and improve their service delivery systems.

  11. Cultural diversity and the case against ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M

    2000-01-01

    The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.

  12. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  13. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  14. An Urban Colour Space in the Context of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zheleznyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A colour space is seen as an actual discourse when discussing problems of formation and inhabitation of the modern city environment. The key aspect of such understanding is an activity-cultural interpretation of the urban environment colouristics proposed by the author, which allows building of an integral sphere of colour existence. This model of working with colour includes basic components and structures a colour space, while matching up all the elements (basic paradigms that provide proper functioning and development of the colour space; mechanisms of formation of colour paradigms; processes of formation and transformation of cultural norms and stereotypes; the culture of colour as a holistic unit that penetrates the variety of colour space forms, as well as the reality of colour establishment in the framework of human culture; the urban colouristics as a material and virtual, artificial and natural, organized and spontaneously appearing colour reality together with professional and conventional visions of it, etc..

  15. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  16. THE MODERN-DAY IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY: "MANAGING FAMILY JUSTICE IN DIVERSE SOCIETIES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Rautenbach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the modern-day impact of cultural and religious diversity and comments on some of the viewpoints to be found in Managing Family Justice in Diverse Societies.1 The topics dealt with in this publication create a greater awareness of the challenges family diversity presents, and illustrate that an attempt to adopt a single definite strategy to manage diversity would not be the right approach; rather that each and every situation should be managed according to its unique context.

  17. Cultural diversity and team performance in the Italian Serie A

    OpenAIRE

    Addesa, FA; Rossi, GB; Bove, V

    2017-01-01

    Cultural diversity features prominently in management studies. A diverse range of skills and perspectives can produce innovation and a greater variety of solutions to day to day problems. At the same time, however, the same heterogeneous approaches and experiences can result in communication and coordination problems, lack of trust and intra/intergroup conflict. We analyse a newly constructed dataset on team composition and performance for 29 teams, 1,238 players and 1,899 matches in the Ital...

  18. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a ca...... the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community....

  19. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  20. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary world. Therefore, the relationship of its citizens to cultural and other diversities will become an increasingly important socio-political and scientific topic, and the authors hope that their research will help to sensitize the public in this regard. It was found, unexpectedly, that Croatian citizens in fact offer somewhat weaker “resistance to multicultural society” (as measured by Eurobarometer, since only 8 per cent in total said it was bad or very bad for the country. Namely, almost one in four (23 per cent Europeans did not agree with the statement that people of different ethnic or cultural backgrounds enrich their countries. Even in relation to the European Union, Croatian respondents expressed moderate optimism, because a fairly smaller number of them (42% from a comparative European average (48% believed that joining the European Union threatens national cultural identity. The impact or the lack of impact of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents coincides in part with similar trends in research, for example in the Netherlands. In this research, only three predictors of results on the scale of cultural exclusion turned out to be statistically significant: sex, degree of religiosity and national affiliation. In a great world comparative research project it was established that young people generally showed greater acceptance of cultural (and other diversities in their societies, and it should be pointed out that age did not act in

  1. Boys II Men: A Culturally-Responsive School Counseling Group for Urban High School Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla; Yeh, Christine; Russell, LyRyan

    2016-01-01

    Using a participatory and collaborative approach, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally responsive school counseling group, "Boys II Men," for 11 low-income diverse male students of color at an urban public school. The content of the group focused on five areas: social connections and support, exploring gender roles,…

  2. An Appreciative Inquiry into an Urban Drug Court: Cultural Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond; Cohen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an appreciative inquiry (AI) theoretical research perspective and change methodology to transform the working relationships and cultural expectations of members through the discovery of their positive core leading to an optimistic and confidence-based future for an urban drug court. This study describes how…

  3. Cultural values and diversity management perspectives : Testing the impact of cultural values on the diversity management perspectives in Sierra Leone, Germany and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cultural values impact the attitudes towards diversity management perspectives. Therefore they convey critical opportunities and challenges that a country encounters, and which need to be identified for the successful implementation of diversity management initiatives. This thesis discusses the different diversity management perspectives and their motivations and rationales to diversify and the process in which the national culture influences the organizational culture practices. The ...

  4. Genetic diversity, population structure, and traditional culture of Camellia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tong; Huang, Weijuan; De Riek, Jan; Zhang, Shuang; Ahmed, Selena; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Long, Chunlin

    2017-11-01

    Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province. We collected plant material ( n  = 190 individuals) from five populations at study sites using single-dose AFLP markers in order to access the genetic diversity within and between populations. A total of 387 DNA fragments were produced by four AFLP primer sets. All DNA fragments were found to be polymorphic (100%). A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed in C. reticulata samples at both the species ( H sp  = 0.3397, I sp  = 0.5236) and population (percentage of polymorphic loci = 85.63%, H pop  = 0.2937, I pop  = 0.4421) levels. Findings further revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity within C. reticulata populations (Analysis of Molecular Variance = 96.31%). The higher genetic diversity within populations than among populations of C. reticulata from different geographies is likely due to the cultural and social influences associated with its long cultivation history for esthetic and culinary purposes by diverse sociolinguistic groups. This study highlights the influence of human management, socio-economic factors, and other cultural variables on the genetic and morphological diversity of C. reticulata at a regional level. Findings emphasize the important role of traditional culture on the conservation and utilization of plant genetic diversity.

  5. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  6. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  7. Promoting Cultural Diversity: African Music in Australian Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Australia is forged by ongoing migration, welcoming a range of cultures, languages and ethnicities, celebrating a diverse range of the Arts. In this multicultural society, music and dance may serve as a positive medium to transmit and promote social cohesion. I argue that the inclusion of innovative and immersive practice of African music in…

  8. Performing Our World: Affirming Cultural Diversity through Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a culturally responsive music curriculum through which students and teachers affirmed diverse stories of individuals present in our public school community. An arts-integrated curriculum project helped make learning more meaningful while concurrently creating a safe learning space for students. This grant-funded project…

  9. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  10. Conflict, Cultural Diversity and Relativism in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to interrogate the ideal of using drama to highlight the cultural differences within the Nigerian polity and advance the argument that there is need for playwrights to creatively orchestrate this diversity and in the process examine the model of relativism and tolerance amongst the various federating units in the ...

  11. Addressing shipboard cultural diversity: A paradigm shift required to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past few decades have witnessed a tremendous technological and social transformation on board ships and with it some very significant operational challenges. Much of the social challenges have been the result of a new maritime workforce that has now become largely much more culturally diverse than ever.

  12. Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Rutger van de Sande; Drs. Kennedy Aquilino Tielman; Dr. S. Bolhuis; Prof. dr. Perry den Brok

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education. By K. Tielman (Fontys), P. den Brok (ESoE), S. Bolhuis (Fontys) and R. van de Sande (Fontys) This contribution discusses a descriptive study on the experiences of students and teachers in secondary vocational education

  13. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : The Robustness of Cultural Homophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cultural diversity is both persistent and precarious. People in different regions of the world are increasingly exposed to global influences from mass media, internet communication, interregional migration and mass tourism. English is rapidly becoming Earth’s Lingua Franca, and Western

  14. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  15. Leadership of Cultural Diversity : The impact of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Raithel (Katja)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to understand how to manage cultural diverse teams in the best way and increase team performance in multinational organizations. Therefore, defining what kind of leader characteristics drives team performance and what leadership characteristics foster

  16. Inequities of Intervention among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Although Response to Intervention (RTI) has been generally studied in relation to student outcomes, the system itself requires further study, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. CLD students have consistently suffered inequities in the educational system, including over representation in high incidence disability…

  17. Segmentation of culturally diverse visitors' values in forest recreation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; H.C. Zinn; G.E. Chick; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of HOFSTEDE’s measure of cultural values (1980) for group segmentation in an ethnically diverse population in a forest recreation context, and to validate the values segmentation, if any, via socio-demographic and service quality related variables. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF)...

  18. Singapore International Schools: Best Practice in Culturally Diverse Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the preliminary outcomes of research into the place and role of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five International Schools in Singapore. It highlights the ways in which school philosophy, policy, curriculum and in-service training influence teacher practice. The research provides insights into the challenges…

  19. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  20. Reaching Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Young Learners with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susanne D.; Ames, Margery E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how cross-over training and a whole-school approach help preschool educators assist disabled students who have not yet acquired their native language, examining New York's English-as-a Second-Language/Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Training Program for Pre-K Special Education Personnel, which trains preschool personnel to meet…

  1. Characteristics of sudden arrhythmic death in a diverse, urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Moffatt, Ellen; Hart, Amy P; Ursell, Philip; Tseng, Zian H

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a major public health problem; however, its true burden remains unknown with widely variable estimates of its incidence. We aimed to examine the contemporary epidemiology and autopsy characteristics of SCD in an ethnically diverse community. Three physicians reviewed all deaths of individuals aged ≥20 years reported to the San Francisco medical examiner in 2007 for presentations fitting World Health Organization (WHO) SCD criteria-within 1 hour of symptom onset (witnessed) or within 24 hours of being observed alive and symptom free (unwitnessed). After comprehensive review of medical examiner investigation, WHO SCDs were classified as sudden arrhythmic death (SAD) or nonarrhythmic death. Coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac mass were evaluated in all SADs undergoing autopsy and compared with demographically similar accidental trauma control deaths. We identified 252 WHO SCDs; 145 were SADs. Men had a 2.2-fold higher SAD rate (P < .0005). Blacks had a 3.15-fold higher SAD rate compared with whites (P = .003). Significant CAD was present in 38.9% of SADs and associated with higher SAD risk compared with control deaths (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.97, P = .026). Mean cardiac mass was linearly associated with risk for SAD in cases without significant CAD (OR 2.06 per 100 g, 95% CI 1.43-2.98, P < .0005). In a diverse, urban population, SAD incidence varied substantially by gender and race. Significant CAD accounted for far fewer SADs than previous studies but remained associated with a 2.6-fold higher risk as compared with control deaths. These findings may reflect the evolving contemporary epidemiology of SCD. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Public Address, Cultural Diversity, and Tolerance: Teaching Cultural Diversity in Speech Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    While speech instructors work to design appropriate diversity goals in the public speaking class, few have the training for such a task. A review of course objectives and assignments for the basic course may be helpful. Suggestions for instructors working to incorporate diversity in the basic course include: (1) recognize the dominance of the…

  3. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  4. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  5. Managing equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Beverley

    2007-12-01

    This article offers practical strategies to managers and others for supporting overseas trained nurses and managing cultural diversity in the health workforce. Widespread nursing shortages have led managers to recruit nurses from overseas, mainly from developing countries. This paper draws on evidence from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study reported elsewhere in this issue, which indicates that overseas trained nurses encountered widespread discriminatory practices including an overuse of complaints and grievances against them. The researchers also found that the overseas trained nurses responded to their experiences by using various personal strategies to resist or re-negotiate and overcome such discriminatory practices. A research workshop was held in June 2005 at the midpoint of the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study. Twenty-five participants attended the workshop. They were the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study researchers, advisory group members, including the author of this paper and other researchers in the field of migration. The overall aim of the workshop was to share emerging research data from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals and related studies. The final session of the workshop on which this paper is based, was facilitated by the author, with the specific aim of asking the participants to discuss and determine the challenges to managers when managing a culturally diverse workforce. The discussion yielded four main themes collated by the author from which a framework of strategies to facilitate equality and cultural diversity management of the healthcare workers may be developed. The four themes are: assumptions and expectations; education and training to include

  6. Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise

    2014-01-01

    With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.

  7. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Normandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852 and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775. Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  8. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Étienne; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Buddle, Christopher M; Fournier, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks) within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852) and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775). Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal) but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  9. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  10. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.G. Tilghman

    1987-01-01

    Breeding bird communities were studied in 32 forest islands surrounded by urban development. These isolated woodlands in Springfield, Massachusetts, provided breeding habitats for a wider variety of birds (77 species) than previously described for other urban habitats (e.g. four times as many species as found in urban residential areas in the same city in a...

  11. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Tostevin, Gilbert B

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls "the taskscape"). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls "taskscape visibility." Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data.

  12. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  13. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions. As there is evidence that some skin bacteria may inhibit growth of Bd and prevent infection in some cases, there is interest in using these bacteria as probiotic therapy for conservation of at-risk amphibians. In this study, we used skin swabs from American toads ( Anaxyrus americanus ) to: (1) assess the diversity and community structure of culturable amphibian skin bacteria grown on high and low nutrient culture media, (2) determine which culture media recover the highest proportion of the total skin bacterial community of individual toads relative to culture-independent data, and (3) assess whether the plated communities from the distinct media types vary in their ability to inhibit Bd growth in in-vitro assays. Overall, we found that culture media with low nutrient concentrations facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa and grew distinct communities relative to media with higher nutrient concentrations. Use of low nutrient media also resulted in culturing proportionally more of the bacterial diversity on individual toads relative to the overall community defined using culture-independent methods. However, while there were differences in diversity among media types, the variation among individual hosts was greater than variation among media types, suggesting

  14. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  15. Metacogonitive and Motivational Cultural Intelligence: Superpowers for Creativity an a Culturally Diverse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bogilović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose that employees who are highly motivated for cultural interactions (motivational cultural intelligence and can modify their thinking about cultural differences (metacognitive cultural intelligence are more likely to be creative in culturally diverse environments. Based on the social categorization theory, we propose that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence will be positively related to individual creativity. Moreover, we predict that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence can decrease the negative aspects of the social categorization process and, in turn, be positively related to creativity. A quantitative analysis of 787 employees in 20 SME multicultural companies in the Adriatic region shows that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence are in fact positively related to individual creativity. We discuss the implications for practice and future research.

  16. Urban Household Characteristics and Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of Food Security in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Okutu, David; Abu, Mumuni

    2016-06-01

    The world's population is increasingly becoming urbanized. If the current urban growth rate is to continue, new and unprecedented challenges for food security will be inevitable. Dietary diversity has been used to ascertain food security status albeit at the multicountry and country levels. Thus, household-level studies in urban settings, particularly in sub-Sahara African, are few. Yet, it is imperative that assessments of food security are undertaken particularly in urban settings, due to the projected fast rate of urbanization and the challenges of attaining food security. To examine household characteristics and dietary diversity. The study uses data from 452 households from the second round of the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) EDULINK urban poverty and health study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are undertaken. Mean dietary diversity for all households is 6.8. Vegetables have the highest diversity, followed by cereal-based and grain products. Household characteristics that have statistically significant associations with dietary diversity include sex and level of education of household head, household wealth quintile, and source of food. There is high dietary diversity in the study communities of Accra but low consumption of foods rich in micronutrient, such as fruits and milk/dairy products. The study brings to fore issues related to resource-disadvantaged entities of the urban system, namely, females, poor households, and the non-educated who have food insecurity problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Impacts of Urban Areas and Their Characteristics on Avian Functional Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Oliveira Hagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is rapidly expanding across the globe and is a major driver of environmental change. Despite considerable improvements in our understanding of how species richness responds to urbanization, there is still insufficient knowledge of how other measures of assemblage composition and structure respond to urban development. Functional diversity metrics provide a useful approach for quantifying ecological function. We compare avian functional diversity in 25 urban areas, located across the globe, with paired non-urban assemblages using a database of 27 functional traits that capture variation in resource use (amount and type of resources and how they are acquired across the 529 species occurring across these assemblages. Using three standard functional diversity metrics (FD, MNTD, and convex hull we quantify observed functional diversity and, using standardized effect sizes, how this diverges from that expected under random community assembly null models. We use regression trees to investigate whether human population density, amount of vegetation and city size (spatial extent of urban land, bio-region and use of semi-natural or agricultural assemblages as a baseline modulate the effect of urbanization on functional diversity. Our analyses suggest that observed functional diversity of urban avian assemblages is not consistently different from that of non-urban assemblages. After accounting for species richness avian functional diversity is higher in cities than areas of semi-natural habitat. This creates a paradox as species responses to urban development are determined by their ecological traits, which should generate assemblages clustered within a narrow range of trait space. Greater habitat diversity within cities compared to semi-natural areas dominated by a single habitat may enhance functional diversity in cities and explain this paradox. Regression trees further suggest that smaller urban areas, lower human population densities

  18. Education: 6. The Influence of Cultural Diversity on Openearedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iușcă Dorina Geta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Open-earedness theory has repeatedly been confirmed on several populations including American, English, Dutch, German and Finnish people. Nonetheless the influence of cultural diversity on openness towards unfamiliar music has received little attention from researchers and this may create the possibility of adding essential modifications of Albert LeBlanc’s theory. Considering the contemporary context, people’s migration towards economic developed countries becomes a phenomenon with great implications related to the progress of social and cultural characteristics of any national context. Researching the openearedness of people which have been exposed not only to their native culture but also to the adopted one (due to financial necessities may reveal a series of useful aspects for the intercultural field (by disclosing new ways to promote the tolerance towards cultural diversity and also for the educational field (by describing new strategies of learning in a context of adaptation to an unfamiliar musical space. The present article analyses a series of previous experiments that monitored the way different social categories integrated in cultural communities different from their own assimilate or not the elements of the adopted country into their musical identity. The present analysis has educational implications related to the ways students may develop the preference for unfamiliar music.

