WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally diverse clients

  1. Cultural humility: measuring openness to culturally diverse clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Worthington, Everett L; Utsey, Shawn O

    2013-07-01

    Building on recent theory stressing multicultural orientation, as well as the development of virtues and dispositions associated with multicultural values, we introduce the construct of cultural humility, defined as having an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented rather than self-focused, characterized by respect and lack of superiority toward an individual's cultural background and experience. In 4 studies, we provide evidence for the estimated reliability and construct validity of a client-rated measure of a therapist's cultural humility, and we demonstrate that client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility are positively associated with developing a strong working alliance. Furthermore, client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility were positively associated with improvement in therapy, and this relationship was mediated by a strong working alliance. We consider implications for research, practice, and training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Developing a cultural context for conducting a neuropsychological evaluation with a culturally diverse client: the ECLECTIC framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Daryl E M

    2018-02-20

    With the increasing diversification of the American population, the discipline of neuropsychology is challenged to develop appropriate tools and conceptual models to meet its evolving client base. Thus far, the focus has been on developing appropriate tests and norms to obtain accurate testing data. By contrast, far less attention has been paid to the contextual impact of culture on an evaluation. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming. This manuscript introduces the ECLECTIC framework for conceptualizing different facets of culture pertinent for understanding a culturally diverse client when conducting a neuropsychological evaluation. Individual components of the framework (E: education and literacy; C: culture and acculturation; L: language; E: economics; C: communication; T: testing situation: comfort and motivation; I: intelligence conceptualization; and C: context of immigration) are introduced and potential biases to fairness in testing are described. In this manner, the framework specifies how individual facets of culture can impact neuropsychological test performance. Clinical implementation of the framework will be illustrated with a case sample. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed as well as recommendations for implementation.

  3. Cultural diversity and patient teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cordell, B

    1994-01-01

    Cultural diversity challenges health care providers to facilitate bridging cross-cultural gaps with clients. It is through providing culturally relevant care that health care practitioners truly serve the needs of all clients in our diverse society. A theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality offers a framework for building linkages of clinical knowledge to cultural care. A four-step approach to providing culturally sensitive patient teaching is described: (1) health care providers should assess their own cultural beliefs and be aware of general ethnic, regional, and religious beliefs and practices in their area; (2) develop a teaching plan; (3) implement the plan; (4) evaluate the success of the teaching-learning process and make alterations based on evaluation. When providers assess clients' beliefs and practices and incorporate them into the teaching plan design, teaching becomes more relevant and clients become more successful at learning.

  4. Psychosocial stressors contributing to emergency psychiatric service utilization in a sample of ethno-culturally diverse clients with psychosis in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Martin; Tuck, Andrew; McKenzie, Kwame

    2017-09-02

    Understanding the psychosocial stressors of people with psychoses from minority ethnic groups may help in the development of culturally appropriate services. This study aimed to compare psychosocial factors associated with attendance at an emergency department (ED) for six ethnic groups. Preventing crises or supporting people better in the community may decrease hospitalization and improve outcomes. A cohort was created by retrospective case note analysis of people of East-Asian, South-Asian, Black-African, Black-Caribbean, White-North American and White-European origin groups attending a specialized psychiatric ED in Toronto with a diagnosis of psychosis between 2009 and 2011. The psychological or social stressors which were linked to the presentation at the ED that were documented by the attending physicians were collected for this study. Logistic regression models were constructed to analyze the odds of presenting with specific stressors. Seven hundred sixty-five clients were included in this study. Forty-four percent of the sample did not have a psychiatrist, and 53% did not have a primary care provider. Social environmental stressors were the most frequent psychosocial stressor across all six groups, followed by issues in the primary support group, occupational and housing stressors. When compared to White-North American clients, East-Asian and White-European origin clients were less likely to present with a housing stressor, while Black-African clients had decreased odds of presenting with primary support group stressor. Having a primary care provider or psychiatrist were predominantly protective factors. In Toronto, moving people with chronic mental health conditions out of poverty, increasing the social safety net and improving access to primary care and community based mental health services may decrease many of the stressors which contribute to ED attendance.

  5. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  6. Do Organizational Culture and Climate Matter for Successful Client Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver Wolf, David A. Patterson; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene; Cristalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The existing literature on the impact of workplace conditions on client care suggests that good cultures and climates provide the best outcomes for clients. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and climate and the proportion of children and youth successfully discharged…

  7. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  8. Task Force on Culture and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    differences. Key words: work motivation, (sub) cultural differences, meta-representation. Email: kolman@pef.czu.cz 3.Abstract for presentation in Symposium Case conceptualization, relationship building and intervention challenges with culturally diverse clients among clinical psychologists: a case...... of knowledge originating from different geographical contexts. The initiative taken by the psychology students in Århus University, the specific course dynamic developed and the evaluation is to be delineated in the paper. In addition, both pedagogical psychological aspects and long term consequences...

  9. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  10. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  12. Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.

  13. Cultural diversity in nanotechnology ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However unlike science and engineering issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international dialogue on nanotechnology. At the same time I pose the general question of ethical relativism in engineering ethics, that is to say whether or not different ethical views are irreconcilable on a fundamental level.

