WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally diverse groups

  1. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  2. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  3. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  4. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  5. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  6. Cultural diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of cultural diversity has emerged as an influential one having impact on multiple policy and legal instruments especially following the adoption of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005. The discussions on its appropriate implementation are however profoundly fragmented and often laden with political considerations. The present brief paper offers some thoughts on the meaning of cultural diversity and its implementati...

  7. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  8. Teaching engineering ethics using role-playing in a culturally diverse student group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert H

    2006-04-01

    The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers.

  9. Recruiting and Retaining of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups in Special Education: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.

    2003-01-01

    The present article serves as an introduction to a special issue on recruiting and retaining culturally and linguistically diverse populations into the field of special education. Members of the Diversity Committee of the Teacher Education Division (TED) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and selected guest were invited authors.…

  10. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  11. From production to consumption: cultural diversity in the collective uses of technology among low income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barros

    2015-12-01

    as a central aspect of the observed cultural dynamics. With this intention, results about an ongoing ethnographic study were analyzed making a  counterpoint between consumption practices in Brazil and in South Africa. These practices related to television and mobile phones suggest the need to relativize the pattern of consumption for an individual consumer in order to better understand collective uses of these technologies in countries with great cultural diversity comparing those with developed countries, where such consumer goods, as well as a major part of academic theories, are produced.

  12. Cultural diversity in teachers’ group-centered beliefs and practices in early childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Saskia D.M.; Leseman, Paul P.M.; Huijbregts, Sanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study examined the relation between teachers’ cultural backgrounds, their beliefs regarding group processes, their actual support of group processes, and children's behavior in center-based childcare in the Netherlands. For this purpose, 57 teachers of native Dutch and immigrant

  13. Cultural diversity in teachers’ group-centered beliefs and practices in early childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Saskia D.M.; Leseman, Paul P.M.; Huijbregts, Sanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study examined the relation between teachers’ cultural backgrounds, their beliefs regarding group processes, their actual support of group processes, and children's behavior in center-based childcare in the Netherlands. For this purpose, 57 teachers of native Dutch and immigrant

  14. Experiences and Comfort with Culturally Diverse Groups in Undergraduate Pre-Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J.; Raheim, Salome

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 196 white students in prenursing found they had little discomfort with diverse racial/ethnic groups. They would have considerable difficulty working with lesbian, gay, or bisexual clients or patients with AIDS. Reasons for discomfort included lack of knowledge, skill, or exposure; disapproval of sexual orientation; and sympathy, pity,…

  15. Work group diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  16. Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta-analysis of research on multicultural work groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Günter K.; Maznevski, Martha L.; Andreas Voigt; Karsten Jonsen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the role of cultural diversity in teams is equivocal, suggesting that cultural diversity's effect on teams is mediated by specific team processes, and moderated by contextual variables. To reconcile conflicting perspectives and past results, we propose that cultural diversity affects teams through process losses and gains associated with increased divergence and decreased convergence. We examine whether the level (surface-level vs deep-level) and type (cross-national vs i...

  17. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  19. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    effects of cultural diversity. Our main finding is that increases in cultural fractionalization significantly increased output, while increases in cultural polarization significantly decreased output. We address the issue of identifying the causal effects of cultural diversity by using the supply...

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Communication Competence: An Analysis of Group Dynamics and Interpersonal Relationships in a Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Melvin C.; Okoro, Ephraim A.; Okoro, Sussie U.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the significance of emotional intelligence and intercultural communication competence in globally diverse classroom settings. Specifically, the research shows a correlation between degrees of emotional intelligence and human communication competence (age, gender, and culture). The dataset consists of 364 participants. Nearly…

  1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  2. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  3. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  4. Cultural Rights and Cultural Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG SIXIN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Culture is a very big concept, big enough almost to comprise all the activities of human beings and the tangible and intangible results caused by human activities.Therefore, it is very difficult to define culture in a few words.

  5. Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus I. Amaram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of culturally diverse work groups. For the practicing manager, there is a need to know when and where mono- and multi-cultural arrangements may be preferred. This paper reviews relevant research findings that can be used for building effective paradigms in the management of cultural diversity in the workplace.

  6. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Occupational therapy, culture and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Simó Algado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational behaviour is always an environmental behaviour because the occupation is the dialogue between human beings and their environment. Culture is key dimension in our profession. This article is based on previous research and a new review of the scientific literature on the various meanings associated with culture. In the contemporary context the globalization involves the imposition of the American way of life on a planetary scale. In front of ethnocentrism and racism a diatopical hermeneutics is proposed. A cosmopolitan citizenship can be constructed supporting diversity. The article concludes by reflecting on strategies that can be implemented from occupational therapy to develop a culturally safe occupational therapy. An archaeology of meaning must be developed in front of the Americanization. Occupational therapy needs to develop a powerful political activism in order to build an inclusive society based on human rights and sustainability. Culture and diversity are key elements in this process.

  8. Unity through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); S.A. Haslam (Alexander); M.J. Platow (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relatio

  9. Unity through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); S.A. Haslam (Alexander); M.J. Platow (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relatio

  10. Diversity, Pedagogy, and Visual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgy, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    As new approaches have emerged in art education, teacher preparation programs in higher education have revised existing courses or created new ones that reflect those new approaches. At the university where the author teaches, one such course is Diversity, Pedagogy, and Visual Culture (A ED 225). A ED 225 is intended to offer preservice art…

  11. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  12. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  13. Exploring Cultural Diversity (Children's Books).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galda, Lee; Cotter, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 57 children's books, combining realistic fiction, nonfiction, poetry, literary folklore, and folklore from people and places around the world, that reveal the cultural wonders of the world. Offers suggestions on how to group these books within thematic units. (MG)

  14. Exploring Cultural Diversity (Children's Books).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galda, Lee; Cotter, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 57 children's books, combining realistic fiction, nonfiction, poetry, literary folklore, and folklore from people and places around the world, that reveal the cultural wonders of the world. Offers suggestions on how to group these books within thematic units. (MG)

  15. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa diversity in distinct paediatric patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.;

    2008-01-01

    and further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Simpson's diversity index was calculated for the five groups. CF-chronic patients carried the highest number of distinct P. aeruginosa phenotypes and genotypes per culture. Isolates from the CF-chronic group were significantly less diverse than those from...

  17. Improving cultural diversity awareness of physical therapy educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Rolando T; Umphred, Darcy A

    2007-01-01

    In a climate of increasing diversity in the population of patients requiring physical therapy (PT) services, PT educators must prepare students and future clinicians to work competently in culturally diverse environments. To be able to achieve this goal, PT educators must be culturally competent as well. The purposes of the study were to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cultural diversity awareness and to develop an educational workshop to improve cultural diversity awareness of PT academic and clinical educators. Phase 1 of the study involved the development of an instrument to assess cultural diversity awareness. The Cultural Diversity Awareness Questionnaire (CDAQ) was developed, validated for content, analyzed for reliability, and field and pilot tested. Results indicated that the CDAQ has favorable psychometric properties. Phase 2 of the study involved the development and implementation of the Cultural Diversity Workshop (CDW). The seminar contents and class materials were developed, validated, and implemented as a one-day cultural diversity awareness seminar. A one-group, pretest-posttest experimental design was used, with participants who completed the CDAQ before and after the workshop. Results indicated that the workshop was effective in improving cultural diversity awareness of the participants. Results of the workshop evaluation affirmed the achievement of objectives and effectiveness of the facilitator. This study provided a solid initial foundation upon which a comprehensive cultural competence program can be developed.

  18. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  19. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  20. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  1. Homophily, Cultural Drift, and the Co-Evolution of Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Damon; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguiluz, Victor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    Studies of cultural differentiation have shown that social mechanisms that normally lead to cultural convergence--homophily and influence--can also explain how distinct cultural groups can form. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of cultural drift--small errors or innovations that allow cultures to…

  2. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  3. Exploring Cultural Diversity with Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Jonna; Julkunen, Saara

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Business Communication, Intercultural Communication. Objectives: Students will demonstrate understanding of some of the effects of culture on business communication. Students will explore cultural diversity in customer-seller relationships.

  4. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  5. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural va

  6. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural va

  7. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 research groups. One of the research groups identified the term cultural diversity to define. Method This was a qualitative study where a philosophical perspective was used to explore, explain and describe nursing practice. The combined method proposed by the International Council of Nurses (ICN was utilised to define and validate the term cultural diversity. Findings Validation and literature review provided sufficient support for the defined characteristics and the term was finally defined and submitted to ICN in November 2002 as: CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a type of CULTURE with the specific characteristics: co-existence of different groups, e.g. ethnic, religious, linguistic and other groups each with their own values and belief systems, traditions and different lifestyles. Conclusion The research group was informed in December 2003 of the ICNP® Evaluation Committee recommendation that the term cultural diversity will be included in the ICNP®.

  8. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    The three issues of gender equality, human rights and cultural diversity have dominated my organizational commitments, research, and clinical practice in transcultural psychiatry. These issues are intertwined in many ways and have broad implications for transcultural psychiatry. With increasing...... and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender...

  9. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  10. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  11. The impact of cultural diversity forum on students' openness to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Susan; Baldwin, Dee; Cannella, Kathleen A S; Charles, Jennell; Parker, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    As the population demographics for the United States (U.S.) shift towards increasing diversity, it is essential that nurses provide culturally competent care. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as a major curricular element in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN) The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Thus it is imperative that nursing faculty use effective strategies to help nursing students develop cultural sensitivity and competence. Educational workshops focusing on cultural diversity are usually designed to increase people's cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cultural diversity forum on nursing students' cultural sensitivity as measured by their openness to diversity. A convenience sample of students was recruited from a public university in the southeastern United States. The workshop was designed as a forum that combined a keynote presentation, shared meal, and a small group interactional activity. Cultural sensitivity was measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (ODCS), and was administered to students before and after the forum. A convenience sample of 47 students agreed to participate and completed both the pretest and posttest. Following the workshop, the students had more cultural sensitivity as measured by their scores on the ODCS (Wilcoxin Signed-Rank test z= -3.286, p = 0.001). The findings suggested that an educational format like the cultural diversity forum can promote students' cultural sensitivity. Further research needs to continue to focus on the effectiveness of strategies to increase the cultural sensitivity of baccalaureate nursing students.

  12. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  13. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  14. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  15. Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: diversity beliefs, information elaboration, and performance in diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; van Knippenberg, Daan; Van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2007-09-01

    Although there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, the authors examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can be overcome by convincing groups of the value of diversity. Groups were persuaded either of the value of diversity or the value of similarity for group performance, and they were provided with either homogeneous or heterogeneous information. As expected, informationally diverse groups performed better when they held pro-diversity rather than pro-similarity beliefs, whereas the performance of informationally homogeneous groups was unaffected by diversity beliefs. This effect was mediated by group-level information elaboration. Implications for diversity management in organizations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA.

  16. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  17. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  18. Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayani, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences.

  19. Services for culturally diverse customers in parks and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Changes in racial and ethnic composition due to the increasing diversity in the United States are confronting managers of parks and recreation areas. Since cultural values influence perceptions and behaviors, studying cultural values among different groups is important for understanding perceptions of service quality and parks and recreation behavior. The purpose of...

  20. Working well in a culturally diverse team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Calder, Mandy

    2016-10-05

    Cooperative working is a core part of the nursing role, and it involves respecting your colleagues' needs and values. If you are part of a diverse team, you may need to develop your cultural competence, treating everyone compassionately and respectfully.

  1. Managing cultural diversity in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J

    1992-01-01

    Much of the cultural diversity and racial prejudice that exist in the healthcare industry today is rooted in ignorance more than outright bigotry. The time is ripe for facing the problems and seeking solutions.

  2. Managing cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J

    1993-07-01

    Cultural diversity is a strength of the American work force. Due to the increasing cultural diversity in the workplace, organizations find it in their best interest to move beyond affirmative action to effective management to achieve higher employee retention and develops an employee cultural mix that better matches the mix of the available labor force and customer base. To manage a diverse work force, managers need to have the proper tools, training and evaluation and monitoring programs. Important initiatives to successful management of cultural diversity include eliciting support and commitment from the board of directors, the CEO and other top management; organizing subcommittees to research and monitor demographic changes to determine what the organization's goals should be and to decide what changes are to be made. Employees must be trained to be aware of prejudices and how to manage their own actions.

  3. Reconstructing marginality: a new model of cultural diversity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Margaret; Polaschek, Nick

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a new model of cultural diversity in nursing that critically reconstructs the concept of marginality that underpins other models. Rather than viewing the marginal as "other," marginality is redefined as the space in between the dominant cultural reality and the cultural realities of minority groups located within a society. Members of a minority cultural group who become skilled in the difficult process of negotiating this in-between space open the possibility of transformation within nursing education and practice. This model has been applied in a study of the experience of nursing students of Pacific ethnicity in New Zealand. Subsequently, an undergraduate Pacific nursing program was developed, with greatly increased success rates in registration of Pacific nurses. This model of cultural diversity can also be used to understand nursing practice involving people from minority cultures or other socially excluded categories.

  4. Action Methods for Teaching Cultural Diversity Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Dan

    This paper is devoted to the description of action methods that can be used to provide a practical understanding and awareness of culturally diverse material. It draws from such varied disciplines as cross-cultural psychology, international business, and sociodrama, with the goal of suggesting a methodology for using role playing to teach ethnic,…

  5. Leading Collective Capacity in Culturally Diverse Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Riordan, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ways leaders may nurture collective relationships within culturally diverse staff bodies. We organise our discussion around five key, interrelated issues. These are how leaders position themselves within the school's cultural milieu; how they structure work for collective capacity; understanding collective work; giving expression to…

  6. Approaches to measuring cultural diversity in recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Yi-Chung Hsu; Alan R. Graefe

    2008-01-01

    Measuring cultural diversity in recreation has become an important topic because of the increasing coverage of and interest in ethnicity and cross-cultural aspects of recreation. Introducing theories and methods from established disciplines other than leisure studies/recreation and park studies is necessary to understand this important issue. In this article, we first...

  7. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  8. Breast cancer screening: cultural beliefs and diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E

    2006-02-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/ Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how to build on these cultural values, simultaneously mediating their barrier effects. Building on cultural explanatory models of health behavior, suggestions for incorporating culture into early detection strategies for ethnically and racially diverse, underserved women are provided. In addition, the article offers four practice principles that can be used with all of the groups: inclusion and use of indigenous support; cross-application of approaches for diverse populations; honor and incorporation of culture; and attention to language, literacy, and cultural information.

  9. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009......This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...

  10. Trust in Culturally Diverse Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    de la confiance. La présente étude a trait à l’incidence de la diversité culturelle sur la confiance au sein des équipes ainsi qu’à la gestion des...de la diversité culturelle sur la confiance au sein des équipes ainsi qu’à la gestion des abus de confiance au sein de ces équipes. Les services de...culture. De plus, on s’attendait à ce qu’un coéquipier d’une autre culture partage moins les mêmes croyance, valeurs , attentes et niveau

  11. Diversity disorders: Ethnicity and newsroom cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Hultén

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweden, as many other European countries, has been engaged in the debate concerning the relationships between social cohesion and the media. The article examines the tension between officially expressed attitudes and diversity goals of Swedish newsrooms and how journalists who have foreign backgrounds perceive these. Despite the intense discussions in recent years concerning media's role in a multi-ethnic context Swedish media organizations have not yet developed an effective means of promoting and implementing diversity in the newsrooms. The interviewed journalists draw attention to the dilemma of not being accepted in majority dominated newsrooms and stress the need to change editorial organization patterns, newsroom cultures and to re-define journalistic missions regarding ethnic diversity. The article concerns the market focus of news production and argues that the present tendency to mainstream cultural diversity in media content may lead to the exclusion of minority voices and thus undermining diversity efforts.

  12. Bridging Faultlines by Valuing Diversity: Diversity Beliefs, Information Elaboration, and Performance in Diverse Work Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan (Astrid); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, we examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can b

  13. Cultural diversity in hospitality management : how to improve cultural diversity workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Korjala, Veera

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor´s thesis investigates cultural diversity in the hospitality management. It aims at presenting effective ways to improve cultural diversity in a workplace. This study was commissioned by JW Marriott San Antonio Hill Country Resort & Spa in Texas, USA and three hotels in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA: Atherton Hotel, Hampton Inn & Suites and Residence Inn. The bachelor´s thesis incorporates culture theories and their applications to the workplace. Additionally, it focuses on cultural d...

  14. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the large inflow of immigrants to the US during the 1870–1920 period to examine the effects that within-county changes in the cultural composition of the US population had on output growth. We construct measures of fractionalization and polarization to distinguish between the different...

  15. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  16. Gender Inequality as Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an anthropological and interdisciplinary field school, primary involving female undergraduates. Our field program was conducted in 2009 and 2010 on a remote island in Fijian archipelago, in the context of a patriarchal society where gender avoidance is practiced. We had two broad objectives for this program: to conduct research on the understanding of cultural and marine biological resources; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the field experience in promoting anthropological and scientific learning principles. We summarize qualitative and quantitative outcomes of the educational evaluation of the student learning experience. We also discuss educational aims and the unique gender-associated challenges of conducting this program in a patriarchal cultural setting.

  17. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  18. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  19. Engaging and Supporting Culturally Diverse Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C.; Buxner, S.; Peticolas, L. M.; Mendez, B.; Acevedo, S.; Begay, D.; Higgins, M. L.; Norman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This two hour special workshop was held during the 2012 ASP conference in Tucson. There are a variety of reasons that science education needs to reach out to culturally diverse audiences. Each culture, and each individual community, has its own challenges; each brings special insight to science. What does the research say about engaging these different audiences? How can science educators attract and sustain programs with various cultures? How do the needs of our audiences vary with culture and within communities? Moderators Shupla, Sanlyn, and Peticolas invited a variety of presenters with expertise to share their experiences: Salvador Acevado, David Begay, Michelle Higgins, Bryan Mendez, and Dara Norman. During the first hour, presenters shared a variety of best practices for engaging and supporting culturally diverse audiences; in the second hour, participants and presenters discussed specific programmatic challenges and possible directions.

  20. Leading change in diversity and cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an expanded leadership role needed in schools of nursing as the nurse of the 21st century is prepared to assume expanded roles in a diverse society. With schools of nursing becoming more global, and the diverse population of the United States rapidly growing, a critical need exists for nurses who are ready to partner in the health care that multicultural communities need locally, nationally, and globally. Diversity and cultural competence have now become central issues in nursing education, research, practice, and health policy. Diversity leadership in a school of nursing can no longer concentrate only on issues of affirmative action, recruitment, and retention. The purpose of this article is to discuss how diversity leadership must increasingly focus on building a corporate environment in schools of nursing that integrates diversity and cultural competence with the strategic plan of the School's Chief Nursing Officer, across academic programs, research, practice, and public policy to eliminate health disparities in partnership with faculty, students, staff, the University infrastructure, and the community at large. The theoretical framework that guided the strategic planning is based on the model used by the Robert Wood Johnson Executive Nurse Fellowship Program. Examples of program initiatives designed to implement the strategic plan to strengthen the diversity and cultural competence of one school of nursing environment are described.

  1. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  2. Managing diversity : How leaders' multiculturalism and colorblindness affect work group functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, Loes; Otten, Sabine; Phalet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Workforces are becoming increasingly diverse and leaders face the challenge of managing their groups to minimize costs and maximize benefits of diversity. This paper investigates how leaders' multiculturalism and colorblindness affect cultural minority and majority members' experiences of connectedn

  3. Managing diversity : How leaders' multiculturalism and colorblindness affect work group functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, Loes; Otten, Sabine; Phalet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Workforces are becoming increasingly diverse and leaders face the challenge of managing their groups to minimize costs and maximize benefits of diversity. This paper investigates how leaders' multiculturalism and colorblindness affect cultural minority and majority members' experiences of connectedn

  4. [Does technoscience put cultural diversity in danger?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottois, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    This study begins by presenting the notion of "technoscience" in relation to Modernity and Postmodernity. It proceeds with an argument in support of the real and potential contributions of technoscience for the preservation and promotion of diversity (cultural, technological and natural) in the context of globalization. It concludes by raising the important ethical issue that is eluded in the far too often postmodern esthetic approach: diversity should not be appropriated to inequality and discrimination.

  5. Cultural Diversity among American and European Businesspersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Judy F.; Nixon, Judy C.

    An astute American, knowledgeable of and sensitive to cultural diversities among Europeans can communicate effectively for business success. The results of research into the communication customs of 27 European countries are presented: the Big Three (France, Germany, United Kingdom--England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales); Western…

  6. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Donders

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without anaesthes

  7. Liberal Feminism, Cultural Diversity and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, Penny; Tjiattas, Mary

    2004-01-01

    For multiculturalists who favour a relativist approach, globalization and the increasing interconnectedness of societies pose a threat to cultural diversity. In this paper we show, through an exploration of the work of Martha Nussbaum, that a viable universalist feminism can accommodate a thin and so defensible version of multiculturalism.…

  8. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  9. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  10. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  11. Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L

    2005-10-17

    In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.

  12. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  13. Living Diversity: Developing a Typology of Consumer Cultural Orientations in Culturally Diverse Marketplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnis, Eva; Emontspool, Julie; Broderick, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    framework for ethnic consumption and subsequently apply it in an empirical study. The findings indicate that through differential deployment of local, global and foreign cultures affinities for identity negotiation, mainstream and migrant consumers alike can develop or maintain uni-, bi- and multi......This paper argues that in culturally diverse environments cultural identity transitions are more complex than conceptualized by previous research and pertain equally to locally-born (mainstream) and migrant populations. We conceptualize a Typology of Consumer Cultural Orientations as explanatory...

  14. Culture, Diversity, and Language: What Is Culturally Competent Translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.

    2009-01-01

    As the cultural and ethnic diversity of the student population rises within school districts across the nation, the matter of translating materials in a language that is understandable and meaningful to the target population becomes more pressing. There are multitude of problems inherent in translation of materials from one language to another. To…

  15. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  16. Task Force on Culture and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2001 an academic teaching program developed by psychologists for students of psychology (Diplom-Psychologe and M.A. Psychologe) are established at the University of Regensburg in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences at Regensburg. Students of other faculties could also participate...... differences. Key words: work motivation, (sub) cultural differences, meta-representation. Email: kolman@pef.czu.cz 3.Abstract for presentation in Symposium Case conceptualization, relationship building and intervention challenges with culturally diverse clients among clinical psychologists: a case...... for cultural competence training Prof. Carla Moleiro, Lisbon University, Portugal The present paper addresses the issue of cultural competence among clinical psychologists. The study used an Experimental design, in a qualitative analogue study. Two video cases vignettes of clients were presented to 31 clinical...

  17. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely ‘cultural’ fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted. PMID:21041203

  18. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  19. The impact of group composition and attitudes towards diversity on anticipated outcomes of diversity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Karen; Paulus, Paul; Vos, Menno; Parthasarathy, Niveditha

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, students evaluated group pictures of workgroups of varying ethnic and gender composition with respect to anticipated affective and productive outcomes. The impact of level of diversity, faultlines and individual differences in diversity attitudes on anticipated outcomes were examined

  20. The impact of group composition and attitudes towards diversity on anticipated outcomes of diversity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Karen; Paulus, Paul; Vos, Menno; Parthasarathy, Niveditha

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, students evaluated group pictures of workgroups of varying ethnic and gender composition with respect to anticipated affective and productive outcomes. The impact of level of diversity, faultlines and individual differences in diversity attitudes on anticipated outcomes were examined

  1. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  2. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  3. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity. PMID:21199844

  4. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  5. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  6. An investigation of the relationship between innovation and cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.