  19. Ethnic and cultural diversity: challenges and opportunities for health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aart

    2008-09-01

    Guaranteeing equal health care of appropriate quality implies taking ethnic and cultural diversity into account, without over- or underestimating the importance of these grounds. Besides awareness of its relevance, it is essential to have disaggregated data to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture on the one hand and health and health care on the other hand. From a health law perspective, it is a prerequisite to understand the conceptual and normative meaning of equality and non-discrimination, also in relation to the right to privacy, and to be aware of the need to collaborate with other legal and non-legal disciplines.

  20. Promoting Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students as Change Agents: A Cultural Approach to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a cultural approach to professional learning to empower pre- and in-service teachers to successfully address increasingly diverse student populations and become culturally responsive to students' diverse backgrounds. This cultural approach treats culture as a vital source for reshaping the politics of identity and…

  1. How culture shapes the body: cultural consonance and body mass in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Oths, Kathryn S; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a model of how culture shapes the body, based on two studies conducted in urban Brazil. Research was conducted in 1991 and 2001 in four socioeconomically distinct neighborhoods. First, cultural domain analyses were conducted with samples of key informants. The cultural domains investigated included lifestyle, social support, family life, national identity, and food. Cultural consensus analysis was used to confirm shared knowledge in each domain and to derive measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance assesses how closely an individual matches the cultural consensus model for each domain. Second, body composition, cultural consonance, and related variables were assessed in community surveys. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of cultural consonance and body composition, controlling for standard covariates and competing explanatory variables. In 1991, in a survey of 260 individuals, cultural consonance had a curvilinear association with the body mass index that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In 2001, in a survey of 267 individuals, cultural consonance had a linear association with abdominal circumference that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In general, as cultural consonance increases, body mass index and abdominal circumference decline, more strongly for women than men. As individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, more closely approximate shared cultural models in socially salient domains, body composition also more closely approximates the cultural prototype of the body. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cultural Diversity Training: The Necessity of Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers and in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the need to provide culturally sensitive care to the growing number of diverse health care consumers. A literature review of national standards and research on cultural competency was conducted and specifically focused on the field of nursing. This study supports the theory that cultural competence is learned over time and is a process of inner reflection and awareness. The domains of awareness, skill, and knowledge are essential competencies that must be gained by health care providers and especially for nurses. Although barriers to providing culturally sensitive care exist, gaining a better understanding of cultural competence is essential to developing realistic education and training techniques, which will lead to quality professional nursing practice for increasingly diverse populations.

  3. Serving Culturally Diverse E-Learners in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia; Weir, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e-learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a few, give management learners of any age easy…

  4. Cultural diversity and human resources management in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian MARINAS; Monica CONDRUZ- BACESCU

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the international dimensions of human resources management and the extension of European Union represents important premises regarding the harmonization of human resources practices at the level of the European countries. Despite this, the main characteristic of the European model of management is diversity. During the last decade, the human resource function registered profound changes, determined especially by the economic, social, cultural and political context registered a...

  5. Voices of successful science teachers in an urban diverse single gender girls' school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for female students of color in their classrooms. Ethic of Care, equity pedagogy and culturally responsive pedagogy, created the theoretical framework for interpretation of the powerful narratives and storytelling that influenced this group of successful teachers. Data were collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Constant comparative method and narrative analysis were used to code and categorize the data. Analysis was conducted after each interview to discover emergent themes. Teachers conducted member checks throughout the process. The findings from the study yielded the following: (1) teachers had a passion for science and incorporated ongoing scientific developments and real-life examples and applications in their teaching, (2) teachers adopted a caring, concerned, and student-centered approach to teaching, (3) teachers acknowledged certain benefits to a single-sex girls education which included fewer distractions, increased confidence and comfort level of students, (5) teachers built relationships with students that encouraged students to engage with rigorous course content and meet higher expectations for performance. Themes that emerged included: care, culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally relevant curriculum.

  6. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  7. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a calcium carbonate matrix, making extraction of bacterial cells and DNA a challenge and limiting molecular and genomic studies of this environment. To utilize this genetic resource, cultivation at high pH and low temperature was studied as a method for obtaining biomass and DNA from the fraction of this community that would not otherwise be amenable to genetic analyses. The diversity and community dynamics in mixed cultures of bacteria from ikaite columns was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA. Both medium composition and incubation time influenced the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community.

  8. Animal social networks as substrate for cultural behavioural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal; Lusseau, David

    2012-02-07

    We used individual-based stochastic models to examine how social structure influences the diversity of socially learned behaviour within a non-human population. For continuous behavioural variables we modelled three forms of dyadic social learning, averaging the behavioural value of the two individuals, random transfer of information from one individual to the other, and directional transfer from the individual with highest behavioural value to the other. Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c)¹(m)⁻(c)² + (c)³(Log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently modular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  10. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  11. Teaching physiotherapy skills in culturally-diverse classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer-Somers Karen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards. Results This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making. Conclusions Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.

  12. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Buczkowski

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant

  13. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant biodiversity.

  14. A study of cultural diversity training practices in company-owned franchise restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Uk Charles

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural diversity training practices and to determine the deterrence factors associated instituting cultural diversity training. It attempted to measure the overall effectiveness of cultural diversity training in franchise restaurants. A total of 300 franchise restaurants were surveyed. Three practicing and fiftyeight non-practicing cultural diversity training companies participated in the study. The findings indicated that high tur...

  15. Educating medical students for work in culturally diverse societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, R F; Anderson, P M; Gill, P S; Greenfield, S M

    1999-09-01

    Recent attention has focused on whether government health service institutions, particularly in the United Kingdom, reflect cultural sensitivity and competence and whether medical students receive proper guidance in this area. To systematically identify educational programs for medical students on cultural diversity, in particular, racial and ethnic diversity. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1963-August 1998); Bath International Data Service (BIDS) Institute for Scientific Information science and social science citation indexes (1981-August 1998); BIDS International Bibliography for the Social Sciences (1981-August 1998); and the Educational Resources Information Centre (1981-August 1998). In addition, the following online data sets were searched: Kings Fund; Centre for Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick; Health Education Authority; European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, University of Utrecht; International Centre for Intercultural Studies, University of London; the Refugee Studies Programme, University of Oxford. Medical education and academic medicine journals (1994-1998) were searched manually and experts in medical education were contacted. Studies included in the analysis were articles published in English before August 1998 that described specific programs for medical students on racial and ethnic diversity. Of 1456 studies identified by the literature search, 17 met the criteria. Two of the authors performed the study selection independently. The following data were extracted: publication year, program setting, student year, whether a program was required or optional, the teaching staff and involvement of minority racial and ethnic communities, program length, content and teaching methods, student assessment, and nature of program evaluation. Of the 17 selected programs, 13 were conducted in North America. Eleven programs were exclusively for students in years 1 or 2. Fewer than half (n = 7) the programs were part of

  16. Finding Balance in a Mix of Culture: Appreciation of Diversity through Multicultural Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the understandings of cultural diversity as enacted in multicultural music education and is located in Victoria, which is identified as the most culturally diverse state in Australia with a population that comes from various countries and speaks many languages. This cultural diversity is reflected in the schools. This…

  17. Mapping Cultural Diversity through Children's Voices: From Confusion to Clear Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    This research examines children's conceptualisations of cultural diversity. In particular, this project examines the following two research questions: how do children define and understand the concept of cultural diversity; and what do they perceive as the implications of cultural diversity on their daily lives? To this end, interviews were…

  18. Super-diversity and the art of living in ethnically concentrated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimienti, M.; van Liempt, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how local diversity is being experienced by Somali immigrants who have previously lived in the Netherlands and are now residing in London. It explores the various challenges and potential advantages of living in homogenous urban areas within a super-diverse city and focuses on

  19. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  20. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  1. Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of the roles of adaptation and chance in determining genetic diversity and evolution has received attention in the last 50 years, but our understanding is still incomplete. All statements about the relative effects of evolutionary factors, especially drift, need confirmation by strong demographic observations, some of which are easier to obtain in a species like ours. Earlier quantitative studies on a variety of data have shown that the amount of genetic differentiation in living human populations indicates that the role of positive (or directional) selection is modest. We observe geographic peculiarities with some Y chromosome mutants, most probably due to a drift-related phenomenon called the surfing effect. We also compare the overall genetic diversity in Y chromosome DNA data with that of other chromosomes and their expectations under drift and natural selection, as well as the rate of fall of diversity within populations known as the serial founder effect during the recent "Out of Africa" expansion of modern humans to the whole world. All these observations are difficult to explain without accepting a major relative role for drift in the course of human expansions. The increasing role of human creativity and the fast diffusion of inventions seem to have favored cultural solutions for many of the problems encountered in the expansion. We suggest that cultural evolution has been subrogating biologic evolution in providing natural selection advantages and reducing our dependence on genetic mutations, especially in the last phase of transition from food collection to food production.

  2. Frequency and Polarization Diversity Jamming of Communications in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulama, Tuncay

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how to exploit frequency and polarization techniques in reducing the effects of jamming against UAV relay communication links in an urban warfare environment...

  3. Enjoying Cultural Differences Assists Teachers in Learning about Diversity and Equality. An Evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnšek, Nada

    2013-01-01

    The present study is based on a quasi-experimental research design and presents the results of an evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training that took place at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana, rooted in the anti-bias approach to educating diversity and equality issues (Murray & Urban, 2012). The experimental group included…

  4. Structural diversity: a multi-dimensional approach to assess recreational services in urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Annette; Kabisch, Nadja; Wurster, Daniel; Haase, Dagmar; Breuste, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational services for urban residents. In general, when park visitors enjoy "the green," they are in actuality appreciating a mix of biotic, abiotic, and man-made park infrastructure elements and qualities. We argue that these three dimensions of structural diversity have an influence on how people use and value urban parks. We present a straightforward approach for assessing urban parks that combines multi-dimensional landscape mapping and questionnaire surveys. We discuss the method as well the results from its application to differently sized parks in Berlin and Salzburg.

  5. Managing cultural diversity in healthcare partnerships: the case of LIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Brown, Sally; Beck, Matthias; Lunt, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) programme was launched in 2001 as an innovative public-private partnership to address the historical under-investment in local primary care facilities in England. The organisations from the public and private sector that comprise a local LIFT partnership each have their own distinctive norms of behaviour and acceptable working practices - ultimately different organisational cultures. The purpose of this article is to assess the role of organisational culture in facilitating (or impeding) LIFT partnerships and to contribute to an understanding of how cultural diversity in public-private partnerships is managed at the local level. The approach taken was qualitative case studies, with data gathering comprising interviews and a review of background documentation in three LIFT companies purposefully sampled to represent a range of background factors. Elite interviews were also conducted with senior policy makers responsible for implementing LIFT policy at the national level. Interpreting the data against a conceptual framework designed to assess approaches to managing strategic alliances, the authors identified a number of key differences in the values, working practices and cultures in public and private organisations that influenced the quality of joint working. On the whole, however, partners in the three LIFT companies appeared to be working well together, with neither side dominating the development of strategy. Differences in culture were being managed and accommodated as partnerships matured. As LIFT develops and becomes the primary source of investment for managing, developing and channelling funding into regenerating the primary care infrastructure, further longitudinal work might examine how ongoing partnerships are working, and how changes in the cultures of public and private partners impact upon wider relationships within local health economies and shape the delivery of patient care

  6. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  7. Pollution Impacts on Bacterioplankton Diversity in a Tropical Urban Coastal Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloto, Gigliola R. B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Chaia, Catia; Lima, Joyce L.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Clementino, Maysa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance. PMID:23226484

  8. Pollution impacts on bacterioplankton diversity in a tropical urban coastal lagoon system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliola R B Salloto

    Full Text Available Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance.

  9. History and Local Management of a Biodiversity-Rich, Urban Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Barthel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP of Stockholm, we illustrate how the co-evolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces.

  10. Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.

  11. [Cultural diversity, tensions and solidarities within the nursing teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessar, Zahia; Kotobi, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    Cultural and ethnic diversities present in the hospital as well as within the nursing teams impact on the way of working. Observing them from the point of view of the caregivers based on experiences of team guidance and training highlights issues related to the way the hospital teams experience these differences. These differences also have an effect conveyed through tensions, conflicts or solidarity. The place and the role of the managers are an important lever for supporting their teams, notably with regard to racism which can sometimes be expressed in the social relations present in the workplace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Games, Diversions & Perl Culture Best of the Perl Journal

    CERN Document Server

    Orwant, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The Perl Journal (TPJ) did something most print journals aspire to, but few succeed. Within a remarkable short time, TPJ acquired a cult-following and became the voice of the Perl community. Every serious Perl programmer subscribed to it, and every notable Perl guru jumped at the opportunity to write for it. Back issues were swapped like trading cards. No longer in print format, TPJ remains the quintessential spirit of Perl--a publication for and by Perl programmers who see fun and beauty in an admittedly quirky little language. Games, Diversions, and Perl Culture is the third volume of Th

  13. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The linguistics in othering: Teacher educators’ talk about cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Birgitta Nilsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Othering’ can be conceptually defined as the manner in which social group dichotomies are represented in language via binary oppositions of ‘us’ and ‘them’. The article aims to contribute to a methodological approach for differentiating the concept of othering in educational settings. We will introduce new ways of conceptualising othering based on findings from an empirical critical discourse analytical study of how teacher educators talk about the term ‘cultural diversity’. The study is based on transcriptions of interviews with Norwegian teacher educators. The findings illustrate that teacher educators talk about cultural diversity using seven different ways of othering. These ways of othering are important because teacher educators’ discourses influence preservice teachers, in turn, influencing their future teaching in schools. We argue that a critical linguistic awareness of the ways in which pupils are ‘othered’ is an important tool in counteracting social exclusion and promoting social justice and equity.

  15. [Diversity and bioactivity of culturable actinobacteria from animal feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Cao, Yanru; Han, Li; Jin, Rongxian; Zheng, Dan; He, Wenxiang; Li, Youlong; Huang, Xueshi

    2012-10-04

    In order to provide new source for discovering new lead compounds of drugs and other products, the diversity and some bioactivities of culturable actinobacteria in animal feces were studied. Five animals' fecal samples were collected from Yunnan Wild Animal Park. The pure cultures of actinobacteria were isolated from these samples by using 5 different media. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 119 selected strains were determined; the phylogenetic analysis was carried out; and antimicrobial and anti-tumor activities were determined by using agar diffusion method, tumor cell lines k562and HL60 respectively. In total 20 genera of actinobacteria from the 5 animals' feces were identified. Many strains inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus lentus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Some strains presented antitumor activities. Some known secondary metabolites and Sannastatin, a novel macrolactam polyketide glycoside with bioactivities, were isolated and identified. Fecal actinobacteria are a new potential source for discovering drug lead and other industry products.

  16. Urban FFA Members' Sense of the Organizational Culture of the FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Organizational culture shapes how members of a group act. The culture has the power to exclude potential new members who do not fit into the culture of the organization. Research on urban school-based agriculture programs has indicated that urban agriculture students face barriers to their participation in the National FFA Organization (FFA).…

  17. Cultural Development Strategies and Urban Gay Tourism Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Prat Forga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.

  18. Escaping National Tags and Embracing Diversity: Third Culture Kid Songwriters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanfilippo-Schulz Jessica

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more writers cannot be classified according to one single nation. Whereas in Imagined Communities Anderson describes the development of nations and national belongings, in Third Culture Kid (TCK discourse a central theme is the concept of not belonging to one specific nation or culture (“NatioNILism”. TCKs are individuals who were raised moving from one country to the next due to their parents’ career choices. Not having had a fixed home while growing up, rather than accepting classifications according to nations and cultures, many TCKs prefer to embrace diversity. Antje Rauwerda argues that the fiction of adult TCKs comprises typical features that reflect the consequences of a displaced international childhood and accordingly coins the new literary classification Third Culture Literature. Whereas Rauwerda exclusively analyses novels written by TCKs, this article examines whether the effects of hypermobile international childhoods can be detected in the works of TCK songwriters. By analysing not only the song lyrics of contemporary musicians such as Haikaa, Sinkane and Tanita Tikaram but also the artists’ views regarding issues such as belonging, identity and transience, it will be shown that in the scholarly realm the TCK lens can be expanded to song texts too.