  14. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Gröschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  15. Diversity within African American, female therapists: variability in clients' expectations and assumptions about the therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer F; Greene, Beverly

    2010-06-01

    Despite the presence of some literature that has addressed the characteristics of the African American female therapist, most psychotherapy training proceeds with the assumption that therapists are members of dominant groups, and most of the psychological and psychotherapy literature has been written by therapists and psychologists who come from dominant cultural perspectives. Not as much has been written about psychological paradigms or the process of psychotherapy from the perspective of the therapist who is not a dominant group member. This article explores both the common and divergent experiences that we, the authors, share as African American female therapists and the different reactions we frequently elicit in clients. We also explore how individual differences in our physical appearances, personal backgrounds, and different characteristics of our respective practices elicit distinct responses from clients that we believe are based on differences between us, despite the fact that we are both African American women. We believe that many of the stereotypes that affect perceptions of African American female clients also exist for African American female therapists. We will address how the intersection of gender, race, and sexual orientation of the client highlights the complexity of culturally competent practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  17. Exploring Cultural Diversity with Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Jonna; Julkunen, Saara

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Business Communication, Intercultural Communication. Objectives: Students will demonstrate understanding of some of the effects of culture on business communication. Students will explore cultural diversity in customer-seller relationships.

  18. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  19. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  20. Culturally Informed Social Work Practice with American Indian Clients: Guidelines for Non-Indian Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith Ellison; Ellison, Florence

    1996-01-01

    Culturally informed social work health and mental health interventions directed toward American Indian clients must be harmonious with their environment and acculturation. Discusses American Indian beliefs about health and illness and degrees of acculturation. Guidelines are offered to help non-Indian social workers design culturally appropriate…

  1. A Cultural Formulation Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling with Asian American Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.; Gupta, Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Using the cultural formulations approach to career assessment and career counseling, the current article applies it specifically to Asian American clients. The approach is illustrated by using the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" fourth edition ("DSM-IV") Outline for Cultural Formulations that consists of the following five…

  2. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  3. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  4. Clinical use of the Kessler psychological distress scales with culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The Kessler 10 (K10) and embedded Kessler 6 (K6) was developed to screen for non-specific psychological distress and serious mental illness in mental health surveys of English-speaking populations, but has been adopted in Western and non-Western countries as a screening and outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. This review examines whether the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations was established, and whether the cultural equivalence, and sensitivity to change of translated or culturally adapted K6/K10s, has been demonstrated with culturally diverse client groups. Evidence for the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations is limited. Questions about the conceptual and linguistic equivalence of translated/adapted K6/K10s arise from reports of changes in item connotation and differential item functioning. Evidence for structural equivalence is inconsistent, as is support for criterion equivalence, with the majority of studies compromising on accuracy in case prediction. Research demonstrating sensitivity to change with culturally diverse groups is lacking. Inconsistent evidence for the K6/K10's cultural appropriateness in clinical settings, and a lack of clinical norms for either majority or culturally diverse groups, indicate the importance of further research into the psychological distress construct with culturally diverse clients, and the need for caution in interpreting K6/K10 scores. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Multi-Cultural Considerations for Counselling First Nations Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttgens, Simon A.; Campbell, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence that First Nations people experience a disproportionate degree of mental health concerns relative to other Canadians, many within this population do not access Western-based mental health services. In this article we extend a socio-political and historical rationale for attending to key cultural differences when working with First…

  6. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  7. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  8. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  9. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Working well in a culturally diverse team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Calder, Mandy

    2016-10-05

    Cooperative working is a core part of the nursing role, and it involves respecting your colleagues' needs and values. If you are part of a diverse team, you may need to develop your cultural competence, treating everyone compassionately and respectfully.

  11. Managing cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J

    1993-07-01

    Cultural diversity is a strength of the American work force. Due to the increasing cultural diversity in the workplace, organizations find it in their best interest to move beyond affirmative action to effective management to achieve higher employee retention and develops an employee cultural mix that better matches the mix of the available labor force and customer base. To manage a diverse work force, managers need to have the proper tools, training and evaluation and monitoring programs. Important initiatives to successful management of cultural diversity include eliciting support and commitment from the board of directors, the CEO and other top management; organizing subcommittees to research and monitor demographic changes to determine what the organization's goals should be and to decide what changes are to be made. Employees must be trained to be aware of prejudices and how to manage their own actions.

  12. Leadership Training for Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Searetha

    1996-01-01

    Addresses leadership in a diverse society, especially in schools and the workplace, and examines one school administrator's success at getting a resistant faculty and principal to incorporate multicultural education into the school environment and curriculum. A 10-day multicultural leadership training program is described. (GR)

  13. Independence and Interdependence in Diverse Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the individualistic-collectivistic dichotomy results in mislabeling both cultures and individuals. Discusses ways in which individualistic concerns with independence and collectivistic concerns with interdependence coexist in Western and non-Western cultures. Outlines a theoretical framework explaining the coexistence of diverse social…

  14. Approaches to measuring cultural diversity in recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Yi-Chung Hsu; Alan R. Graefe

    2008-01-01

    Measuring cultural diversity in recreation has become an important topic because of the increasing coverage of and interest in ethnicity and cross-cultural aspects of recreation. Introducing theories and methods from established disciplines other than leisure studies/recreation and park studies is necessary to understand this important issue. In this article, we first...

  15. Issues of Cultural Diversity in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Explores cultural diversity in school mathematics and the issues raised for mathematics education. Examines the curricular roots of school mathematics in relation to scholarly mathematics, and the mathematics of past generations and different social groups. Notes some of the complexities in seeking to 'culturalize' school mathematics by bringing…

  16. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  17. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  18. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the large inflow of immigrants to the US during the 1870–1920 period to examine the effects that within-county changes in the cultural composition of the US population had on output growth. We construct measures of fractionalization and polarization to distinguish between the different...