  7. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  8. Task Force on Culture and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    especially in training the scholars and practitioners in the cultural and other competences relevant for treating the increasing diversity of the populations. Besides there is a critical discussion of patholisation of some aspects of general human life leading to medical- diagnostic practices...... an object and/or aspect of the ambiance to its mental representation. This idea was employed by others to explain the nature of cross-cultural differences in cognition. The present paper uses the same idea to analyze two concepts related to phenomena relevant to the theory of work motivation, namely self...... and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western psychological hegemony has made such transformations difficult and contentious in some universities in Denmark, whereas others are more open towards an integrated form...

  9. Leadership of Cultural Diversity: The impact of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Raithel, Katja

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to understand how to manage cultural diverse teams in the best way and increase team performance in multinational organizations. Therefore, defining what kind of leader characteristics drives team performance and what leadership characteristics foster the positive outcomes of diversity in cultural diverse teams is the focus of the current dissertation. Despite the fact that some important research in leadership and cultural diversity in teams ha...

  10. Managing equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Beverley

    2007-12-01

    This article offers practical strategies to managers and others for supporting overseas trained nurses and managing cultural diversity in the health workforce. Widespread nursing shortages have led managers to recruit nurses from overseas, mainly from developing countries. This paper draws on evidence from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study reported elsewhere in this issue, which indicates that overseas trained nurses encountered widespread discriminatory practices including an overuse of complaints and grievances against them. The researchers also found that the overseas trained nurses responded to their experiences by using various personal strategies to resist or re-negotiate and overcome such discriminatory practices. A research workshop was held in June 2005 at the midpoint of the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study. Twenty-five participants attended the workshop. They were the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study researchers, advisory group members, including the author of this paper and other researchers in the field of migration. The overall aim of the workshop was to share emerging research data from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals and related studies. The final session of the workshop on which this paper is based, was facilitated by the author, with the specific aim of asking the participants to discuss and determine the challenges to managers when managing a culturally diverse workforce. The discussion yielded four main themes collated by the author from which a framework of strategies to facilitate equality and cultural diversity management of the healthcare workers may be developed. The four themes are: assumptions and expectations; education and training to include

  11. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  12. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  13. Cultural competency and recovery within diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, D J

    2007-01-01

    Recovery for diverse populations with mental health problems includes communities of color, those with limited English proficiency and individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The process of healing and recovery must take into consideration the critical role of culture and language and look at the individual within the context of an environment that is influenced by racism, sexism, colonization, homophobia, and poverty as well as the stigma and shame associated with having a mental illness. Recovery must assess the impact of isolation brought about by cultural and language barriers and work towards reducing the negative influence it has on the emotional and physical well-being of the person. It is imperative that recovery occur at multiple levels and involves the person in recovery, the service provider, the larger community and the system that establishes policies that often work against those who do not fit the mold of what mainstream society considers being "the norm." Recovery must respect the cultural and language backgrounds of the individual.

  14. Cultural Diversity Infusion: Is It a Reality or Illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mahboub E.

    This paper discusses how Fort Hays State University (FHSU) in Hays, Kansas, is attempting to infuse elements of cultural diversity into its curriculum in order to increase students' sensitivities to and knowledge of other cultures. It reviews research and writings on cultural diversity in American society and in American higher education in…

  15. Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research.

  16. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  17. Group cohesion: Relationships with work team culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Yurrebaso, Amaia

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between group cohesion and the perceived culture and desired culture of work teams. Two separate studies were carried out with a time interval of one year. The first study had a sample of 50 work teams belonging to different organizations and the second study had a sample of 75 work teams. We used Lindell's index of agreement to estimate the culture and cohesion variables. Multiple and hierarchical regression analysis in both studies confirmed our initial hypothesis, showing that perceived and desired culture were positively related to group cohesion, and that culture gap had a negative association with cohesion. To a lesser extent, control variables such as job tenure and gender had a positive relationship with cohesion. The implications of these results are discussed along with the importance of considering the group level as analysis.

  18. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  19. A culturally diverse staff population: challenges and opportunities for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The United States is seeing an increase in ethnic and cultural diversity that is reflected (albeit to a smaller extent) in the nursing workforce. There are also more nurses who are foreign-born and educated. These nurses bring elements of their ethnic culture to the healthcare setting, including that of the "healthcare provider" culture of their home country. Often these values conflict with, or at least differ from, many American values seen in the workplace, such as autonomy of patients, an individualistic approach to relationships, peer relationships rather than hierarchical ones, democracy as an ideal norm, optimal health is ideal, and an emphasis on time/schedules and use of technology. A major cultural difference in the work setting has to do with the meaning of "work" itself, which can vary among cultural groups; in addition, some cultures are viewed as more "collective" in nature than the American ones, which are considered "individualistic." In particular, foreign-born and educated nurses from different healthcare systems bring with them values of the political system in which they work, the concept of a socialized system of medicine, language and accent differences, different concepts of nursing duties, and varying psychosocial skills.

  20. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  1. Cultural immersion through ethnography: the lived experience and group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sandra J; Schulze, Mary W

    2004-06-01

    A baccalaureate nursing class studying community/public health is a rich setting in which to initiate change in ethnocentric perspectives and foster an understanding of diverse cultures. This teaching strategy requires students to randomly select one of seven ethnographies to read, and then to write an analysis based on required guidelines. The results of the ethnographic analyses show that students immerse themselves within the culture of their respective texts. Ultimately, in-class learning groups are formed for each ethnography, and participants discuss their respective analyses. After exploring their commonalities and differences, students present the results to the entire class. This activity affords everyone a multicultural experience by sharing the different ethnographies and each student's perspective. This critical thinking activity serves to awaken one's ethnocentricity and paves the way to insightful changes and beliefs about diverse cultures.

  2. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  3. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  4. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  5. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  6. Creativity and Giftedness in Culturally Diverse Students. Perspectives on Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Giselle B., Ed.; Houtz, John C., Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this text address issues concerned with identification and educational intervention with gifted students who are from culturally diverse backgrounds. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "The Culturally and Linguistically Diverse School Population in the United States" (Angela Reyes-Carrasquillo); (2) "Culturally…

  7. Critical reflections on managing cultural diversity in workplaces in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Brezigar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on managing cultural diversity at workplaces in Slovenia. The author critically reflects on some aspects of research and studies that have been carried out both on discrimination as well as managing diversity in Slovenia between 2007 and 2013, and finds the cause of the inability of organisations to adopt policies on managing diversity in the lack of competences and skills associated with cultural sensibility. The author maintains that whereas workplaces are bound to become more and more diverse, the predominant approach towards diversity in workplaces in Slovenia tends to either dismiss (cultural diversity as inconsequential or treat it as a nuisance that needs to be dealt with, thus failing to grasp the advantages which such diversity could bring.

  8. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  9. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R Kirby

    Full Text Available From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i location of relevant cultural data, (ii linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii variable time and place foci for data, and (iv spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into

  10. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R; Gray, Russell D; Greenhill, Simon J; Jordan, Fiona M; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E; Botero, Carlos A; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  11. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  12. Culturally Relevant Education: Extending the Conversation to Religious Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Brittany; Amatullah, Tasneem; Laughter, Judson

    2016-01-01

    Culturally relevant education represents a wide collection of pedagogies of opposition to social injustice and holds a commitment to collective empowerment and social justice. By using culturally relevant education as a framework, we make the case to include religious diversity as a part of culturally relevant education intentionally. We believe…

  13. THE EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sezerel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of diversity management practices relies on the combination of a series of variables properly. The relevant literature suggests that diversity management is highly depended on an adequate organizational culture. Thus, a research model that proposes that organizational culture has impact on diversity management perceptions of employees. There are two data sets in this research. The independent variable of the research is organizational culture and the dependent variable of the research is the level of diversity management perceptions. The research is adopted in quantitative method and the data collected via questionnaires. This research which is conducted in a hotel chain finds that the mission dimension of organizational culture impacts all three levels of diversity management.

  14. Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph

    2017-07-01

    As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cultural diversity and anti-poverty policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michèle; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between culture and behaviour. In fact, we suggest that cultural differences may be positively employed in comprehensive anti-poverty strategies.

  16. Diversity and Taxonomy in Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Myridis, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of Cultural Heritage is nowadays developing very well. Moreover, the field of Cultural Heritage Preservation is also developing well. The necessity of well-organized taxonomy and classification now seems to be an outstanding significant topic. The scope of this paper regards such taxonomy; more precisely, it proposes this kind of taxonomy. The final products of this paper are the Diagram of Cultural Heritage & its Preservation and the Universal Cultural Heritage & Preservation ...

  17. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  18. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  19. Cultural diversity in nursing education: perils, pitfalls, and pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-05-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence.

  20. The role of television in cultivating the values of pluralism and cultural diversity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkova A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of the mass media and in particular television on the development of the values of pluralism and cultural diversity in children. The role of television is quite important in forming positive attitudes toward cultural, ethnic, and other groups and in inculcating an adequate perception of social reality and tolerant, multicultural awareness. The article also analyzes the functions and principles of public broadcasting, among which diversity of programming is one of the most significant.

  1. Cultural diversity and conflict in the health care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, A J; Glanville, C

    1995-01-01

    Cultural diversity issues affect the health care workplace and nursing practice. The Lowenstein-Glanville conflict model can be used for assessing and intervening in racial and status conflict in hospital settings. Implications for nursing practice include recognizing that cultural diversity will continue to grow in the health care workplace. Nurses must increase sensitivity, become aware of cultural nuances and issues, and make cultural assessment a routine part of their assessment and planning, not only for patient care, but also with their co-workers and subordinates.

  2. Masks, Performing Traditions, and Cultural Diversity: Exploring African Culture through African Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Escalera, Brenda L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the mask and masquerade traditions, focusing specifically on African culture as a source of exciting and varied materials that can help theater arts teachers and specialists who are in search of culturally diverse materials. Offers a classroom application. (PRA)

  3. The effect of cultural diversity on employee productivity in work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cultural diversity on employee productivity in work organizations in ... in the workplace which lead to conflicts and affect team work when not properly ... improving workers' skills and knowledge to the detriment of employees' daily ...

  4. Interacting Dimensions of Diversity: Cross-Categorization and the Functioning of Diverse Work Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan (Astrid); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an experiment to show how the interplay between informational diversity and other dimensions of diversity can account for some of the inconsistent effects of informational diversity in previous research. 70 four-person groups involved in a decision-making task received homog

  5. Fostering group identification and creativity in diverse groups: the role of individuation and self-verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, William B; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Polzer, Jeffrey T; Milton, Laurie P

    2003-11-01

    A longitudinal study examined the interplay of identity negotiation processes and diversity in small groups of master's of business administration (MBA) students. When perceivers formed relatively positive impressions of other group members, higher diversity predicted more individuation of targets. When perceivers formed relatively neutral impressions of other group members, however, higher diversity predicted less individuation of targets. Individuation at the outset of the semester predicted self-verification effects several weeks later, and self-verification, in turn, predicted group identification and creative task performance. The authors conclude that contrary to self-categorization theory, fostering individuation and self-verification in diverse groups may maximize group identification and productivity.

  6. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  7. [Healthcare and culture, between diversity and universality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Interrelations exist between people's behaviour and the reasons for it as explained by culture. The healthcare theory put forward by the American nurse Madeleine Leininger, at the end of the 1970s, integrates anthropology Identifying and understanding the patient's culture enables nursing care to be adapted to the patient's own view of his/her disease.

  8. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  9. "Knowing Your Students" in the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Saltmarsh, David

    2016-01-01

    The population movement of globalization brings greater cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) to communities and education systems. To address the growing diversity in school classrooms, beginning teachers need an expanded set of skills and attitudes to support effective learning. It is an expectation today that teachers know their students and…

  10. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  11. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  12. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Anthropologists, biologists and linguists have all noted an apparent coincidence in species diversity and human cultural or linguistic diversity. We present, to our knowledge, one of the first quantitative descriptions of this coincidence and show that, for 2 degrees x 2 degrees grid cells across...

  13. Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education): CIEAEM 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afzal; Williams, Honor; Kraemer, Jean Marie

    The 51st meeting of the Commission Internationale pour L'Etude et L'Amelioration de L'Ensignment des Mathematiques (CIEAEM) was held July, 1999 at Chichester, UK and facilitated the collaboration of delegates from over 30 countries providing a variety of perspectives on the theme OCultural Diversity in Mathematics Education'. The papers in this…

  14. Teachers' Dispositions and Beliefs about Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Just, Megan; Triscari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs towards their students' cultural backgrounds and languages affect all aspects of learning. Critical consciousness of attitudes and beliefs about the increasing culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population is necessary for aligning individual beliefs with effective teaching practices. Rethinking how to work with…

  15. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  16. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  17. On the affective ambivalence of living with cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Leeuwen

    2008-01-01

    Living with cultural diversity is characterized by a fundamental affective ambivalence. On the one hand, there is existential unease in the face of cultural strangeness, which is linked to our human dependence on `common sense' — the shared background of understanding from which we derive ontologica

  18. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: Managing a Multicultural Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.

    1990-01-01

    The influx of minorities into the workplace requires attention to their participation in workplace training, to race relations and organizational culture, and to potential communication difficulties. Human resource professionals must address cultural diversity issues as they affect the attainment of organizational goals. (SK)

  19. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life an

  20. Preparing Culturally Diverse Special Education Faculty: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Patricia; Showalter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes why more bilingual culturally responsive special education faculty are needed to meet the needs of the increasing number of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities in the United States. In addition, the paper presents the successes and challenges in the journey to prepare university faculty leaders in…

  1. A personal touch to diversity : Self-anchoring increases minority members' identification in a diverse group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In diverse groups, minority members often indicate lower levels of identification and perceived acceptance than majority members. To date, we know relatively little about how the cognitive definition of the self may impact on identification with a diverse group. In this research, we argue that when

  2. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  3. Diversity Competent Group Work Supervision: An Application of the Supervision of Group Work Model (SGW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Rubel, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for concrete descriptions of supervision to promote diversity-competent group work and presents an application of the supervision of group work model (SGW) to this end. The SGW, a supervision model adapted from the discrimination model, is uniquely suited for promoting diversity competence in group work, since it…

  4. Diversity Competent Group Work Supervision: An Application of the Supervision of Group Work Model (SGW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Rubel, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for concrete descriptions of supervision to promote diversity-competent group work and presents an application of the supervision of group work model (SGW) to this end. The SGW, a supervision model adapted from the discrimination model, is uniquely suited for promoting diversity competence in group work, since it…

  5. Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge...

  6. Usability Problem Identification in Culturally Diverse Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    There are indications that established methods for evaluating information system usability that have been developed for use in, e.g. Europe or the USA, fail to give reliable results in countries such as India, China or Malaysia. This paper presents the theoretical background, related work...... and a definition of culture that should be useful for studies of multiple-country usability testing. This includes a discussion of cultural fit and the consequences of cultural (in)consistencies between stakeholders in system development and use. As an illustrative example of the kind of academic research...... that needs to be done, a pilot study is described. The pilot study exemplifies themes to explore, who should be participants and where should the study be done, how to find examples of multiple-country usability testing, how to collect data and how to analyse that data and what kind of results and discussion...

  7. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  8. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven

    2012-04-22

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations.

  9. Cultures Around the World: A Unique Approach to Youth Cultural Diversity Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly diverse cultural trends have significant implications for the educational needs of American youth. Learning about and valuing diverse cultures will help prepare youth to become better citizens in an ever-changing society. Cultures Around the World was developed to meet the educational needs of youth in the area of cultural diversity. The Cultures Around the World program brings to life exciting cultures and customs from countries all over the world. Countries are presented in a unique format by teaching youth (ages 10 to 18 a specific country’s history, culture, food, music, dance, language, religion, and current issues. The Cultures Around the World program can be used by any youth educator. The program comes in a ready to use CD containing presentations, handicraft instructions, language guides, and resource guides for nine different countries (Armenia, Australia, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Ghana, Slovakia and Mexico.

  10. The relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquiao, Dula

    2007-01-01

    This article attempted to examine the relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings. In addition to the review of the literature, a panel of experts was interviewed regarding institutional practices in response to the challenge of increasing diversity and cultural competence education. Evidence of positive outcomes of cultural competent care and impact of race and ethnic concordance between patients and providers are presented. The challenge of increasing underrepresented minorities in health care professions remains elusive. An ecological analysis is recommended to address the social and cultural barriers that transcend the micro system of the school and the macro system of the society. The challenge of increasing diversity and realizing outcomes of cultural competence education requires social and comprehensive remedies to level life inequities that perpetuate a history of disadvantages in some groups.

  11. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2008-06-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  14. The Challenges of Cultural Diversity in the Recruitment of Faculty and Students from Diverse Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of cultural diversity and the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace focuses on the need to recruit library school faculty and students from diverse backgrounds. Highlights include racism; minority faculty; retaining and recruiting minority students; funding; and future possibilities. (Contains 12…

  15. Culture of Peace and Musical Education in contexts of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural diversity of the world needs to education for the peace, working the values related to the Culture of Peace, like the respect, the justice, the equality, the tolerance and the interculturality. The fundamental aim of our research is to know and to value how the educational centers turn into the most suitable scenes to develop the education. For it we have realized a study in a center of Infantile and Primary Education of the Autonomous City of Melilla, the College Velázquez, with which we try to know the reality that is lived in the school centers of the city in the relative to the promotion of the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace between the pupils of different groups. We have used a qualitative methodology, which has allowed us to form a group of discussion with several teachers of different professional profiles. As more relevant result stands out than the music, in spite of the hourly restrictions that the legislation has established for this matter, it is one of the best resources to educate in values and to promote the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace.

  16. Teaching as a cultural practice: managing diverse classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María RODRÍGUEZ IZQUIERDO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a cultural process. Actions that take place in this process are influenced by some cultural assumptions which shape pre-defined objectives and affect content, educational treatment, assessments, and relationships among participants. It is, therefore, of utmost importance not only to make explicit the cultural reality of education, but also to think critically about it. In this paper, we focus on the issue of teaching and learning in the context of cultural diversity from a socio-cultural and socio-political theoretical framework. The keywords «classroom management» it generates over 6.5 million hits in google.com. However, when we type «managing diverse classrooms», there are only 200,000 hits. This divergence indicates that classroom management is a widely explored topic, while work about how to manage a cultural diverse classroom is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for teachers to use and improve their cultural knowledge to manage classrooms more effectively. This article argues that growth in cultural awareness of the teaching process improves the quality of teaching and, therefore, students’ learning.

  17. Student perspectives on diversity and the cultural climate at a U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Robert; McClendon, Jennifer; Henderson, Anita; Evans, Yolanda; Colquitt, Rosa; Saha, Somnath

    2007-02-01

    To obtain the perspectives of medical students at one school on racial/ethnic campus diversity and cultural competence and to gain their perceptions of the institutional climate around diversity at their university and of reasons for minority underrepresentation at their medical school. A student-driven survey of all medical students (N = 398) at a single medical school in the spring of 2003, supplemented by four focus groups from all racial and ethnic groups on the campus. A large majority of the responding students (n = 216; 54%) endorsed the value of campus diversity and the importance of cultural competence to the process of becoming a clinician. Most students felt their university had achieved a positive cultural climate, characterized by openness to diverse perspectives and attention to equity. Most students also felt that the university's programs and policies reflected a commitment to diversity, but fewer students--those from underrepresented minorities (URMs) in particular--felt that the university truly valued having a diverse student body and faculty. Most students felt that the lack of diversity on campus was a barrier to recruiting and retaining minority candidates. Some minority students also blamed the medical school's limited social, academic, and financial support, as well as inadequate efforts to recruit minority students. Medical students generally place a high value on campus diversity and cultural competence. URM students in particular felt that their university could do more to implement its commitment to diversity, including making greater efforts to recruit and retain URM students. These views constitute a barometer for medical schools to gauge and track their efforts to enhance campus diversity, incorporate cultural competence education, and create an inclusive and welcoming climate for students of all backgrounds.

  18. [Cultural diversity in Montreal: a range of public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, B; Hemlin, I; Gravel, S; Roy, S; Dupéré, S

    2005-09-01

    Increasing immigration to Quebec has brought to the surface the need for adapting its public health systems and services, particularly in the area of primary care. The challenge is to take the heterogeneous nature of the population into account and to integrate diverse values, experience and know-how into the development of programmes and delivery of services, whilst simultaneously respecting the values of the various care providers and the norms of the institutions in the host country. This article addresses the question of adaptation strategies for health services, and namely the development of prevention and heath promotion programmes in public health within the framework of primary health care services within the intercultural context of Montreal. The issue of adaptation falls within the perspective and mandate of the Quebec government's policy on health and well-being (La politique de santé et du bien-être, 1992). Furthermore, it is a response to frequent demands from various health professionals and groups concerned with the adaptation of public services with respect to intercultural relationships confronted with the emerging realities associated with immigration. The article provides a reflection on specific ways of adapting prevention and health promotion initiatives targeting cultural communities and those who are undergoing immigration procedures or transitions. It also examines the development of ethno-cultural or other indicators which make it possible to capture migration experiences and their health impact. Since the Quebec health and social services system is currently in the process of major reform, it is hoped that it will seize this opportunity in order to make health and social service centres accountable for the adaptation of their programmes and services to the diversity of the populations they serve.

  19. Cultural competency and diversity among hospice palliative care volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Maja

    2012-05-01

    This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.

  20. Cultural diversity and the case against ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M

    2000-01-01

    The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.

  1. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...

  2. Work group diversity and group performance: an integrative model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Homan, Astrid C

    2004-12-01

    Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance has yielded inconsistent results. To address this problem, the authors propose the categorization-elaboration model (CEM), which reconceptualizes and integrates information/decision making and social categorization perspectives on work-group diversity and performance. The CEM incorporates mediator and moderator variables that typically have been ignored in diversity research and incorporates the view that information/decision making and social categorization processes interact such that intergroup biases flowing from social categorization disrupt the elaboration (in-depth processing) of task-relevant information and perspectives. In addition, the authors propose that attempts to link the positive and negative effects of diversity to specific types of diversity should be abandoned in favor of the assumption that all dimensions of diversity may have positive as well as negative effects. The ways in which these propositions may set the agenda for future research in diversity are discussed.

  3. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  4. THE MODERN-DAY IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY: "MANAGING FAMILY JUSTICE IN DIVERSE SOCIETIES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Rautenbach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the modern-day impact of cultural and religious diversity and comments on some of the viewpoints to be found in Managing Family Justice in Diverse Societies.1 The topics dealt with in this publication create a greater awareness of the challenges family diversity presents, and illustrate that an attempt to adopt a single definite strategy to manage diversity would not be the right approach; rather that each and every situation should be managed according to its unique context.

  5. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Culture Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXIM A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important international document relating to the conservation of biodiversity is one adopted by theUN in Rio de Janeiro (1992 that "Convention on Biodiversity". Based on this agreement, the EU has taken a series ofmeasures to reduce genetic erosion in agriculture, which grew with the expansion of industrialized agriculture.Throughout its existence, mankind has used some 10,000 growing plant species. According to FAO statistics, today,90% of food production is ensured by some 120 growing plant species. In addition to drastic reduction in specificdiversity, the advent of industrialized agriculture has generated a process of strong genetic erosion. Old varieties andlocal varieties of crops have mostly been affected, in favour of "modern" varieties. Landraces are characterized by highheterogenity. They have the advantage of being much better adapted to biotic and abiotic stress conditions (diseases,pests, drought, low in nutrients, etc. and have excellent taste qualities, which can justify a higher price recovery thancommercial varieties. Thanks to these features, these crops need small inputs, which correspond to the concept ofsustainable development. Landraces are an invaluable genetic potential for obtaining new varieties of plants and are bestsuited for crop cultivation in ecological systems, becoming more common. Also, for long term food security in thecontext of global warming, rich genetic diversity will be require. “In situ” and “ex situ” conservation are the two majorstrategies used in the conservation of plant genetic resources. There is a fundamental difference between these twostrategies: “ex situ” conservation involves sampling, transfer and storage of a particular species population away fromthe original location, while “in situ” conservation (in their natural habitat implies that the varieties of interest,management and monitoring their place of origin takes place in the community to which they belong. These

  6. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  7. Enjoying Cultural Differences Assists Teachers in Learning about Diversity and Equality. An Evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Turnšek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on a quasi-experimental research design and presents the results of an evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training that took place at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana, rooted in the anti-bias approach to educating diversity and equality issues (Murray & Urban, 2012. The experimental group included 52 in-service early childhood teachers attending the training, which consisted of a total of 120 hours. There was also a control group comprising 130 teachers. The ADT had a decisive impact on all of the measured variables: on an improvement in the participants’ knowledge of discrimination, and on increased support for positive measures and for the preservation of the cultural traditions and language of immigrant children. It was found that self-assessed personality characteristics are predictors of the teachers’ beliefs, especially the enjoying awareness of cultural differences variable, which correlates with all of the dependent variables.