  19. Genetic diversity among and within cultured cyanobionts of diverse species of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, A; Prasanna, R; Prasanna, B M; Singh, P K

    2008-01-01

    The cyanobionts isolated from 10 Azolla accessions belonging to 6 species (Azolla mexicana, A. microphylla, A. rubra, A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. pinnata) were cultured under laboratory conditions and analyzed on the basis of whole cell protein profiles and molecular marker dataset generated using repeat sequence primers (STRR(mod) and HipTG). The biochemical and molecular marker profiles of the cyanobionts were compared with those of the free-living cyanobacteria and symbiotic Nostoc strains from Anthoceros sp., Cycas sp. and Gunnera monoika. Cluster analysis revealed the genetic diversity among the selected strains, and identified 3 distinct clusters. Group 1 included cyanobionts from all the 10 accessions of Azolla, group 2 comprised all the symbiotic Nostoc strains, while group 3 included the free-living cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Nostoc and Anabaena. The interrelationships among the Azolla cyanobionts were further revealed by principal component analysis. Cyanobionts from A. caroliniana-A. microphylla grouped together while cyanobionts associated with A. mexicana-A. filiculoides along with A. pinnata formed another group. A. rubra cyanobionts had intermediate relationship with both the subgroups. This is the first study analyzing the diversity existing among the cultured cyanobionts of diverse Azolla species through the use of biochemical and molecular profiles and also the genetic distinctness of these free-living cyanobionts as compared to cyanobacterial strains of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc.

  20. Emerging dragonfly diversity at small Rhode Island (U.S.A.) wetlands along an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti Lubertazzi, Maria A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Natal habitat use by dragonflies was assessed on an urban to rural land-use gradient at a set of 21 wetlands, during two emergence seasons (2004, 2005). The wetlands were characterized for urbanization level by using the first factor from a principal components analysis combining chloride concentration in the wetland and percent forest in the surrounding buffer zone. Measurements of species diversity and its components (species richness and evenness) were analyzed and compared along the urbanization gradient, as were distributions of individual species. Dragonfly diversity, species richness, and evenness did not change along the urbanization gradient, so urban wetlands served as natal habitat for numerous dragonfly species. However, several individual species displayed strong relationships to the degree of urbanization, and most were more commonly found at urban sites and at sites with fish. In contrast, relatively rare species were generally found at the rural end of the gradient. These results suggest that urban wetlands can play important roles as dragonfly habitat and in dragonfly conservation efforts, but that conservation of rural wetlands is also important for some dragonfly species.

  1. Addressing cultural diversity: the hepatitis B clinical specialist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack; Smith, Elizabeth; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-08-31

    Hepatitis B is a viral infection primarily affecting people from culturally diverse communities in Australia. While vaccination prevents infection, there is increasing mortality resulting from liver damage associated with chronic infection. Deficits in the national policy and clinical response to hepatitis B result in a low diagnosis rate, inadequate testing and diagnosis processes, and poor access to hepatitis B treatment services. While research identifies inadequate hepatitis B knowledge among people with the virus and primary health care workers, this project sought to identify how specialist clinicians in Australia negotiate cultural diversity, and provide often complex clinical information to people with hepatitis B. A vignette was developed and presented to thirteen viral hepatitis specialist clinicians prior to an electronically recorded interview. Recruitment continued until saturation of themes was reached. Data were thematically coded into themes outlined in the interview schedule. Ethical approval for the research was provided by the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee. Key messages provided to patients with hepatitis B by clinical specialists were identified. These messages were not consistently provided to all patients with hepatitis B, but were determined on perceptions of patient knowledge, age and highest educational level. While the vignette stated that English was not an issue for the patient, most specialists identified the need for an interpreter. Combating stigma related to hepatitis B was seen as important by the specialists and this was done through normalising the virus. Having an awareness of different cultural understandings about hepatitis B specifically, and health and well-being generally, was noted as a communication strategy. Key core competencies need to be developed to deliver educational messages to people with hepatitis B within clinical encounters. The provision of adequate resources to specialist clinics will

  2. Resistance and diversity: cultural narratives of a quilombola community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Pierote Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Riacho das Pedras was a remnant quilombo community in the municipality of Rio de Contas (Bahia which lands were flooded after the construction of a dam. The work led to serious impacts on the affected population and to the surrounding environment. We performed a five trajectories study of former residents of this village between 2008 and 2009. Based on the narratives, we sought to map the displacement processes, the establishment in new territories and the group current conditions. Our project was developed based on interviews, literature, ethnographic inspiration field and oral history of life method. This article aims to conduct an analysis focusing on the quilombo cultural manifestations and consequences of these practices in the local context. We believe that despite the diaspora, the community has endured and asserted itself politically through artistic and cultural events. We understand that the quilombo descendants have (recreated specific forms of expression that value them positively. Besides, through these expressions, important cultural variations are accomplished in order to contribute to the expansion of diversity in Rio de Contas.

  3. Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh; Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Spencer, James; Lam, Nguyen; Finucane, Melissa; Duc Vien, Tran; Wilcox, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transiti...

  4. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  5. A Multilevel Model of Team Cultural Diversity and Creativity: The Role of Climate for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ci-Rong; Lin, Chen-Ju; Tien, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We developed a multi-level model to test how team cultural diversity may relate to team- and individual-level creativity, integrating team diversity research and information-exchange perspective. We proposed that the team climate for inclusion would moderate both the relationship between cultural diversity and team information sharing and between…

  6. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  7. On Building Bridges: Cultural Agnosia, HipHopEd, and Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lens for engaging in research and practice in urban education rooted in deep cultural understandings of the concept of building bridges and the impact of cultural agnosia.

  8. Cultural diversity among nursing students: reanalysis of the cultural awareness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Chontichachalalauk, Jiraporn; Lee, H Y

    2014-02-01

    Nurses are educated to provide culturally competent care. Cultural competence begins with cultural awareness, a concept previously measured with the Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the CAS to determine construct validity and differences in cultural awareness among students of varying educational levels and experiences. The sample consisted of 150 nursing students (92% female, 33.6% racial minorities). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded three factors (CFI = 0.868, TLI = 0.854, RMSEA = 0.065, and SRMR = 0.086). Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. There were significant differences among educational levels, with lower division BSN students generally scoring higher than upper division and master's of science in nursing students. Students who had taken courses on cultural diversity or global health generally outscored those who had not taken such courses. Findings support the validity of the CAS and its applicability to research studies of cultural awareness in nursing. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Urban Destinations: Does Space Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Aranburu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers and tourism developers must understand visitors’ mobility behavior and how they consume space and tourism resources in order to set up sustainable cultural tourism destinations. With this in mind, it should also be pointed out that the mobility patterns of tourists in urban destinations are mainly located in the city center (spatial centrality, the analysis of which enables us to define “how central” the resources (museums, monuments, etc. are and what the interactions between them are. Comprehending which factors influence visitors’ urban mobility behavior is key to understanding tourists’ consumption of space and their connections with the tourism assets of the city. Furthermore, when tourists visit a destination, they make a mental representation of the destination, constructing a mental map of it. Thus, tourists consume not only spaces but also the image of a city/destination. Moreover, the latter influences the former. The quality of surrounding architecture and urbanism plays a crucial role in enhancing the experiential value of a destination and influencing space consumption preferences. Clearly, visitors are more likely to use/consume environments that are easily navigated and mentally legible. In order to explore these patterns, a real experiment was performed based on visitor behavior in the city of Bilbao. In addition, the central places of Bilbao were determined and an analysis of the spatial interaction between cultural sites was performed, making use of a new methodology based on GPS technologies, network analysis, and surveys. This methodology is the main contribution of this work. The results suggest that (1 easy mobility (walkability, accessibility, different transport modes of the visited space facilitates the tourist experience; (2 simple and eligible mental maps of the city that are easily perceived by visitors facilitate the rapid consumption of the tourist destination; and (3 the centrality of the

  10. The New Global Urban Realm: Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. McHale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization continues to be a transformative process globally, affecting ecosystem integrity and the health and well being of people around the world. Although cities tend to be centers for both the production and consumption of goods and services that degrade natural environments, there is also evidence that urban ecosystems can play a positive role in sustainability efforts. Despite the fact that most of the urbanization is now occurring in the developing countries of the Global South, much of what we know about urban ecosystems has been developed from studying cities in the United States and across Europe. We propose a conceptual framework to broaden the development of urban ecological research and its application to sustainability. Our framework describes four key contemporary urban features that should be accounted for in any attempt to build a unified theory of cities that contributes to urban sustainability efforts. We evaluated a range of examples from cities around the world, highlighting how urban areas are complex, connected, diffuse and diverse and what these interconnected features mean for the study of urban ecosystems and sustainability.

  11. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  12. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  13. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  14. Urban diversity and how to measure it : An operational definition of classes and scales

    OpenAIRE

    Sardari Sayyar, Sara; Marcus, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Diversity as an essential factor for liveability, economic growth, and attractiveness in cities was stressed already half a century ago by Jane Jacobs (1961, 1969). Its importance has only grown and today, diversity is stated as fundamental for current creative societies and their need for knowledge spillovers, and referred to by economists as “Jacobean externalities”. More specifically, in urban morphology and design, we can find various trends that have tried to achieve such aims under the ...

  15. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  16. Diverse cultures and official laws: multiculturalism and Euroscepticism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Örücü

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normative pluralism refers to a social fact: the co-existence of different bodies of norms within the same social space. State legal pluralism indicates a single overarching national legal system but plural laws, the state recognising different rules for specific categories of persons. However, the equating of multiculturalism and legal pluralism with state law is challenged. In the modern unitary nation state of the Western type only a weak version of legal pluralism in which state centralism still prevails is acceptable. Below it is advanced that in this state the accommodation of cultural diversity and multiple normative orders can only be brought about by the judge, the tuner or the navigator and steersman of the law, by using discretion and creative interpretation and not by the legislators, whose main demarcation lines are clearly drawn within domestic law by the Constitution, and within Europe and within the EU by the demands of human rights and 'ever closer integration'. In both of the critical illustrations below - the equality of the spouses in Turkish family law and the General Principles of the CEFL on divorce and maintenance - more scope should be given to judges to cope with and to create the necessary 'fit' between law and culture that do not coincide.

  17. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  18. Perceptions of Cultural Competence among Urban School Social Workers: Does Experience Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Baffour, Tiffany D.; Tyson, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the contribution of social work experience and licensure to self-reported levels of cultural competence of social workers in urban public school systems. In addition, it examined the influence of practitioners race or ethnicity on perceived levels of culturally competent practice in urban schools. Using survey…

  19. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment.

  20. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  1. The influence of small urban parks characteristics on bird diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasmani, Zanariah; Ravn, Hans Peter; van den Bosch, Cecil C.Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    using the combined field survey method of structured observation and field measurements. The measured variables were divided into three broad categories of physical characteristics, species richness and human factors. Bird species richness and abundance were used as the indicators for assessing...... biodiversity. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between variables and to identify which variables had a significant effect on bird species richness and abundance. The results demonstrated that park area and vegetation variables (e.g. the percentage...... of tree canopy cover, open grass/ground, native-exotic plants) are the important predictors of bird species richness and abundance. The percentage of canopy covers (negative relation) and park area (positive relation) are the best predictors of bird species richness in small urban parks. Meanwhile...

  2. Voices of Successful Science Teachers in an Urban Diverse Single Gender Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for…

  3. Workplace Bullying and the Racially Diverse Urban Context: Implications for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of the racial diversity of the urban environment (Daley, Fisher, & Martin, 2000), a literature review was conducted to explore how race connects to the issue of workplace bullying. Results of the literature review suggest that there are multiple points of view regarding whether workplace bullying includes or is separate…

  4. iPad Deployment in a Diverse Urban High School: A Formative Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of iPads in a diverse urban high school and the ways in which teachers and students were supported to integrate these tools into their instruction. We provided 4 English teachers with 20 iPads with little or no professional development about how to integrate them into their instruction. Using a formative experiment design, we…

  5. Disclosure Experiences of Urban, Ethnically Diverse LGBT High School Students: Implications for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjas, Kris; Kiperman, Sarah; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity is a milestone event for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and can have both positive and negative mental health consequences. Twenty-nine urban, ethnically diverse LGBT high school students participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Qualitative results revealed two…

  6. Compact Cities Are Complex, Intense and Diverse but: Can We Design Such Emergent Urban Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Lim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compact cities are promoted by global and local policies in response to environmental, economic and social challenges. It is argued that increased density and diversity of urban functions and demographics are expected to deliver positive outcomes. ‘Emerged’ urban area which have developed incrementally seem to exhibit such dense and diverse characteristics, acquired through adaptation by multiple actors over time and space. Today, ‘design-based’ planning approaches aim to create the same characteristics here and now. An example of such is the City of Gothenburg, Sweden, which strives to involve multiple actors to ‘design’ urban density and mixed use, but with unsatisfactory outcomes. There is reason to investigate in what way current planning approaches need modification to better translate policy goals into reality. This paper studied which type of planning approach appears to best deliver the desired urban characteristics. Two cities are studied, Gothenburg and Tokyo. Today, these cities operate under different main planning paradigms. Tokyo applies a rule-based approach and Gothenburg a design-based approach. Five urban areas were studied in each city, representing outcomes of three strategic planning approaches that have been applied historically in both cities: 1 emergent compact urban form; 2 designed dispersed urban form; and 3 designed compact urban form. Planning outcomes in the form of density, building scales and diversity were analysed to understand if such properties of density and diversity are best achieved by a specific planning approach. The results show that different planning approaches deliver very different outcomes when it comes to these qualities. To better support ambitions for compact cities in Gothenburg, the prevailing mix of ‘planning by design’ and ‘planning by developmental control’ needs to be complemented by a third planning strategy of ‘planning by coding’ or ‘rule-based planning

  7. Cultural diversity in the digital age: EU competences, policies and regulations for diverse audio-visual and online content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Valcke, P.; Psychogiopoulou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a multifaceted concept that differs from the notion of media pluralism. However, the two concepts share important concerns particularly as regards content production, content distribution and access to content. This chapter considers the EU’s role in contributing to diverse

  8. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  9. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  10. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work : development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  11. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    and supply factors together. The aim was to provide an overview of this highly interdisciplinary research, to describe how these linkages are being made and to identify which factors significantly influence dependent variables such as levels of use, activities or health and well-being benefits. Commonly used......Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand...

  12. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1976-03-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.

  13. Increasing plant diversity with border crops reduces insecticide use and increases crop yield in urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Cai, You-Ming; Shen, Yan-Jun; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Rong; Cheng, Wei; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yao-Pei; Chen, Xin; Weiner, Jacob; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Nie, Ming; Ju, Rui-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Tang, Jian-Jun; Tian, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bo

    2018-05-24

    Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits. Two 2 year randomized experiments with the low and high diversity practices in the same locations confirmed these results. Our study shows that diversifying farming practices can make an important contribution to ecological intensification and the sustainable use of associated ecosystem services in an urban ecosystem. © 2018, Wan et al.

  14. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Ying; SONG, Weiming; CHEN, Ke; GUO, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic, ecological, social and cultural functions. Forests Cultural ecology, the counterpart of forest ecology, is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems. In recent years, China's urbanization rate has increased from 28% in 1993 to 45.68% in 2008, and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress, but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not w...

  15. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  16. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  17. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  18. Urbanization Drives a Reduction in Functional Diversity in a Guild of Nectar-feeding Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pauw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a widespread and rapidly growing threat to biodiversity, therefore we need a predictive understanding of its effects on species and ecosystem processes. In this paper we study the impact of urbanization on a guild of nectar-feeding birds in a biodiversity hotspot at the Cape of Africa. The guild of four bird species provides important ecosystem services by pollinating 320 plant species in the Cape Floral Region. Functional diversity within the guild is related to differences in bill length. The long-billed Malachite Sunbird (Nectarinia famosa plays an irreplaceable role as the exclusive pollinator of plant species with long nectar tubes. We analyzed the composition of the guild in suburban gardens of Cape Town along a gradient of increasing distance from the nearest natural habitat. Urbanization reduces the functional diversity of the nectarivore guild. Malachite Sunbirds did not penetrate more than 1 km into the city, whereas only the short-billed Southern Double-collared Sunbirds (Cinnyris chalybea occurred throughout the urbanization gradient. The lack of data precludes conclusions regarding the detailed responses of Orange-breasted Sunbirds (Anthobaphes violacea and Sugarbirds (Promerops cafer, however their absence across the entire gradient is suggestive of high sensitivity. The functional diversity of this guild of pollinators can potentially be restored, but the pros and cons of this conservation action need to be considered.