  19. Cultural diversity in hospitality management : how to improve cultural diversity workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Korjala, Veera

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor´s thesis investigates cultural diversity in the hospitality management. It aims at presenting effective ways to improve cultural diversity in a workplace. This study was commissioned by JW Marriott San Antonio Hill Country Resort & Spa in Texas, USA and three hotels in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA: Atherton Hotel, Hampton Inn & Suites and Residence Inn. The bachelor´s thesis incorporates culture theories and their applications to the workplace. Additionally, it focuses on cultural d...

  20. Shakespeare’s Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibińska Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 400 hundred years of Shakespeare's presence in world-wide theatres, schools, literature, film, and even languages must give us pause. It is worth reflecting on what there is in the texts that have come down to us that answers this great and obviously most diversified horizon of reception. The paper will try to present Shakespearean plots, characters and themes and examine them for their potential to become appropriated into the very centres of multiple cultural polysystems.

  1. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  2. Leading change in diversity and cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an expanded leadership role needed in schools of nursing as the nurse of the 21st century is prepared to assume expanded roles in a diverse society. With schools of nursing becoming more global, and the diverse population of the United States rapidly growing, a critical need exists for nurses who are ready to partner in the health care that multicultural communities need locally, nationally, and globally. Diversity and cultural competence have now become central issues in nursing education, research, practice, and health policy. Diversity leadership in a school of nursing can no longer concentrate only on issues of affirmative action, recruitment, and retention. The purpose of this article is to discuss how diversity leadership must increasingly focus on building a corporate environment in schools of nursing that integrates diversity and cultural competence with the strategic plan of the School's Chief Nursing Officer, across academic programs, research, practice, and public policy to eliminate health disparities in partnership with faculty, students, staff, the University infrastructure, and the community at large. The theoretical framework that guided the strategic planning is based on the model used by the Robert Wood Johnson Executive Nurse Fellowship Program. Examples of program initiatives designed to implement the strategic plan to strengthen the diversity and cultural competence of one school of nursing environment are described.

  3. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  4. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  5. Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management

    OpenAIRE

    Donatus I. Amaram

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of cul...

  6. Bankers Focus on Clients – But What Do Banks Do? : Report of the Dutch banking culture survey 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); R. van Tilburg (Rens)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBank employees in the Netherlands want to focus on clients and the interests of their clients. But they feel constrained to do so by the dominant banking culture. They have low trust in their employers, they feel not motivated by the targets they are required to meet, and they

  7. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Tuah, R.; Riskione, P.; Prabandari, Y.S.; Effendy, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of

  8. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  9. School, Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Camilla; Robustelli, Francesco; Martinelli, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The basic assumption of this paper is that school's potential to improve cross-cultural relations, as well as interpersonal relations in general, is enormous. This assumption is supported by a number of theoretical considerations and by the analysis of data we obtained from a study we conducted on the attitudes toward diversity and…

  10. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  11. Children's Friendships in Culturally Diverse Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    1993-01-01

    Draws attention to the potentially harmful effects of evaluating children's friendships on what are often negative outcomes, rather than on the efforts that children make to effectively negotiate their friendships. Describes a study of children's friendships in a fifth-grade, culturally diverse class in a large urban elementary school, revealing…

  12. Cultural Diversity: "Reports from Brazil and Argentina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tells two experiences of projects carried through in schools of basic education whose thematic it was the work with the cultural diversity, the valuation of other cultures and reflections on the proper culture The work was carried through in two schools: one in the state of São Paulo, the city of Rio Claro where as the thematic one worked was the Hip-Hop and cultural manifestations local Brazilians the second in the capital of a Argentina province, in the city of Paraná where it worked the contact and the relation enter the cultural manifestations of Brazil and Argentina The central objective of this work was to think ways that could lead to the construction of a school that it considered the differences and the learning that happens when these (the differences they are in relation.

  13. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  14. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Tuah, Rodianson; Riskione, Patricia; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Effendy, Christantie

    2016-01-01

    A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of socio-culturally hierarchical gap between health providers and clients in Indonesian context, (2) to provide attention to the unspoken concerns especially in the context of indirect communication which mostly using non-verbal signs and politeness etiquettes, and (3) to initiate dialog in the society which hold a more community-oriented decision making. Our aim is to compare the communication skills of nursing students who had and had not received a training using a culture-sensitive Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. This was a quasi experimental randomized control study to the fifth semester students of a nursing school at Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The intervention group was trained by the Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. Both intervention and the control group had learned general nurse-client communication guidelines. The training was 4h with role-plays, supportive information and feedback sessions. An objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted 1week after the training, in seven stations, with seven simulated clients. Observers judged the communication skills of the students using a checklist of 5-point Likert scale, whereas simulated clients judged their satisfaction using 4-point Likert scale represented in colorful ribbons. There were significant mean differences in each domain of communication guideline observed between the trained and the control groups as judged by the teachers (p≤0.05) and simulated clients. Training using a culture-sensitive communication skills guideline could improve the communication skills of the nursing students and may increase satisfaction of the clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Preventative health, diversity, and inclusion: a qualitative study of client experience aboard a mobile health clinic in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Zoe; Rawlins, Yasmin; Hill, Caterina; Bennet, Jennifer; Perez, Leonor Xochitl; Oriol, Nancy