  8. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed.

  9. Inequities of Intervention among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Although Response to Intervention (RTI) has been generally studied in relation to student outcomes, the system itself requires further study, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. CLD students have consistently suffered inequities in the educational system, including over representation in high incidence disability…

  10. Leadership of Cultural Diversity : The impact of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Raithel (Katja)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to understand how to manage cultural diverse teams in the best way and increase team performance in multinational organizations. Therefore, defining what kind of leader characteristics drives team performance and what leadership characteristics foster

  11. Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Kennedy Aquilino Tielman; Prof. dr. Perry den Brok; Dr. Rutger van de Sande; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education. By K. Tielman (Fontys), P. den Brok (ESoE), S. Bolhuis (Fontys) and R. van de Sande (Fontys) This contribution discusses a descriptive study on the experiences of students and teachers in secondary vocational education

  12. Teachers as Cultural Brokers in the Midst of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Magnus O.

    1996-01-01

    Highlights problematic relationships between society, teachers, students, and schooling as exemplified by structural and cultural inequality, unequal power relations, domination, racism, sexism, and hegemony in American schools. After describing how some institutions prepare educators for diversity and equity, the paper explicates the curriculum…

  13. Leadership of Cultural Diversity : The impact of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Raithel (Katja)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to understand how to manage cultural diverse teams in the best way and increase team performance in multinational organizations. Therefore, defining what kind of leader characteristics drives team performance and what leadership characteristics foster

  14. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : The Robustness of Cultural Homophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cultural diversity is both persistent and precarious. People in different regions of the world are increasingly exposed to global influences from mass media, internet communication, interregional migration and mass tourism. English is rapidly becoming Earth’s Lingua Franca, and Western

  15. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  16. “One Culture – Many Perspectives” – Understanding Cultural Diversity Through Rural Livelhioods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDIMA DILHANI DASKON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no universally accepted definition for the concept of culture. Culture should be understood as a specific and unique phenomenon that affirms community’s identity and diversity. Judging one culture by the values of another, over-simplifies the distinctiveness and the wealth of a particular culture. Recognising, understanding and respecting dynamics of cultural norms, and defending and expanding cultural freedom are crucial in assuring secure and sustainable well-being of any community. This paper investigates different perspectives of culture by referring to everyday livelihood activities of rural communities that engage in traditional craft industries in the Kandyan region, Sri Lanka. In a livelihood perspective, culture is defined as a structure, function, product and identity, through its influence on everyday lives of people, and accordingly people’s engagement with and uses of culture. Culture is multifaceted and extremely diverse entity that varies from place to place and person to person. The strengths of cultural diversity should be respected and accepted by mainstream society, if any initiative is to be truly about satisfying human desires.

  17. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  18. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  19. Animal social networks as substrate for cultural behavioural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal; Lusseau, David

    2012-02-07

    We used individual-based stochastic models to examine how social structure influences the diversity of socially learned behaviour within a non-human population. For continuous behavioural variables we modelled three forms of dyadic social learning, averaging the behavioural value of the two individuals, random transfer of information from one individual to the other, and directional transfer from the individual with highest behavioural value to the other. Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c)¹(m)⁻(c)² + (c)³(Log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently modular.

  20. Cultural Diversity and the Shared Premises Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weyermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. In this paper we defend the shared premises requirement – as a relevant aspect of a legitimate and stable political order – against critiques raised by Michael J. Perry. According to him, the shared premises requirement has overly demanding consequences for religious persons because they cannot refer to their religious beliefs in political debates with non-religious persons. We argue that Perry's critique is problematic because, first, the requirement does not disadvantage religious beliefs in particular, but controversial views in general. Second, religious persons can draw on their religious normative views in political debate – given that these views are overdetermined. Third, religious persons are allowed to refer to all of their most important controversial beliefs, if they support their arguments also with largely shared premises. Finally, the requirement barely disadvantages religious persons because it only applies where religious beliefs become relevant in political debate.

  1. Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise

    2014-01-01

    With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.

  2. "Group Intelligence": An Active Learning Exploration of Diversity in Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christopher J.; Salaita, Meisa K.; Hughes, Catherine H.; Lynn, David G.; Fristoe, Adam; Fristoe, Ariel; Grover, Martha A.

    2017-01-01

    "Group Intelligence" is an active learning, inquiry-based activity that introduces prebiotic chemistry, emergent complexity, and diversity's importance to adaptability across scales. Students explore the molecular emergence of order and function through theatrical exercises and games. Through 20 min of audio instruction and a discussion…

  3. Editorial: Papers from the 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Elaine K. Sutherland

    2008-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability was held in Beijing, China from 11 to 17 June 2006. The conference was organized and hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IB_CAS) in conjunction with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Group 5.01.07 (Tree-...

  4. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  5. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  6. Investigating the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil using culture dependent and independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Bermark, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Less than 1% of bacterial populations present in environmental samples are culturable, meaning that cultivation will lead to an underestimation of total cell counts and total diversity. However, it is less clear whether this is also true for specific well-defined groups of bacteria for which sele...

  7. Diversity in peer groups - the benefits and tensions it may entail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning

    to this form of cooperation differ widely. This paper discusses the benefits and tensions of work in diverse peer groups exemplified by the findings of a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration in a master of business programme. One conclusion is that the international students are more......One of the aspects of English Medium Instruction (EMI) and Internationalisation at Home (IaH) is that students are expected to work together in peer groups across linguistic and cultural barriers, e.g. to complete mandatory assignments in small groups. However, students’ attitude and response...... prepared to work in multicultural groups than are their home students. And once students have experience with group diversity, at least some of them become more open towards working in such groups in future. The paper discusses the possible reasons for these differences in responses and recommends more...

  8. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  9. Breakout session: Diversity, cultural competence, and patient trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Christopher J; Nelson, Charles L

    2011-07-01

    The patient population served by orthopaedic surgeons is becoming increasingly more diverse, but this is not yet reflected in our workforce. As the cultural diversity of our patient population grows, we must be adept at communicating with patients of all backgrounds. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Efforts to improve the diversity of our workforce have been successful in increasing the number of female residents, but there has been no improvement in the number of African American and Hispanic residents. There is currently no centralized effort to recruit minority and female students to the specialty of orthopaedic surgery. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has been leading workshops to train residents and practicing surgeons in communication skills and cultural competency. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: We must train the current generation of orthopaedic surgeons to become adept at interacting with patients of all backgrounds. While initiatives for crosscultural communication in orthopaedic surgery have been established, they have not yet been universally incorporated into residency training and Continuing Medical Education programs. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: We must continue to recruit the brightest students of all backgrounds, with a concerted effort to provide equal opportunities for early guidance to all trainees. Opportunities to improve diversity among orthopaedic surgeons exist at many stages in a future physician's career path, including "shadowing" in high school and college and continuing with mentorship in medical school. Additional resources should be dedicated to teaching residents about the immediate relevancy of cultural competency, and faculty should model these proficiencies during their patient interactions.

  10. RESERVATION OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND CULTURAL HERITAGES——ALONG WAY TO GO WITH JOINT EFFORTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琤; 江凌; 赵薇

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, globalization has become a hot topic, not only in China, but also in other countries. Under the context of globalization, traditional culture of every corner in the world, including different regions in China, has been influenced,and even threatened to some degree. In view of such a phenomenon, UNESCO,together with local governments, is dedicated to safeguarding and preserveing the world's cultural diversity as well as cultural heritages.

  11. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L. S.; Tostevin, Gilbert B.

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls “the taskscape”). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls “taskscape visibility.” Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data. PMID:27583682

  12. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Tostevin, Gilbert B

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls "the taskscape"). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls "taskscape visibility." Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data.

  13. Living Diversity: Developing a Typology of Consumer Cultural Orientations in Culturally Diverse Marketplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnis, Eva; Emontspool, Julie; Broderick, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    framework for ethnic consumption and subsequently apply it in an empirical study. The findings indicate that through differential deployment of local, global and foreign cultures affinities for identity negotiation, mainstream and migrant consumers alike can develop or maintain uni-, bi- and multi-cultural...

  14. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spus, M; Li, M; Alexeeva, S; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J C M; Zwietering, M H; Abee, T; Smid, E J

    2015-08-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic lineages, simple blends of Lactococcus lactis strains were made and subsequently propagated for 152 generations in the absence and presence of selected bacteriophages. We first screened 102 single-colony isolates (strains) from the complex cheese starter for resistance to bacteriophages isolated from this starter. The collection of isolates represents all lactococcal genetic lineages present in the culture. Large differences were found in bacteriophage resistance among strains belonging to the same genetic lineage and among strains from different lineages. The blends of strains were designed such that 3 genetic lineages were represented by strains with different levels of phage resistance. The relative abundance of the lineages in blends with phages was not stable throughout propagation, leading to continuous changes in composition up to 152 generations. The individual resistance of strains to phage predation was confirmed as one of the factors influencing starter culture diversity. Furthermore, loss of proteolytic activity of initially proteolytic strains was found. Reconstituted blends with only 4 strains with a variable degree of phage resistance showed complex behavior during prolonged propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions. As there is evidence that some skin bacteria may inhibit growth of Bd and prevent infection in some cases, there is interest in using these bacteria as probiotic therapy for conservation of at-risk amphibians. In this study, we used skin swabs from American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to: (1) assess the diversity and community structure of culturable amphibian skin bacteria grown on high and low nutrient culture media, (2) determine which culture media recover the highest proportion of the total skin bacterial community of individual toads relative to culture-independent data, and (3) assess whether the plated communities from the distinct media types vary in their ability to inhibit Bd growth in in-vitro assays. Overall, we found that culture media with low nutrient concentrations facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa and grew distinct communities relative to media with higher nutrient concentrations. Use of low nutrient media also resulted in culturing proportionally more of the bacterial diversity on individual toads relative to the overall community defined using culture-independent methods. However, while there were differences in diversity among media types, the variation among individual hosts was greater than variation among media types, suggesting that

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE ORIGINS OF CULTURAL FRAGMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance attributed to the effects of diversity on the stability and prosperity of nations, the origins of the uneven distribution of ethnic and cultural fragmentation across countries have been underexplored. Building on the role of deeply-rooted biogeographical forces in comparative development, this research empirically demonstrates that genetic diversity, predominantly determined during the prehistoric “out of Africa” migration of humans, is an underlying cause of various existing manifestations of ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. Further exploration of this uncharted territory may revolutionize the understanding of the effects of deeply-rooted factors on economic development and the composition of human capital across the globe. PMID:25506084

  17. Morphological diversity between culture strains of a chlorarachniophyte, Lotharella globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Chlorarachniophytes are marine unicellular algae that possess secondary plastids of green algal origin. Although chlorarachniophytes are a small group (the phylum of Chlorarachniophyta contains 14 species in 8 genera, they have variable and complex life cycles that include amoeboid, coccoid, and/or flagellate cells. The majority of chlorarachniophytes possess two or more cell types in their life cycles, and which cell types are found is one of the principle morphological criteria used for species descriptions. Here we describe an unidentified chlorarachniophyte that was isolated from an artificial coral reef that calls this criterion into question. The life cycle of the new strain includes all three major cell types, but DNA barcoding based on the established nucleomorph ITS sequences showed it to share 100% sequence identity with Lotharella globosa. The type strain of L. globosa was also isolated from a coral reef, but is defined as completely lacking an amoeboid stage throughout its life cycle. We conclude that L. globosa possesses morphological diversity between culture strains, and that the new strain is a variety of L. globosa, which we describe as Lotharella globosa var. fortis var. nov. to include the amoeboid stage in the formal description of L. globosa. This intraspecies variation suggest that gross morphological stages maybe lost rather rapidly, and specifically that the type strain of L. globosa has lost the ability to form the amoeboid stage, perhaps recently. This in turn suggests that even major morphological characters used for taxonomy of this group may be variable in natural populations, and therefore misleading.

  18. Cultural Diversity Training: The Necessity of Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers and in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the need to provide culturally sensitive care to the growing number of diverse health care consumers. A literature review of national standards and research on cultural competency was conducted and specifically focused on the field of nursing. This study supports the theory that cultural competence is learned over time and is a process of inner reflection and awareness. The domains of awareness, skill, and knowledge are essential competencies that must be gained by health care providers and especially for nurses. Although barriers to providing culturally sensitive care exist, gaining a better understanding of cultural competence is essential to developing realistic education and training techniques, which will lead to quality professional nursing practice for increasingly diverse populations.

  19. Intergroup anxiety, cultural sensitivity and socio-cultural diverse leaders’ effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Peruginni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This intended to analyze differences in the level of perception –of general population participants- in regards to leaders with diverse socio-cultural characteristics (gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, nationality and also verify by means of structural equations, the influence of intergroup anxiety and the cultural sensitivity in terms of the level of effectiveness perception. Participants: 481 adults from Argentina (52.8% female, 47.2% male; age average = 35.45 years old. Instruments: Intergroup Anxiety scale, Cultural Sensitivity scale, and an ad hoc protocol designed to assess level of effectiveness perception in socio-culturally diverse leaders. Results: Differences in the level of perception of effectiveness according to sociocultural characteristics could not be confirmed. However, a direct effect of cultural sensitivity and an indirect effect of intergroup anxiety on the levels of effectiveness perception were confirmed. This work contributes to previous studies on prejudice and leadership.

  20. The contribution of cultural competence to evidence-based care for ethnically diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J; Tilley, Jacqueline Lee; Jones, Eduardo O; Smith, Caitlin A

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling arguments for the dissemination of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), questions regarding their relevance to ethnically diverse populations remain. This review summarizes what is known about psychotherapy effects with ethnic minorities, with a particular focus on the role of cultural competence when implementing EBTs. Specifically, we address three questions: (a) does psychotherapy work with ethnic minorities, (b) do psychotherapy effects differ by ethnicity, and (c) does cultural tailoring enhance treatment effects? The evidence suggests that psychotherapy is generally effective with ethnic minorities, and treatment effects are fairly robust across cultural groups and problem areas. However, evidence for cultural competence is mixed. Ethnic minority-focused treatments frequently incorporate culturally tailored strategies, and these tailored treatments are mostly efficacious; yet support for cultural competence as a useful supplement to standard treatment remains equivocal at best. We also discuss research limitations, areas for future research, and clinical implications.

  1. Serving Culturally Diverse E-Learners in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia; Weir, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e-learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a few, give management learners of any age easy…

  2. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.

  3. Public hospital palliative social work: addressing patient cultural diversity and psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Monique; Cárdenas, Yvette; Epperhart, Regina; Hernandez, Jose; Ruiz, Susana; Russell, Linda; Soriano, Karolina; Thornberry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Through creative practice innovations and a wide range of professional competencies, social work has contributed substantively to the development of the palliative care field (Harper, 2011 ). As the field continues to grow and evolve, new opportunities are emerging to profile palliative social work in diverse health care settings. A statewide initiative to spread palliative care in California's public hospitals provided just such an opportunity. Palliative social workers from six public hospitals participating in the initiative formed a group to discuss palliative social work in this unique hospital setting. This article highlights the group's insights and experiences as they address the significant cultural diversity and psychosocial needs of public hospital patients receiving palliative care.

  4. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a calcium carbonate matrix, making extraction of bacterial cells and DNA a challenge and limiting molecular and genomic studies of this environment. To utilize this genetic resource, cultivation at high pH and low temperature was studied as a method for obtaining biomass and DNA from the fraction of this community that would not otherwise be amenable to genetic analyses. The diversity and community dynamics in mixed cultures of bacteria from ikaite columns was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA. Both medium composition and incubation time influenced the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community.

  5. Cultural diversity among nursing students: reanalysis of the cultural awareness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Chontichachalalauk, Jiraporn; Lee, H Y

    2014-02-01

    Nurses are educated to provide culturally competent care. Cultural competence begins with cultural awareness, a concept previously measured with the Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the CAS to determine construct validity and differences in cultural awareness among students of varying educational levels and experiences. The sample consisted of 150 nursing students (92% female, 33.6% racial minorities). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded three factors (CFI = 0.868, TLI = 0.854, RMSEA = 0.065, and SRMR = 0.086). Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. There were significant differences among educational levels, with lower division BSN students generally scoring higher than upper division and master's of science in nursing students. Students who had taken courses on cultural diversity or global health generally outscored those who had not taken such courses. Findings support the validity of the CAS and its applicability to research studies of cultural awareness in nursing.

  6. Social Capital and Ethno-Cultural Diverse Immigrants: A Canadian Study on Settlement House and Social Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Miu Chung; Lauer, Sean

    2008-01-01

    With ethno-culturally diverse immigrants arriving in constantly increasing numbers, connecting newcomers to residents in the local community is a growing challenge. Settlement houses have traditionally been the "machinery of connection" that bridges such diverse groups. This article reports the results of a study on settlement houses in…

  7. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  8. Cultural diversity and Ottoman heritage in contemporary Greek popular novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Trine Stauning

    with regard to the meaning allocated to past cultural diversity. For some it appears as a source of inspiration to and understanding of today’s intercultural challenges (Χριστόπουλος and Θέμελης), while others approach the diversity in more traditional ‘romaio-centric’ ways (Καλπούζος). The analysis......Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility....../migration. Such interest is obvious in international academia as well as in the cultural sphere of the countries in South-eastern Europe. In Greece, the recent celebration of the 100 years of Thessaloniki’s incorporation in the Greek state has accentuated the city’s Ottoman heritage. A plenitude of exhibitions...

  9. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-10-01

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees.

  10. Teaching physiotherapy skills in culturally-diverse classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer-Somers Karen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards. Results This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making. Conclusions Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.

  11. One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Talewicz-Kwiatkowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland There are no universal criteria which would be useful to describe the diversity of all of the Roma. Their presence in given country is linked to adaptive processes to majority societies. It is the majority that creates condition and space to which minorities need to adapt somehow. The results of the above-mentioned adaptive processes also vary and depend on an external context. The attitude of given populations towards minorities and the current political and economic situation of given country, where the Roma settled had and still has significant influence on mentioned processes. The way of life of different Romani groups has also a great importance, because sedentary way of life (typical for most European Roma and external influences especially on culture and models of lifestyle also furthered the adaptive processes. The cultural diversity among the Roma is the case not only with the groups living in different countries. It needs to be emphasized that the Roma who have lived in one country for centuries are not a homogenous group in terms of their culture. Previous migration processes and sedentary or nomadic way of life had a great influence on this internal diversity. In Poland with four distinguished Romani groups such diversity occurs between Carpathian Roma (Bergitka Roma, Polish Highlander Roma and traditionally nomadic groups: Polska Roma, Lovara, Kelderari. This article is mainly based on available sources and dissertations on the subject. However it refers to the field research regarding the use of European Union’s funds for the Roma community in Poland, which was conducted by the author in 2010 and 2011.   Kultura jedna czy wieloraka? Zróżnicowanie populacji romskiej w Polsce Nie istnieją uniwersalne kryteria użyteczne w opisie zróżnicowania wszystkich Romów. Ich obecność w danym kraju wiąże się z procesami adaptowania się do społeczeństw wi

  12. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  13. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Fokkema, J.P.; Loon, K.A. van; Dulmen, S. van; Scheele, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is inc

  14. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Fokkema, J.P.I.; Loon, K.A.van; Dulmen, S. van; Scheele, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is inc

  15. Finding Balance in a Mix of Culture: Appreciation of Diversity through Multicultural Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the understandings of cultural diversity as enacted in multicultural music education and is located in Victoria, which is identified as the most culturally diverse state in Australia with a population that comes from various countries and speaks many languages. This cultural diversity is reflected in the schools. This…

  16. Mapping Cultural Diversity through Children's Voices: From Confusion to Clear Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    This research examines children's conceptualisations of cultural diversity. In particular, this project examines the following two research questions: how do children define and understand the concept of cultural diversity; and what do they perceive as the implications of cultural diversity on their daily lives? To this end, interviews were…

  17. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  18. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods reveal diverse methylotrophic communities in terrestrial environments

    OpenAIRE

    Eyice, Özge; Schäfer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    One-carbon compounds such as methanol, dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are significant intermediates in biogeochemical cycles. They are suggested to affect atmospheric chemistry and global climate. Methylotrophic microorganisms are considered as a significant sink for these compounds; therefore, we analyzed the diversity of terrestrial bacteria that utilize methanol, DMS and DMSO as carbon and energy source using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The effect...

  19. Culturally Diverse Students in Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities within Academic Literacy Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tkachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With growing diversity in the population, higher education faces a new situation with increasing student diversity. In our paper, we will explore questions concerning the consequences student diversity has for higher-education institutions. Based on our experience from three different R&D projects, the differences in culture and academic literacy practices give culturally diverse students challenges that have often been ignored in academia. Some other studies also document that this group of students has a much higher risk of dropping out and underachieving than majority students (Andersen & Skaarer- Kreutz, 2007; Støren, 2009. In our paper, we are going to discuss the students’ challenges and discourse of remediation that is often associated with their challenges and suggest how higher-education institutions can adjust their practices to be more oriented to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication as a dialogic approach may create dynamics in academic tutoring and lead to mutual change/transformation instead of a one-way adaptation of existing academic literacy norms. We argue that all teachers should be aware of cultural differences in literacy practices in the education systems and strive to adjust their teaching practices to the diversity in the classroom. This approach, we believe, can contribute to a better learning environment for all students, independently of their backgrounds. 

  20. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  1. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  2. Managing cultural diversity in healthcare partnerships: the case of LIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Brown, Sally; Beck, Matthias; Lunt, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) programme was launched in 2001 as an innovative public-private partnership to address the historical under-investment in local primary care facilities in England. The organisations from the public and private sector that comprise a local LIFT partnership each have their own distinctive norms of behaviour and acceptable working practices - ultimately different organisational cultures. The purpose of this article is to assess the role of organisational culture in facilitating (or impeding) LIFT partnerships and to contribute to an understanding of how cultural diversity in public-private partnerships is managed at the local level. The approach taken was qualitative case studies, with data gathering comprising interviews and a review of background documentation in three LIFT companies purposefully sampled to represent a range of background factors. Elite interviews were also conducted with senior policy makers responsible for implementing LIFT policy at the national level. Interpreting the data against a conceptual framework designed to assess approaches to managing strategic alliances, the authors identified a number of key differences in the values, working practices and cultures in public and private organisations that influenced the quality of joint working. On the whole, however, partners in the three LIFT companies appeared to be working well together, with neither side dominating the development of strategy. Differences in culture were being managed and accommodated as partnerships matured. As LIFT develops and becomes the primary source of investment for managing, developing and channelling funding into regenerating the primary care infrastructure, further longitudinal work might examine how ongoing partnerships are working, and how changes in the cultures of public and private partners impact upon wider relationships within local health economies and shape the delivery of patient care

  3. Diversity of Entomopathogenic Fungi: Which Groups Conquered the Insect Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J P M; Hughes, D P

    2016-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi are organisms that evolved to exploit insects. They comprise a wide range of morphologically, phylogenetically, and ecologically diverse fungal species. Entomopathogenic fungi can be found distributed among five of the eight fungal phyla. Entomopathogens are also present among the ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct Oomycota or water molds, which belong to a different kingdom, the Stramenopila. As a group of parasites, the entomopathogenic fungi and water molds infect a wide range of insect hosts, from aquatic larvae to adult insects from high canopies in tropical forests or even deserts. Their hosts are spread among 20 of the 31 orders of insects, in all developmental stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, nymphs, and adults. Such assortment of niches has resulted in these parasites evolving a considerable morphological diversity, resulting in enormous biodiversity, the majority of which remains unknown. Here we undertake a comprehensive survey of records of these entomopathogens in order to compare and contrast both their morphologies and their ecological traits. Our findings highlight a wide range of adaptations that evolved following the evolutionary transition by the fungi and water molds to infect the most diverse and widespread animals on Earth, the insects.