  19. Culture of Peace and Musical Education in contexts of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural diversity of the world needs to education for the peace, working the values related to the Culture of Peace, like the respect, the justice, the equality, the tolerance and the interculturality. The fundamental aim of our research is to know and to value how the educational centers turn into the most suitable scenes to develop the education. For it we have realized a study in a center of Infantile and Primary Education of the Autonomous City of Melilla, the College Velázquez, with which we try to know the reality that is lived in the school centers of the city in the relative to the promotion of the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace between the pupils of different groups. We have used a qualitative methodology, which has allowed us to form a group of discussion with several teachers of different professional profiles. As more relevant result stands out than the music, in spite of the hourly restrictions that the legislation has established for this matter, it is one of the best resources to educate in values and to promote the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace.

  20. Trees and the City: Diversity and Composition along a Neotropical Gradient of Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ortega-Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed tree species richness, density, and composition patterns along a gradient of urbanization of a megacity. Our results show that total, native, and exotic tree densities were highest in green areas where larger spaces are considered for greening purposes. Conversely, total, native, and exotic tree species richness were highest in land uses with intermediate levels of urban development (residential, residential-commercial areas. Not finding highest tree species richness in less developed urban areas suggests that cultural factors may shape the array of species that are planted within cities. Supporting this, tree composition analyses showed that green areas are comprised of different tree species when compared to the rest of the studied urban land uses. Thus, our results suggest that, to increase the ecological quality of cities, residents and managers should be encouraged to select a greater variety of trees to promote heterogeneous green areas.

  1. A cultural diversity seen in Croatian family medicine: a lady from Janjevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Renata

    2014-12-01

    The role of cultural diversities in doctor's everyday work is going more and more important in globalised world, therefore it draws lots of attention in literature. Cultural differences that exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, are usually distinguished from the term cultural diversity which is mainly understood as having different cultures respect each other's differences. The great effort is made to educate culturally competent practitioners, nurses or doctors. The presented case of lady from Janjevo was a good role model for work with all patients with culturally different background coming to family practice. This lady example could also help to other colleagues to learn from experience on systematic way.

  2. Cultural Diversity in Compulsory Education: An Overview of the Context of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurena, Ines Gil

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines educational practices in Spain and in particular Madrid. With this contextual frame as the starting point the following issues are discussed: the "official" conceptualization of cultural diversity, educational policies and resolutions related to cultural diversity, and school programs and resources facilitated by…

  3. Breaking the Silence of Exclusion: Examining the Complexities of Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on an in-depth case study that examined how a teacher education programme in New Zealand prepared pre-service teachers for cultural diversity (based on the author's unpublished PhD thesis, "Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity"; conferred by Curtin University, June 2012). Framed within a critical constructivist…

  4. Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. European urban sprawl: sustainability, cultures of (antiurbanism and "hybrid cityscapes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its origins in a comparative research project examining aspects of urban sprawl in Europe undertaken within the 5.FP EU. The project Urban Sprawl: European Patterns, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development (URBS PANDENS EVK4-CT- 2001-00052 sought to understand recent trends in urban sprawl in a number of case study urban regions and to advise the European Commission on policy development with regard to the control, management and amelioration of the effects of urban sprawl.

  6. Making cultural differences matter? : Diversity perspectives in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Gürkan Çelik; Menno Vos; Sjiera de Vries

    2016-01-01

    The higher education sector has become increasingly aware of how the increasing diversity in society affects their institutions. The student population has become more diverse and future employers increasingly require trained students who are able to meet the demands of dealing with a more diverse

  7. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  8. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  9. Monocropping Cultures into Ruin: The Loss of Food Varieties and Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic diversity of thousands of plants and crops has been well documented at least since the 1970s, and has been understood as a result of epistemological and political economic conditions of the Green Revolution. The political economic arrangement of the Green Revolution, alongside a post-war focus on economies of scale and export-oriented growth, replace high-yield single varieties of crops for a diverse array of varieties that may not have the same yield, but may be able to resist pests, disease, and changing climatic conditions. Also, the harvest does not flow in all directions equally: Whereas small holder subsistence farming uses a large variety of crops as a food source and small-scale trade, the industrial economic system requires simplified, machine harvested ship-loads of one variety of maize, for example. Diverse varieties of different crops confound the machines, whereas one variety of wheat can be harvested with one setting on a machine. However, none of this is new. The purpose of this article is to analyze how the twin concerns of lost varietals and lost cultures are bound together in the socio-political process of standardization, and to explain some areas of resistance.

  10. Nursing philosophy: Foucault and cultural diversity issues in the nursing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chin Kang

    2007-03-01

    Cultural diversity is a highly important issue in nursing education and nursing practice today. This study is a philosophical approach to the power relationship between a health care provider and a care recipient. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships between nurses and ethnic minority patients based on the discussions of some Foucauldian concepts that are related to cultural diversity. Based on the analysis, this study provides some suggestions for cultural competency in nursing practice.

  11. Urban cultural landscapes, opportunity for the conservation of heritage and the sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Zárate Martín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of the “urban views” and of the “inner urban scenes” as motivation for the tourist visit of the historical cities and the necessity to develop strategies for its putting in value like tourist product. The “urban cultural landscapes” would generate wealth and employment, and, therefore, they would be an alternative to policies that put the intensives uses of the ground in front to considerations of identity and cultural type. That will be the only way to stop the threats that overfly the urban cultural landscapes, in spite of we are far from the periods of fast population increase and strong urbanization like was the 1960 years and the second half of the 1990 until 2007.

  12. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R.; Gray, Russell D.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Jordan, Fiona M.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E.; Botero, Carlos A.; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R.; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S.; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  13. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R; Gray, Russell D; Greenhill, Simon J; Jordan, Fiona M; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E; Botero, Carlos A; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  14. Clinical use of the Kessler psychological distress scales with culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The Kessler 10 (K10) and embedded Kessler 6 (K6) was developed to screen for non-specific psychological distress and serious mental illness in mental health surveys of English-speaking populations, but has been adopted in Western and non-Western countries as a screening and outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. This review examines whether the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations was established, and whether the cultural equivalence, and sensitivity to change of translated or culturally adapted K6/K10s, has been demonstrated with culturally diverse client groups. Evidence for the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations is limited. Questions about the conceptual and linguistic equivalence of translated/adapted K6/K10s arise from reports of changes in item connotation and differential item functioning. Evidence for structural equivalence is inconsistent, as is support for criterion equivalence, with the majority of studies compromising on accuracy in case prediction. Research demonstrating sensitivity to change with culturally diverse groups is lacking. Inconsistent evidence for the K6/K10's cultural appropriateness in clinical settings, and a lack of clinical norms for either majority or culturally diverse groups, indicate the importance of further research into the psychological distress construct with culturally diverse clients, and the need for caution in interpreting K6/K10 scores. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Urban Cultural Heritage of the Mare Balticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Websites about Danish and Schleswig Holstein towns and shipping database: population figures, town charters, multimedia presentation of "urban icons", town economy, town descriptions, Danish urban history bibliography, online database about Danish shipping. Websites and database about towns...... in Sweden: population statistics, urbanization process and history, business and trade, municipal elections, bibliographies. Websites about German coastal towns and historical shipping database: population statistics, national and administrative boundaries, town plans; organize the collecting of historical...

  17. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  18. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  19. Urban planning culture within Sochi in the first half of ХХ century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers urban planning culture within Sochi in the first half of the ХХ century. Special attention is attached to styles and developmental milestones of Sochi architectural look.

  20. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  1. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  2. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A Culturally Responsive Practice Model for Urban Indian Child Welfare Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Robert; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Francisco, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Describes a collaboration among a university, a state child welfare agency, and a Native American community organization to develop a culturally driven practice model for urban, Native American child welfare. Identifies challenges and opportunities in addressing the needs of urban Native American communities. Concludes with principles for…

  4. The Culture Audit: A Leadership Tool for Assessment and Strategic Planning in Diverse Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2006-01-01

    This module is designed to introduce educational leaders to an organizational assessment tool called a "culture audit." Literature on organizational cultural competence suggests that culture audits are a valuable tool for determining how well school policies, programs, and practices respond to the needs of diverse groups and prepare…

  5. Community Psychology, Diversity, and the Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen argued that psychology must broaden its conceptualization of culture to consider its many forms, such as religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The current author could not agree more with Cohen's proposed conceptualization of culture and its potential impact on…

  6. Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…

  7. STRATEGIC CHANGES IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL LEVEL. CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY, BETWEEN "UNITY IN DIVERSITY" AND DISSOLUTION IN DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Gabriela EANA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Change existed in various forms in all stages of development of human society, is that we were dealing with in all economic aspects, social, cultural or others, all of which have affected human existence. A complex phenomenon, which occurs in a longer or shorter period of time and which requires humans to be located in the center, through their own will, constituted into a veritable binder between cause and effect, old and new, nature and culture. Today the exchange of cultural information in the context of international system allows groups of people to interact generating complex changes, so it is essential to take into account processes that could limit diversity in evolution. As well as the cultural phenomenon develops by increasing its social size, density and diversity, society will always be interested in the way how every new element changes human individual universe.

  8. Hospitality, Culture and Regeneration: Urban decay, entrepreneurship and the "ruin" bars of Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Lugosi, Peter; Bell, David; Lugosi, Krisztina

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationships between hospitality, culture and urban regeneration through an examination of rom (ruin) venues, which operate in dilapidated buildings in Budapest, Hungary. The paper reviews previous work on culture and urban regeneration in order to locate the role of hospitality within emerging debates. It subsequently interrogates the evolution of the rom phenomenon and demonstrates how, in this context, hospitality thrives because of social and physical decay in ur...

  9. Cultural border crossing in three urban classrooms: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Rupnarain

    This study examined the effects of the instruction of four youth cultural border crossing behaviors: flexibility, being at ease, playfulness, and citizenship as an intervention aimed at helping students to transition across three borders, student to student, student to science, and student to teacher. The research involved 12 ninth- and 10th-grade students in a large urban school district in three diverse classrooms, A, B, and C. Four students in each classroom volunteered for the study. The students in Groups A and B were in 9th grade Living Environment and students in Group B were in 10th grade chemistry. These students participated in this instructional intervention for three months. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods based on participant observations, interviews, and questionnaire. The result indicated that there was no significant effect of the cultural border crossing instructions on the students' interactions across the three borders examined. However, the instructions helped Group A and Group B to be more flexible but not group C. Also, the instructions helped Group A to be more playful and at ease but not Group B and C. The instructions also helped Group A to show more citizenship but not Group B and C. In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest cultural bother crossing behavior. Moreover, qualitative data analysis showed that the participants were more flexible, at ease, and playful among peers than across student to teacher and student to science borders. Also, the use of citizenship in the three groups showed no effect on the participants' interaction with peers. Although, the findings showed no effect of cultural border crossing instructions on students' interactions, it is suggested that we continue to find ways to help students feel more comfortable in science.

  10. Understanding the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Molly

    1997-01-01

    .... It is from this basic framework that tools such as empowerment, training, and mentoring are presented for leaders to consider when dealing with diversity in their organization. Finally, these tools are interrelated to a five-step continuous process developed by Ann M. Morrison that a leader can use in analyzing the diversity climate of their organization.

  11. Culture and the Immune System: Cultural Consonance in Social Support and C-reactive Protein in Urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we examine the distribution of a marker of immune system stimulation-C-reactive protein-in urban Brazil. Social relationships are associated with immunostimulation, and we argue that cultural dimensions of social support, assessed by cultural consonance, are important in this process. Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, approximate shared cultural models. A measure of cultural consonance in social support, based on a cultural consensus analysis regarding sources and patterns of social support in Brazil, was developed. In a survey of 258 persons, the association of cultural consonance in social support and C-reactive protein was examined, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, depressive symptoms, and a social network index. Lower cultural consonance in social support was associated with higher C-reactive protein. Implications of these results for future research are discussed. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in northern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T; Nsabimana, D; Nyiramana, A; Seburanga, J L; Mirville, M O

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  13. Bacterial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere: culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Ge, Guang Bo; Yang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    The regional variability of Taxus rhizosphere bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of three large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the Taxus rhizosphere in different regions of China (subtropical and temperate regions). One hundred and forty-six clones were screened for three libraries. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was higher in the library from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region compared with the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. On the other hand, Acidobacteria was more abundant in libraries from the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. Richness estimates and diversity indices of three libraries revealed major differences, indicating a higher richness in the Taxus rhizosphere bacterial communities of the subtropical region and considerable variability in the bacterial community composition within this region. By enrichment culture, a novel Actinobacteria strain DICP16 was isolated from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region and was identified as Leifsonia shinshuensis sp. via 16S rRNA gene and gyrase B sequence analyses. DICP16 was able to remove the xylosyl group from 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylbaccatin III and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel, thereby making the xylosyltaxanes available as sources of 10-deacetylbaccatin III and the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Taken together, the present studies provide, for the first time, the knowledge of the biodiversity of microorganisms populating Taxus rhizospheres.

  14. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g. – cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users. The data were analysed and themes identified. Results There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Conclusion Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient

  15. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Giordano, James; France, Nicholas

    2007-04-26

    There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g.--cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc) is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient-physician relationship. There may be pressure to imbue cultural diversity issues

  16. On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education : The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzali, L.; Gocłowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Stathi, S

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study with the aim of testing certain conditions under which engaging with cultural diversity increases creativity among schoolchildren. Results obtained from a sample of 149 Italian elementary schoolchildren revealed that engaging with cultural diversity,

  17. Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M; Abuelroos, Dena; Dabaja, Emman; Jurva, Stephanie; Martin, Kimberly; McCarron, Joshua; Reed-Hendon, Caryn; Yeow, Raymond Y; Harriott, Melphine M

    2015-01-01

    Fostering cultural competence in higher education institutions is essential, particularly in training future health care workers to care for diverse populations. The opportunity to explore techniques to address diversity and cultural competence at a new medical school was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, staff, and medical students. From 2011 to 2015, the team sponsored a voluntary programming series to promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities for the medical school. Thirteen events were hosted with 562 participants across all. This approach to diversity proved effective and could be adapted in any higher education setting.

  18. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  19. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  20. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes

  1. Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches provide insights into diversity of jakobids, an extremely plesiomorphic eukaryotic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ePánek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida, an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids - 60 % or 80 %, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists – Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  2. An analysis of cultural diversity in spanish educational legislation: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Peñalva Vélez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the Educational Laws approved in Spain since 1990, with the aim of identifying any references about cultural diversity. All these laws have come into force within a new multicultural Spanish reality, which has already been existing in other European countries for decades. However, the Spanish legal system (including educational law still focuses on cultural differences of those migrants that are non EU members. Our Social Imaginary is composed of distorted images of what cultural diversity is, and what it means. We should introduce intercultural educational model at schools, as interculturality pursues the renovation of monocultural scholar curricula. Its objective is to promote the diverse cultural groups at schools, apart from trying to achieve cultural feedback within society. The most important problem we have currently faced in the educational system is that cultures, far from being clearly defined as global, dynamic and open, are being constrained to ethnic, geographical or religious features

  3. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Don't neglect cultural diversity in oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-05-01

    The growing Hispanic population in the United States mandates the need for oncology providers to become more familiar with disease patterns and cultural belief systems that can impact cancer care. "Culturally competent care" should be the mandate of all providers. This comprises awareness of cultural differences, communication in a manner that the patient understands, and respect. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  5. A Framework for Understanding Cultural Diversity in Cognition and Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Janet L; Pierce, Linda G

    2003-01-01

    .... The Army's Objective Force leaders and soldiers must understand cultural differences affecting team performance before they can learn adaptive behaviors that would ensure mission success when working...

  6. Cultural Diversity, Geographical Isolation, and the Origin of the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Quamrul Ashraf; Oded Galor

    2011-01-01

    This research argues that variations in the interplay between cultural assimilation and cultural diffusion have played a significant role in giving rise to differential patterns of economic development across the globe. Societies that were geographically less vulnerable to cultural diffusion benefited from enhanced assimilation, lower cultural diversity, and more intense accumulation of society-specific human capital. Thus, they operated more efficiently with respect to their production-possi...