    2017-11-03

    There are approximately 2000 mobile health clinics operating in the United States. While researchers have established that mobile health clinics can be cost effective and improve outcomes, there is scant research examining the healthcare experience on a mobile health clinic from patients' perspectives. Data were gathered from interviews with 25 clients receiving care on a Boston-based mobile health clinic and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Emerging patterns in the data revealed three relational and three structural factors most significant to participants' experience of care on The Family Van. Relational factors include providers who 1) Communicate understandably, 2) Create a culture of respect and inclusivity, and 3) Are diverse with knowledge of the community. Structural factors include 1) A focus on preventative health and managing chronic disease, 2) Expeditious, free, and multiple services, and 3) Location. The participant accounts in this report serve to expand on prior research exploring mobile health clinics' role in patients' healthcare, to more clearly define the most salient aspects of the mobile health clinic model for the patients they serve, and to give voice to patients too seldom heard in the academic literature.

  16. Exploring the Personal Cultures of Rural Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Doris; Fletcher-Carter, Ruth

    Culturally diverse minority groups make up 40 percent of America's deaf and hearing-impaired school population but only 14 percent of special education teachers. In addition, 90 percent of deaf students have parents who can hear, and one-third reside in rural areas. Although they are primarily Euro-American, hearing, and untrained in deaf…

  17. Beyond the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl Views of Cultural Diversity: Advancing Cultural Diversity Education of Nutrition Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiloane, Kelebogile Tsametse

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines how the melting pot and salad bowl views of cultural diversity have influenced the cultural training of nutrition educators and other health professionals. It explores how these views are changing in reaction to the changing demographics and health disparities seen in the US today and how the cultural training of nutrition educators has not kept up with these changing views. Suggestions for how this cultural education could be modified include placing a greater emphasis on both the cultural self-awareness of nutrition educators and the sociopolitical historical factors that influence the cultural orientation of nutrition educators and their clients. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  19. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  20. An investigation of the relationship between innovation and cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.

  1. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  2. Living Diversity: Developing a Typology of Consumer Cultural Orientations in Culturally Diverse Marketplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnis, Eva; Emontspool, Julie; Broderick, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    -cultural orientations and use these orientations as informants of their consumption choices. Our findings suggest that the study of consumption implications of cultural diversity should be extended beyond mainstream/migrant differentiation which loses its significance in today’s globalized world...... framework for ethnic consumption and subsequently apply it in an empirical study. The findings indicate that through differential deployment of local, global and foreign cultures affinities for identity negotiation, mainstream and migrant consumers alike can develop or maintain uni-, bi- and multi...

  3. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  4. Effective Multicultural Supervision for a Culturally Diverse Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Living in a country based on the "salad bowl" of cultures philosophy, it is necessary for mental health professionals to be competent in providing effective counseling to heterogeneous clientele. Multicultural counseling ensures that professional counselors will deliver services matching the clients' needs, resulting in valuable…

  5. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2017-07-01

    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  6. Organizational and Managerial Outcomes of a Cultural Diversity Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Romanski-Livingston, Linda G.

    1998-01-01

    Workforce parity among cultural groups in America has been an unobtainable goal for years. The present diversity in our society dictates a new mandate for majority managers in their approach toward working beside and supervising these cultural groups. In order to achieve full inclusion and reach their fullest potential many employees, minorities and women, in these cultural groups, along with managers, are attending or participating in diversity training classes. Although diversity has sev...

  7. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  8. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  9. Exploring Strategies in Facilitating Cultural Diversity: A Freirean Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Zenobia; Guo, Shibao

    2008-01-01

    The student population in Canada's higher education institutions is becoming increasingly racially and culturally diverse. Canadian higher education has the obligation to build inclusive teaching and learning environments where the needs and aspirations of students from diverse cultures and backgrounds can be addressed in an equitable manner.…

  10. Cultural Diversity and Teamwork. ERIC Digest No. 152.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    In today's society, when increasing numbers of employees are being expected to work in teams and when cultural diversity is becoming commonplace in schools and workplaces, it is imperative that vocational and career educators prepare students for future interactions in a culturally diverse workplace. Communication differences between generations,…

  11. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  12. Designing Transition Programs for Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Sparks, Shannon L.; Aldridge, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Parents from culturally diverse backgrounds need to feel that they play a vital role in the future success of their sons or daughters with disabilities. Differences in culture and ethnicity can affect families' involvement in transition planning and the goals that they emphasize for their children. Families of diverse backgrounds were surveyed and…

  13. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  14. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  15. Critical reflections on managing cultural diversity in workplaces in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Brezigar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on managing cultural diversity at workplaces in Slovenia. The author critically reflects on some aspects of research and studies that have been carried out both on discrimination as well as managing diversity in Slovenia between 2007 and 2013, and finds the cause of the inability of organisations to adopt policies on managing diversity in the lack of competences and skills associated with cultural sensibility. The author maintains that whereas workplaces are bound to become more and more diverse, the predominant approach towards diversity in workplaces in Slovenia tends to either dismiss (cultural diversity as inconsequential or treat it as a nuisance that needs to be dealt with, thus failing to grasp the advantages which such diversity could bring.