  4. Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.

  5. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  6. Games, Diversions & Perl Culture Best of the Perl Journal

    CERN Document Server

    Orwant, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The Perl Journal (TPJ) did something most print journals aspire to, but few succeed. Within a remarkable short time, TPJ acquired a cult-following and became the voice of the Perl community. Every serious Perl programmer subscribed to it, and every notable Perl guru jumped at the opportunity to write for it. Back issues were swapped like trading cards. No longer in print format, TPJ remains the quintessential spirit of Perl--a publication for and by Perl programmers who see fun and beauty in an admittedly quirky little language. Games, Diversions, and Perl Culture is the third volume of Th

  7. Mitochondrial control region diversity in Sindhi ethnic group of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Memona; Rakha, Allah; Noreen, Saadia; Salahuddin, Zeenat

    2017-05-01

    The entire mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 16024-576) of 88 unrelated individuals of Sindhi ethnic group residing in different parts of Sindh province of Pakistan was sequenced. Out of 66 different observed haplotypes 50 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. Results showed admixture of mtDNA pool constituting the haplogroups derived mainly from South Asia (47.6%) and West Eurasian (35.7%) whereas the contribution of the African haplogroup was very small (2.4%). High values of genetic diversity (0.992), power of discrimination (0.981) and low value of random match probability (0.018) indicates that mtDNA analysis for this population can effectively be used for forensic casework. The results are valuable contribution towards building mtDNA population variation database for this particular ethnic group from Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  9. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  10. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  11. CulSim: A simulator of emergence and resilience of cultural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto

    CulSim is an agent-based computer simulation software that allows further exploration of influential and recent models of emergence of cultural groups grounded in sociological theories. CulSim provides a collection of tools to analyze resilience of cultural diversity when events affect agents, institutions or global parameters of the simulations; upon combination, events can be used to approximate historical circumstances. The software provides a graphical and text-based user interface, and so makes this agent-based modeling methodology accessible to a variety of users from different research fields.

  12. Psychology of group relations: cultural and social dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J W

    2004-07-01

    Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand the development and expression of human behavior in relation to the cultural contexts in which it occurs. It adopts the perspective of "universalism," which assumes that all human beings share basic psychological processes, but which are then shaped by cultural influences. This perspective allows for the comparison of individuals from different cultures (based on the process commonality), but also accepts behavioral variability (based on the cultural shaping). In the case of behavior that takes place during interactions between individuals coming from two (or more) cultures, the task is more complex; we now need to understand at least two sets of culture-behavior phenomena, as well as a third set--those that arise at the intersection of their relationships. In cross-cultural psychology, we have adopted concepts and methods from sociology and political science to inform work on "ethnic relations," and from cultural anthropology we have been informed in our work on the process and outcomes of "acculturation." In the former domain are phenomena such as prejudice and discrimination; in the latter are the strategies people use when in daily contact with people from other cultures (such as assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization). These phenomena take place in cultural contexts, which need to be understood in terms of the core dimensions of cultural difference (such as diversity, equality, and conformity). During prolonged and intimate contact between persons of different cultural backgrounds, all these psychological concepts and processes, and cultural influences need to be taken into account when selecting, training, and monitoring individuals during their intercultural interactions.

  13. Geographic axes and the persistence of cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitin, David D; Moortgat, Joachim; Robinson, Amanda Lea

    2012-06-26

    Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel [Diamond J, (1997) Guns, Germs, and Steel (WW Norton, NY)] has provided a scientific foundation for answering basic questions, such as why Eurasians colonized the global South and not the other way around, and why there is so much variance in economic development across the globe. Diamond's explanatory variables are: (i) the susceptibility of local wild plants to be developed for self-sufficient agriculture; (ii) the domesticability of large wild animals for food, transport, and agricultural production; and (iii) the relative lengths of the axes of continents with implications for the spread of human populations and technologies. This third "continental axis" thesis is the most difficult of Diamond's several explanatory factors to test, given that the number of continents are too few for statistical analysis. This article provides a test of one observable implication of this thesis, namely that linguistic diversity should be more persistent to the degree that a geographic area is oriented more north-south than east-west. Using both modern states and artificial geographic entities as the units of analysis, the results provide significant confirmation of the relationship between geographic orientation and cultural homogenization. Beyond providing empirical support for one observable implication of the continental axis theory, these results have important implications for understanding the roots of cultural diversity, which is an important determinant of economic growth, public goods provision, local violence, and social trust.

  14. Motivational interviewing to explore culturally and linguistically diverse people's comorbidity medication self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison; Manias, Elizabeth; Cross, Wendy; Crawford, Kim

    2015-05-01

    To examine the perceptions of a group of culturally and linguistically diverse participants with the comorbidities of diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease to determine factors that influence their medication self-efficacy through the use of motivational interviewing. These comorbidities are a global public health problem and their self-management is more difficult for culturally and linguistically diverse populations living in English-speaking communities. Few interventions have been tested in culturally and linguistically diverse people to improve their medication self-efficacy. A series of motivational interviewing telephone calls were conducted in the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial using interpreter services. Patients with these comorbidities aged ≥18 years of age whose preference it was to speak Greek, Italian or Vietnamese were recruited from nephrology outpatient clinics of two Australian metropolitan hospitals in 2009. The average age of the 26 participants was 73·5 years. The fortnightly calls averaged 9·5 minutes. Thematic analysis revealed three core themes which were attitudes towards medication, having to take medication and impediments to chronic illness medication self-efficacy. A lack of knowledge about medications impeded confidence necessary for optimal disease self-management. Participants had limited access to resources to help them understand their medications. This work has highlighted communication gaps and barriers affecting medication self-efficacy in this group. Culturally sensitive interventions are required to ensure people of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds have the appropriate skills to self-manage their complex medical conditions. Helping people to take their medications as prescribed is a key role for nurses to serve and protect the well-being of our increasingly multicultural communities. The use of interpreters in motivational interviewing requires careful planning and

  15. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofhuis, J; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effectively about diversity, and reduce potential diversity resistance by targeting those employees who feel most threatened by the process of diversification. First, a conceptual framework is establishe...

  16. Cultural diversity and Subsidiarity: more of the same or conflicting principles ? The case of cultural tourism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Elisabeth; Teller, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This article takes the example of cultural tourism to highlight the specificities of European Cultural Policies. It argues, that, although it is often presented as a way of supporting a diversity of approaches, styles and objectives, the subsidiarity principle can sometimes endanger the cultural diversity it seeks to protect. Tourism for instance, has long been considered as a self-regulating activity and cultural tourism is often considered as “sustainable by nature”. Experience however show...

  17. Addressing cultural diversity: the hepatitis B clinical specialist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack; Smith, Elizabeth; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-08-31

    Hepatitis B is a viral infection primarily affecting people from culturally diverse communities in Australia. While vaccination prevents infection, there is increasing mortality resulting from liver damage associated with chronic infection. Deficits in the national policy and clinical response to hepatitis B result in a low diagnosis rate, inadequate testing and diagnosis processes, and poor access to hepatitis B treatment services. While research identifies inadequate hepatitis B knowledge among people with the virus and primary health care workers, this project sought to identify how specialist clinicians in Australia negotiate cultural diversity, and provide often complex clinical information to people with hepatitis B. A vignette was developed and presented to thirteen viral hepatitis specialist clinicians prior to an electronically recorded interview. Recruitment continued until saturation of themes was reached. Data were thematically coded into themes outlined in the interview schedule. Ethical approval for the research was provided by the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee. Key messages provided to patients with hepatitis B by clinical specialists were identified. These messages were not consistently provided to all patients with hepatitis B, but were determined on perceptions of patient knowledge, age and highest educational level. While the vignette stated that English was not an issue for the patient, most specialists identified the need for an interpreter. Combating stigma related to hepatitis B was seen as important by the specialists and this was done through normalising the virus. Having an awareness of different cultural understandings about hepatitis B specifically, and health and well-being generally, was noted as a communication strategy. Key core competencies need to be developed to deliver educational messages to people with hepatitis B within clinical encounters. The provision of adequate resources to specialist clinics will

  18. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Boga, Hamadi I; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well

  19. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  20. Science knowledge and cognitive strategy use among culturally and linguistically diverse students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Fradd, Sandra H.; Sutman, Frank X.

    Science performance is determined, to a large extent, by what students already know about science (i.e., science knowledge) and what techniques or methods students use in performing science tasks (i.e., cognitive strategies). This study describes and compares science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among four diverse groups of elementary students: (a) monolingual English Caucasian, (b) African-American, (c) bilingual Spanish, and (d) bilingual Haitian Creole. To facilitate science performance in culturally and linguistically congruent settings, the study included student dyads and teachers of the same language, culture, and gender. Science performance was observed using three science tasks: weather phenomena, simple machines, and buoyancy. Data analysis involved a range of qualitative methods focusing on major themes and patterns, and quantitative methods using coding systems to summarize frequencies and total scores. The findings reveal distinct patterns of science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among the four language and culture groups. The findings also indicate relationships among science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use. These findings raise important issues about science instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students.Received: 3 January 1995;

  1. Are we bridging the gap? A review of cultural diversity within stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Gamson, Louise

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this article is to highlight the aspects of how religion, ethnic grouping, age, gender, and learning disabilities affect how stoma care is approached and supported. It will try to highlight the positive and negative approaches documented so far and how this has affected the quality of stoma care given. By following guidelines set out by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2015) and the Association of Stoma Care Nurses (ASCN) (2015) the aim of the article will be to expand cultural awareness in stoma care nursing. By learning about the multifaceted aspects of culture as it applies to stoma care and then being able to apply that knowledge, usefully and skilfully, expands the SCN's ability to provide services for any cultural diverse client group.

  2. The role of cultural diversity climate in recruitment, promotion, and retention of faculty in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Eboni G; Gozu, Aysegul; Kern, David E; Powe, Neil R; Wand, Gary S; Golden, Sherita; Cooper, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    Ethnic diversity among physicians may be linked to improved access and quality of care for minorities. Academic medical institutions are challenged to increase representation of ethnic minorities among health professionals. To explore the perceptions of physician faculty regarding the following: (1) the institution's cultural diversity climate and (2) facilitators and barriers to success and professional satisfaction in academic medicine within this context. Qualitative study using focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Nontenured physicians in the tenure track at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Focus groups and interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for thematic content in a 3-stage independent review/adjudication process. Study participants included 29 faculty representing 9 clinical departments, 4 career tracks, and 4 ethnic groups. In defining cultural diversity, faculty noted visible (race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, gender) and invisible (religion, sexual orientation) dimensions. They believe visible dimensions provoke bias and cumulative advantages or disadvantages in the workplace. Minority and foreign-born faculty report ethnicity-based disparities in recruitment and subtle manifestations of bias in the promotion process. Minority and majority faculty agree that ethnic differences in prior educational opportunities lead to disparities in exposure to career options, and qualifications for and subsequent recruitment to training programs and faculty positions. Minority faculty also describe structural barriers (poor retention efforts, lack of mentorship) that hinder their success and professional satisfaction after recruitment. To effectively manage the diversity climate, our faculty recommended 4 strategies for improving the psychological climate and structural diversity of the institution. Soliciting input from faculty provides tangible ideas regarding interventions to improve an institution's diversity

  3. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C; Pai, Reetesh K; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A; Rack, Paul G; Neal, James T; Chan, Carol W-M; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Hung, Kenneth E; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P; Kuo, Calvin J

    2014-07-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here we used a single air-liquid interface culture method without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial and mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia as a result of expression of Kras carrying the G12D mutation (Kras(G12D)), p53 loss or both and readily generated adenocarcinoma after in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, Kras(G12D) and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), as compared to the more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor-2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues.

  4. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  5. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  6. A Multilevel Model of Team Cultural Diversity and Creativity: The Role of Climate for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ci-Rong; Lin, Chen-Ju; Tien, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We developed a multi-level model to test how team cultural diversity may relate to team- and individual-level creativity, integrating team diversity research and information-exchange perspective. We proposed that the team climate for inclusion would moderate both the relationship between cultural diversity and team information sharing and between…

  7. Genomic and metabolic diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the mesopelagic of two subtropical gyres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Swan

    Full Text Available Marine Group I (MGI Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures.

  8. Work group culture, stress, and hostility. Correlations with organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, J A

    1996-06-01

    Understanding your organizational culture is necessary if you are to be successful in making and surviving the necessary changes in current environments. Although organizational culture frequently has been studied in the business community, there are fewer studies of organizational or work group culture in hospital settings at the nursing unit level. The existing studies have emphasized the need to understand the individual work group culture before successfully implementing innovation and educational programs, or hiring and orienting new employees on nursing units. This descriptive, correlational study describes the relationships among work group culture, work-place stress, and hostility and nursing unit outcomes, specifically absenteeism and turnover. Implications of the findings include the idea that increasing decision latitude in workers may positively impact absenteeism.

  9. Inverting faces does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Helen; Kelly, David J; Blais, Caroline; Caldara, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Face processing is widely understood to be a basic, universal visual function effortlessly achieved by people from all cultures and races. The remarkable recognition performance for faces is markedly and specifically affected by picture-plane inversion: the so-called face-inversion effect (FIE), a finding often used as evidence for face-specific mechanisms. However, it has recently been shown that culture shapes the way people deploy eye movements to extract information from faces. Interestingly, the comparable lack of experience with inverted faces across cultures offers a unique opportunity to establish the extent to which such cultural perceptual biases in eye movements are robust, but also to assess whether face-specific mechanisms are universally tuned. Here we monitored the eye movements of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers while they learned and recognised WC and EA inverted faces. Both groups of observers showed a comparable impairment in recognising inverted faces of both races. WC observers deployed a scattered inverted triangular scanpath with a bias towards the mouth, whereas EA observers uniformly extended the focus of their fixations from the centre towards the eyes. Overall, our data show that cultural perceptual differences in eye movements persist during the FIE, questioning the universality of face-processing mechanisms.

  10. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  11. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  12. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  13. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  14. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  15. [The impact of size and diversity on group process and outputs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osca Segovia, Amparo; García-Salmones Fernández, Lourdes

    2010-02-01

    The impact of size and diversity on group process and outputs. This study has analyzed the impact of size and diversity on group processes (group cohesion, effective management of conflicts, and group norms) and outputs (work satisfaction and group effectiveness) in a sample (N= 407) of Mexican workers. It considered two types of diversity: functional and social diversity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed main effects for size and functional diversity. Size is negatively associated with group norms, effective management of conflicts and job satisfaction. Functional diversity is positively related to group norms and cohesion. However, social diversity was not related to group process and outcomes. The analysis revealed a moderating effect of functional diversity on the relationship between size and job satisfaction. The practical implications of these results are analyzed.

  16. Implicit Contracts Regulating Small Group Leadership: The Influence of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Perrin Orr; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    1983-01-01

    Examined culture variables in the negotiation of implicit rules which govern leadership behavior in small groups. American, French, and Arab students (N=42) were assigned identical decision-making tasks. Results showed monocultural groups presented homogeneous rules governing leadership prior to interaction, while intercultural groups presented…

  17. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  18. The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Many of the most important properties of human groups - including properties that may give one group an evolutionary advantage over another - are properly defined only at the level of group organization. Yet at present, most work on the evolution of culture has focused solely on the transmission of individual-level traits. I propose a conceptual extension of the theory of cultural evolution, particularly related to the evolutionary competition between cultural groups. The key concept in this extension is the emergent group-level trait. This type of trait is characterized by the structured organization of differentiated individuals and constitutes a unit of selection that is qualitatively different from selection on groups as defined by traditional multilevel selection (MLS) theory. As a corollary, I argue that the traditional focus on cooperation as the defining feature of human societies has missed an essential feature of cooperative groups. Traditional models of cooperation assume that interacting with one cooperator is equivalent to interacting with any other. However, human groups involve differential roles, meaning that receiving aid from one individual is often preferred to receiving aid from another. In this target article, I discuss the emergence and evolution of group-level traits and the implications for the theory of cultural evolution, including ramifications for the evolution of human cooperation, technology, and cultural institutions, and for the equivalency of multilevel selection and inclusive fitness approaches.

  19. Modeling Effects of Local Extinctions on Culture Change and Diversity in the Paleolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L. S.; Kuhn, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of early stone tool technologies has puzzled archaeologists for decades. Cognitively based explanations, which presume either lack of ability to innovate or extreme conformism, do not account for the totality of the empirical patterns. Following recent research, this study explores the effects of demographic factors on rates of culture change and diversification. We investigate whether the appearance of stability in early Paleolithic technologies could result from frequent extinctions of local subpopulations within a persistent metapopulation. A spatially explicit agent-based model was constructed to test the influence of local extinction rate on three general cultural patterns that archaeologists might observe in the material record: total diversity, differentiation among spatially defined groups, and the rate of cumulative change. The model shows that diversity, differentiation, and the rate of cumulative cultural change would be strongly affected by local extinction rates, in some cases mimicking the results of conformist cultural transmission. The results have implications for understanding spatial and temporal patterning in ancient material culture. PMID:21179418

  20. Modeling effects of local extinctions on culture change and diversity in the paleolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Premo

    Full Text Available The persistence of early stone tool technologies has puzzled archaeologists for decades. Cognitively based explanations, which presume either lack of ability to innovate or extreme conformism, do not account for the totality of the empirical patterns. Following recent research, this study explores the effects of demographic factors on rates of culture change and diversification. We investigate whether the appearance of stability in early Paleolithic technologies could result from frequent extinctions of local subpopulations within a persistent metapopulation. A spatially explicit agent-based model was constructed to test the influence of local extinction rate on three general cultural patterns that archaeologists might observe in the material record: total diversity, differentiation among spatially defined groups, and the rate of cumulative change. The model shows that diversity, differentiation, and the rate of cumulative cultural change would be strongly affected by local extinction rates, in some cases mimicking the results of conformist cultural transmission. The results have implications for understanding spatial and temporal patterning in ancient material culture.

  1. Modeling effects of local extinctions on culture change and diversity in the paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Kuhn, Steven L

    2010-12-17

    The persistence of early stone tool technologies has puzzled archaeologists for decades. Cognitively based explanations, which presume either lack of ability to innovate or extreme conformism, do not account for the totality of the empirical patterns. Following recent research, this study explores the effects of demographic factors on rates of culture change and diversification. We investigate whether the appearance of stability in early Paleolithic technologies could result from frequent extinctions of local subpopulations within a persistent metapopulation. A spatially explicit agent-based model was constructed to test the influence of local extinction rate on three general cultural patterns that archaeologists might observe in the material record: total diversity, differentiation among spatially defined groups, and the rate of cumulative change. The model shows that diversity, differentiation, and the rate of cumulative cultural change would be strongly affected by local extinction rates, in some cases mimicking the results of conformist cultural transmission. The results have implications for understanding spatial and temporal patterning in ancient material culture.

  2. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  3. Educação e diversidade cultural = Education and cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Nascimento de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto procura analisar questões referentes às principais tensões a serem resolvidas pela educação, objetivando dar clareza à temática da diversidade cultural. Discutimos neste espaço o contexto do surgimento de conceitos como o de diversidade cultural, pluralismo, multiculturalismo, interculturalidade, identidade, entre outros. Baseamos este estudo em pesquisas realizadas por professores da Área de Políticas Públicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, que analisam aspectos importantes a respeito da história da educação brasileira, em especial documentos de organismos internacionais como a Unesco.This paper seeks to analyze the main issues concerning the main tensions to be resolved by the education, aiming to clear the theme of cultural diversity. Here in it is argued in the context of the emergence of concepts, such as cultural diversity, pluralism, multiculturalism, interculturality, identity, among others. This study is based on a research conducted by teachers of the area of public policy of the State University of Maringá, which examine important aspects of the history of Brazilian education, in particular documents of international organizations like UNESCO.

  4. Believing shapes seeing: The impact of diversity beliefs on the construal of group composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan; L.L. Greer; K.A. Jehn; L. Koning

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that diversity effects depend on how group members perceive their group’s composition. However, what determines how diversity is perceived is unclear. We argue that the way in which group members construe their group’s diversity is shaped by group members’ beliefs abo

  5. Diverse cultures and official laws: multiculturalism and Euroscepticism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Örücü

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normative pluralism refers to a social fact: the co-existence of different bodies of norms within the same social space. State legal pluralism indicates a single overarching national legal system but plural laws, the state recognising different rules for specific categories of persons. However, the equating of multiculturalism and legal pluralism with state law is challenged. In the modern unitary nation state of the Western type only a weak version of legal pluralism in which state centralism still prevails is acceptable. Below it is advanced that in this state the accommodation of cultural diversity and multiple normative orders can only be brought about by the judge, the tuner or the navigator and steersman of the law, by using discretion and creative interpretation and not by the legislators, whose main demarcation lines are clearly drawn within domestic law by the Constitution, and within Europe and within the EU by the demands of human rights and 'ever closer integration'. In both of the critical illustrations below - the equality of the spouses in Turkish family law and the General Principles of the CEFL on divorce and maintenance - more scope should be given to judges to cope with and to create the necessary 'fit' between law and culture that do not coincide.

  6. Hospital cultural competency as a systematic organizational intervention: Key findings from the national center for healthcare leadership diversity demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Epané, Josué Patien; Gail, Judith; Gupta, Shivani; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    2016-10-25

    Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels. This demonstration project employs a pre-post control group design. Two hospital systems participated in the study. Within each system, two hospitals were selected to serve as the intervention and control hospitals. Executive leadership (C-suite) and all staff at one general medical/surgical nursing unit at the intervention hospitals experienced a systematic, planned cultural competency intervention. Assessments and interventions focused on three organizational level competencies of cultural competency (diversity leadership, strategic human resource management, and patient cultural competency) and three individual level competencies (diversity attitudes, implicit bias, and racial/ethnic identity status). In addition, we evaluated the impact of the intervention on diversity climate and workforce diversity. Overall performance improvement was greater in each of the two intervention hospitals than in the control hospital within the same health care system. Both intervention hospitals experienced improvements in the organizational level competencies of diversity leadership and strategic human resource management. Similarly, improvements were observed in the individual level competencies for diversity attitudes and implicit bias for Blacks among the intervention hospitals. Furthermore, intervention hospitals outperformed their respective

  7. We are on the same boat, but still I am from another culture: the lived experiences of learning in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kaire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to learn in a group of people from different cultures? How does one encounter people from different cultures when there is no clear ‘quantitative’ domination of any culture? By asking these questions the paper represents a hermeneutic phenomenological study that explores the phenomenon of learning in a culturally diverse group. A phenomenological study is undertaken with young people (18-30 years from different EU countries who participated in learning mobility project European Voluntary Service and had long-term volunteering experience abroad. The research concentrates on the lived moments of vis-à-vis intercultural encounters during learning process in groups. Specifically, through the descriptions of lived experience and phenomenological reflection the paper describes how young people experience self and others while they are learning in culturally diverse groups. Lived experiences of young people lead them into ‘no-man’s land’ (Waldenfels, 2011 where connection and separation simultaneously exist.