  7. Cultural intelligence: A Pathway for Emergency Responder Engagement with Ethnically Diverse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6, no. 4 (2012): 297, doi: 10.1111/j.1751...subjective culture .34 According to this research, “Subjective cultural aspects include hidden, psychological factors such as values, beliefs, norms...research from leading researchers in the “domains of international and cross - cultural management as well as management of domestic diversity.”65 A

  8. Beyond the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl Views of Cultural Diversity: Advancing Cultural Diversity Education of Nutrition Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiloane, Kelebogile Tsametse

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines how the melting pot and salad bowl views of cultural diversity have influenced the cultural training of nutrition educators and other health professionals. It explores how these views are changing in reaction to the changing demographics and health disparities seen in the US today and how the cultural training of nutrition educators has not kept up with these changing views. Suggestions for how this cultural education could be modified include placing a greater emphasis on both the cultural self-awareness of nutrition educators and the sociopolitical historical factors that influence the cultural orientation of nutrition educators and their clients. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  10. Intellectual Assessment of Children from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1992-01-01

    Examines assumptions and premises of standardized tests of mental ability and reviews extant theories and research on intellectual functioning of children from culturally different backgrounds. Discusses implications of these issues and perspectives for new directions for intellectual assessment for children from culturally different backgrounds.…

  11. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  12. Ornaments of Metropolis: Siegfried Kracauer and Modern Urban Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    Arkitektur, byrum, idéhistorie, byhistorie, Sigfried Kracauer (1889-1966), Walter Benjamin, Georg Simmel, ornament, bykultur, Paris, Frankfurt am Main, berlin, Nice, Urban Studies, humanistiske bystudier, byplanlægning, byteori, bysociologi...

  13. One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Talewicz-Kwiatkowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland There are no universal criteria which would be useful to describe the diversity of all of the Roma. Their presence in given country is linked to adaptive processes to majority societies. It is the majority that creates condition and space to which minorities need to adapt somehow. The results of the above-mentioned adaptive processes also vary and depend on an external context. The attitude of given populations towards minorities and the current political and economic situation of given country, where the Roma settled had and still has significant influence on mentioned processes. The way of life of different Romani groups has also a great importance, because sedentary way of life (typical for most European Roma and external influences especially on culture and models of lifestyle also furthered the adaptive processes. The cultural diversity among the Roma is the case not only with the groups living in different countries. It needs to be emphasized that the Roma who have lived in one country for centuries are not a homogenous group in terms of their culture. Previous migration processes and sedentary or nomadic way of life had a great influence on this internal diversity. In Poland with four distinguished Romani groups such diversity occurs between Carpathian Roma (Bergitka Roma, Polish Highlander Roma and traditionally nomadic groups: Polska Roma, Lovara, Kelderari. This article is mainly based on available sources and dissertations on the subject. However it refers to the field research regarding the use of European Union’s funds for the Roma community in Poland, which was conducted by the author in 2010 and 2011.   Kultura jedna czy wieloraka? Zróżnicowanie populacji romskiej w Polsce Nie istnieją uniwersalne kryteria użyteczne w opisie zróżnicowania wszystkich Romów. Ich obecność w danym kraju wiąże się z procesami adaptowania się do społeczeństw wi

  14. Cultural diversity in community sport: an ethnographic inquiry of Somali Australians' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sport organisations aim to grow the participation of culturally and linguistically diverse communities, including newly arrived people from refugee backgrounds. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research conducted by the author at community sport organisations in the multicultural city of

  15. Culturally Responsive Peace Education: A Case Study at One Urban Latino K-8 Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a yearlong research-based peace education program at one urban K-8 private Catholic school situated in a community plagued by structural violence in an enclave of a large Midwestern city. To frame the analysis, the author employs concepts central to culturally responsive pedagogy (including cultural competence,…

  16. Measuring links between cultural heritage management and sustainable urban development: An overview of global monitoring tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman Molina, P.; Roders, A.R. Pereira; Colenbrander, B.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    The role of cultural heritage conservation has proven beneficial for the development of cities and communities. However, a lack of systematic assessment methodologies for adequate consideration of the gap between sustainable urban development and the conservation of cultural heritage, has been long

  17. The Effect of the Cultural Revolution on Educational Homogamy in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the Cultural Revolution led to a temporary decline in educational homogamy in urban China, which was reversed when the Cultural Revolution ended. Previous studies on educational homogamy in China have paid incomplete attention to China's shifting institutional structures. This research applies institutional theory to…

  18. Creativity and Culture as Elements of Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Frois B Weiler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: cities are the picture of the outbreak of expressions of the processes of accumulation, consumption, circulation and production of goods plus the interaction of individuals, socially represented in classes. In general, from the adjectives and their derivations a city is constructed that articulates through its actors in constructing itself locally viable. From this perspective, this essay aims to analyze, briefly, the relations between urban development and creative economy. For this, methodologically, it is worth of a bibliographical revision about the fundamental concepts of the urban development and creative economy and repercussions of this relation. In this line, it is thought that the city when it uses creativity as an adjective must be conceived in a logic of space built to meet the particularities of the territory. And, not for the logic of competition and standardization of territory designed for global competition. The purpose of culture and creativity must break with dependence in the context of development, especially as regards the way and process as the city and its urbanization are constituted and consolidated. A Criatividade e a Cultura como Elementos do Desenvolvimento Urbano Resumo: as cidades são o retrato da eclosão das expressões dos processos de acumulação, consumo, circulação e produção de bens somados a interação de indivíduos, socialmente representados em classes. Em geral, a partir dos adjetivos e suas derivações se constrói uma cidade que se articula por meio de seus atores em construir-se viável localmente. Nessa perspectiva, este ensaio visa analisar, sucintamente, as relações entre desenvolvimento urbano e economia criativa. Para tal, metodologicamente, vale-se de uma revisão bibliográfica acerca dos conceitos fundamentais do desenvolvimento urbano e economia criativa e repercussões dessa relação. Nessa linha, pensa-se que a cidade quando emprega a criatividade como adjetivo deve ser

  19. Leaderships in Urban Contexts of Diversity and Innovation: The Porto Maravilha Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Bayma de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the role and ways of action of leaderships in urban contexts characterized by urban revitalization processes (RJ/Brazil. Adopting as its theoretical basis the bibliographical review of the literature on leadership and public area requalification processes, as well as research conducted by Jacobs (2011 on diversity and innovation, the present research may be characterized as qualitative in nature (case study. Results indicate that the Porto Maravilha project has transposed business concepts to public administration. Today, the keynote lies in the attraction of new enterprises and in the construction of urban revitalization projects for the city’s makeover. With regard to the leadership, although public leadership has apparently adopted management instruments for decentralizing management and for public participation, these measures were not enough to achieve an effectively shared leadership that would reflect the multiple interests of different actors (as the theory of relational leadership presupposes. Thus, a set of contradictions and dilemmas for the leaders is apparent, among them: how to build an effectively-shared leadership, as every urban transformation project depends on the negotiation and complex interaction between different social actors?

  20. Cultural diversity in the workforce: the tension between creativity and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation of the modern business, changing demographics and the rapid growth of multinational firms has meant that managing cultural diversity in organisations is more important today than ever before. Whilst the existence of a culturally diverse workforce can increase an organisations' competitiveness, by providing creative ideas and solutions, it can also be detrimental to overall performance, given the issues of conflict that may arise. The multicultural challenge, therefore, revolves...

  1. Managing the effects of cultural diversity in HR in a non profit organization, Case organization: Moniheli

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organizations traditionally operate within limited resources. They cannot spend much of their resources to increase motivation. Especially when the bigger goal of the organization is to promote cultural diversity in society, it is very interesting to observe how a non-profit organization manages the cultural diversity that exists within its own human resources. This report is an attempt to identify the ways through which the case organization Moniheli, a non-profit network of diffe...

  2. Diversity as a motive for entrepreneurship?: The case of gender, culture and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Laurice Alexandre-Leclair

    2014-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly considered as a motive for entrepreneurship. In our article, we set the hypothesis that diversity positively affects self-employment. In order to validate our hypothesis, we discuss two literature reviews: the first one about the link between culture, ethnicity and entrepreneurship and the other one about gender and entrepreneurship. We also discuss the last study led by OECD (2012) on gender entrepreneurship. Our article reveals that culture and ethnicity may be con...

  3. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...... to reach other goals rather than as an end in itself. In particular, the discourse of market liberalism is prevalent in the representation of ICD as cultural cooperation and also as an instrument to increase economic competitiveness and growth. In terms of ICD as a part of policies on cultural industries...

  4. The relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquiao, Dula

    2007-01-01

    This article attempted to examine the relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings. In addition to the review of the literature, a panel of experts was interviewed regarding institutional practices in response to the challenge of increasing diversity and cultural competence education. Evidence of positive outcomes of cultural competent care and impact of race and ethnic concordance between patients and providers are presented. The challenge of increasing underrepresented minorities in health care professions remains elusive. An ecological analysis is recommended to address the social and cultural barriers that transcend the micro system of the school and the macro system of the society. The challenge of increasing diversity and realizing outcomes of cultural competence education requires social and comprehensive remedies to level life inequities that perpetuate a history of disadvantages in some groups.

  5. Cultural diversity in Brazilian children’s literature: The project Literatura em Minha Casa in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira de Paula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to search for representations of Brazilian cultural diversity in children’s literature of the Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola [National Program of School Library] (PNBE, in the editions of 2001, 2002, and 2003, years of the project Literatura em Minha Casa [Literature in My House], especially those addressed to fourth and fifth grades of Elementary School. The selection criteria of works claimed that the collections should “[…] present a small picture of the Brazilian culture […]” (Brasil, 2001; 2002; 2003, p. 12, understanding that culture as characterized by diversity. Therefore, the analysis was divided into two phases: the first dealt with ethnic plurality and the second with culture and regionalism. In general, the results showed that among 120 works analyzed, 15 had ethnic-racial diversity and 12 works presented aspects of regionalism and culture from different parts of Brazil.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of human pathogenic rickettsiae in urban versus rural habitats, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Sándor; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses belong to the important emerging infectious diseases worldwide. We investigated the potential human exposure to rickettsiae by determining their presence in questing ticks collected in an urban park of Budapest and a popular hunting and recreational forest area in southern Hungary. Differences were found in the infectious risk between the two habitats. Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica were identified with sequencing in questing Ixodes ricinus, the only ticks species collected in the city park. Female I. ricinus had a particularly high prevalence of R. helvetica (45%). Tick community was more diverse in the rural habitat with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks having especially high percentage (58%) of Rickettsia raoultii infection. We conclude that despite the distinct eco-epidemiological traits, the risk (hazard and exposure) of acquiring human pathogenic rickettsial infections in both the urban and the rural study sites exists.

  7. Culturally Diverse Communities and End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Azen, S.P. (1995). Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy. JAMA, 274, 820-5 . Phipps, E., True, G., & ... briefly about end-of-life options and neglect culture or values (Tulsky, Fischer, Rose, & Arnold, 1998). Speaking ...

  8. The effect of cultural diversity on employee productivity in work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... to improving workers' skills and knowledge to the detriment of employees' daily ... Since conflict arising from cultural differences wastes time and reduces employee morale, this ...

  9. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capparis deciduas) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was assessed and defined by culture-dependent and cultureindependent approaches on the basis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The average ...

  10. No problem! Avoidance of cultural diversity in teacher training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    commendable classroom and learning "on the job" model. During the ... to the approach of multicultural education, but merely as a result. South African ..... Revealing the deep meaning of culture in school learning: framing a new paradigm for ...

  11. Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking about Cultural Diversity and Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Floya

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the concepts of cultural diversity, belonging and identity which inform important debates for managing "difference" in contemporary European societies. These address issues relating to transnational migration, ethnic diversity and racialisation in a range of social contexts. The article also reflects on the concept of…

  12. Four Approaches to Cultural Diversity: Implications for Teaching at Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Dankwa, Joseph; Lane, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to cultural diversity that professors at institutions of higher education may take. These are neutrality, similarity, diversity, and diversimilarity. Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches, and argues for the diversimilarity approach, using the teaching of the death penalty (and examination…

  13. Speech-Language Pathologists' Preparation, Practices, and Perspectives on Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Atkins, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the backgrounds, diversity training, and professional perspectives reported by 154 Colorado speech-language pathologists in serving children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. The authors compare the results of the current survey to those of a similar survey collected in 1996. Respondents reported…

  14. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  15. Cultural competency: providing quality care to diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to define cultural competence and present a practical framework to address crosscultural challenges that emerge in the clinical encounter, with a particular focus on the issue of nonadherence. English-language literature, both primary and reports from various agencies, and the author's personal experiences in clinical practice. Relevant literature on patient-centered care and cultural competence. There is a growing literature that delineates the impact of sociocultural factors, race, ethnicity, and limited-English proficiency on health and clinical care. The field of cultural competence focuses on addressing these issues. Health care providers need a practical set of tools and skills that will enable them to provide quality care to patients during a brief encounter, whatever differences in background that may exist. Cultural competence has evolved from the gathering of information and making of assumptions about patients on the basis of their sociocultural background to the development of skills to implement the principles of patient-centered care. This patient-based approach to cross-cultural care consists of first, assessing core cross-cultural issues; second, exploring the meaning of the illness to the patient; third, determining the social context in which the patient lives; and fourth, engaging in negotiation with the patient to encourage adherence. Addressing adherence is a particularly challenging issue, the determinants of which are multifactorial, and the ESFT (explanatory/social/fears/treatment) model--derived from the patient-based approach--is a tool that identifies barriers to adherence and provides strategies to address them. It obviously is impossible to learn everything about every culture and that should not be expected. Instead, we should learn about the communities we care for. More important, we should have a framework that allows us to provide appropriate care for any patient--one that deals with issues of adherence

  16. Escaping National Tags and Embracing Diversity: Third Culture Kid Songwriters

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo-Schulz Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more writers cannot be classified according to one single nation. Whereas in Imagined Communities Anderson describes the development of nations and national belongings, in Third Culture Kid (TCK) discourse a central theme is the concept of not belonging to one specific nation or culture (“NatioNILism”). TCKs are individuals who were raised moving from one country to the next due to their parents’ career choices. Not having had a fixed home while growing up, rather than acce...

  17. Cultural Consonance, Religion and Psychological Distress in an Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.

  18. Cultural diversity and Ottoman heritage in contemporary Greek popular novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Trine Stauning

    Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility/migration. Such ...... will place the contemporary novels in relation to earlier Greek literature dealing with cultural identity in the Ottoman period from different angles (e.g. Βιζυηνός, Δέλτα, Σωτηρίου, Φακίνος, Γαλανάκη).......Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility....../migration. Such interest is obvious in international academia as well as in the cultural sphere of the countries in South-eastern Europe. In Greece, the recent celebration of the 100 years of Thessaloniki’s incorporation in the Greek state has accentuated the city’s Ottoman heritage. A plenitude of exhibitions...

  19. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Der Gang, Ineke

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is

  20. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  1. Student perspectives on diversity and the cultural climate at a U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Robert; McClendon, Jennifer; Henderson, Anita; Evans, Yolanda; Colquitt, Rosa; Saha, Somnath

    2007-02-01

    To obtain the perspectives of medical students at one school on racial/ethnic campus diversity and cultural competence and to gain their perceptions of the institutional climate around diversity at their university and of reasons for minority underrepresentation at their medical school. A student-driven survey of all medical students (N = 398) at a single medical school in the spring of 2003, supplemented by four focus groups from all racial and ethnic groups on the campus. A large majority of the responding students (n = 216; 54%) endorsed the value of campus diversity and the importance of cultural competence to the process of becoming a clinician. Most students felt their university had achieved a positive cultural climate, characterized by openness to diverse perspectives and attention to equity. Most students also felt that the university's programs and policies reflected a commitment to diversity, but fewer students--those from underrepresented minorities (URMs) in particular--felt that the university truly valued having a diverse student body and faculty. Most students felt that the lack of diversity on campus was a barrier to recruiting and retaining minority candidates. Some minority students also blamed the medical school's limited social, academic, and financial support, as well as inadequate efforts to recruit minority students. Medical students generally place a high value on campus diversity and cultural competence. URM students in particular felt that their university could do more to implement its commitment to diversity, including making greater efforts to recruit and retain URM students. These views constitute a barometer for medical schools to gauge and track their efforts to enhance campus diversity, incorporate cultural competence education, and create an inclusive and welcoming climate for students of all backgrounds.