  16. The impact of cultural diversity forum on students' openness to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Susan; Baldwin, Dee; Cannella, Kathleen A S; Charles, Jennell; Parker, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    As the population demographics for the United States (U.S.) shift towards increasing diversity, it is essential that nurses provide culturally competent care. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as a major curricular element in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN) The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Thus it is imperative that nursing faculty use effective strategies to help nursing students develop cultural sensitivity and competence. Educational workshops focusing on cultural diversity are usually designed to increase people's cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cultural diversity forum on nursing students' cultural sensitivity as measured by their openness to diversity. A convenience sample of students was recruited from a public university in the southeastern United States. The workshop was designed as a forum that combined a keynote presentation, shared meal, and a small group interactional activity. Cultural sensitivity was measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (ODCS), and was administered to students before and after the forum. A convenience sample of 47 students agreed to participate and completed both the pretest and posttest. Following the workshop, the students had more cultural sensitivity as measured by their scores on the ODCS (Wilcoxin Signed-Rank test z= -3.286, p = 0.001). The findings suggested that an educational format like the cultural diversity forum can promote students' cultural sensitivity. Further research needs to continue to focus on the effectiveness of strategies to increase the cultural sensitivity of baccalaureate nursing students.

  17. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić; Dragan Bagić

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary w...

  18. Global forces, local identity: the economics of cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, Aloys; Steenge, A.E.; Hospers, Gerrit J.; Langen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While the economies of the world become more and more integrated, differences in the cultures remain. The economics of cultural diversity and of cultural interactions are the main theme of this volume. The essays originate from presentations at the binational Rothenberge seminar, organized by

  19. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  20. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural

  1. THE EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sezerel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of diversity management practices relies on the combination of a series of variables properly. The relevant literature suggests that diversity management is highly depended on an adequate organizational culture. Thus, a research model that proposes that organizational culture has impact on diversity management perceptions of employees. There are two data sets in this research. The independent variable of the research is organizational culture and the dependent variable of the research is the level of diversity management perceptions. The research is adopted in quantitative method and the data collected via questionnaires. This research which is conducted in a hotel chain finds that the mission dimension of organizational culture impacts all three levels of diversity management.

  2. Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph

    2017-07-01

    As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Are we bridging the gap? A review of cultural diversity within stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Gamson, Louise

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this article is to highlight the aspects of how religion, ethnic grouping, age, gender, and learning disabilities affect how stoma care is approached and supported. It will try to highlight the positive and negative approaches documented so far and how this has affected the quality of stoma care given. By following guidelines set out by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2015) and the Association of Stoma Care Nurses (ASCN) (2015) the aim of the article will be to expand cultural awareness in stoma care nursing. By learning about the multifaceted aspects of culture as it applies to stoma care and then being able to apply that knowledge, usefully and skilfully, expands the SCN's ability to provide services for any cultural diverse client group.

  4. Cultural rights in the Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: included or ignored?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.; Kono, T.; Van Uytsel, S.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted by the Member States of UNESCO. In this Declaration, cultural human rights were commended as an enabling environment for cultural diversity. After the Declaration, the Member States wished to adopt a legally binding instrument on

  5. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  6. Diversity and Complexity in the Classroom: Valuing Racial and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Pierre; Bisschoff, Tom

    2007-01-01

    From a diversity perspective, all students should receive an education that continuously affirms human diversity--one that embraces the history and culture of all racial groups and that teaches people of colour to take change of their own destinies. With regards to teaching, a diversity perspective assumes that teachers will hold high expectations…

  7. Examining the Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy across Diverse Client Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jessica Barfield

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…

  8. Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence. PMID:20143759

  9. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Anthropologists, biologists and linguists have all noted an apparent coincidence in species diversity and human cultural or linguistic diversity. We present, to our knowledge, one of the first quantitative descriptions of this coincidence and show that, for 2 degrees x 2 degrees grid cells across...... sub-Saharan Africa, cultural diversity and vertebrate species diversity exhibit marked similarities in their overall distribution. In addition, we show that 71% of the observed variation in species richness and 36% in language richness can be explained on the basis of environmental factors, suggesting...

  10. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  11. Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayani, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences.

  12. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 research groups. One of the research groups identified the term cultural diversity to define. Method This was a qualitative study where a philosophical perspective was used to explore, explain and describe nursing practice. The combined method proposed by the International Council of Nurses (ICN was utilised to define and validate the term cultural diversity. Findings Validation and literature review provided sufficient support for the defined characteristics and the term was finally defined and submitted to ICN in November 2002 as: CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a type of CULTURE with the specific characteristics: co-existence of different groups, e.g. ethnic, religious, linguistic and other groups each with their own values and belief systems, traditions and different lifestyles. Conclusion The research group was informed in December 2003 of the ICNP® Evaluation Committee recommendation that the term cultural diversity will be included in the ICNP®.

  13. Cultural differences and board gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco , Amélia; Francoeur , Claude; Réal , Isabelle; Laffarga , Joaquina; Ruiz-Barbadillo , Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    International audience; As evidence of the continuing interest raised by "board gender diversity", major studies (Catalyst, 2008; World Economic Forum, 2010; European Board Diversity Analysis, 2010) were recently carried out and have all led to reports confirming the imbalance of women on boards and the need to address this issue. Moreover, our analysis of these reports indicates that the low proportion of women observed on corporate boards varies across countries, which raises the question a...

  14. [Healthcare and culture, between diversity and universality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Interrelations exist between people's behaviour and the reasons for it as explained by culture. The healthcare theory put forward by the American nurse Madeleine Leininger, at the end of the 1970s, integrates anthropology Identifying and understanding the patient's culture enables nursing care to be adapted to the patient's own view of his/her disease.