  8. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization......, and sets out to illustrate implications of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. It is argued that the theories on management of cultural diversity should include theories on knowledge and knowledge sharing. The main theoretical argument is that a locally grounded understanding of social aspects...... of knowledge sharing should be the departure point for dealing with cultural diversity in a business context....

  9. Management strategies to harness cultural diversity in Australian construction sites - a social identity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loosemore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction sites around the world employ large numbers of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. The effective management of this cultural diversity has important implications for the productivity, safety, health and welfare of construction workers and for the performance and reputation of firms which employ them. The findings of a three year, multi-staged study of cultural diversity management practices on construction sites are critiqued using social identity theory. This reveals that so called “best-practice” diversity management strategies may have an opposite effect to that intended. It is concluded that the management of diversity on construction projects would benefit from being informed by social identity research.

  10. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  11. Implementing Family Literacy Programs for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Populations: Key Elements to Consider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delia C Garcia; Deborah J Hasson

    2004-01-01

    .... These programs have been particularly beneficial for linguistically and culturally diverse families, since they provide opportunities for adult family members to acquire English language/literacy...

  12. Cultural diversity in the digital age: EU competences, policies and regulations for diverse audio-visual and online content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Irion; P. Valcke

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a multifaceted concept that differs from the notion of media pluralism. However, the two concepts share important concerns particularly as regards content production, content distribution and access to content. This chapter considers the EU’s role in contributing to diverse aud

  13. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  14. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  15. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; Zee, van der Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  16. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hofhuis; K.I. van der Zee; S. Otten

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  17. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  18. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  19. Late HIV diagnosis of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in Sydney: the role of culture and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, H

    2007-02-01

    In Australia more than 85% of newly diagnosed HIV infections in 1999-2003 were homosexually acquired. In contrast, among people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, there is a much higher proportion of heterosexual exposure and many of the heterosexually acquired infections are diagnosed 'late', with people sometimes presenting with symptoms of AIDS. This paper reports on circumstances of late HIV diagnosis, meaning of an HIV-positive diagnosis and perceptions of risk among HIV-positive people from a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds in Sydney. The focus was on commonalities across cultures and ethnicities. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with clients of the Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C Service and a sexual health clinic. Regular HIV tests were the exception in this group. Testing was usually motivated by a serious health crisis. Participants interpreted their diagnosis in the context of their knowledge and experiences with HIV/AIDS in their country of birth and the perceptions of HIV/AIDS in their ethnic communities in Australia. Many were not aware of the relationship between HIV and AIDS. Risk was perceived in terms of 'risk group' membership not in terms of practices and behaviours. Late diagnosis cannot be explained solely by association with country of birth, race or ethnicity. Rather, it is located within complex sets of social and cultural relations: the values attributed to HIV/AIDS and those infected and the social and cultural relations of ethnic communities in Australia and the dominant culture. These are enacted in healthcare seeking behaviour, perceptions of people with HIV and perceptions of being 'at risk'.

  20. Beyond the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl Views of Cultural Diversity: Advancing Cultural Diversity Education of Nutrition Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiloane, Kelebogile Tsametse

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines how the melting pot and salad bowl views of cultural diversity have influenced the cultural training of nutrition educators and other health professionals. It explores how these views are changing in reaction to the changing demographics and health disparities seen in the US today and how the cultural training of nutrition educators has not kept up with these changing views. Suggestions for how this cultural education could be modified include placing a greater emphasis on both the cultural self-awareness of nutrition educators and the sociopolitical historical factors that influence the cultural orientation of nutrition educators and their clients.

  1. Societal threat as a moderator of cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Roos, Patrick; Nau, Dana; Harrington, Jesse; Mu, Yan; Jackson, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    As scholars have rushed to either prove or refute cultural group selection (CGS), the debate lacks sufficient consideration of CGS's potential moderators. We argue that pressures for CGS are particularly strong when groups face ecological and human-made threat. Field, experimental, computational, and genetic evidence are presented to substantiate this claim.

  2. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  3. Diversity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shumei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Minjie; Dai, Shikun; Zhang, Long; Liu, Yonghong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Li, Xiang

    2007-11-01

    This study describes actinobacteria isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. collected in shallow water of the South China Sea. A total of 54 actinobacteria were isolated using media selective for actinobacteria. Species diversity and natural product diversity of isolates from marine sponge Haliclona sp. were analysed. Twenty-four isolates were selected on the basis of their morphology on different media and assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria by a combination of 16S rRNA gene based restriction enzymes digestion and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA genes of 24 isolates were digested by restriction enzymes TaqI and MspI and assigned to different groups according to their restriction enzyme pattern. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Verrucosispora; one other isolate was recovered that does not belong to known genera based on its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterium classified as Verrucosispora sp. that has been isolated from a marine sponge. The majority of the strains tested belong to the genus Streptomyces and three isolates may be new species. All of the 24 isolates were screened for genes encoding polyketide synthases (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). PKS and NRPS sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and the different "PKS-I-PKS-II-NRPS" combinations in different isolates belonging to the same species are indicators of their potential natural product diversity and divergent genetic evolution.

  4. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oota

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  5. The Hmong Cultural Repertoire: Explaining Cultural Variation Within an Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Hein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 382 Hmong in Laos and the United States reveal threetypes of cultural expertise: performing spiritual-medicalhealing; conducting life cycle rituals; and creating arts andcrafts. Only 31 percent of this sample engage in one or moreof the practices in this cultural repertoire. A mere 10percent of the sample account for 54 percent of the 247cultural practices. This pattern reveals the paradoxicalrelationship between ethnicity and culture. While all ethnicgroups have a culture, there is considerable variation amongmembers in their use of the group's cultural repertoire. Thispaper uses regression analysis to explain why some Hmong havemore cultural practices than others. The results suggest thatmales have greater access to the Hmong cultural repertoiredue their positions of authority in Laos, but that maternalcultural practices promote use of the repertoire by theirchildren regardless of leadership status.

  6. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  7. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  8. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised.

  9. Migration distance rather than migration rate explains genetic diversity in human patrilocal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah J; Levy, Hila; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Montinaro, Francesco; Capelli, Cristian

    2012-10-01

    In patrilocal groups, females preferentially move to join their mate's paternal relatives. The gender-biased gene flow generated by this cultural practice is expected to affect genetic diversity across human populations. Greater female than male migration is predicted to result in a larger decrease in between-group differentiation for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than for the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY). We address the question of how patrilocality affects the distribution of genetic variation in human populations controlling for confounding factors such as ethno-linguistic heterogeneity and geographic distance which possibly explain the contradictory results observed in previous studies. By combining genetic and bio-demographic data from Lesotho and Spain, we show that preferential female migration over short distances appears to minimize the impact of a generally higher female migration rate in patrilocal communities, suggesting patrilocality might influence genetic variation only at short ranges.

  10. A cultural diversity seen in Croatian family medicine: a lady from Janjevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Renata

    2014-12-01

    The role of cultural diversities in doctor's everyday work is going more and more important in globalised world, therefore it draws lots of attention in literature. Cultural differences that exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, are usually distinguished from the term cultural diversity which is mainly understood as having different cultures respect each other's differences. The great effort is made to educate culturally competent practitioners, nurses or doctors. The presented case of lady from Janjevo was a good role model for work with all patients with culturally different background coming to family practice. This lady example could also help to other colleagues to learn from experience on systematic way.

  11. Promoting Social and Cultural Competence for Students from Diverse Backgrounds with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, Beatrice; Manning, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Amidst diversity in today's schools, challenges for students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds are growing. These students must acquire necessary social and cultural skills in order to navigate contrasting value systems and educational expectations despite potential cognitive and learning deficits. The combination of…

  12. Breaking the Silence of Exclusion: Examining the Complexities of Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on an in-depth case study that examined how a teacher education programme in New Zealand prepared pre-service teachers for cultural diversity (based on the author's unpublished PhD thesis, "Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity"; conferred by Curtin University, June 2012). Framed within a critical constructivist…

  13. Cultural Diversity in Compulsory Education: An Overview of the Context of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurena, Ines Gil

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines educational practices in Spain and in particular Madrid. With this contextual frame as the starting point the following issues are discussed: the "official" conceptualization of cultural diversity, educational policies and resolutions related to cultural diversity, and school programs and resources facilitated by…

  14. Breaking the Silence of Exclusion: Examining the Complexities of Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on an in-depth case study that examined how a teacher education programme in New Zealand prepared pre-service teachers for cultural diversity (based on the author's unpublished PhD thesis, "Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity"; conferred by Curtin University, June 2012). Framed within a critical constructivist…

  15. Cultural Diversity in Compulsory Education: An Overview of the Context of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurena, Ines Gil

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines educational practices in Spain and in particular Madrid. With this contextual frame as the starting point the following issues are discussed: the "official" conceptualization of cultural diversity, educational policies and resolutions related to cultural diversity, and school programs and resources facilitated by…

  16. Volunteering in a Culturally Diverse Context: Implications for Project Designers and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay

    1999-01-01

    The volunteer pool of social services organizations often does not reflect the cultural diversity of their clientele. Cultural values and past experiences of discrimination are among the reasons for this limited diversity in volunteers. An Australian project found that refugees were reluctant to be clients of agencies whose volunteers did not…

  17. Food neophobia and associations with cultural diversity and socio-economic status amongst rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, Ingrid; Leppard, Phillip; Cox, David N

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to diverse cultures and higher socio-economic status (SES) may increase knowledge of a wide variety of stimuli, including food, and be negatively associated with food neophobia. We contrasted questionnaire responses from two groups of Australian high school students (aged 12-18 years) from remote rural (rural, n=243) and cosmopolitan urban (city, n=696) locations to the food neophobia scale (FNS), familiarity with certain foods and willingness to try those foods. Cultural diversity measures and two SES scales were created. City students were less food neophobic than rural students (mean FNS scores 29.35 versus 34.68, pfoods and more willing to try unfamiliar foods, were of higher SES and had greater exposure to cultural diversity. However, the association between the FNS and familiarity with foods, willingness to try unfamiliar foods, SES, and exposure to cultural diversity, were only weak or moderate for both city and rural students. Greater exposure to cultural diversity and higher SES has some influence on adolescents' responses to unfamiliar foods, but the relationship between these factors and the FNS score is tenuous.

  18. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  19. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  20. Diverse bacterial groups are associated with corrosive lesions at a Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J; Chellamuthu, P; Obraztsova, A; Moore, J E; Nealson, K H

    2011-08-01

    This study applied culture-dependent and molecular approaches to examine the bacterial communities at corrosion sites at Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV) in Utah, USA, with the goal of understanding the role of microbes in these unexpected corrosion events. Samples from corroded steel chunks, rock particles and waters around the corrosion pits were collected for bacterial isolation and molecular analyses. Bacteria cultivated from these sites were identified as members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, molecular genetic characterization of the communities via nested-polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated the presence of a broad spectrum of bacterial groups, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, neither cultivation nor molecular approaches identified sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the bacteria commonly implicated as causative organisms were found associated with corrosive lesions in a process referred to as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). The high diversity of bacterial groups at the corrosion sites in comparison with that seen in the source waters suggested to us a role for the microbes in corrosion, perhaps being an expression of a redox-active group of microbes transferring electrons, harvesting energy and producing biomass. The corrosion sites contained highly diverse microbial communities, consistent with the involvement of microbial activities along the redox gradient at corrosion interface. We hypothesize an electron transport model for MIC, involving diverse bacterial groups such as acid-producing bacteria (APB), SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and metal-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The characterization of micro-organisms that influence metal-concrete corrosion at GMRV has significant implications for corrosion control in high

  1. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics. Empirical, conceptual and normative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracanovic, Tomislav

    2011-08-01

    In contemporary debates about the nature of bioethics there is a widespread view that bioethical decision making should involve certain knowledge of and respect for cultural diversity of persons to be affected. The aim of this article is to show that this view is untenable and misleading. It is argued that introducing the idea of respect for cultural diversity into bioethics encounters a series of conceptual and empirical constraints. While acknowledging that cultural diversity is something that decision makers in bioethical contexts should try to understand and, when possible, respect, it is argued that this cultural turn ignores the typically normative role of bioethics and thus threatens to undermine its very foundations.

  2. What sustains cultural diversity and what undermines it? Axelrod and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Flache, A; Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    We relax a simplification of Axelrod's (1997) model of cultural dissemination that has not yet been studied, the assumption that all cultural states are nominal. We integrate metric states into the original model. Computational experiments demonstrate that metric states undermine cultural diversity, even without noise, by creating sufficient overlap between agents for mutual influence. We then show how adding "bounded confidence" - a recent innovation in models of social influence - allows cultural diversity to persist. However, further experiments reveal that the solution is fragile. Diversity can be sustained only with a relatively small number of metric states, low levels of noise or narrow confidence intervals.

  3. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Author version: FEMS Microbiol. Lett., vol.341; 2013; 69-78 Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies Cathrine Sumathi Manohar* and Chandralata Raghukumar$ National Institute of Oceanography, (Council...: un-cultured fungal diversity from marine habitats Abstract Studies on the molecular diversity of the micro-eukaryotic community have shown that fungi occupy a central position in a large number of marine habitats. Environmental surveys using...

  4. Application of culture culture-independent molecular biology based methods to evaluate acetic acid bacteria diversity during vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Navarrete, Paola; Mardones, Pamela; Romero, Jaime; Mas, Albert

    2008-08-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are considered fastidious microorganisms because they are difficult to isolate and cultivate. Different molecular approaches were taken to detect AAB diversity, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media. Those methods were tested in samples that originated during traditional vinegar production. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted directly from the acetification container. Bacterial composition was analyzed by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA gene, Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of amplicons containing region V3-V5 of 16S rRNA gene and cloning of those amplicons. TTGE bands and clones were grouped based on their electrophoretic pattern similarity and sequenced to be compared with reference strains. The main microorganism identified in vinegar was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which at the end of the acetification process was considered to be the only microorganism present. The diversity was the highest at 2% acetic acid, where indefinite species of Gluconacetobacter xylinus/europaeus/intermedius were also present.

  5. Physician group cultural dimensions and quality performance indicators: not all is equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalarz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A group practice culture survey measured the cultural dimensions of physician groups, and their relationship to group quality performance was explored. Cultural dimensions were statistically significant in explaining variance of quality performance among the physician groups studied. However, different cultural dimensions contributed to each of the quality performance indicators measured. Thus, cultural dimensions are important factors influencing physician groups' quality performance.

  6. Diversity and the Social Mind: Goals, Constructs, Culture, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Sippola, Lorrie K.

    1998-01-01

    Draws on journal articles to discuss how cultural variability can be reconciled with developmental theory and dimensions that matter most for development. Argues that cross-cultural research should be predicated on a model of how culture interacts with forces that guide development and that interpretation of cross-cultural research is severely…

  7. Culturally diverse health care students' experiences with teaching strategies in Finland: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Pitkala, Kaisu

    2013-06-01

    All over the world, current health care students come from a variety of cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds. Their expectations and learning needs vary, yet little is known about how our current education system meets their needs. The purpose of this study was to explore culturally diverse health care students' experiences of teaching strategies in polytechnic faculties of health care in Finland. Specifically, we aimed to compare how international students and Finnish students experience the same curriculum. A cross sectional survey. Ten polytechnic faculties of health care in Finland offering English-Language-Taught Degree Programmess (ELTDPs). 283 students studying nursing, public health nursing, or physiotherapy in English. Of these, 166 were international students and 112 were Finnish students. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed specifically for this study. The survey included items grouped into seven dimensions: 1. concreteness of theoretical instruction, 2. encouragement of student activity, 3. use of skills labs, 4. variation among teaching strategies, 5. assessment, 6. interaction in the English-Language-Taught Degree Programmes, and 7. approach to diversity in the English-Language-Taught Degree Programmes. The most positive experiences for all students were with the approach to cultural diversity and the concreteness of theoretical instruction, whereas the most negative experiences were with assessment. International students' experiences were more positive than Finnish students' in the following dimensions: encouragement of student activity (p=0.005), variation among teaching strategies (p<0.001), and assessment (p<0.001). Compared to the Finnish students, more than double the number of international students were dissatisfied with their lives (p<0.001). The implications for education include the strengthening teachers' leadership role in small group activities, providing individual and detailed feedback, and ensuring

  8. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment.

  9. Nursing philosophy: Foucault and cultural diversity issues in the nursing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chin Kang

    2007-03-01

    Cultural diversity is a highly important issue in nursing education and nursing practice today. This study is a philosophical approach to the power relationship between a health care provider and a care recipient. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships between nurses and ethnic minority patients based on the discussions of some Foucauldian concepts that are related to cultural diversity. Based on the analysis, this study provides some suggestions for cultural competency in nursing practice.

  10. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  11. The role of culture and diversity in the prevention of falls among older Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Khim; Dickinson, Angela

    2011-03-01

    This grounded-theory study explored the perceptions of Chinese older people, living in England, on falls and fear of falling, and identified facilitators and barriers to fall prevention interventions. With a sample of 30 Chinese older people, we conducted two focus groups and 10 in-depth interviews in Mandarin or Cantonese. Interview transcripts, back translated, were analyzed using N6. Constant comparative analysis highlighted a range of health-seeking behaviors after a fall: Chinese older people were reluctant to use formal health services; talking about falls was avoided; older people hid falls from their adult children to avoid worrying them; and fatalistic views about falls and poor knowledge about availability and content of interventions were prevalent. Cost of interventions was important. Chinese older adults valued their independence, and cultural intergenerational relations had an impact on taking action to prevent falls. Cultural diversity affects older adults' acceptance of fall prevention interventions.

  12. The Underlying Structure of Diverse Work Groups: A Literature Review on Faultlines and Diversity Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity can be seen everywhere, as either a readily observable trait of people, such as gender and ethnicity, or as a hidden set of abilities, such work skills and personality traits. Organizations consider that work-teams with a diverse composition outperform homogeneous work-teams. Although this is often the case, there can be specific types of diversity composition that are detrimental for organizational outcomes. Usually this occurs in situations where members of a team align on more than one diversity attribute, thus creating a diversity faultline. As of yet, however, the literature is lacking a systematic overview as to whether diversity faultlines are always associated with poor organizational outcomes. To address this issue we conducted a literature review in which we sought to unravel the different underlying structures of diversity faultlines and their association with organizational outcomes. We distinguished between affective outcomes and productive outcomes. The findings indicate that faultlines can be categorized as based on social category aspects, information/ decision-making aspects, or a combination of the two attributes. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is no straightforward relationship between the various faultlines and outcomes. We argue that this is potentially due to the fact that these studies have not addressed the normative fit of faultlines. Our review also hints at the necessity of researchers to reach a consensus on how to operationalize some diversity traits.

  13. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Countering the influence of cultural hegemony on choosing a nursing career: a group-mentoring approach for student recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Rowsey, Pamela J; Giscombe, Cheryl; Hodges, Eric A; Fowler, Tamryn; Alexander, Rumay

    2014-05-01

    Extensive literature exists that demonstrates the influence of social cues and interpersonal interactions with influential others on student career choices. This article applies Gramsci's political views of hegemony and counterhegemony to situate student descriptions of their experiences and the goals of a group-mentoring session designed to address the culturally hegemonic symbolic cues and interpersonal interactions that can negatively influence a student's desire to select a career in nursing. Specifics around the development, implementation, and evaluation of the group-mentoring session, as part of a broader school-wide culture to promote diversity and as a larger program to increase the diversity of the nursing workforce, are described.

  15. Relational diversity and neighbourhood cohesion. Unpacking variety, balance and in-group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Ruud; Schaeffer, Merlin

    2015-09-01

    Ethnic diversity is typically measured by the well-known Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. This paper discusses the merits of an alternative approach, which is in our view better suited to tease out why and how ethnic diversity matters. The approach consists of two elements. First, all existing diversity indices are non-relational. From the viewpoint of theoretical accounts that attribute negative diversity effects to in-group favoritism and out-group threat, it should however matter whether, given a certain level of overall diversity, an individual belongs to a minority group or to the dominant majority. We therefore decompose diversity by distinguishing the in-group share from the diversity of ethnic out-groups. Second, we show how generalized entropy measures can be used to test which of diversity's two basic dimensions matters most: the variety of groups, or the unequal distribution (balance) of the population over groups. These measures allow us to test different theoretical explanations against each other, because they imply different expectations regarding the effects of in-group size, out-group variety, and out-group balance. We apply these ideas in an analysis of various social cohesion measures across 55 German localities and show that both in-group size and out-group diversity matter. For the native majority as well as for persons of immigration background, the variety component of diversity seems to be more decisive than has formerly been acknowledged. These findings provide little support for group threat and in-group favoritism as the decisive mechanisms behind negative diversity effects, and are most in line with the predictions of theories that emphasize coordination problems, asymmetric preferences, and network closure.

  16. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse students during clinical placement: strategies from both sides of the table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Sharleen L; Milner, Julia

    2015-10-15

    Increasing proportions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) students within health professional courses at universities creates challenges in delivering inclusive training and education. Clinical placements are a core component of most health care degrees as they allow for applied learning opportunities. A research gap has been identified in regard to understanding challenges and strategies for CALD students in health professional placements. A key stakeholder approach was used to examine barriers and enablers experienced by CALD students in clinical placement. Semi-structured focus groups with healthcare students (n = 13) and clinical placement supervisors (n = 12) were employed. The focus groups were analysed using open coding and thematic analysis. Three main barrier areas were identified: placement planning and preparation; teaching, assessment and feedback; and cultural and language issues. Potential solutions included addressing placement planning and preparation barriers, appropriate student placement preparation, pre-placement identification of higher risk CALD students, and diversity training for supervisors. For the barrier of teaching, assessment & feedback, addressing strategies were to: adapt student caseloads, encourage regular casual supervisor-student conversations, develop supportive placement delivery modes and structures, set expectations early, model the constructive feedback process, use visual aids, and tailor the learning environment to individual student needs. The enablers for cultural & language issues were to: build language and practical approaches for communication, raise awareness of the healthcare system (how it interacts with healthcare professions and how patients access it), and initiate mentoring programs. The findings suggest that teaching and learning strategies should be student-centred, aiming to promote awareness of difference and its impacts then develop appropriate responses by both student and teacher

  17. Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2006-09-01

    This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant, standards-based science curricula for Native Hawai'ian students. Teachers and Native Hawai'ian instructors lived and worked together during a five day culture-science immersion in rural school and community sites and met several times at school, university, and community sites to build knowledge and share programs. Teachers were deeply moved by immersion experiences, learned to connect cultural understandings, e.g., a Hawai'ian sense of place and curriculum development, and highly valued collaborating with peers on curriculum development and implementation. The study finds that long term professional development providing situated learning through cultural immersion, cultural translators, and interdisciplinary instruction supports the establishment of communities of practice in which participants develop the cross-cultural knowledge and literacy needed for the development of locally relevant, place and standards-based curricula and pedagogy.