  2. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarainen, Ashlee; Mikkonen, Kristina; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Elo, Satu; Pitkänen, Salla; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring. Healthcare education is confronted by several challenges in a time characterized by globalization and increasing international migration. Nursing students from diverse backgrounds continue to experience difficulties during clinical placement. Students can overcome these difficulties and assume responsibility for their learning when mentored by supportive and competent mentors. A cross-sectional, descriptive explorative study design was used. Data were collected during spring 2016 through a survey sent to mentors (n = 3,355) employed at five university hospitals in Finland. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students was measured with the self-assessment Mentors' Competence Instrument and the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Mentoring scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression analysis. Mentors with experience mentoring nursing students from diverse backgrounds rated their overall competence in mentoring as good. However, the results show continued challenges related to competence in linguistic diversity in mentoring. Seven factors that affect mentors' competence in linguistic diversity were identified. Despite high evaluations by mentors of competence related to cultural diversity in mentoring, there are still opportunities for improvement in this area. Innovative and effective strategies are needed to develop mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students. Educational and healthcare organizations should strive to enhance collaboration and increase the competence of both mentors and nursing students to work in increasingly diverse healthcare environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Simeon; Rossi, Giovanni; Baranova, Julija; Blythe, Joe; Dingemanse, Mark; Kendrick, Kobin H; Zinken, Jörg; Enfield, N J

    2018-05-01

    Gratitude is argued to have evolved to motivate and maintain social reciprocity among people, and to be linked to a wide range of positive effects-social, psychological and even physical. But is socially reciprocal behaviour dependent on the expression of gratitude, for example by saying 'thank you' as in English? Current research has not included cross-cultural elements, and has tended to conflate gratitude as an emotion with gratitude as a linguistic practice, as might appear to be the case in English. Here, we ask to what extent people express gratitude in different societies by focusing on episodes of everyday life where someone seeks and obtains a good, service or support from another, comparing these episodes across eight languages from five continents. We find that expressions of gratitude in these episodes are remarkably rare, suggesting that social reciprocity in everyday life relies on tacit understandings of rights and duties surrounding mutual assistance and collaboration. At the same time, we also find minor cross-cultural variation, with slightly higher rates in Western European languages English and Italian, showing that universal tendencies of social reciprocity should not be equated with more culturally variable practices of expressing gratitude. Our study complements previous experimental and culture-specific research on gratitude with a systematic comparison of audiovisual corpora of naturally occurring social interaction from different cultures from around the world.

  4. Social work in diverse ethno-cultural contexts: a case study of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Nigeria was conducted to ascertain the impact of social work on the country's ethno-cultural diversity and its impartation of local knowledge to the profession via a triangulation technique, which involved searching for evidence of multicultural social work, culturally rooted social development, indigenous social ...

  5. Building Cultural Competence for Work with Diverse Families: Strategies from the Privileged Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Marty

    2001-01-01

    A model of social work education for undergraduates from primarily privileged backgrounds links postmodern perspectives of cultural competence, diversity, social constructionism, and a generalist strengths-based orientation for work with families. Four steps for helping students recognize the role of culture in generating a worldview and develop a…

  6. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions towards Multicultural Education & Teaching of Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Roben; Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Ringlaben, Ravic P.

    2016-01-01

    The issue of diversity in U.S. K-12 schools requires significant training and experiences for preservice teachers to recognize the importance of students' socio-cultural, religious values, and the influence their cultural background have in their quest to succeed in their educational endeavors. This study provides significant information to…

  8. A Systematic Review: The Next Generation Science Standards and the Increased Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asowayan, Alaa A.; Ashreef, Samaar Y.; Omar, Sozan H.

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to explore the effect of NGSS on students' academic excellence. Specifically, considering increased cultural diversity, it is appropriate to identify student's science-related values, respectful features of teachers' cultural competence, and underlying challenges and detect in what ways these objectives are addressed by…

  9. Critical Perspectives on Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood: Building an Inclusive Curriculum and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the complexities that arise from addressing issues of cultural diversity in the early years context. It explores the challenges of developing an effective early years provision and pedagogy that values cultural difference within the framework of a mandated curriculum, "The Early Years Foundation Stage…

  10. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  11. Caregiving to patients who are culturally diverse by Swedish last-year nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Bäckström, Josefin; Widén, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    With Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality as a framework, the aim of this study was to describe Swedish last-year nursing students' experiences of caregiving to patients who are culturally diverse. The students participated voluntarily, 107 by completing a questionnaire with open-ended questions and 15 by participating in in-depth semistructured interviews. Three categories of experience were identified by use of qualitative method, namely, cultural awareness, cultural insufficiency, and cultural curiosity. The students were found to be on the level of Leininger's first phase of transcultural knowledge. It is concluded that cultural sensitivity should be promoted by integrating transcultural concepts into the curricula on all levels of nursing education and by offering special courses on transcultural nursing to nursing students and health care providers.

  12. Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila along an urbanization gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fortel

    Full Text Available Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient.Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50% proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size.We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.

  13. Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortel, Laura; Henry, Mickaël; Guilbaud, Laurent; Guirao, Anne Laure; Kuhlmann, Michael; Mouret, Hugues; Rollin, Orianne; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2014-01-01

    Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient. Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size. We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.

  14. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  15. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...... dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally...... diverse organizations represent. This is illustrated with data from an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish multicultural organization. The final section reflects on implications of using a combination of different theories in analyzing the results, and suggests other possibilities for future research....

  16. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  17. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons.

  18. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    TNO-DV2008A513 Opdrachtnummer Datum december 2008 Auteur (s) dr. I.M. Wetzer dr. D.A. van Hemert Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd TM0...been reported. Based on Allport’s (1954) intergroup contact theory , positive effects of intercultural contact may occur under certain conditions...diversity on perceived team effectiveness, but only at the 11-30% level. In contrast, social identity theory would lead one to expect negative effects of

  19. Beyond billiard balls: transnational flows, cultural diversity and digital games

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra

    2010-01-01

    Current mass media policy and regulation in Western Europe is primarily state‐based and increasingly based on the presumption that a competitive market will maximise individual choice and diversity. Policy interventions are primarily justified in terms of specific market failures including concentration of producers in the marketplace, the need to financially reward content developers financially for their work and issues related to distribution bottlenecks.1 Nevertheless, it is clear that at...

  20. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  1. Resident and family member perceptions of cultural diversity in aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2017-03-01

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Sexual Orientation: A Cultural Diversity Issue for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misener, Terry R.; Sowell, Richard L.; Phillips, Kenneth D.; Harris, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the development of a culturally aware work force have consistently ignored the importance of gender role and sexual orientation as sources of potential conflict in the workplace. Nursing must end personal and professional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (JOW)

  3. Effective Multicultural Supervision for a Culturally Diverse Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Living in a country based on the "salad bowl" of cultures philosophy, it is necessary for mental health professionals to be competent in providing effective counseling to heterogeneous clientele. Multicultural counseling ensures that professional counselors will deliver services matching the clients' needs, resulting in valuable…

  4. Successful Components of School Improvement in Culturally Diverse Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary phenomena, including modernization, globalization, and migration, have altered the sociopolitical and cultural conditions of schooling. Schools are called upon to respond to such change through improvement efforts fostering intercultural education. To this end, this research examines school actors' perceptions of the successful…

  5. Manifestation of cultural diversity in the novel Megokgo ya Lethabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the South African black communities comprising Venda, Tsonga, Sotho, Nguni and Khoisan, marriage is not viewed as a union of two individuals, but rather as a joining together of a number of families by means of various rituals, practices such as 'bride wealth' ilobola and negotiations. This has created a cultural ...

  6. Cultural Diversity and the Imagined Community of the Global Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Green, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Transnational academic mobility and the ongoing push towards "internationalization" together raise challenges for the cultural climate of today's universities. This paper explores these issues from the perspective of supervisors of research degrees in an Australian university in which "internationalization" and "academic…

  7. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  8. Culture and conflict in urban Tanzania: Professionals' voices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is interlinked with an article that has previously been published in this Journal (Mayer, Boness and Louw 2008). Since the previous article focused on value-orientations in cross-cultural encounters and mediation in the Tanzanian educational system, this follow-up article provides an overview of cross-cultural ...

  9. Cultural diversity and urban innovativeness: Personal and business characteristics of urban migrant entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietdijk, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the driving forces for successful migrant entrepreneurship in Amsterdam. Three categories of migrants are investigated: Moroccans, Surinamese and Turks. Particular attention is paid to their personal and business characteristics. An extensive field survey was undertaken to

  10. Teaching University Students Cultural Diversity by Means of Multi-Cultural Picture Books in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Fen

    2017-01-01

    In a pluralistic society, learning about foreign cultures is an important goal in the kind of multi-cultural education that will lead to cultural competency. This study adopted a qualitative dominant mixed-method approach to examine the effectiveness of the multi-cultural picture books on: (1) students' achieving awareness towards cultural…

  11. Hospitality, culture and regeneration: urban decay, entrepreneurship and the "ruin" bars of Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, Peter; Bell, David; Lugosi, Krisztina

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationships between hospitality, culture and urban regeneration through an examination of rom (ruin) venues, which operate in dilapidated buildings in Budapest, Hungary. The paper reviews previous work on culture and urban regeneration in order to locate the role of hospitality within emerging debates. It subsequently interrogates the evolution of the rom phenomenon and demonstrates how, in this context, hospitality thrives because of social and physical decay in urban locations, how operators and entrepreneurs exploit conflicts among various actors involved in regeneration and how hospitality may be mobilised purposefully in the regeneration process. The paper demonstrates how networked entrepreneurship maintains these operations and how various forms of cultural production are entangled and mobilised in the venues' hospitality propositions.

  12. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  13. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  14. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  15. Quantifying the Impact of Different Ways to Delimit Study Areas on the Assessment of Species Diversity of an Urban Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiao He

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the species diversity of an urban forest is important for understanding its structure and functions, but the result can be affected by sampling methods, times, and delimitations of the study area. In this study, we examined the influence of different ways to delimit boundaries of urban areas on the assessment of species diversity of urban forests through a case study conducted in Haikou, China. We surveyed the species diversity of the urban forest in Haikou twice using the same sampling protocol but two commonly used delimitations of the urban area. The two surveys produced significantly different estimates of species richness of the urban forest. Recorded species richness was 228 (144 woody and 84 herbaceous species and 303 (164 woody and 139 herbaceous species for the first and the second survey, respectively. The rarefaction analysis indicated that species richness of woody plants recorded in the two surveys could converge by doubling the sample size, but species richness of herbaceous plants was significantly different between the two surveys at the 95% confidence interval even at three times the original sample size. The value of the Simpson dissimilarity index between the two surveys was 0.417 and 0.357 for woody and herbaceous plants respectively, which implied noticeable dissimilarity of species compositions of plant assemblages in the two areas. We concluded that the assessment of biodiversity of an urban forest can be affected significantly by how the boundary of an urban area is defined. Caution should be taken when comparing species diversities of urban forests reported in different studies, especially when richness measures are used.

  16. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ossola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size.

  17. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A.; Christie, Fiona J.; Hahs, Amy K.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  18. Human Rights in the Context of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human rights understood in the sense of fundamental inalienable rights are therefore considered as universal – they apply to everything and egalitarian exist in two ways: as natural or legal rights, both in the rights doctrine in the international practice within the international law, the global and regional institutions, in the state policies and the activities of non from all over the world regardless of peoples’ cultures. manage the ethnic-cultural communities living on the territory of a state often contributes, in fact, to the separation and not to the reunion of peoples, the ideological and political factors acting rather as division factors whereas the affective spiritual connection exists only between the states having deep similarities. For this purpose, serving justice having as a goal the pres on the social feelings of humanity.

  19. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  20. Mismatch of Cultural Dimensions in an Urban Medical Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Malone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify cultural dimensions and their potential mismatches between attending physicians and their residents and medical students. Methods. We surveyed faculty and students, both undergraduates and postgraduate resident physicians, at the SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, using Hofstede’s VSM-08 questionnaire, and calculated cultural dimensions, including the Power-Distance Index (PDI, Individualism (IDV, Masculinity (MAS, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI, and Long-term Outlook (LTO. Correlations between faculty and student demographic data and cultural dimensions were calculated (SPSS. Results. There were 237 student and resident respondents and 96 faculty respondents. Comparing all faculty and student respondents, significant differences were found in four of five cultural dimensions, with faculty scoring higher in MAS, and lower in PDI, IDV, UAI, and LTO. Conclusions. These differences may be important in the design and implementation of a medical educational curriculum, and, particularly, in the measurement and evaluation of educational outcomes.

  1. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in speech-language pathology courses: A platform for culturally responsive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2017-06-01

    Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.

  2. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-10-01

    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  3. Cross-cultural feigning assessment: A systematic review of feigning instruments used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2017-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The most frequently studied cognitive effort measures included the Word Recognition Test, the Test of Memory Malingering, and the Rey 15-item Memory test. The classification accuracy of these measures is compared and the implications of this research literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Selection of multiple umbrella species for functional and taxonomic diversity to represent urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, T; Pezzatti, G B; Nobis, M P; Obrist, M K; Roth, T; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    Surrogates, such as umbrella species, are commonly used to reduce the complexity of quantifying biodiversity for conservation purposes. The presence of umbrella species is often indicative of high taxonomic diversity; however, functional diversity is now recognized as an important metric for biodiversity and thus should be considered when choosing umbrella species. We identified umbrella species associated with high taxonomic and functional biodiversity in urban areas in Switzerland. We analyzed 39,752 individuals of 574 animal species from 96 study plots and 1397 presences of 262 plant species from 58 plots. Thirty-one biodiversity measures of 7 taxonomic groups (plants, spiders, bees, ground beetles, lady bugs, weevils and birds) were included in within- and across-taxa analyses. Sixteen measures were taxonomical (species richness and species diversity), whereas 15 were functional (species traits including mobility, resource use, and reproduction). We used indicator value analysis to identify umbrella species associated with single or multiple biodiversity measures. Many umbrella species were indicators of high biodiversity within their own taxonomic group (from 33.3% in weevils to 93.8% in birds), to a lesser extent they were indicators across taxa. Principal component analysis revealed that umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity represented different aspects of biodiversity, especially with respect to measures of taxonomic and functional diversity. Thus, even umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity were complementary in the biodiversity aspects they represented. Thus, the choice of umbrella species based solely on taxonomic diversity is questionable and may not represent biodiversity comprehensively. Our results suggest that, depending on conservation priorities, managers should choose multiple and complementary umbrella species to assess the state of biodiversity. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  6. Dietary Diversity is a Predictor of Acute Malnutrition in Rural but Not in Urban Settings: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Lartey, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To document the relationships between child dietary diversity and acute malnutrition (wasting) in urban and rural Ghana, controlling for maternal, child and household socio-demographic characteristics. Study Design: Cross sectional survey Place and Duration of Study: Urban and rural Ghana, between September and November 2008. Methodology: The analysis uses data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Data on children aged 6-36 months (n = 1,187) and their...

  7. EATING HABITS, DIETARY DIVERSITY AND APTITUDE FOR PRACTICING HORTICULTURE OF PERI-URBAN FAMILIES FROM CARDEL, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Toral Juárez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban and peri-urban families represent 75% of the Mexican population. The poverty and form of feed seem to be associated with obesity, degenerative diseases and malnutrition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and dietary diversity of Cardel city, Veracruz, Mexico peri-urban families and know the aptitude of families to practice horticulture at home. Dietary diversity was determined using the scoring method of staple foods. Eating habits and aptitude to practice horticulture were obtained by a survey type Likert scale. The 35% of the families presented good eating habits, 19% regular and 46% of households showed poor dietary habits. Dietary diversity was 29.4 ± 8.7 in primary foods. The Likert general index was 2.9 and represented an average availability to practice peri-urban horticulture. Food diversity of families peri-urban is a function of family economic capacity, in contrast, food habits and socioeconomic status are not associated and finally there were identified multiple factors that positively influence the willingness of the mother of family to practice horticulture.

  8. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rocky; Kalaitzis, John A.; Wood, Susanna A.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus. PMID:23917066

  9. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Neilan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus.

  10. Universality, Diversity and Legal Certainty: Cultural Diversity in the Dialogue between the CEDAW and States Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vleugel, V.; Kanetake, M.; Nollkaemper, A.