  15. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  16. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  17. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  18. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: The State of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three broad categories of research on cultural diversity in the workplace: general overviews, theoretical perspectives, and empirical research studies. Offers an explanation for the paucity of research on the topic, and suggests topics and methods for future research. (SR)

  19. Supporting transvisibility and gender diversity in nursing practice and education: embracing cultural safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Peter; Fitton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    Many nursing education programs deserve a failing grade with respect to supporting gender diversity in their interactions with their students and in terms of the curricular content directed toward engaging in the safe and supportive nursing care of transgender clients. This situation contributes to transinvisibility in the nursing profession and lays a foundation for nursing practice that does not recognize the role that gender identity plays in the health and well-being of trans-clients and trans-nurses. This article seeks to raise readers' awareness about the problems inherent to transinvisibility and to propose several curricular and structural-level interventions that may serve to gradually increase the recognition of gender diversity in the planning and delivery of nursing education and practice. Contextualized in gender and intersectionality theory, cultural safety is presented as a viable and appropriate framework for engaging in these upstream approaches to addressing gender diversity in nursing education and practice. Among the structural interventions proposed are as follows: inclusive information systems, creation of gender neutral and safe spaces, lobbying for inclusion of competencies that address care of trans-persons in accreditation standards and licensure examinations and engaging in nursing research in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. "Knowing Your Students" in the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Saltmarsh, David

    2016-01-01

    The population movement of globalization brings greater cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) to communities and education systems. To address the growing diversity in school classrooms, beginning teachers need an expanded set of skills and attitudes to support effective learning. It is an expectation today that teachers know their students and…

  1. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  2. Counseling and Psychotherapy with Clients of Middle Eastern Descent: A Qualitative Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Boghosian, Sara

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for clinical and counseling psychologists to have multicultural competence skills for treating an increasingly diverse client population. The psychology literature related to culturally competent treatment with persons of Middle Eastern descent is currently limited. In this study, qualitative methodology was utilized to explore the mental health attitudes and psychotherapy experiences of clients of Middle Eastern descent. Participants described culturally...

  3. Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education): CIEAEM 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afzal; Williams, Honor; Kraemer, Jean Marie

    The 51st meeting of the Commission Internationale pour L'Etude et L'Amelioration de L'Ensignment des Mathematiques (CIEAEM) was held July, 1999 at Chichester, UK and facilitated the collaboration of delegates from over 30 countries providing a variety of perspectives on the theme OCultural Diversity in Mathematics Education'. The papers in this…

  4. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  5. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  6. Identity and Cultural Diversity in Conflict Resolution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which political stakeholders and social categories and classes feel com- pelled to express their ... formed in the interaction of social groups by the processes of inclusion ... It is not an unchanging bloc of beliefs, values, codes and behaviour. It is the ..... Cultural Expressions (2005) states in its preamble that cultural diversity.

  7. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  8. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: Managing a Multicultural Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.

    1990-01-01

    The influx of minorities into the workplace requires attention to their participation in workplace training, to race relations and organizational culture, and to potential communication difficulties. Human resource professionals must address cultural diversity issues as they affect the attainment of organizational goals. (SK)

  9. Usability Problem Identification in Culturally Diverse Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    There are indications that established methods for evaluating information system usability that have been developed for use in, e.g. Europe or the USA, fail to give reliable results in countries such as India, China or Malaysia. This paper presents the theoretical background, related work...... and a definition of culture that should be useful for studies of multiple-country usability testing. This includes a discussion of cultural fit and the consequences of cultural (in)consistencies between stakeholders in system development and use. As an illustrative example of the kind of academic research...... that needs to be done, a pilot study is described. The pilot study exemplifies themes to explore, who should be participants and where should the study be done, how to find examples of multiple-country usability testing, how to collect data and how to analyse that data and what kind of results and discussion...

  10. Reconstructing marginality: a new model of cultural diversity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Margaret; Polaschek, Nick

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a new model of cultural diversity in nursing that critically reconstructs the concept of marginality that underpins other models. Rather than viewing the marginal as "other," marginality is redefined as the space in between the dominant cultural reality and the cultural realities of minority groups located within a society. Members of a minority cultural group who become skilled in the difficult process of negotiating this in-between space open the possibility of transformation within nursing education and practice. This model has been applied in a study of the experience of nursing students of Pacific ethnicity in New Zealand. Subsequently, an undergraduate Pacific nursing program was developed, with greatly increased success rates in registration of Pacific nurses. This model of cultural diversity can also be used to understand nursing practice involving people from minority cultures or other socially excluded categories. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  12. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  13. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E.; Brown, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations. PMID:22072606

  14. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven

    2012-04-22

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations.

  15. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Ivory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  16. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months. PMID:29349320

  17. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students' thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students' perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  18. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  19. Cultures Around the World: A Unique Approach to Youth Cultural Diversity Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly diverse cultural trends have significant implications for the educational needs of American youth. Learning about and valuing diverse cultures will help prepare youth to become better citizens in an ever-changing society. Cultures Around the World was developed to meet the educational needs of youth in the area of cultural diversity. The Cultures Around the World program brings to life exciting cultures and customs from countries all over the world. Countries are presented in a unique format by teaching youth (ages 10 to 18 a specific country’s history, culture, food, music, dance, language, religion, and current issues. The Cultures Around the World program can be used by any youth educator. The program comes in a ready to use CD containing presentations, handicraft instructions, language guides, and resource guides for nine different countries (Armenia, Australia, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Ghana, Slovakia and Mexico.