  18. Too Pale and Stale: Prescribed Texts Used for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students in Australia and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogie, Melissa Reshma

    2015-01-01

    How are English texts selected to teach students from culturally diverse backgrounds in Australia and England? The English curricula in both countries aim for students to read and interpret meanings through texts, while learning about their culture, and that of cultural others. However, the current list of prescribed texts in both curricula are…

  19. Cross-Cultural Literacy: An Anthropological Approach to Dealing with Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu, Steven F.; Saravia-Shore, Marietta

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of Hirsch's concept of cultural literacy and suggests that the anthropological concept of cross-cultural literacy is more appropriate. Reviews (1) the resolutions of the Council on Anthropology and Education that are concerned with cultural diversity; and (2) the controversies surrounding bilingual education. (EVL)

  20. Wild plant resources and cultural practices in rural and urban households in South Africa : implications for bio-cultural diversity conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocks, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    An 'inextricable link' between biological and cultural diversity has been identified and the term bio-cultural diversity has been introduced as a concept denoting the link. Studies on bio-cultural diversity are largely focused on remote and isolated communities with the modes and relations of indige

  1. Wild plant resources and cultural practices in rural and urban households in South Africa : implications for bio-cultural diversity conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocks, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    An 'inextricable link' between biological and cultural diversity has been identified and the term bio-cultural diversity has been introduced as a concept denoting the link. Studies on bio-cultural diversity are largely focused on remote and isolated communities with the modes and relations of

  2. No problem! Avoidance of cultural diversity in teacher training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    minority children, who have no strategies to deal with racist behaviour in the classroom . .... learning, culturally prejudiced styles of teaching and culturally unprejudiced .... whilst Psychology of Education could include a perspective on the ...

  3. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. R. K. Jain

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Both culture- dependent and culture-independent methods indicated that in arid crops, ... on analysis of DNA allow investigation of this potential. .... Addition of anionic detergent, SDS along with CTAB yielded maximum DNA.

  4. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  5. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…

  7. Don't neglect cultural diversity in oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-05-01

    The growing Hispanic population in the United States mandates the need for oncology providers to become more familiar with disease patterns and cultural belief systems that can impact cancer care. "Culturally competent care" should be the mandate of all providers. This comprises awareness of cultural differences, communication in a manner that the patient understands, and respect.

  8. Community Psychology, Diversity, and the Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen argued that psychology must broaden its conceptualization of culture to consider its many forms, such as religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The current author could not agree more with Cohen's proposed conceptualization of culture and its potential impact on…

  9. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  10. On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education : The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzali, L.; Gocłowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Stathi, S

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study with the aim of testing certain conditions under which engaging with cultural diversity increases creativity among schoolchildren. Results obtained from a sample of 149 Italian elementary schoolchildren revealed that engaging with cultural diversity, operationalize

  11. Rethinking Classroom Diversity: Three Student Cultures in a Mainline Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussions on teaching and learning within theological seminaries often center on the question of student diversity, focused primarily upon issues of race, gender, and ethnicity. At the same time that seminaries are challenged to deal with a multitude of pedagogical suppositions emerging from increasingly diverse learning goals, seminaries must…

  12. A New Zealand Perspective on Managing Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohi, John H.

    This paper describes the work of the New Zealand National Library and its commitment to being a center for diversity so that the collections within it are a reflection of the community it represents. Two acts that have focused attention on managing diversity in the government sector are summarized: the State Sector Act 1998, which requires the…

  13. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  14. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Giordano, James; France, Nicholas

    2007-04-26

    There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g.--cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc) is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient-physician relationship. There may be pressure to imbue cultural diversity issues

  15. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g. – cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users. The data were analysed and themes identified. Results There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Conclusion Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient

  16. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  17. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally......Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...

  18. Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M; Abuelroos, Dena; Dabaja, Emman; Jurva, Stephanie; Martin, Kimberly; McCarron, Joshua; Reed-Hendon, Caryn; Yeow, Raymond Y; Harriott, Melphine M

    2015-01-01

    Fostering cultural competence in higher education institutions is essential, particularly in training future health care workers to care for diverse populations. The opportunity to explore techniques to address diversity and cultural competence at a new medical school was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, staff, and medical students. From 2011 to 2015, the team sponsored a voluntary programming series to promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities for the medical school. Thirteen events were hosted with 562 participants across all. This approach to diversity proved effective and could be adapted in any higher education setting.

  19. Cultura no grupo de brinquedo Culture in the play group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Almeida Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o conceito de cultura em relação à microcultura do grupo de brinquedo. Concebe-se a criança como agente de criação e transmissão de cultura e o grupo de brinquedo como espaço de informação onde esses processos ocorrem. Essa concepção baseia-se no reconhecimento da espécie humana como biologicamente sócio-cultural e na pressuposição de adaptações precoces para essa especificidade. Episódios de atividade lúdica livre de crianças de 10 a 60 meses são analisados para detectar a ocorrência de criação, elaboração e transmissão de conteúdos culturais na interação criança-criança, ilustrando: (1 recuperação da cultura do ambiente social imediato e exploração de novas possibilidades de uso desses recursos; (2 criação de rituais lúdicos novos que podem tornar-se parte da microcultura do grupo; (3 aculturação, ou seja, assimilação de aspectos da microcultura do grupo. Os dados são interpretados como evidências da pré-adaptação humana para a vida sócio-cultural.This paper discusses the concept of culture in the context of playgroup microcultures. The child is viewed as an agent of culture creation and innovation, and the play group as a space of information where these processes occur. This view is based on the recognition of human species as biologically socio-cultural and on the assumption of precocious adaptations for this specificity. Episodes of free play activity among 10 to 60 month old children are analysed to detect the occurrence of creation, elaboration and transmission of cultural contents in child-child interactions, illustrating: (1 retrieval of the immediate social environment's culture and exploration of new possibilities of using these resources; (2 creation of new ludic rituals which can become part of the group's microculture; (3 aculturation, that is, assimilation of aspects of the group's microculture. Data are interpreted as evidences of the human pre-adaptation to a socio-cultural

  20. Diversity of culturable halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2006-10-01

    Unexpectedly high culturable diversity of moderately and extremely halophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was discovered in the sediments of various hypersaline habitats, including chloride-sulfate lakes in Mongolia, Russia and Ukraine, a sea saltern in Slovenia and a deep-sea salt brine from the Mediterranean. Six different groups of halophilic SOB, including four new genera, all belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, were found. Two groups of moderately halophilic strictly aerobic SOB dominated at 2 M NaCl, including representatives of the genus Halothiobacillus (in fully aerobic conditions) and Thiomicrospira (in micro-oxic conditions). Under denitrifying conditions at 2 M NaCl, a group of moderately halophilic and facultatively anaerobic SOB was selected, capable of complete denitrification of nitrate. The group represents a new genus with closest relatives among as yet undescribed marine thiodenitrifying isolates. With thiocyanate as a substrate, an enrichment culture at 2 M NaCl yielded a pure culture of moderately halophilic SOB capable of aerobic growth with thiocyanate and thiosulfate at up to 4 M NaCl. Furthermore, this bacterium also grew anaerobically using nitrite as electron acceptor. It formed a new lineage distantly related to the genus Thiomicrospira. Enrichments at 4 M NaCl resulted in the domination of two different, previously unknown, groups of extremely halophilic SOB. Under oxic conditions, they were represented by strictly aerobic spiral-shaped bacteria, related to the Ectothiorhodospiraceae, while under denitrifying conditions a group of facultatively anaerobic nitrate-reducing bacteria with long rod-shaped cells was selected, distantly related to the genus Acidithiobacillus.

  1. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  2. The construct equivalence of the PIB/SpEEx motivation index for job applicants from diverse cultural backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schaap, P; J. S. Basson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the construct equivalence of the PIB/SpEEx Motivation Index for entry-level job applicants from diverse cultural backgrounds in the public safety and security sector in South Africa. The use of psychometric instruments in South Africa has been criticized because it is said that they are largely based on the values and knowledge of White minority groups and are construct bias and are less valid for other cultural groups. In this study a Black, Asian and Wh...

  3. Cultural diversity: do we need a new wake-up call for parent training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilo; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2013-09-01

    In 1996, Forehand and Kotchick concluded that parent-training (PT) interventions largely ignored cultural influences on parenting behavior. They reasoned that the failure to integrate the influence of ethnicity into theories of parenting behavior could result in culturally biased and less effective interventions. The present article addresses whether their "wake-up call" went unheard. We review research on PT treatment studies and examine (a) the rate of inclusion of ethnic minority parents in PT research, (b) the effectiveness of PT across ethnic groups, and (c) the effectiveness of culturally adapted PT interventions. Results show that there has been an increase in the ethnic diversity of PT treatment studies over the past three decades, yet only one methodologically sound study directly examined ethnicity as a moderator of PT treatment outcome. Despite the paucity of evidence that ethnicity is a moderator of parent-training outcomes, a number of culturally adapted PT treatments have been developed. These adapted interventions have rarely been tested against the unadapted interventions on which they are based. The results fail to support the current emphasis on ethnicity in efforts to improve the effectiveness of PT. We present methodological and conceptual limitations in the existing literature and provide recommendations for researchers studying the effects of ethnicity on PT outcomes.

  4. Challenges of educational and cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, S; White, S

    1993-01-01

    In South Africa, the estimate of HIV-infected population was 300,000 in September 1993, with 500 new infections occurring daily, mostly in poor neighborhoods with illiteracy rates of 25-50%. The AIDS Education and Training (AET) targeted low-literate groups by developing an educational package for the workplace. The methodology included repetition of key messages, stories from their own culture with pictures, interaction in groups, and visual aids to retain information. The content involved biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS, testing and counseling, safe sex, traditional healers, the needs of the infected, and workplace/community issues. The pictures depicted men and women of all racial varieties to drive home the message that the infection can infect everybody. 31 colorful laminated posters were developed for the AIDS flip chart kit, and over 100 flip chart sessions were conducted at workplaces. An evaluation of the flip chart sessions queried 143 English- and 897 Tswana-speaking people at one company. 58% of respondents considered condom use and reducing the number of partners the most important message. 28% deemed biomedical facts and latency of the infection important, 25% the deadly nature of the disease, and 15% the modes of transmission. 44% desired to learn about prevention and 30% appreciated the interactive method of learning. All participants sought more information on STDs, where to get an HIV test, and how to have safer sex. AET provides assistance to clients to become educators themselves by means of policy development, refresher courses for educators, and action planning (condom distribution, STD control, referral for testing, and follow-up). The flip chart is also used for other health and lifestyle education regarding family planning, tuberculosis, sexuality, and communication skills aimed at company managers, union officials, and supervisors.

  5. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  6. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport: case studies exploring cultural and religious diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation of stakeholders' voices on the inclusion of Muslim girls and the analysis of PE discourses in these countries. Findings illustrate similarities and differences at the interface of cultural diversity, political rhetoric of inclusion and realities of sport experiences for Muslim girls in both countries. Complex influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport environments to enable participation and retention of their cultural identities. Highlighted throughout the paper are the ways in which school sport policy and practice, providers and gatekeepers, can include or exclude groups, in this case Muslim girls. Too often coaches and teachers are unaware of crucial facts about their learners, not only in terms of their physical development and capabilities but also in terms of their cultural needs. Mistakes in creating conducive learning environments leave young people to negotiate a way to participate or refrain from participation.

  7. A comparative study on the phylogenetic diversity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from five marine sponge species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yan; Jin, Meifang; Yu, Xingju

    2008-03-01

    A cultivation-based approach was employed to compare the culturable actinobacterial diversity associated with five marine sponge species (Craniella australiensis, Halichondria rugosa, Reniochalina sp., Sponge sp., and Stelletta tenuis). The phylogenetic affiliation of the actinobacterial isolates was assessed by 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis. A total of 181 actinobacterial strains were isolated using five different culture media (denoted as M1-M5). The type of medium exhibited significant effects on the number of actinobacteria recovered, with the highest number of isolates on M3 (63 isolates) and the lowest on M1 (12 isolates). The genera isolated were also different, with the recovery of three genera on M2 and M3, and only a single genus on M1. The number of actinobacteria isolated from the five sponge species was significantly different, with a count of 83, 36, 30, 17, and 15 isolates from S. tenuis, H. rugosa, Sponge sp., Reniochalina sp., and C. australiensis, respectively. M3 was the best isolation medium for recovery of actinobacteria from S. tenuis, H. rugosa, and Sponge sp., while no specific medium preference was observed for the recovery of actinobacteria from Reniochalina sp., and C. australiensis. The RFLP fingerprinting of 16S rDNA genes digested with HhaI revealed six different patterns, in which 16 representative 16S rDNAs were fully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 12 strains belong to the group Streptomyces, three strains belong to Pseudonocardia, and one strain belongs to Nocardia. Two strains C14 (from C. australiensis) and N13 (from Sponge sp.) have only 96.26% and 96.27% similarity to earlier published sequences, and are therefore potential candidates for new species. The highest diversity of three actinobacteria genera was obtained from Sponge sp., though the number of isolates was low. Two genera of actinobacteria, Streptomyces, and Pseudonocardia, were isolated from both S. tenuis and C. australiensis. Only the genus of Streptomyces

  8. Group-size diversity in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    Public goods games are models of social dilemmas where cooperators pay a cost for the production of a public good while defectors free ride on the contributions of cooperators. In the traditional framework of evolutionary game theory, the payoffs of cooperators and defectors result from interactions in groups formed by binomial sampling from an infinite population. Despite empirical evidence showing that group-size distributions in nature are highly heterogeneous, most models of social evolution assume that the group size is constant. In this article, I remove this assumption and explore the effects of having random group sizes on the evolutionary dynamics of public goods games. By a straightforward application of Jensen's inequality, I show that the outcome of general nonlinear public goods games depends not only on the average group size but also on the variance of the group-size distribution. This general result is illustrated with two nonlinear public goods games (the public goods game with discounting or synergy and the N-person volunteer's dilemma) and three different group-size distributions (Poisson, geometric, and Waring). The results suggest that failing to acknowledge the natural variation of group sizes can lead to an underestimation of the actual level of cooperation exhibited in evolving populations.

  9. Exploring social and cultural diversity within 'Black British Jazz' audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent study which explores the social, economic and cultural characteristics of audiences for performances by black British jazz musicians. It draws on Bourdieu’s theoretical concept of cultural capital, which links social class and educational qualification level to cultural consumption, as well as on Hall’s exploration of ‘new ethnicities’, demonstrating how the two theories are interrelated. The study uses a mixed method approach of observation, quest...

  10. Effectively Teaching Diverse Student Groups: A Reflection on Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses facilitating student collegiality within diverse student groups. It argues that diverse student groups of international, domestic, mature age and Gen Y students often have similar difficulties and strengths although they may occur for quite different reasons and understanding this is useful when deciding on teaching and…

  11. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  12. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  13. Workforce ethnic diversity and culturally competent health care: the case of Arab physicians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.

  14. Management strategies to harness cultural diversity in Australian construction sites - a social identity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loosemore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Construction sites around the world employ large numbers of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. The effective management of this cultural diversity has important implications for the productivity, safety, health and welfare of construction workers and for the performance and reputation of firms which employ them. The findings of a three year, multi-staged study of cultural diversity management practices on construction sites are critiqued using social identity theory. This reveals that so called “best-practice” diversity management strategies may have an opposite effect to that intended. It is concluded that the management of diversity on construction projects would benefit from being informed by social identity research. 

  15. Colorblind or colorful? How diversity approaches affect cultural majority and minority employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Vos, Menno W.; Otten, Sabine; Podsiadlowski, Astrid; van der Zee, Karen I.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how perceived organizational diversity approaches (colorblindness and multiculturalism) relate to affective and productive work outcomes for cultural majority and minority employees. Using structural equation modeling on data collected in a panel study among 152 native Dutch majority and

  16. Book Review: Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures. By Mark Bray, Ora Kwo and Boris Jokic (Eds. (2015, 292pp. ISBN: 9789881424136, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.

  17. Colorblind or colorful? How diversity approaches affect cultural majority and minority employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Vos, Menno W.; Otten, Sabine; Podsiadlowski, Astrid; van der Zee, Karen I.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how perceived organizational diversity approaches (colorblindness and multiculturalism) relate to affective and productive work outcomes for cultural majority and minority employees. Using structural equation modeling on data collected in a panel study among 152 native Dutch majority and

  18. Culturally Diverse Communities and End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trusting physi- cians, and participating in decisions. Some cultures (e.g., Korean) expect the eldest son to decide about a ... language” (Phipps, True & Pomerantz, 200). For many reasons, Koreans ... them differently. Medical culture emphasizes a curative focus and a view of ...

  19. Cultural diversity and Ottoman heritage in contemporary Greek popular novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Trine Stauning

    Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility/migration. Such ...... will place the contemporary novels in relation to earlier Greek literature dealing with cultural identity in the Ottoman period from different angles (e.g. Βιζυηνός, Δέλτα, Σωτηρίου, Φακίνος, Γαλανάκη).......Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility......, publications and cultural events have highlighted the cultural complexity of the city’s past, thus breaking with the collective memory cultivated in the twentieth century based on the myth of national cultural homogeneity. In the field of literature there has been a boom of well-selling novels situated...

  20. Fatty acids intake among diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna D. Hatma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary pattern specifically fatty acids intake should prove to be an informative and powerful means to augment our understanding of the role of diet in chronic disease particularly CHD. Cross sectional study was implemented to describe the nutrients intake specifically fatty acids intake of 4 (four ethnic groups in Indonesia, such as Minangkabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Buginese. The percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA to total energy intakes were around 20%. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to the total energy were about 4.4% to 4.6% among the Sundanese and the Javanese.While among the other two ethnic groups, the percentage of PUFA to total energy were less, 2.6 % among the Minangkabau and 2.8% among the Buginese ethnic. The percentage of mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA to total energy intake were higher among the two ethnic groups, Sundanese and Javanese (6.1% vs. 5.5%. While the percentages of MUFA between the other two ethnic groups Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic were lower (2.6% vs. 2.8%. Based on the ratio of PUFA: MUFA: SAFA, we could consider that Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic groups both had poor quality of dietary fat pattern. Having the poor quality of dietary fat pattern and higher fat intake, we might take into consideration that the Minangkabau ethnic groups, had higher risk toward dyslipidemia compared to the other three ethnic groups. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:242-8Keywords: fatty acids intake, SAFA, MUFA, PUFA , ethnic Nutrient intake

  1. Cultural diversity in Brazilian children’s literature: The project Literatura em Minha Casa in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira de Paula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to search for representations of Brazilian cultural diversity in children’s literature of the Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola [National Program of School Library] (PNBE, in the editions of 2001, 2002, and 2003, years of the project Literatura em Minha Casa [Literature in My House], especially those addressed to fourth and fifth grades of Elementary School. The selection criteria of works claimed that the collections should “[…] present a small picture of the Brazilian culture […]” (Brasil, 2001; 2002; 2003, p. 12, understanding that culture as characterized by diversity. Therefore, the analysis was divided into two phases: the first dealt with ethnic plurality and the second with culture and regionalism. In general, the results showed that among 120 works analyzed, 15 had ethnic-racial diversity and 12 works presented aspects of regionalism and culture from different parts of Brazil.

  2. Assessing Business and Marketing Teachers' Attitudes toward Cultural Pluralism and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elaine; Hall, Helen C.

    2002-01-01

    The Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment was used to assess business and marketing teachers' attitudes toward issues related to multicultural education (315 of 1,400 responded). Although they had positive attitudes about the issues, they were resistant toward implementation of cultural pluralism and diversity. (Contains 21 references.) (JOW)

  3. Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking about Cultural Diversity and Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Floya

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the concepts of cultural diversity, belonging and identity which inform important debates for managing "difference" in contemporary European societies. These address issues relating to transnational migration, ethnic diversity and racialisation in a range of social contexts. The article also reflects on the concept of…

  4. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  5. Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking about Cultural Diversity and Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Floya

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the concepts of cultural diversity, belonging and identity which inform important debates for managing "difference" in contemporary European societies. These address issues relating to transnational migration, ethnic diversity and racialisation in a range of social contexts. The article also reflects on the concept of…

  6. Teaching Respect for Cultural Diversity in Australian Early Childhood Programs: A Challenge for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Early childhood teachers in Victoria, Australia face increasing cultural and "racial" diversity among the children and families with whom they work. A small-scale exploratory study found that many teachers were uncertain about how best to respond to such diversity and a mismatch between social expectations that teachers would encourage…

  7. Evaluating Young Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds for Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Guiberson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing diversity in the United States, there has been a call for early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) services to be responsive and sensitive to the diversity of children and families represented in communities. Culturally responsive practice is particularly important for EI/ECSE professionals because of the…

  8. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial diversity in a child-care facility

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Sara; Lee Lesley; Kelley Scott T

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Child-care facilities appear to provide daily opportunities for exposure and transmission of bacteria and viruses. However, almost nothing is known about the diversity of microbial contamination in daycare facilities or its public health implications. Recent culture-independent molecular studies of bacterial diversity in indoor environments have revealed an astonishing diversity of microorganisms, including opportunistic pathogens and many uncultured bacteria. In this stud...

  9. Group Identity, Deliberative Democracy and Diversity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2012-01-01

    Democratic deliberation places the burden of self-governance on its citizens to provide mutual justifying reasons (Gutmann & Thompson, 1996). This article concerns the limiting effect that group identity has on the efficacy of democratic deliberation for equality in education. Under conditions of a powerful majority, deliberation can be repressive…

  10. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    During the 00s a strong emphasis was placed on the notion of ‘culture’ at the European level. This has, among other things, led to the development of policies on ‘intercultural dialogue’ (ICD) which aim to transmit an interactive and participatory sense of culture. However, culture remains...... an ambiguous and contested concept within the EU, and the imprecision found in EU policy documents regarding its definition is mainly due to the coexistence of different conceptions of culture. Through discourse analysis and policy problem representation, this chapter analyses the development of ICD policies...... in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...

  11. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    During the 00s a strong emphasis was placed on the notion of ‘culture’ at the European level. This has, among other things, led to the development of policies on ‘intercultural dialogue’ (ICD) which aim to transmit an interactive and participatory sense of culture. However, culture remains...... an ambiguous and contested concept within the EU, and the imprecision found in EU policy documents regarding its definition is mainly due to the coexistence of different conceptions of culture. Through discourse analysis and policy problem representation, this chapter analyses the development of ICD policies...... in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...

  12. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  13. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Van der Gang, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is t

  14. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Van der Gang, Ineke

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is

  15. Methods That Matter in Addressing Cultural Diversity with Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Commins, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a combination of prior experience, theoretical stance, and intuition, along with pedagogical practices identified to be effective in addressing diversity with teacher candidates, a model for teaching multicultural education to teacher candidates was designed. This study examined how particular elements of this model were effective in…

  16. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Van der Gang, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is t

  17. Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan; Brender, Jytte

    The report " Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems" discusses a case study method which is an extension of work orginallly done in Babel, a 5th framework EU project. The report contributes to the discussion identifying operational cultural...

  18. Drawing Their Way into Writing: Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students Finding Voice through Mini-Novelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Stephanie; Herrera, Socorro G.

    2014-01-01

    Writing can be a difficult task for many students in today's classrooms; however, for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), writing can be especially difficult. These students often are in the process of developing their facility with the English language, and they possess cultural backgrounds that differ from those of…

  19. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  20. Critical Perspectives on Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood: Building an Inclusive Curriculum and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the complexities that arise from addressing issues of cultural diversity in the early years context. It explores the challenges of developing an effective early years provision and pedagogy that values cultural difference within the framework of a mandated curriculum, "The Early Years Foundation Stage…

  1. Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan; Brender, Jytte

    The report " Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems" discusses a case study method which is an extension of work orginallly done in Babel, a 5th framework EU project. The report contributes to the discussion identifying operational cultural...

  2. Critical Perspectives on Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood: Building an Inclusive Curriculum and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the complexities that arise from addressing issues of cultural diversity in the early years context. It explores the challenges of developing an effective early years provision and pedagogy that values cultural difference within the framework of a mandated curriculum, "The Early Years Foundation Stage…

  3. Providing Transition Services for Students with Disabilities from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoke, Selete Kofi; Simon-Burroughs, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Youth with disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds are at high risk for a number of negative postschool outcomes including high unemployment, low wages, and limited access to postsecondary education and training. Cultural and linguistic differences may negatively impact transition planning for these youth as they…

  4. Toward Defining Programs and Services for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Shernaz B.; Malkin, Diana H.