    2016-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that the universal value and application of international human rights norms does not imply a uniform implementation of these rights, thereby leaving room for local and culture specific implementation at the national level. The question remains, however, what the precise scope

  11. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Dunn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  12. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Cultural diversity in physical diseases among patients with mental illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens I; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective:People with psychiatric diseases have a severely increased risk for physical morbidity and premature death from physical diseases. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes (DM) and obesity in schizophrenia and depression in three...... in Europe and Japan.Method:Patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) F2 diseases (schizophrenia spectrum disorders) and F3 diseases (affective disorders) admitted to one Nigerian, one Japanese, two Swiss, two German and six Danish centres during 1 year were included. Physical diseases...... in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western...

  14. Individual and cultural-diversity competency: focus on the therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jessica Henderson; Roysircar, Gargi; Abeles, Norman; Boyd, Cyndy

    2004-07-01

    The Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology was held in Arizona in November 2002. One of the workshops, Individual and Cultural Differences (ICD), focused on racism, homophobia, and ageism. The consensus was that self-awareness and knowledge about the three "isms" are critical components in the education and training of psychologists. This article, authored by four of the workshop attendees, is a review of the current research and theoretical literature. Implications that address both content and context in graduate programs and training sites are presented. This is one of a series of articles published in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Several other articles that resulted from the Competencies Conference will appear in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and The Counseling Psychologist. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Navigating Cultural Borders in Diverse Contexts: Building Capacity through Culturally Responsive Leadership and Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic shift and increasing diversity in the student population demand urgency and attention from educational leaders. Those who argue for greater attention to equity and diversity suggest that all students regardless of their gender, social class, ethnic or racial characteristics must have equal opportunities to learn and be engaged. These…

  16. Circles of Consensus: The Preservation of Cultural Diversity through Political Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Jaria i Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western modern culture has expanded at the universal level and has thereby become a threat to other cultures, particularly those of chthonic communities. But these cultures have progressively recognized its worth as a source of richness, which can be very useful in facing future challenges to humanity. Moreover, in terms of human dignity and the equality of all human beings, Western modern culture has to be recognized as having an intrinsic value as well. Given these facts, we must find a way to protect this cultural diversity in an effective manner. It is obvious that assimilationist or isolationist models are not satisfactory. So I propose a third way. I call it an integrationist or a deep approach. It consists of giving political density to cultural diversity through the design of federalist strategies that have, as a result, the definition of different levels of decision (circles of consensus. After having exposed my model, I will pay attention to the recent constitutional experiences in Ecuador and Bolivia, where some new developments in this sense are intended. I compare these models with my proposal and, finally, I analyze the main problems that a deep approach to preserving cultural diversity has to face up to.

  17. Explaining the Criteria of Designing Urban Furniture and Landscape, with a Cultural-social Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Allahdadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention to the deep relationship between human personality and the place in which he lives causes the place to play a crucial role in cultural transformations and prevalence of human life style and formation of values, connections and human activities. Cities are not just a place of transit, but they are also environments that must have mutual communications with the inhabitants in order to realize the meaning of citizen, as there is a distinction between the status of citizenship and urbanization. Urban furniture is one of the elements of urban space that its quantity, beauty and durability play a major role in achieving a healthy and favorable city and satisfies the needs of citizens in terms of performance and beauty. Accordingly, the present study, using descriptive-analytical method and with data collection tools including library and documentary studies, examines the concept of product ecology and answers to the questions whether urban furniture can start or support social interaction or positively affect the roles of citizens? In this paper, the relationship between social-cultural design in urban furniture and the disturbances regarding uneven distribution of elements are identified, and finally the criteria of designing urban furniture and landscape are expressed with a social-design approach.

  18. Culturable diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Aarzoo; Ahmad, Irshad; Kim, Seung Bum

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl such as inland salt lakes and evaporated sea-shore pools, as well as environments such as curing brines, salted food products and saline soils. Dependence on salt is an important phenotypic characteristic of halophilic bacteria, which can be used in the polyphasic characterization of newly discovered microorganisms. In this study the diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils of Daecheon, Chungnam, and Saemangeum, Jeonbuk, was investigated. Two types of media, namely NA and R2A supplemented with 3%, 5%, 9%, 15%, 20% and 30% NaCl were used. More than 200 halophilic bacteria were isolated and BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis was done for the typing of the isolates. The BLAST identification results showed that isolated strains were composed of 4 phyla, Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (5%) and Actinobacteria (4%). Isolates were affiliated with 16 genera and 36 species. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the phylum Firmicutes, comprising 24% of the total isolates. Halomonas (12%) and Shewanella (12%) were also found as the main genera. These findings show that the foreshore soil of Daecheon Beach and Saemangeum Sea of Korea represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity.

  19. Culturable diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarzoo Irshad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl such as inland salt lakes and evaporated sea-shore pools, as well as environments such as curing brines, salted food products and saline soils. Dependence on salt is an important phenotypic characteristic of halophilic bacteria, which can be used in the polyphasic characterization of newly discovered microorganisms. In this study the diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils of Daecheon, Chungnam, and Saemangeum, Jeonbuk, was investigated. Two types of media, namely NA and R2A supplemented with 3%, 5%, 9%, 15%, 20% and 30% NaCl were used. More than 200 halophilic bacteria were isolated and BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis was done for the typing of the isolates. The BLAST identification results showed that isolated strains were composed of 4 phyla, Firmicutes (60%, Proteobacteria (31%, Bacteriodetes (5% and Actinobacteria (4%. Isolates were affiliated with 16 genera and 36 species. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the phylum Firmicutes, comprising 24% of the total isolates. Halomonas (12% and Shewanella (12% were also found as the main genera. These findings show that the foreshore soil of Daecheon Beach and Saemangeum Sea of Korea represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity.

  20. Urban Resilience: Retail Location Dynamics and Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, Mark; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between cultural heritage and retail store dynamics at the neighbourhood level in the Netherlands. We analyze the total number of stores, number of vacant stores and number of stores by retail sub-industry in neighbourhoods, thereby focusing on the impact of

  1. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...

  2. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students' language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of…

  3. Culturally diverse attitudes and beliefs of students majoring in speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos

    Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.

  4. A two level mutation-selection model of cultural evolution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2010-11-21

    Cultural evolution is a complex process that can happen at several levels. At the level of individuals in a population, each human bears a set of cultural traits that he or she can transmit to its offspring (vertical transmission) or to other members of his or her society (horizontal transmission). The relative frequency of a cultural trait in a population or society can thus increase or decrease with the relative reproductive success of its bearers (individual's level) or the relative success of transmission (called the idea's level). This article presents a mathematical model on the interplay between these two levels. The first aim of this article is to explore when cultural evolution is driven by the idea's level, when it is driven by the individual's level and when it is driven by both. These three possibilities are explored in relation to (a) the amount of interchange of cultural traits between individuals, (b) the selective pressure acting on individuals, (c) the rate of production of new cultural traits, (d) the individual's capacity to remember cultural traits and to the population size. The aim is to explore the conditions in which cultural evolution does not lead to a better adaptation of individuals to the environment. This is to contrast the spread of fitness-enhancing ideas, which make individual bearers better adapted to the environment, to the spread of "selfish" ideas, which spread well simply because they are easy to remember but do not help their individual bearers (and may even hurt them). At the same time this article explores in which conditions the adaptation of individuals is maximal. The second aim is to explore how these factors affect cultural diversity, or the amount of different cultural traits in a population. This study suggests that a larger interchange of cultural traits between populations could lead to cultural evolution not improving the adaptation of individuals to their environment and to a decrease of cultural diversity

  5. Cultural Diversity and Reasonable Accommodation. An Approach based on Freedom as Non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Wences

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges that culturally diverse societies now face is that of learning to live with differences. Harmonization practices such as concerted adjustment and reasonable accommodation are some of the mechanisms proposed by cultural diversity management policies to deal with this contemporary situation. In the case of reasonable accommodation, this practice can be justified not only because it is based on a recognition of equality in difference, but also on a belief in freedom as a form of non domination, given the inequality present in power relations.

  6. Vigilance as a caring expression and Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J M

    1998-01-01

    Vigilance, or the close, protective involvement of families caring for hospitalized relatives, was explored in this study using holistic ethnography. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality provided direction for the researcher to generate substantive data about the meanings, patterns, and day-to-day experience of vigilance. Five categories of meaning were derived from the data: commitment to care, emotional upheaval, dynamic nexus, transition, and resilience. The research findings expand understanding of vigilance as a caring expression, suggest direction for nursing practice, and contribute to Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality and the development of nursing science.

  7. Education and cultural diversity - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irizelda Martins de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the main issues concerning the main tensions to be resolved by the education, aiming to clear the theme of cultural diversity. Here in it is argued in the context of the emergence of concepts, such as cultural diversity, pluralism, multiculturalism, interculturality, identity, among others. This study is based on a research conducted by teachers of the area of public policy of the State University of Maringá, which examine important aspects of the history of Brazilian education, in particular documents of international organizations like UNESCO.

  8. [Urban culture and physical and sports activities. The "sportification" of parkour and street golf as cultural mediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Florian; Routier, Guillaume; Héas, Stephane; Bodin, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    The article explores the process of "sportification"--i.e., processing physical activity in a sport regulated by a set of rules and standards, legitimized by supervisory institutions--from two originals practices, parkour and urban golf. To study these practices, we crossed the contributions of urban sociology and of the contemporary sociology of sport while respecting the methodological principles of qualitative sociology. A first point concerns the process of"sport" itself, its definition, its various stages, and the role played by communication of stakeholders on public space. The cultural mediation shows us how to institutionalize the movement that represents the "sports" resulted in the same time reconfiguration of physical practices themselves. Recent events illustrate the ongoing reconfiguration, we will detail them. Finally, we show the effects produced by the process on the definition of urban culture and sports: setting sight of activities, enhanced cooperation with the media-cultural, polarization between different types of practical in the case of parkour, around a confrontation between two of the founders.

  9. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).

  10. Welfare values of sustained urban water flows for recreational and cultural amenities under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikouei, A.; Brouwer, R.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the welfare values related to sustained water flows in the Zayandeh-Rud River for recreational and cultural amenities in the urban park of Isfahan City in Iran. As is elsewhere the case in arid regions, the drying up of the river due to growing water

  11. Culturally Relevant Literature: What Matters Most to Primary-Age Urban Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.

    2016-01-01

    The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…

  12. Fostering Social and Cultural Capital in Urban Youth: A Programmatic Approach to Promoting College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Amanda K.; Bowen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor's degree attainment has become essential for U.S. labor market participation. However, degree attainment is differentially accessible across racial and economic lines. One explanation of degree disparities is that urban students often lack the social and cultural capital needed to succeed in higher education institutions. This article…

  13. Conflicting cultures – a street-ethnographic take on urban youth, unstructured socialization and territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2015-01-01

    This article is about conflicting cultures among urban youth in a medium-sized Danish town called Lomby. At the central squares in Lomby different groups of children and young people gather around the newly established skater facility. Concentrating on a specific group of young boys, the pseudo...

  14. Indians Weaving in Cyberspace Indigenous Urban Youth Cultures, Identities and Politics of Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Quispe, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing how contemporary urban Aymara youth hip hoppers and bloggers are creating their identities and are producing discourses in texts and lyrics to contest racist and colonial discourses. The research is situated in Bolivia, which is currently engaged in a cultural and political revolution supported by Indigenous…

  15. Talkin' 'bout the ghetto: popular culture and urban imaginaries of immobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the ghetto, referring to specifically urban experiences of sociospatial marginalization, has played a prominent role in black popular culture. This article explores the role of the ghetto as a discursive space of immobility and traces its global journey as a mobile imaginary. Focusing

  16. Urban Teachers' Professed Classroom Management Strategies: Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dave F.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen urban educators teaching from 1st through 12th grade selected from 7 cities across the United States were interviewed in this qualitative research study to determine if the classroom management strategies they use reflect the research on culturally responsive teaching. Participants revealed using several management strategies that reflect…

  17. Urban and Rural High School Students' Perspectives of Productive Peer Culture for Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perspectives about productive peer culture (PPC) in general and for mathematics learning. The urban and rural high school students in this study have participated for at least one year in either an Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) for daily mathematics instruction and/or worked as mathematics…

  18. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegetschweiler, K.T.; Vries, de Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne; Bell, Simon; Brennan, Michael; Siter, Nathan; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Voigt, Annette; Hunziker, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical

  19. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  20. Using non-feature films to teach diversity, cultural competence, and the DSM-IV-TR outline for cultural formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Russell F; Diamond, Ronald J; Chang, Jacquelyn B; Primm, Annelle B; Lu, Francis G

    2008-01-01

    Feature films have been used for teaching in psychiatry for many years to demonstrate diagnoses, but the use of documentary and instructional films in resident and staff cultural competence training have not been extensively written about in the medical and psychological literature. This article will describe the films that have been used by the authors and suggest methods for their use in cultural competence and diversity training. A literature search was done using MEDLINE and PsychINFO and the authors were asked to describe their teaching methods. One article was found detailing the use of videotapes as a stimulus but not for cultural competence education, and two articles were found documenting the use of The Color of Fear as a stimulus for the discussion of racism. However, many educators use these films all across the country for the purpose of opening discussion about racism. Documentary, instructional, and public service announcements can be useful in teaching culturally competent assessment and treatment.

  1. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  2. New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hietala, Marjatta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.

    La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relaci

  3. Identifying socio-ecological networks in rural-urban gradients: Diagnosis of a changing cultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Schmitz, C; Schmitz, M F; Herrero-Jáuregui, C; Gutiérrez-Angonese, J; Pineda, F D; Montes, C

    2018-01-15

    Socio-ecological systems maintain reciprocal interactions between biophysical and socioeconomic structures. As a result of these interactions key essential services for society emerge. Urban expansion is a direct driver of land change and cause serious shifts in socio-ecological relationships and the associated lifestyles. The framework of rural-urban gradients has proved to be a powerful tool for ecological research about urban influences on ecosystems and on sociological issues related to social welfare. However, to date there has not been an attempt to achieve a classification of municipalities in rural-urban gradients based on socio-ecological interactions. In this paper, we developed a methodological approach that allows identifying and classifying a set of socio-ecological network configurations in the Region of Madrid, a highly dynamic cultural landscape considered one of the European hotspots in urban development. According to their socio-ecological links, the integrated model detects four groups of municipalities, ordered along a rural-urban gradient, characterized by their degree of biophysical and socioeconomic coupling and different indicators of landscape structure and social welfare. We propose the developed model as a useful tool to improve environmental management schemes and land planning from a socio-ecological perspective, especially in territories subject to intense urban transformations and loss of rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Professional football squads as multicultural teams: Cultural diversity, intercultural experience, and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maderer, Daniel; Holtbrügge, Dirk; Schuster, Tassilo

    2014-01-01

    After the Bosman ruling in 1995, the cultural diversity of professional football teams in Europe has increased considerably. Recruiting players regardless of their nationality allows football clubs to make use of a global talent pool and to combine the specific strengths of individuals with different cultural backgrounds. At the same time, it confronts them with the challenge of having players who speak different languages and who have different football philosophies ingrained in them. Based ...

  5. Poverty, race, and CKD in a racially and socioeconomically diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C; Charles, Raquel F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Powe, Neil R

    2010-06-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are both independently associated with end-stage renal disease and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, despite their frequent co-occurrence, the effect of low SES independent of race has not been well studied in CKD. Cross-sectional study. 2,375 community-dwelling adults aged 30-64 years residing within 12 neighborhoods selected for both socioeconomic and racial diversity in Baltimore City, MD. Low SES (self-reported household income or =125% of guideline); white and African American race. CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate poverty and CKD, stratified by race. Of 2,375 participants, 955 were white (347 low SES and 608 higher SES) and 1,420 were African American (713 low SES and 707 higher SES). 146 (6.2%) participants had CKD. Overall, race was not associated with CKD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.57-1.96); however, African Americans had a much greater odds of advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate urban populations. Low SES has a profound relationship with CKD in African Americans, but not whites, in an urban population of adults, and its role in the racial disparities seen in CKD is worthy of further investigation. Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The impact of cross-cultural interactions on medical students' preparedness to care for diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nina N; Syed, Zeba A; Krupat, Edward; Crutcher, Betty N; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Medical students who graduate from schools with diverse student populations are more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients compared with students who graduate from more homogenous schools. This study aimed to identify the types of cross-cultural interactions associated with students' self-rated preparedness. In 2010, the authors developed and administered a Web-based survey that queried Harvard Medical School students about their voluntary interethnic interactions (studying, socializing), participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities, and self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. The authors separated students' responses regarding interethnic interactions and participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities into high and low participation, then determined the association between these responses and those to questions about students' self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. They used ANOVA and Z tests of proportion to analyze their data. Of 724 eligible students, 460 completed the survey (64%). Seventy-five percent (324/433) believed they were prepared to care for patients from backgrounds different from their own. Students who spent >75% of their study time with students from different backgrounds or who participated in a greater number of diversity-related extracurricular activities were more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients overall and to perform seven other skills. Voluntary cross-cultural interactions, both studying and socializing, are associated with higher self-rated preparedness to care for patients from diverse backgrounds. Medical schools should continue to support multicultural pursuits to prepare students to become physicians sensitive to the needs of diverse patients.