  20. New way of working: Professionals' expectations and experiences of the Culture and Health Project for clients with psychiatric disabilities: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästberg, Birgitta A; Sandström, Boel; Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta

    2018-02-01

    There is a need for various types of interventions when meeting needs of clients with psychiatric disabilities and complementary interventions may also influence their well-being. The Culture and Health project, based on complementary interventions with 270 clients, was created in a county in Sweden for clients with psychiatric disabilities and for professionals to carry out the interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the professionals' expectations regarding the project and their clients' possibilities for participating, and to investigate the professionals' experiences of the project after its completion. Focus group data with a total of 30 professionals participating were collected. A qualitative content analysis revealed four categories of the professionals' expectations before entering the project: "Clients' own possibilities and limitations for their development and independence", "Professionals' possibilities for supporting the clients", "Societal prerequisites", and "Expectations of a new way of working". Furthermore, the analysis regarding professionals' experiences after working with the project revealed three categories: "Adopting the challenges", "Having ways of working that function - prerequisites and possibilities", and "Meeting the future - an ambition to continue". Working in the Culture and Health project together with the clients in group-based activities was perceived as beneficial, although challenges arose. When implementing cultural activities, support from stakeholder organisations is needed. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Culturable gut microbiota diversity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantas, Leon; Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A-D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid conventional

  2. Cultural competency and diversity among hospice palliative care volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Maja

    2012-05-01

    This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.

  3. Building effective working relationships across culturally and ethnically diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Cheryl A; Gensheimer, Linda; Yang, Mai

    2003-01-01

    Amherst H. Wilder Foundation's Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians is implementing two collaborative, best practice, mental health and substance abuse prevention service models in Minnesota. It faced several issues in effectively bridging multiple cultural groups, including building a diverse collaborative team, involving families and youth, reconciling cultural variation in meeting styles, and making best practice models culturally appropriate. Researchers and program staff used multiple strategies to address these challenges and build successful partnerships. Through shared goals, flexibility, and a willingness to explore and address challenges, collaboratives can promote stronger relationships across cultural communities and improve their service delivery systems.

  4. Cultural diversity and the case against ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M

    2000-01-01

    The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.

  5. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  6. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  7. THE MODERN-DAY IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY: "MANAGING FAMILY JUSTICE IN DIVERSE SOCIETIES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Rautenbach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the modern-day impact of cultural and religious diversity and comments on some of the viewpoints to be found in Managing Family Justice in Diverse Societies.1 The topics dealt with in this publication create a greater awareness of the challenges family diversity presents, and illustrate that an attempt to adopt a single definite strategy to manage diversity would not be the right approach; rather that each and every situation should be managed according to its unique context.

  8. Cultural diversity and team performance in the Italian Serie A

    OpenAIRE

    Addesa, FA; Rossi, GB; Bove, V

    2017-01-01

    Cultural diversity features prominently in management studies. A diverse range of skills and perspectives can produce innovation and a greater variety of solutions to day to day problems. At the same time, however, the same heterogeneous approaches and experiences can result in communication and coordination problems, lack of trust and intra/intergroup conflict. We analyse a newly constructed dataset on team composition and performance for 29 teams, 1,238 players and 1,899 matches in the Ital...

  9. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a ca...... the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community....

  10. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  11. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary world. Therefore, the relationship of its citizens to cultural and other diversities will become an increasingly important socio-political and scientific topic, and the authors hope that their research will help to sensitize the public in this regard. It was found, unexpectedly, that Croatian citizens in fact offer somewhat weaker “resistance to multicultural society” (as measured by Eurobarometer, since only 8 per cent in total said it was bad or very bad for the country. Namely, almost one in four (23 per cent Europeans did not agree with the statement that people of different ethnic or cultural backgrounds enrich their countries. Even in relation to the European Union, Croatian respondents expressed moderate optimism, because a fairly smaller number of them (42% from a comparative European average (48% believed that joining the European Union threatens national cultural identity. The impact or the lack of impact of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents coincides in part with similar trends in research, for example in the Netherlands. In this research, only three predictors of results on the scale of cultural exclusion turned out to be statistically significant: sex, degree of religiosity and national affiliation. In a great world comparative research project it was established that young people generally showed greater acceptance of cultural (and other diversities in their societies, and it should be pointed out that age did not act in

  12. Cultural values and diversity management perspectives : Testing the impact of cultural values on the diversity management perspectives in Sierra Leone, Germany and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cultural values impact the attitudes towards diversity management perspectives. Therefore they convey critical opportunities and challenges that a country encounters, and which need to be identified for the successful implementation of diversity management initiatives. This thesis discusses the different diversity management perspectives and their motivations and rationales to diversify and the process in which the national culture influences the organizational culture practices. The ...

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure, and traditional culture of Camellia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tong; Huang, Weijuan; De Riek, Jan; Zhang, Shuang; Ahmed, Selena; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Long, Chunlin

    2017-11-01

    Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province. We collected plant material ( n  = 190 individuals) from five populations at study sites using single-dose AFLP markers in order to access the genetic diversity within and between populations. A total of 387 DNA fragments were produced by four AFLP primer sets. All DNA fragments were found to be polymorphic (100%). A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed in C. reticulata samples at both the species ( H sp  = 0.3397, I sp  = 0.5236) and population (percentage of polymorphic loci = 85.63%, H pop  = 0.2937, I pop  = 0.4421) levels. Findings further revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity within C. reticulata populations (Analysis of Molecular Variance = 96.31%). The higher genetic diversity within populations than among populations of C. reticulata from different geographies is likely due to the cultural and social influences associated with its long cultivation history for esthetic and culinary purposes by diverse sociolinguistic groups. This study highlights the influence of human management, socio-economic factors, and other cultural variables on the genetic and morphological diversity of C. reticulata at a regional level. Findings emphasize the important role of traditional culture on the conservation and utilization of plant genetic diversity.