    1993-01-01

    Intended to help special educators with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, this article discusses the importance of addressing students' language characteristics, developing a language use plan, recognizing the important influence of cultural factors on childrearing practices and communication styles, selecting appropriate…

  5. Cultural Diversity and the "Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage" in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling-Yin, Lynn Ang

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with how and to what extent cultural diversity and difference are promoted in early childhood education and the curriculum. With reference to the "Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage in England" (2000), I argue that dominant discourses of cultural homogeneity continue to powerfully inform the…

  6. Drawing Their Way into Writing: Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students Finding Voice through Mini-Novelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Stephanie; Herrera, Socorro G.

    2014-01-01

    Writing can be a difficult task for many students in today's classrooms; however, for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), writing can be especially difficult. These students often are in the process of developing their facility with the English language, and they possess cultural backgrounds that differ from those of…

  7. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  8. The influence of social identity and personality on outcomes of cultural diversity in teams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K; Atsma, N; Brodbeck, F

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of social identity and personality on work outcomes among business students who worked together in culturally diverse teams. As predicted, a negative effect of identification with one's cultural background and a positive effect of identification with the team

  9. Moving Toward Cultural Pluralism, Part II: "Enculturation within Group Culture-Clusters."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Jose R.

    A survey of assimilation processes of Vietnamese immigrants suggests that biculturalism enables a person to gain the benefits of economic and political enfranchisement while still receiving social and psychological nourishment from his/her native culture-cluster. The sample consisted of three groups of Vietnamese immigrants who arrived in San…

  10. Effects of Growth Media on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi from Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Kopun, Theodora; Grube, Martin

    2017-05-17

    Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups. According to sequence data, most isolates besides the lichen mycobionts belong to the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. With our approach we can further explore the hidden fungal diversity in lichens to assist in the search of novel compounds.

  11. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  12. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...... dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally...... diverse organizations represent. This is illustrated with data from an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish multicultural organization. The final section reflects on implications of using a combination of different theories in analyzing the results, and suggests other possibilities for future research....

  13. Barriers to the Development of Creative Industries in Culturally Diverse Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Klimczuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the general conditions for the development of creative industries in Podlaskie Voivodship from Poland. This region on the background of the country is characterized by the highest level of cultural diversity and multiculturalism policy. However, there are a number of barriers for the creative industries. First article discusses the regional characteristics and then the basic theoretical approaches and conclusions of the author’s own research. The following sections discuss the conclusions and recommendations for regional policy and management of cultural sector entities that may be relevant also for other culturally diverse regions.

  14. Cultural diversity process improves organizational community in urban teaching medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R; Spence, M M

    1996-01-01

    An urban teaching facility with nearly 3,000 employees had communication problems associated with race, gender and other cultural differences. It also competed for health care dollars and faced possible reduction in federal funding. The medical center instituted mandatory training in cultural diversity and customer service-and integrated the training process with the hospital's overall quality improvement plan and marketing strategy. The integrated approach affected the bottom line-Hurley's patient base has increased, and the medical center operates in the black. Training in cultural diversity and customer service is an effective tool to improve employee communication and improve financial outlook.

  15. Cultural diversity in physical diseases among patients with mental illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens I; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western...... in background populations was seen and was most marked in overweight.Conclusions:Overweight, CVD and DM were increased in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders in all three cultures investigated (Western Europe, Nigeria and Japan). Lifestyle diseases were also seen in Nigeria and Japan....... The results from this study indicate that cultural background might be seen as an important factor in dealing with lifestyle diseases among people with a severe mental illness, as it is in the general population....

  16. Disordered eating & cultural diversity: a focus on Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2014-04-01

    A dearth of data concerning eating problems among adult women from minority population groups leaves substantial knowledge gaps and constrains evidence-based interventions. To examine prevalence and predictors of disordered eating behaviors (DEB) among Arab Muslim women in Israel, whose eating behaviors have not been previously examined and to compare with second generation Israeli-born Jews of European heritage. Community-based study includes sub-samples of Arab Muslims and Israeli-born Jews. DEB is assessed with fourteen DSM-IV related symptoms. Hierarchical regressions examine influence of weight, self-criticism and psychological distress on DEB severity. Relatively high prevalence rates emerge for Muslims (27%) and Jews (20%), a nonsignificant difference. In contrast, regressions reveal substantially different predictor patterns. For Arab Muslims, weight has the strongest association; for Jews, weight is not significant while self-criticism is the strongest predictor. Explained variance also differs considerably: 45% for Muslims and 28% for Jews. Surprising similarities and distinct differences underscore complex patterns of eating disturbances across culturally diverse groups. Culturally sensitive interventions are warranted along with more illuminating explanatory paradigms than 'one size fits all.' Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diverse decisions. How culture affects ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F; Cohen, S; Caroselli, C

    1997-03-01

    Even under optimal conditions, assisting patients and families in making ethical decisions is difficult at best. Often these decisions revolve around the end-of-life issues that require acknowledgement that the patient is unlikely to survive, which may be perceived as a failure to both the family and the staff. At the very least, it can be a sad time, fraught with uncertainty and indecision. When these difficulties are coupled with ineffective communication related to cultural insensitivity or unawareness, the effects can be devastating to the decision-making process. All CCNs are expected to master the skills necessary for assisting patients and families through the harrowing experience of life-threatening illness. Whereas much of critical care focuses on managing pathophysiologic disturbances, emotional needs are equally important. It follows then that the CCN must assume responsibility for assisting patients and families in coping with the crisis of critical illness and working through ethical issues, which often include end-of-life decisions and organ donation. Culturally competent care is required when addressing patient needs holistically, but it is so much more. It is an opportunity to enrich and deepen the CCN/patient/family relationship, advocate for the patient, and broaden the opportunities for communication among staff. This article has provided some beginning steps for increasing nursing cultural awareness and has offered some initial strategies to consider when designing a plan of care. Through continuing efforts, CCNs and organizations can do much to decrease the alienation that many patients and families have traditionally encountered in the CCU, an estrangement that is exacerbated when their culture is different from the predominant culture of the unit. The effort to become more culturally aware may appear to require extraordinary effort; however, the rewards of optimizing patient care are unsurpassed.

  18. Resident and Family Member Perceptions of Cultural Diversity in Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2016-08-03

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home.

  19. Taking the easy way out : Preference diversity, decision strategies, and decision refusal in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.; Kaps, Silvia C.

    2008-01-01

    It has often been argued and found that preference diversity is beneficial for the quality of group decisions. However, this literature has neglected the fact that in many situations, it is also possible not to choose. Further, preference diversity can be based on attractions, aversions, or both. Th

  20. Culturable rare Actinomycetes: diversity, isolation and marine natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-11-01

    Rare Actinomycetes from underexplored marine environments are targeted in drug discovery studies due to the Actinomycetes' potentially huge resource of structurally diverse natural products with unusual biological activity. Of all marine bacteria, 10 % are Actinomycetes, which have proven an outstanding and fascinating resource for new and potent bioactive molecules. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare Actinomycetes from underexplored diverse natural habitats have resulted in the isolation of about 220 rare Actinomycete genera of which more than 50 taxa have been reported to be the producers of 2,500 bioactive compounds. That amount represents greater than 25 % of the total Actinomycetes metabolites, demonstrating that selective isolation methods are being developed and extensively applied. Due to the high rediscovery rate of known compounds from Actinomycetes, a renewed interest in the development of new antimicrobial agents from rare and novel Actinomycetes is urgently required to combat the increasing number of multidrug-resistant human pathogens. To facilitate that discovery, this review updates all selective isolation media including pretreatment and enrichment methods for the isolation of marine rare Actinomycetes. In addition, this review demonstrates that discovering new compounds with novel scaffolds can be increased by intensive efforts in isolating and screening rare marine genera of Actinomycetes. Between 2007 and mid-2013, 80 new rare Actinomycete species were reported from marine habitats. They belong to 23 rare families, of which three are novel, and 20 novel genera. Of them, the family Micromonosporaceae is dominant as a producer of promising chemical diversity.

  1. Teaching science in culturally diverse classrooms: The relevance of multicultural coursework on novice teachers' instructional choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Thais B. P. da

    Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for

  2. Joking Culture: The Role of Repeated Humorous Interactions on Group Processes during Challenge Course Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Siharath, Kassidy; Bell, Steven; Nguyen, Kim; Baker, Carla

    2011-01-01

    When groups form, they develop their own culture from the shared meaning created from their interactions. Humor is part of every social group, and when repeatedly referenced, it forms a joking culture. The joking culture of small groups influences group processes by smoothing group interaction, forming a collective identity, separating the group…

  3. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...

  4. Sexual Orientation: A Cultural Diversity Issue for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misener, Terry R.; Sowell, Richard L.; Phillips, Kenneth D.; Harris, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the development of a culturally aware work force have consistently ignored the importance of gender role and sexual orientation as sources of potential conflict in the workplace. Nursing must end personal and professional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (JOW)

  5. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  6. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  7. Cultural Diversity and the Imagined Community of the Global Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Green, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Transnational academic mobility and the ongoing push towards "internationalization" together raise challenges for the cultural climate of today's universities. This paper explores these issues from the perspective of supervisors of research degrees in an Australian university in which "internationalization" and "academic…

  8. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  9. Cultural Diversity and the Imagined Community of the Global Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Green, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Transnational academic mobility and the ongoing push towards "internationalization" together raise challenges for the cultural climate of today's universities. This paper explores these issues from the perspective of supervisors of research degrees in an Australian university in which "internationalization" and "academic…

  10. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Effectiveness. Dependent var Unstand. coeff SE B P Long vs short term 0.117 0.087 0.166 0.182 Masculinity/ feminity 0.041 0.091 0.056 0.657 Uncertainty...Creating hybrid team cultures: An empirical test of transnational team functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 26-49. Edwards. J.E.; Rosenfeld

  11. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural…

  12. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  13. Does cultural and linguistic diversity affect health-related outcomes for people with stroke at discharge from hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Hill, Keith D

    2017-04-01

    Primary purpose to determine if cultural and linguistic diversity affects health-related outcomes in people with stroke at discharge from hospital and secondary purpose to explore whether interpreter use alters these outcomes. Systematic search of: Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL, Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Ageline databases. Publications were classified into whether they examined the impact of diversity in culture, or language or culture and language combined. Quality of evidence available was summarized using Best Evidence Synthesis. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Best Evidence Synthesis indicated conflicting evidence about the impact of culture alone and language barriers alone on health-related outcomes. There was strong evidence that hospital length of stay does not differ between groups when the combined impact of culture and language was investigated. Conflicting evidence was found for other outcomes including admission, discharge and change in FIM scores, and post-hospital discharge living arrangements. It is unknown if interpreter use alters health-related outcomes, because this was infrequently reported. The current limited research suggests that cultural and linguistic diversity does not appear to impact on health-related outcomes at discharge from hospital for people who have had a stroke, however further research is needed to address identified gaps. Implications for Rehabilitation The different language, culture and beliefs about health demonstrated by patients with stroke from minority groups in North America do not appear to significantly impact on their health-related outcomes during their admission to hospital. It is not known whether interpreter use influences outcomes in stroke rehabilitation because there is insufficient high quality research in this area. Clinicians in countries with different health systems and different cultural and linguistic groups within their communities need to view the results with caution

  14. The human dimensions of post-stroke homecare: experiences of older carers from diverse ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Carole; Greenwood, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Very little is known about how older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups caring for someone after a stroke access and engage with social care services. This paper explores both the experiences of carers whose relative was receiving social care services in their own home and the value of a theory of humanising care to understand and explain these experiences. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 50 carers from five different ethnic groups: Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and White British. Data were thematically analysed within a phenomenological framework. Five interacting themes emerged: communication and bureaucracy; time and timing; communication and rapport building; trust and safety; humanity and the human dimensions of care. Many of the experiences could be interpreted within a conceptual framework of humanising care underpinned by eight interacting dimensions of what it means to be treated as an individual and a human. Carers from BME and White British groups share many experiences of homecare although language and cultural difference may exacerbate common pressures and stresses. The framework for humanising care is a useful tool to evaluate aspects of homecare that are responsive to dignity and diversity. Implications for Rehabilitation Explicitly identifying, describing and valuing the human dimensions of care may support services in responding appropriately to homecare users from black minority ethnic communities as well as those from white majority groups. Unresponsive services and poor communication may lead to loss of trust with care agencies and undermine BME carers' sense of entitlement and competence in engaging with homecare services. Care worker continuity investing time in building relationships and care worker familiarity is important to many families who access social care services.

  15. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.

    2007-01-01

    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that

  16. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.

    2007-01-01

    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that gr

  17. Distributed Information and Group Decision-Making: Effects of Diversity and Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kooij-de Bode (Hanneke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making s

  18. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  19. Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Srivastava, Rani; Craig, Dianna; Tucker, Donna; Grinspun, Doris; Bajnok, Irmajean; Griffin, Pat; Long, Leslye; Porritt, Kylie; Han, Thuzar; Gi, Aye A

    2007-03-01

    quality  Methodological quality was independently established by two reviewers, using standardised techniques from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Discussion with a third reviewer was initiated where a low level of agreement was identified for a particular paper. Following inclusion, data extraction was conducted using standardised data extraction tools from the JBI SUMARI suite for quantitative and qualitative research. Data synthesis was performed using the JBI Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument and JBI Narrative, Opinion and Text Assessment and Review Instrument software to aggregate findings by identifying commonalities across texts. Quantitative data were presented in narrative summary, as statistical pooling was not appropriate with the included studies. Results  Of the 659 identified papers, 45 were selected for full paper retrieval, and 19 were considered to meet the inclusion criteria for this review. The results identified a number of processes that would contribute to the development of a culturally competent workforce. Appropriate and competent linguistic services, and intercultural staff training and education, were identified as key findings in this review. Conclusions  The review recommends that health provider agencies establish links with organisations that can address needs of culturally diverse groups of patients, include cultural competence in decision support systems and staff education as well as embed them in patient brochures and educational materials. The review also concluded that staff in-service programs consider the skills needed to foster a culturally competent workforce, and recruitment strategies that also explicitly address this need.

  20. Novel and unexpected bacterial diversity in an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by culture-dependent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delavat François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs are extreme environments characterized by very acid conditions and heavy metal contaminations. In these ecosystems, the bacterial diversity is considered to be low. Previous culture-independent approaches performed in the AMD of Carnoulès (France confirmed this low species richness. However, very little is known about the cultured bacteria in this ecosystem. The aims of the study were firstly to apply novel culture methods in order to access to the largest cultured bacterial diversity, and secondly to better define the robustness of the community for 3 important functions: As(III oxidation, cellulose degradation and cobalamine biosynthesis. Results Despite the oligotrophic and acidic conditions found in AMDs, the newly designed media covered a large range of nutrient concentrations and a pH range from 3.5 to 9.8, in order to target also non-acidophilic bacteria. These approaches generated 49 isolates representing 19 genera belonging to 4 different phyla. Importantly, overall diversity gained 16 extra genera never detected in Carnoulès. Among the 19 genera, 3 were previously uncultured, one of them being novel in databases. This strategy increased the overall diversity in the Carnoulès sediment by 70% when compared with previous culture-independent approaches, as specific phylogenetic groups (e.g. the subclass Actinobacteridae or the order Rhizobiales were only detected by culture. Cobalamin auxotrophy, cellulose degradation and As(III-oxidation are 3 crucial functions in this ecosystem, and a previous meta- and proteo-genomic work attributed each function to only one taxon. Here, we demonstrate that other members of this community can also assume these functions, thus increasing the overall community robustness. Conclusions This work highlights that bacterial diversity in AMDs is much higher than previously envisaged, thus pointing out that the AMD system is functionally more robust than expected

  1. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with marine sponges in the China Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar) proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and "Micromonospora-Streptomyces" was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera) of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes.

  2. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and “MicromonosporaStreptomyces” was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes.

  3. Improving health care quality through culturally competent physicians: leadership and organizational diversity training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin B Horwitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Irwin B Horwitz1, Marilyn Sonilal2, Sujin K Horwitz31Cameron School of Business, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, USA; 2School of Public Health, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: The growing diversity of the population has resulted in substantial challenges for the US health care system. A substantial body of evidence has identified significant disparities in health care among culturally and ethnically diverse patients, irrespective of income, that negatively affects such factors as diagnostic precision, quality of care, adherence to healing protocols, and overall treatment outcomes. Diversity has also been shown to compromise the functionality of health care teams that are increasingly comprised of members with culturally different backgrounds, in which diversity produces misunderstanding and conflict. Many of the problems stem from a lack of cultural competence among both physicians and teams under their supervision. To reduce the numerous problems resulting from inadequate cultural competence among health care professionals, this article examines ways in which the issues of diversity can be effectively addressed in health care institutions. It is advocated that physicians adopt a proactive transformational leadership style to manage diversity because of its emphasis on understanding and aligning follower values which lie at the heart of diversity-related misunderstandings. It is also held that for leadership training among physicians to be fully effective, it should be integrated with organizational-wide diversity programs. By doing so, the complimentary effect could result in comprehensive change, resulting in substantial improvements in the quality of health care for all patients.Keywords: leadership, diversity, health care, disparities, medical education

  4. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Omar López-Martínez

    Full Text Available Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity. Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering, whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning, and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position, whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity

  5. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  6. Team performance in cross-national groups: the moderated mediation role of group diversity faultlines and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Merce; Baruch, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the conditional effect of team composition on team performance; specifically, how collective team orientation, group consensus, faultline configurations and trust among team members explain the objective performance of project teams in cross-cultural contexts.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Employing path analytical framework and bootstrap methods, the authors analyze data from a sample of 73 cross cultural project teams. Relying on ordinar...

  7. Culture, perception, and artistic visualization: a comparative study of children's drawings in three Siberian cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Kirill V; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with the order in which the focal and background objects are drawn. The results supported these hypotheses, and inspection of the regression relationships suggested that the intergroup variations in test performance were likely to result from differences in the attention accorded to contextual information, as revealed by the drawings. Social and environmental explanations for the group differences in context sensitivity are also discussed. The conclusions support the argument that cultural differences in artistic styles and perceptual tests reflect the same underlying perceptual tendencies, and they are consistent with the argument that these tendencies reflect corresponding differences in patterns of social and environmental interaction.

  8. Diversity in peer groups - the benefits and tensions it may entail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning

    to this form of cooperation differ widely. This paper discusses the benefits and tensions of work in diverse peer groups exemplified by the findings of a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration in a master of business programme. One conclusion is that the international students are more...... prepared to work in multicultural groups than are their home students. And once students have experience with group diversity, at least some of them become more open towards working in such groups in future. The paper discusses the possible reasons for these differences in responses and recommends more...

  9. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial diversity in a child-care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child-care facilities appear to provide daily opportunities for exposure and transmission of bacteria and viruses. However, almost nothing is known about the diversity of microbial contamination in daycare facilities or its public health implications. Recent culture-independent molecular studies of bacterial diversity in indoor environments have revealed an astonishing diversity of microorganisms, including opportunistic pathogens and many uncultured bacteria. In this study, we used culture and culture-independent methods to determine the viability and diversity of bacteria in a child-care center over a six-month period. Results We sampled surface contamination on toys and furniture using sterile cotton swabs in four daycare classrooms. Bacteria were isolated on nutrient and blood agar plates, and 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from unique (one of a kind colony morphologies for species identification. We also extracted DNA directly from nine representative swab samples taken over the course of the study from both toy and furniture surfaces, and used "universal" 16S rRNA gene bacterial primers to create PCR-based clone libraries. The rRNA gene clones were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with related sequences in GenBank and subjected to phylogenetic analyses to determine their evolutionary relationships. Culturing methods identified viable bacteria on all toys and furniture surfaces sampled in the study. Bacillus spp. were the most commonly cultured bacteria, followed by Staphylococcus spp., and Microbacterium spp. Culture-independent methods based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, on the other hand, revealed an entirely new dimension of microbial diversity, including an estimated 190 bacterial species from 15 bacterial divisions. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses determined that the clone libraries were dominated by a diverse set of sequences related to Pseudomonas spp., as well as uncultured

  10. Case study on cultural diversity in Secondary schools in Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio RODRÍGUEZ FUENTES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las actitudes sobre la diversidad cultural en los centros de secundaria se presenta en la actualidad como un frente candente en la investigación educativa. Es sabido que uno de los aspectos que caracterizan la Escuela en la actualidad es la presencia de una diversidad social y cultural. De una parte, la diversidad social hace referencia a la forma en que se distribuyen la riqueza y las oportunidades en la sociedad. Con la diversidad cultural se hace alusión, sobre todo, a la interacción entre personas de diferentes procedencias y culturas. El compendio de esta diversidad en la Escuela genera nuevas necesidades y exige que el Sistema Educativo busque satisfacerlas.Por ello, toda acción educativa debe girar en torno al respeto y la confianza y ello, en ocasiones, no resulta fácil para la convivencia diaria entre el alumnado de diferentes culturas y el resto de alumnos y agentes educativos. Así que se hace necesaria la puesta en marcha de estrategias y medidas que intenten conseguir ese respeto y enriquecimiento entre culturas, tanto en la escuela como en la sociedad. En este trabajo se realiza un estudio que pone de manifiesto las actitudes que se tienen y que repercuten en la dinámica educativa, de cara a estudiar las estrategias y medidas anteriores. Se estructura en varias partes: fundamentación teórica, la metodología y el trabajo empírico, seguido de las conclusiones y futuro de la investigación, que por analogía con la acción teatral, fechada desde su origen en el Renacimiento, se han denominado «actos» (o grandes bloques y sus correspondientes «episodios» (o capítulos: 

  11. Integrating Literacy, Culture, and Language to Improve Health Care Quality for Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulis, Dennis P.; Brach, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the interrelationship of literacy, culture, and language and the importance of addressing their intersection. Methods Health literacy, cultural competence, and linguistic competence strategies to quality improvement were analyzed. Results Strategies to improve health literacy for low-literate individuals are distinct from strategies for culturally diverse and individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). The lack of integration results in health care that is unresponsive to some vulnerable groups’ needs. A vision for integrated care is presented. Conclusion Clinicians, the health care team, and health care organizations have important roles to play in addressing challenges related to literacy, culture, and language. PMID:17931131

  12. Cultural diversity and saccade similarities: culture does not explain saccade latency differences between Chinese and Caucasian participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.

  13. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient.

  14. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Andreakis

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290 of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS. Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters.

  15. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreakis, Nikos; Høj, Lone; Kearns, Philip; Hall, Michael R; Ericson, Gavin; Cobb, Rose E; Gordon, Benjamin R; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290) of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS). Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD) method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters.

  16. Racial/ethnic diversity management and cultural competency: the case of Pennsylvania hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Dansky, Kathryn H; De Souza, Gita; Gatto, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Major demographic trends are changing the face of America's labor pool, and healthcare managers increasingly face a scarcer and more diverse workforce. As a result, healthcare organizations (HCOs) must develop policies and practices aimed at recruiting, retaining, and managing a diverse workforce and must meet the demands of a more diverse patient population by providing culturally appropriate care and improving access to care for racial/ethnic minorities. Ultimately, the goal of managing diversity is to enhance workforce and customer satisfaction, to improve communication among members of the workforce, and to further improve organizational performance. Research on diversity management practices in HCOs is scarce, providing few guidelines for practitioners. This study attempted to close that gap. Results show that hospitals in Pennsylvania have been relatively inactive with employing diversity management practices, and equal employment requirements are the main driver of diversity management policy. The number and scope of diversity management practices used were not influenced by organizational or market characteristics. The results suggest that hospitals need to adopt diversity management practices for their workforces and need to pay particular attention to marketing and service planning activities that meet the needs of a diverse patient population.