  8. Beijing Declaration Concerning Urban Culture(Adopted by 2nd International Forum of Urban Planning & International Conference on Urban Culture on June 11, 2007, Beijing)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Culture, and State Administration of Cultural Heritage, PRC, more than 1000 mayors, planners, archi-tects, scholars, historians and experts in-

  9. The Effectiveness of Urban Green Spaces and Socio-Cultural Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a theoretical approach for mapping and determining the effectiveness of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities as providers of urban ecosystem services and urban services in the case of Adana, Turkey. Firstly, green spaces and socio-cultural facilities per capita have been determined and indexed for the neighbourhoods in the city. Then, a distance-based method for estimating the effectiveness of these facilities was used. The distances between the various neighbourhoods and between a given facility and the farthest threshold have been measured and these values have been used to determine the facility effectiveness change value for each neighbourhood. Then, effective values have been calculated and indexed by incorporating the green space and socio-cultural facility values and the effectiveness change values for the neighbourhoods. Finally, point-based effective green spaces and socio-cultural facilities index values have been converted to continuous surface values in a GIS (geographic information system environment in order to utilize as a base map for urban physical planning purposes. According to the outcomes of this study, the distribution of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities of the neighbourhoods are imbalanced and index values of these facilities range in between 45 and 84 out of 100.

  10. Social Networking Sites Use and Cross Cultural Adaptation of Muslim Indonesian Students in Australian Universities: Valuing Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraryo, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Muslim Asian students have diverse specific needs when undertaking education in western country universities. Many international students use social networking sites as media for distance communication and helping in their adjustment.This study attempts to investigate the impact of using new social networking sites on the cross cultural adaptation process. Qualitative methodology was used for the study. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. The study investigates ...

  11. Culture-dependent and -independent investigations of microbial diversity on urinary catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Moser, Claus Ernst; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, which ascend the catheter along its external or internal surface to the bladder and subsequently develop into biofilms on the catheter and uroepithelium. Antibiotic-treated bacteria and bacteria residing in biofilm can be difficult...... to culture. In this study we used culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent methods (fingerprinting, cloning, and pyrosequencing) to determine the microbial diversity of biofilms on 24 urinary catheters. Most of the patients were catheterized for...

  12. Engaging Students in the Research Process: Comparing Approaches Used with Diverse Learners in Two Urban High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Salika A.; Jefferson, Tiffany; Osborn, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes instructional choices used by two high school teachers to engage students in the research process. Working with diverse learners in large urban high schools, the teachers used different approaches to support students' through the research process. The teachers' intentional teaching helped to engage students through structured…

  13. "You Have to Hold Your Own": Investigating the Social Networks of a Diverse Group of Disenfranchised Urban Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Happel, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigates social networks and forms of social capital accessed by a group of five urban male youth (ages 15-19), from diverse racial backgrounds, who were disenfranchised economically. We refer to the youth as "disenfranchised" because they were disconnected from forms of institutional support, especially…

  14. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Boga, Hamadi I; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well

  15. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  16. Culturally Diverse Students in Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities within Academic Literacy Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tkachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With growing diversity in the population, higher education faces a new situation with increasing student diversity. In our paper, we will explore questions concerning the consequences student diversity has for higher-education institutions. Based on our experience from three different R&D projects, the differences in culture and academic literacy practices give culturally diverse students challenges that have often been ignored in academia. Some other studies also document that this group of students has a much higher risk of dropping out and underachieving than majority students (Andersen & Skaarer- Kreutz, 2007; Støren, 2009. In our paper, we are going to discuss the students’ challenges and discourse of remediation that is often associated with their challenges and suggest how higher-education institutions can adjust their practices to be more oriented to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication as a dialogic approach may create dynamics in academic tutoring and lead to mutual change/transformation instead of a one-way adaptation of existing academic literacy norms. We argue that all teachers should be aware of cultural differences in literacy practices in the education systems and strive to adjust their teaching practices to the diversity in the classroom. This approach, we believe, can contribute to a better learning environment for all students, independently of their backgrounds. 

  17. Celebrating Musical Diversity: Training Culturally Responsive Music Educators in Multiracial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article explores outcomes of research into the role and place of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five government schools in Singapore. The study highlights the ways in which a variety of factors such as specialist music training, government policy, curriculum documents, and professional development influence teacher practice.…

  18. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  19. School Psychologists and the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Afifi, Amanda F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, school psychologists have increasingly recognized the importance of using valid and reliable methods to assess culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students for special education eligibility. However, little is known about their assessment practices or preparation in this area. To address these questions, a Web-based survey…

  20. Cultural Diversity in the News Media: A Democratic or a Commercial Need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Awad Cherit (Isabel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper distinguishes between laissez-faire and interventionist models used to justify and implement cultural diversity initiatives in the news media. The laissez-faire model is characteristic of U.S journalism. However, due to the convergence of media systems and the widespread

  1. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  2. Sex Roles and Cultural Diversity in Recent Award Winning Picture Books for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Updated previous research on how gender is being presented in award-winning picture books for young children by replicating a study conducted by Collins, Ingoldsby, and Dellmann in 1984. This study also extended the research design used in the prior investigation by examining the books for portrayal of both androgyny and cultural diversity. (TJQ)

  3. Barriers to Full Participation in the Individualized Education Program for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…

  4. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  5. The Office of Diversity and Inclusion at a Large Texas University: A Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curette, Alvin R.

    2016-01-01

    This single, holistic, instrumental case study investigated the organizational history of the Office of Diversity and Inclusion (ODI) at Lone Star University. The study included an examination of changes to ODI's cultural identity. This study was guided by two principal research questions: a) Why was the office created and how has its cultural…

  6. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  7. Online Collaborative Learning Activities: The Perceptions of Culturally Diverse Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Yuan, Guangji; Dogbey, James

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the perceptions of minority graduate students toward online collaborative learning activities. The participants were 20 minority graduate students from diverse cultural backgrounds (10 African Americans, 5 Hispanics, and 5 international students from Africa) enrolled in online graduate instructional technology and…

  8. Using Enrichment Clusters to Address the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Margaret A.; Payne, Yolanda Denise; Brown, Katherine Backes

    2016-01-01

    Using data from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a professional development workshop, this article explains how one component of the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM) has been implemented at a culturally diverse elementary school serving primarily Latina/o and African American students. Based on a broadened conception of giftedness,…

  9. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  10. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  11. Critical Entanglement: Research on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parental Involvement in Special Education 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    If parental involvement in a child's education is generally viewed in positive terms, then it is important to understand what sorts of barriers might hinder it. This article reviews literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parental involvement in special education in the United States and Canada. In analyzing 20 articles published in…

  12. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  13. Social-Skill Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Yan, Min-Chi; Kulkarni, Saili S.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have considered social-skill interventions to be an essential component in the development and progress of students with disabilities. However, there is still relatively limited research on these interventions for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. This literature review was conducted…

  14. Community College Faculty Members' Perceived Multicultural Teaching Competence and Attitudes Regarding Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittz, Mia Web

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the Survey of Community College Faculty (SCCF), a combined survey of the Multicultural Teaching Scale (MTS) and Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment (PADAA) that framed the research. The MTS assessed self-reported cultural competencies categorized into five dimensions: (a) Content Integration, (b) Knowledge Construction,…

  15. From Remediation to Acceleration: Recruiting, Retaining, and Graduating Future Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Socorro G.; Morales, Amanda R.; Holmes, Melissa A.; Terry, Dawn Herrera

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study explores one mid-western state university's response to the challenge of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), especially Latino/a, student recruitment and retention. BESITOS (Bilingual/Bicultural Education Students Interacting To Obtain Success) is an integrated teacher preparation program implemented at a…

  16. Exploring Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students' Identities in an Afterschool Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate identity positions of elementary school students with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background in an afterschool book club. The increasing population of CLD students and their learning needs have become a national focus in American schools. Scholars have highlighted that understanding…

  17. Transition Planning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Too often, culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youth with disabilities have a tougher road to adulthood than their Caucasian peers with disabilities. Reverse the odds with this concise how-to book, the first guide to easing the complex transition process for CLD students with a wide range of special needs. A veteran trainer of transition…

  18. Drawing upon Lessons Learned: Effective Curriculum and Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Julie Dingle

    2016-01-01

    Javits Gifted and Talented Education Program has provided a wealth of knowledge on culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) gifted learners and how to support teachers in their work with CLD students. This study examined five impactful Javits projects through qualitative inquiry centered on how innovative practice takes root or not. Using…

  19. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  20. Learning to Teach Elementary Science through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves…

  1. Serving culturally diverse learners in the 24/7 management classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S.G.M.; Weir, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e-learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a

  2. Cultural Diversity on the Council of Europe Documents: The Role of Education and the Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Democratic governance of cultural diversity is one of the more important worries of the majority of European states. A few years ago, this concern existed mainly in central and northern Europe; today, however, it has become a matter of general interest for the whole continent. This is shown through two relevant facts: the European Union declared…

  3. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Beliefs toward Cultural Diversity Employing an Inquiry through Literature Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangseechatchawan, Dusadee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' beliefs toward cultural diversity by employing an inquiry through literature approach. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an inquiry through literature instructional format, such as book clubs, and whole class and individual inquiry, on preservice teachers' beliefs regarding cultural…

  4. No Longer "Catholic, White and Gaelic": Schools in Ireland Coming to Terms with Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie; Masterson, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Irish society has experienced unprecedented demographic change since the turn of the twenty-first century, and increasingly, educators are facing the prospect of having to respond to the changing nature of cultural diversity in their classrooms. Traditionally characterised as"Catholic, white and Gaelic", Irish schools are said to be…

  5. Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand…

  6. Editorial: Papers from the 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Elaine K. Sutherland

    2008-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability was held in Beijing, China from 11 to 17 June 2006. The conference was organized and hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IB_CAS) in conjunction with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Group 5.01.07 (Tree-...

  7. Culturally Diverse Literature: Enriching Variety in an Era of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Causey, Lauren L.; Galda, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The authors argue for the overwhelming importance of finding and including culturally diverse literature into the curricula teachers are authorized to teach. They discuss the implications of use and offer ideas on how to identify quality literature to include in classroom and school libraries.

  8. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  9. Urban-development-induced Changes in the Diversity and Composition of the Soil Bacterial Community in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Qi, Yue; Fu, Gang; Liu, Gaohui; Qiao, Mengping

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have implicated urbanization as a major cause of loss of biodiversity. Most of them have focused on plants and animals, even though soil microorganisms make up a large proportion of that biodiversity. However, it is unclear how the soil bacterial community is affected by urban development. Here, paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene at V4 region was performed to study the soil microbial community across Beijing’s built-up area. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla in all samples, but the relative abundance of these phyla differed significantly across these concentric zones. The diversity and composition of the soil bacterial community were found to be closely correlated with soil pH. Variance partitioning analysis suggested that urban ring roads contributed 5.95% of the bacterial community variation, and soil environmental factors explained 17.65% of the variation. The results of the current work indicate that urban development can alter the composition and diversity of the soil microbial community, and showed pH to be a key factor in the shaping of the composition of the soil bacterial community. Urban development did have a strong impact on the bacterial community of urban soil in Beijing.

  10. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-11-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.

  11. Cultural Diversity and School Equity: A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Teresa; Ballesteros, Belen; Malik, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Cultural diversity in society is reflected in schools but it is seldom taken into account as an influential variable in the personal and social development of students. School culture transmits specific socio-cultural values (those of the dominant group), excluding other cultural features that are not in accordance with it. Certain educational…

  12. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  14. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  15. The importance of moral emotions for effective collaboration in culturally diverse healthcare teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine; Brunton, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Moral emotions shape the effectiveness of culturally diverse teams. However, these emotions, which are integral to determining ethically responsive patient care and team relationships, typically go unrecognised. The contribution of emotions to moral deliberation is subjugated within the technorational environment of healthcare decision-making. Contemporary healthcare organisations rely on a multicultural workforce charged with the ethical care of vulnerable people. Limited extant literature examines the role of moral emotions in ethical decision-making among culturally diverse healthcare teams. Moral emotions are evident in ethnocentric moral perspectives that construct some colleagues' practices as 'other'. This article examines how moral emotions are evoked when cultural dissonance influences nurses' moral perceptions. We use a qualitative investigation of teamwork within culturally diverse healthcare organisations. We use Haidt's () account of moral emotions to examine practice-based accounts of 36 internationally educated and 17 New Zealand educated nurses practising in New Zealand. The study provides evidence that moral emotions are frequently elicited by communication and care practices considered 'foreign'. The main implication is that although safe practice in healthcare organisations is reliant on highly functioning teams, collaboration is challenged by interprofessional power relations of contested culturally shaped values. We address practice-based strategies that enable engagement with moral emotions to enhance effective teamwork. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Microbial culture collections as pillars for promoting fungal diversity, conservation and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara Durães; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Rodrigues, André

    2013-11-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with an overall global number of 1.5M up to 3.3M species on Earth. Besides their ecological roles as decomposers, fungi are important in several aspects of applied research. Here, we review how culture collections may promote the knowledge on diversity, conservation and biotechnological exploitation of fungi. The impact of fungi diversity on biotechnological studies is discussed. We point out the major roles of microbial repositories, including fungal preservation, prospecting, identification, authentication and supply. A survey on the World Data Center for Microorganisms (WDCM) powered by the World Federation for Culture Collections and on the Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) database revealed that 46 Brazilian culture collections registered in these databases are dedicate to preserving fungi. Most of these culture collections are located in the Southeast of Brazil. This scenario also demonstrates that Brazil has many collections focused on fungal strains, but the lack of up-to-date information in WDCM as well as of a solid national platform for culture collections registration do not allow accurate assessment of fungal preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond Diversity as Usual: Expanding Critical Cultural Approaches to Marginalization in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secules, Stephen

    In general, what we think of as "diversity work" in undergraduate engineering education focuses in the following ways: more on the overlooked assets of minority groups than on the acts of overlooking, more on the experiences of marginalized groups than on the mechanisms of marginalization by dominant groups, more on supporting and increasing minority student retention than on critiquing and remediating the systems which lead minority students to leave engineering. This dissertation presents a series of arguments which push beyond a status quo understanding of diversity in engineering education. The first approach the dissertation takes up is to problematize educational facts around failure by interrogating their roots in interactions and cultural norms in an engineering classroom. In another argument, the dissertation places the engineering classroom cultural norms of competition, whiteness, and masculinity in a critical historical context of the discipline at large. Finally, I demonstrate how engaging students in a critique of marginalizing educational culture can be an important source of agency. In addition to applying and demonstrating the value of specific novel approaches in engineering education, the dissertation contributes to the research community by discussing the respective affordances between these and other possible scholarly approaches to culture and marginalization in education. I also suggest how a consideration of the taken-for-granted culture of engineering education can be an important tool for instructors seeking to gain insight into persistent educational problems. In addition, this dissertation makes implications for diversity support practice, envisioning new forms of support programming rooted in intersectionality and critical praxis.

  18. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  19. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  20. Cultural diversity training for UK healthcare professionals: a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Jovanovic, Ana; Sharma, Pankaj

    2008-10-01

    Healthcare inequalities within the UK based on patients' ethnicity have been found over the last five years in a large number of medical specialties. One possible explanation for this lies in ignorance of ethnic minority healthcare needs among professionals. Cultural diversity programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes including compliance, yet these are not as yet requirements for any UK healthcare professionals with the exception of psychiatrists. This paper documents the frequency, regional variation, characteristics and motivations for cultural diversity training through a questionnaire survey of the educational leads of every UK medical school, postgraduate deanery and schools of nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and pharmacy. The results showed a wide variation in teaching practices between healthcare professions and geographical regions. This study provides evidence for the need for national guidelines to incorporate cultural competency training by all UK healthcare professional training bodies.