  17. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Neilan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a diverse group of phenylacetic acid degrading microorganisms from pristine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin E; O'Leary, Niall P; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W; Duetz, Wouter

    2005-11-01

    A diverse range of microorganisms capable of growth on phenylacetic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Sixty six different isolates were identified and grouped according to 16S rRNA gene RFLP analysis. Subsequent sequencing of 16S rDNA from selected strains allowed further characterization of the phenylacetic acid degrading population isolated from soil. Nearly half (30) of the isolates are Bacillus species while the rest of the isolates are strains from a variety of genera namely, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, and Paenibacillus. Sixty-one of the sixty-six strains reproducibly grew in defined minimal liquid culture medium (E2). All strains isolated grew when at least one hydroxylated derivative of phenylacetic acid was supplied as the carbon source, while 59 out of the 61 strains tested, accumulated ortho-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the assay buffer; when pulsed with phenylacetic acid. Oxygen consumption experiments failed to indicate a clear link between phenylacetic acid and hydroxy-substituted phenylacetic acid in isolates from a broad range of genera.

  19. Politics and care: a study of Czech Americans within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    1997-01-01

    The domain of inquiry for this study was the influence of the American political environmental context on professional and generic care patterns, expressions, and meanings of Czech American immigrants. The purpose of the research was to document, describe, interpret, and analyze the diversities and universalities of professional and generic care for this cultural group, to provide culturally congruent care to Czech Americans, and to explicate the role of politics as an influence on care patterns, health, and well being. The researcher's former transcultural ethnonursing study in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1991 served as a stimulus for this in-depth study on politics and care. Twelve key and twenty general informants were interviewed. Five major themes were identified. The researcher discovered that the capitalist economic market structure of the United States influenced informant lifeways in all dimensions of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, as depicted in the Sunrise Model. Specific care patterns discovered included care as choice, care as responsibility, and care as helping each other. Findings related to professional and generic care supported researcher predictions that generic culture care patterns would be important to immigrants. Provisions for culturally congruent nursing care were articulated based on research findings.

  20. Culturable diversity and functional annotation of psychrotrophic bacteria from cold desert of Leh Ladakh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Tyagi, Satya Prakash; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    To study culturable bacterial diversity under subzero temperature conditions and their possible functional annotation, soil and water samples from Leh Ladakh region were analysed. Ten different nutrient combinations were used to isolate the maximum possible culturable morphotypes. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with three restriction endonucleases AluI, MspI and HaeIII, which led to formation of 23-40 groups for the different sites at 75 % similarity index, adding up to 175 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 175 bacteria, grouped in four phyla, Firmicutes (54 %), Proteobacteria (28 %), Actinobacteria (16 %) and Bacteroidetes (3 %), and included 29 different genera with 57 distinct species. Overall 39 % of the total morphotypes belonged to the Bacillus and Bacillus derived genera (BBDG) followed by Pseudomonas (14 %), Arthrobacter (9 %), Exiguobacterium (8 %), Alishewanella (4 %), Brachybacterium, Providencia, Planococcus (3 %), Janthinobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Kocuria (2 %) and Aurantimonas, Citricoccus, Cellulosimicrobium, Brevundimonas, Desemzia, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Paracoccus, Psychrobacter, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, Sinobaca, Stenotrophomonas, Sanguibacter, Vibrio (1 %). The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for their plant growth promoting characteristics at low temperature (5-15 °C). Variations were observed among strains for production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore, solubilisation of phosphate, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microbes may have application as inoculants and biocontrol agents in crops growing at high altitudes under cold climate condition.

  1. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Circles of Consensus: The Preservation of Cultural Diversity through Political Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Jaria i Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western modern culture has expanded at the universal level and has thereby become a threat to other cultures, particularly those of chthonic communities. But these cultures have progressively recognized its worth as a source of richness, which can be very useful in facing future challenges to humanity. Moreover, in terms of human dignity and the equality of all human beings, Western modern culture has to be recognized as having an intrinsic value as well. Given these facts, we must find a way to protect this cultural diversity in an effective manner. It is obvious that assimilationist or isolationist models are not satisfactory. So I propose a third way. I call it an integrationist or a deep approach. It consists of giving political density to cultural diversity through the design of federalist strategies that have, as a result, the definition of different levels of decision (circles of consensus. After having exposed my model, I will pay attention to the recent constitutional experiences in Ecuador and Bolivia, where some new developments in this sense are intended. I compare these models with my proposal and, finally, I analyze the main problems that a deep approach to preserving cultural diversity has to face up to.

  3. Circles of Consensus: The Preservation of Cultural Diversity through Political Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Jaria i Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western modern culture has expanded at the universal level and has thereby become a threat to other cultures, particularly those of chthonic communities. But these cultures have progressively recognized its worth as a source of richness, which can be very useful in facing future challenges to humanity. Moreover, in terms of human dignity and the equality of all human beings, Western modern culture has to be recognized as having an intrinsic value as well. Given these facts, we must find a way to protect this cultural diversity in an effective manner. It is obvious that assimilationist or isolationist models are not satisfactory. So I propose a third way. I call it an integrationist or a deep approach. It consists of giving political density to cultural diversity through the design of federalist strategies that have, as a result, the definition of different levels of decision (circles of consensus. After having exposed my model, I will pay attention to the recent constitutional experiences in Ecuador and Bolivia, where some new developments in this sense are intended. I compare these models with my proposal and, finally, I analyze the main problems that a deep approach to preserving cultural diversity has to face up to.

  4. Universality, Diversity and Legal Certainty: Cultural Diversity in the Dialogue between the CEDAW and States Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vleugel, V.; Kanetake, M.; Nollkaemper, A.

    2016-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that the universal value and application of international human rights norms does not imply a uniform implementation of these rights, thereby leaving room for local and culture specific implementation at the national level. The question remains, however, what the precise scope

  5. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  6. Cultural Diversity and Reasonable Accommodation. An Approach based on Freedom as Non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Wences

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges that culturally diverse societies now face is that of learning to live with differences. Harmonization practices such as concerted adjustment and reasonable accommodation are some of the mechanisms proposed by cultural diversity management policies to deal with this contemporary situation. In the case of reasonable accommodation, this practice can be justified not only because it is based on a recognition of equality in difference, but also on a belief in freedom as a form of non domination, given the inequality present in power relations.

  7. Vigilance as a caring expression and Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J M

    1998-01-01

    Vigilance, or the close, protective involvement of families caring for hospitalized relatives, was explored in this study using holistic ethnography. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality provided direction for the researcher to generate substantive data about the meanings, patterns, and day-to-day experience of vigilance. Five categories of meaning were derived from the data: commitment to care, emotional upheaval, dynamic nexus, transition, and resilience. The research findings expand understanding of vigilance as a caring expression, suggest direction for nursing practice, and contribute to Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality and the development of nursing science.

  8. English language status and English communication in culturally diverse academic departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Communicating in a common language can function as a general frame of reference in culturally diverse organizations, providing that the status of the language permits its use. Based on a large-scale survey of 489 academic members of sixteen culturally diverse science departments at three...... universities, results showed that English fluency had a positive association with inter-individual communication and management communication, both in English, while linguistic distance only had a positive relationship with inter-individual communication in English. Implications of these findings are discussed...

  9. Education and cultural diversity - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irizelda Martins de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the main issues concerning the main tensions to be resolved by the education, aiming to clear the theme of cultural diversity. Here in it is argued in the context of the emergence of concepts, such as cultural diversity, pluralism, multiculturalism, interculturality, identity, among others. This study is based on a research conducted by teachers of the area of public policy of the State University of Maringá, which examine important aspects of the history of Brazilian education, in particular documents of international organizations like UNESCO.

  10. A two level mutation-selection model of cultural evolution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2010-11-21

    Cultural evolution is a complex process that can happen at several levels. At the level of individuals in a population, each human bears a set of cultural traits that he or she can transmit to its offspring (vertical transmission) or to other members of his or her society (horizontal transmission). The relative frequency of a cultural trait in a population or society can thus increase or decrease with the relative reproductive success of its bearers (individual's level) or the relative success of transmission (called the idea's level). This article presents a mathematical model on the interplay between these two levels. The first aim of this article is to explore when cultural evolution is driven by the idea's level, when it is driven by the individual's level and when it is driven by both. These three possibilities are explored in relation to (a) the amount of interchange of cultural traits between individuals, (b) the selective pressure acting on individuals, (c) the rate of production of new cultural traits, (d) the individual's capacity to remember cultural traits and to the population size. The aim is to explore the conditions in which cultural evolution does not lead to a better adaptation of individuals to the environment. This is to contrast the spread of fitness-enhancing ideas, which make individual bearers better adapted to the environment, to the spread of "selfish" ideas, which spread well simply because they are easy to remember but do not help their individual bearers (and may even hurt them). At the same time this article explores in which conditions the adaptation of individuals is maximal. The second aim is to explore how these factors affect cultural diversity, or the amount of different cultural traits in a population. This study suggests that a larger interchange of cultural traits between populations could lead to cultural evolution not improving the adaptation of individuals to their environment and to a decrease of cultural diversity.

  11. Culturable diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarzoo Irshad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl such as inland salt lakes and evaporated sea-shore pools, as well as environments such as curing brines, salted food products and saline soils. Dependence on salt is an important phenotypic characteristic of halophilic bacteria, which can be used in the polyphasic characterization of newly discovered microorganisms. In this study the diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils of Daecheon, Chungnam, and Saemangeum, Jeonbuk, was investigated. Two types of media, namely NA and R2A supplemented with 3%, 5%, 9%, 15%, 20% and 30% NaCl were used. More than 200 halophilic bacteria were isolated and BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis was done for the typing of the isolates. The BLAST identification results showed that isolated strains were composed of 4 phyla, Firmicutes (60%, Proteobacteria (31%, Bacteriodetes (5% and Actinobacteria (4%. Isolates were affiliated with 16 genera and 36 species. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the phylum Firmicutes, comprising 24% of the total isolates. Halomonas (12% and Shewanella (12% were also found as the main genera. These findings show that the foreshore soil of Daecheon Beach and Saemangeum Sea of Korea represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity.

  12. The diversity of soil culturable fungi in the three alpine shrub grasslands of Eastern Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhong ZHANG; Baiying MAN; Benzhong FU; Li LIU; Changzhi HAN

    2013-01-01

    To understand the diversity of culturable fungi in soil at alpine sites,Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland of the Eastern Qilian Mountains were selected to investigate.Three methods,including traditional culturing,rDNA intemal transcribed spacer (ITS)sequence analysis,and economical efficiency analysis,were carried out to estimate the diversity of soil culturable fungi of these three alpine shrublands.A total of 35 strains of culturable fungi were cultured by dilution plate technique and were analyzed by rDNA ITS sequence.The diversity indices such as species abundance (S),Shannon-Wiener index (H),Simpson dominance index (D),and Pielou evenness index (J) of Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland were ranged between 16 and 17,2.66-2.71,0.92,0.95-0.97 respectively.The results showed that the diversity of soil fungi were abundant in these three types of alpine shrub grasslands,while further study should be done to explore their potential value.

  13. Helping Students Value Cultural Diversity through Research-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakins, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Although international students studying in New Zealand desire and expect contact with their domestic peers, the level of cross-national interactions remains generally low. This paper describes an initiative to promote more and better intercultural understanding within a target group of students having similar needs and interests in a higher…

  14. Helping Students Value Cultural Diversity through Research-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakins, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Although international students studying in New Zealand desire and expect contact with their domestic peers, the level of cross-national interactions remains generally low. This paper describes an initiative to promote more and better intercultural understanding within a target group of students having similar needs and interests in a higher…

  15. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  16. Diversity of Bacillus cereus group strains is reflected in their broad range of pathogenicity and diverse ecological lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises a highly versatile group of bacteria, which are of particular interest because of their capacity to cause disease. Emetic food poisoning is caused by the toxin cereulide produced during the growth of emetic B. cereus in food, while diarrhoeal food poisoning is the result of enterotoxin production by viable vegetative B. cereus cells in the small intestine, probably in the mucus layer and/or attached to the host's intestinal epithelium. The numbers of B. cereus causing disease are highly variable, depending on diverse factors linked to the host (age, diet, physiology and immunology), bacteria (cellular form, toxin genes and expression) and food (nutritional composition and meal characteristics). Bacillus cereus group strains show impressive ecological diversity, ranging from their saprophytic life cycle in soil to symbiotic (commensal and mutualistic) lifestyles near plant roots and in guts of insects and mammals to various pathogenic ones in diverse insect and mammalian hosts. During all these different ecological lifestyles, their toxins play important roles ranging from providing competitive advantages within microbial communities to inhibition of specific pathogenic organisms for their host and accomplishment of infections by damaging their host's tissues.

  17. Mental Health Consultation: An Untapped Tool for Facilitating Volatile Intercultural Diversity Group Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    marbley, aretha faye; Stevens, Hal; Taylor, Colette M.; Ritter, Rachelle Berg; Robinson, Petra A.; McGaha, Valerie; Bonner, Fred A., II; Li, Jiaqi

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for leadership skills when facilitating communication and engendering acceptance and respect among people from culturally different backgrounds, opposing viewpoints, and vastly different experiences. Thus, when facilitating intercultural group dialogs, varying institutions, agencies, and businesses need culturally competent…

  18. Effective leadership of a culturally diverse workforce in Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Alzoman, Moudhi

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation has significantly added to diversity in the workplace, requiring leaders to acquire new skills to negotiate and operate in international environments; this is especially true in the case of multinational corporations where relationships can be complex and mono-cultural management styles can fuel conflict. The proximity of individuals from different cultures raises consciousness of difference; therefore, leaders must be able to deal with the reactions of those with different back...

  19. A qualitative study into the use of formal services for dementia by carers from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shanley, Christopher; Boughtwood, Desiree; Adams, Jon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Pond, Dimity; Rowland, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    .... While knowing about and navigating one's way through service systems is difficult for most people, it is particularly difficult for people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities...

  20. In-Depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina-Jasjukevica, Gunta; Briška, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. "The aim" of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in…

  1. Learning what to eat : Emerging cultural phenomena in group foragers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832642

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and role of cultural inheritance in animal biology is a challenge. Central questions are: How does cultural inheritance arise? How does it depend on learning mechanisms? How do cultures evolve and diversify? We address these issues by considering diet learning in ``monkey

  2. A systematic literature review of sport and physical activity participation in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Téa; Banting, Lauren Kate; Borkoles, Erika; Eime, Rochelle; Polman, Remco

    2014-06-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrants face significant health risks as they adapt to new cultures. These risks are exacerbated by their limited participation in preventative behaviours such as sports and physical activity. The review aimed to identify studies that examined the correlates of sport and physical activity participation in migrants. The systematic review identified 72 papers, including 6 interventions, 18 qualitative and 48 quantitative studies. The 44 identified correlates highlight the complexities involved in working with migrants. The correlates were grouped in four themes using the social ecological model; acculturation, demographic, psychosocial and environmental/organisational. The social ecological model identified general correlates such as social support and safety. However, there were unique correlates relating to individuals who are facing cultural changes such as acculturation and language. Overall, there is a lack of contextualisation of CALD migrants' sport and physical activity experiences because many studies fail to consider acculturation comprehensively.

  3. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2017-04-06

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Beyond one-size-fits-all: Tailoring diversity approaches to the representation of social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Stephens, Nicole M; Reagans, Ray E

    2016-10-01

    When and why do organizational diversity approaches that highlight the importance of social group differences (vs. equality) help stigmatized groups succeed? We theorize that social group members' numerical representation in an organization, compared with the majority group, influences concerns about their distinctiveness, and consequently, whether diversity approaches are effective. We combine laboratory and field methods to evaluate this theory in a professional setting, in which White women are moderately represented and Black individuals are represented in very small numbers. We expect that focusing on differences (vs. equality) will lead to greater performance and persistence among White women, yet less among Black individuals. First, we demonstrate that Black individuals report greater representation-based concerns than White women (Study 1). Next, we observe that tailoring diversity approaches to these concerns yields greater performance and persistence (Studies 2 and 3). We then manipulate social groups' perceived representation and find that highlighting differences (vs. equality) is more effective when groups' representation is moderate, but less effective when groups' representation is very low (Study 4). Finally, we content-code the diversity statements of 151 major U.S. law firms and find that firms that emphasize differences have lower attrition rates among White women, whereas firms that emphasize equality have lower attrition rates among racial minorities (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Protecting Biodiversity for the Sake of Cultural Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As one of the 55 minority ethnic groups in China,the Naxi people, with a population of 300,000, mostly live in mountainous communities in the Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County in southwest China's Yunnan Province. They created a unique system of pictographic characters called the "Dongba" script about 1,000 years ago, and produced hand-made paper to record their beautiful folklore, legends, poems and religious classics. However, the technique is now facing extinction,for few people know the craft and not enough raw materials are available for the products.

  6. When does diversity trump ability (and vice versa in group decision making? A simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Luan

    Full Text Available It is often unclear which factor plays a more critical role in determining a group's performance: the diversity among members of the group or their individual abilities. In this study, we addressed this "diversity vs. ability" issue in a decision-making task. We conducted three simulation studies in which we manipulated agents' individual ability (or accuracy, in the context of our investigation and group diversity by varying (1 the heuristics agents used to search task-relevant information (i.e., cues; (2 the size of their groups; (3 how much they had learned about a good cue search order; and (4 the magnitude of errors in the information they searched. In each study, we found that a manipulation reducing agents' individual accuracy simultaneously increased their group's diversity, leading to a conflict between the two. These conflicts enabled us to identify certain conditions under which diversity trumps individual accuracy, and vice versa. Specifically, we found that individual accuracy is more important in task environments in which cues differ greatly in the quality of their information, and diversity matters more when such differences are relatively small. Changing the size of a group and the amount of learning by an agent had a limited impact on this general effect of task environment. Furthermore, we found that a group achieves its highest accuracy when there is an intermediate amount of errors in the cue information, regardless of the environment and the heuristic used, an effect that we believe has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation.

  7. Seasonal and altitudinal changes of culturable bacterial and yeast diversity in Alpine forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Luís; Sannino, Ciro; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    The effect of altitude and season on abundance and diversity of the culturable heterotrophic bacterial and yeast community was examined at four forest sites in the Italian Alps along an altitude gradient (545-2000 m). Independently of altitude, bacteria isolated at 0 °C (psychrophiles) were less numerous than those recovered at 20 °C. In autumn, psychrophilic bacterial population increased with altitude. The 1194 bacterial strains were primarily affiliated with the classes Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Spingobacteriia and Flavobacteriia. Fifty-seven of 112 operational taxonomic units represented potential novel species. Strains isolated at 20 °C had a higher diversity and showed similarities in taxa composition and abundance, regardless of altitude or season, while strains isolated at 0 °C showed differences in community composition at lower and higher altitudes. In contrast to bacteria, yeast diversity was season-dependent: site- and altitude-specific effects on yeast diversity were only detected in spring. Isolation temperature affected the relative proportions of yeast genera. Isolations recovered 719 strains, belonging to the classes Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Tremellomycetes and Mycrobotryomycetes. The presence of few dominant bacterial OTUs and yeast species indicated a resilient microbial population that is not affected by season or altitude. Soil nutrient contents influenced significantly abundance and diversity of culturable bacteria, but not of culturable yeasts.

  8. [Seasonal variation of functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in Apostichopus japonicus cultural pond].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fa-Jun; Tian, Xiang-Li; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    The functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cultural ponds was examined in this paper. The Biolog plate technique and redundancy analysis (RDA) method were used to evaluate seasonal changes and their relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that both total amount and types of carbon sources utilized by microbes in the sea cucumber cultural ponds varied seasonally, and were the highest in summer and lowest in winter, with polymers being the main type of carbon sources. Principal component analysis revealed that the carbon utilization diversity of the microbial communities varied significantly over the seasonal courses. A total of 10 categories of carbon sources were significantly related to the principal component 1, among which were polymers, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, and amines. Significant seasonal changes were detected for all carbon utilization diversity indices of the microbial communities, including Shannon, McIntosh, Simpson, and S-E. However, seasonal variations were different among the microbial diversity indices. RDA analysis revealed that TP, NO(3-)-N, TN, and PO4(3-)-P were the critical environmental factors influencing the seasonal changes in functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in sea cucumber cultural ponds.

  9. Culture-dependent and -independent investigations of microbial diversity on urinary catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Moser, Claus Ernst; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed;

    2012-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, which ascend the catheter along its external or internal surface to the bladder and subsequently develop into biofilms on the catheter and uroepithelium. Antibiotic-treated bacteria and bacteria residing in biofilm can be difficul...... to culture. In this study we used culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent methods (fingerprinting, cloning, and pyrosequencing) to determine the microbial diversity of biofilms on 24 urinary catheters. Most of the patients were catheterized for...

  10. School Psychologists and the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Afifi, Amanda F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, school psychologists have increasingly recognized the importance of using valid and reliable methods to assess culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students for special education eligibility. However, little is known about their assessment practices or preparation in this area. To address these questions, a Web-based survey…

  11. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  12. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  13. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  14. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  15. [Phylogenetic diversity of the culturable rare actinomycetes in marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis by improved isolation media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Wu, Peichun; Deng, Maicun; Zhang, Wei

    2009-07-01

    Based on the molecular diversity information, seven actinomycete-selective culture media and isolation conditions were modified to isolate and cultivate diverse rare actinomycetes from Hymeniacidon perlevis. Modified, selective cultivation and enrichment media were used, with the addition of an elemental solution of simulating the elemental composition of marine sponge H. perlevis. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rDNA sequence was used to reveal the diversity of culturable rare actinomycetes. A total of 59 actinomycete strains were isolated from the marine sponge H. perlevis. A total of 27 representative actinomycetes were selected according to their morphological feature, color and pigments. They gave 15 different RFLP patterns after digesting their PCR products of 16s rDNA with Hha I. The results showed that these isolates belonged to 10 genera: Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora, Cellulosimicrobium, Gordonia, Nocardia, Prauseria, Pseudonocardia , Saccharomonospora and Microbacterium. The modified isolation media and selective cultivation procedures are highly effective in the recovery of culturable actinomycetes from the marine sponge H. perlevis, resulting in the highest diversity of culturable rare actinomycetes from any sponges.

  16. State Policy and Guidance for Identifying Learning Disabilities in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amy N.; Boynton Hauerwas, Laura; Brown, Rachel D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how state Departments of Education address the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students as they relate to the identification of students with a specific learning disability (SLD). A qualitative research design of directed content analysis was used to examine each state's regulatory criteria for SLD, as…

  17. Using Enrichment Clusters to Address the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Margaret A.; Payne, Yolanda Denise; Brown, Katherine Backes

    2016-01-01

    Using data from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a professional development workshop, this article explains how one component of the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM) has been implemented at a culturally diverse elementary school serving primarily Latina/o and African American students. Based on a broadened conception of giftedness,…

  18. Problems and Recommendations: Enhancing Communication with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Shereen Abdel; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that communication between teachers and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students need serious consideration especially in recognizing potential sources of miscommunication and misinterpretation. Considers sources of miscommunication within verbal and nonverbal communication. Discusses each element and offers examples in CLD…

  19. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  20. Ethno-cultural diversity in home care work in Canada: issues confronted, strategies employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Naslund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, immigrant workers are responsible for much of the care provided to elderly people who require assistance with personal care and with activities of daily living. This article examines the characteristics of immigrant home care workers, and the ways in which they differ from non-migrant care workers in Canada. It considers circumstances wherein the labor of care is framed by ethno-cultural diversity between client and worker, interactions that reflect the character of this ethno-cultural diversity, and the strategies employed by workers to address issues related to this diversity. Findings from a mixed methods study of 118 workers in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, indicate that while the discriminatory context surrounding migrant home care workers persists, issues of ethno-cultural diversity in relationships are complex, and can also involve non-foreign born workers. Multi-cultural home care is not always framed in a negative context, and there often are positive aspects.