  14. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  15. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  16. Promoting Cultural Diversity: African Music in Australian Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Australia is forged by ongoing migration, welcoming a range of cultures, languages and ethnicities, celebrating a diverse range of the Arts. In this multicultural society, music and dance may serve as a positive medium to transmit and promote social cohesion. I argue that the inclusion of innovative and immersive practice of African music in…

  17. Performing Our World: Affirming Cultural Diversity through Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a culturally responsive music curriculum through which students and teachers affirmed diverse stories of individuals present in our public school community. An arts-integrated curriculum project helped make learning more meaningful while concurrently creating a safe learning space for students. This grant-funded project…

  18. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  19. Conflict, Cultural Diversity and Relativism in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to interrogate the ideal of using drama to highlight the cultural differences within the Nigerian polity and advance the argument that there is need for playwrights to creatively orchestrate this diversity and in the process examine the model of relativism and tolerance amongst the various federating units in the ...

  20. Addressing shipboard cultural diversity: A paradigm shift required to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past few decades have witnessed a tremendous technological and social transformation on board ships and with it some very significant operational challenges. Much of the social challenges have been the result of a new maritime workforce that has now become largely much more culturally diverse than ever.

  1. Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Rutger van de Sande; Drs. Kennedy Aquilino Tielman; Dr. S. Bolhuis; Prof. dr. Perry den Brok

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning in a culturally diverse secondary vocational education. By K. Tielman (Fontys), P. den Brok (ESoE), S. Bolhuis (Fontys) and R. van de Sande (Fontys) This contribution discusses a descriptive study on the experiences of students and teachers in secondary vocational education

  2. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : The Robustness of Cultural Homophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cultural diversity is both persistent and precarious. People in different regions of the world are increasingly exposed to global influences from mass media, internet communication, interregional migration and mass tourism. English is rapidly becoming Earth’s Lingua Franca, and Western

  3. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  4. Leadership of Cultural Diversity : The impact of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Raithel (Katja)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to understand how to manage cultural diverse teams in the best way and increase team performance in multinational organizations. Therefore, defining what kind of leader characteristics drives team performance and what leadership characteristics foster

  5. Inequities of Intervention among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Although Response to Intervention (RTI) has been generally studied in relation to student outcomes, the system itself requires further study, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. CLD students have consistently suffered inequities in the educational system, including over representation in high incidence disability…

  6. Segmentation of culturally diverse visitors' values in forest recreation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; H.C. Zinn; G.E. Chick; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of HOFSTEDE’s measure of cultural values (1980) for group segmentation in an ethnically diverse population in a forest recreation context, and to validate the values segmentation, if any, via socio-demographic and service quality related variables. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF)...

  7. Singapore International Schools: Best Practice in Culturally Diverse Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the preliminary outcomes of research into the place and role of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five International Schools in Singapore. It highlights the ways in which school philosophy, policy, curriculum and in-service training influence teacher practice. The research provides insights into the challenges…

  8. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  9. Reaching Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Young Learners with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susanne D.; Ames, Margery E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how cross-over training and a whole-school approach help preschool educators assist disabled students who have not yet acquired their native language, examining New York's English-as-a Second-Language/Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Training Program for Pre-K Special Education Personnel, which trains preschool personnel to meet…

  10. Public Address, Cultural Diversity, and Tolerance: Teaching Cultural Diversity in Speech Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    While speech instructors work to design appropriate diversity goals in the public speaking class, few have the training for such a task. A review of course objectives and assignments for the basic course may be helpful. Suggestions for instructors working to incorporate diversity in the basic course include: (1) recognize the dominance of the…

  11. Guidelines and Strategies for Cross-Cultural Counseling with Korean American Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yea Sun Eum

    2005-01-01

    The 3 major topics discussed begin with a recommendation of family counseling as the primary therapeutic modality for Korean Americans. Second, the article recommends various culturally congruent joining strategies, presented in 5 general groups. The 3rd major section of the article offers the cross-cultural counselor strategies for therapeutic…

  12. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  13. Managing equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Beverley

    2007-12-01

    This article offers practical strategies to managers and others for supporting overseas trained nurses and managing cultural diversity in the health workforce. Widespread nursing shortages have led managers to recruit nurses from overseas, mainly from developing countries. This paper draws on evidence from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study reported elsewhere in this issue, which indicates that overseas trained nurses encountered widespread discriminatory practices including an overuse of complaints and grievances against them. The researchers also found that the overseas trained nurses responded to their experiences by using various personal strategies to resist or re-negotiate and overcome such discriminatory practices. A research workshop was held in June 2005 at the midpoint of the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study. Twenty-five participants attended the workshop. They were the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals study researchers, advisory group members, including the author of this paper and other researchers in the field of migration. The overall aim of the workshop was to share emerging research data from the Researching Equal Opportunities for Internationally Recruited Nurses and Other Health Professionals and related studies. The final session of the workshop on which this paper is based, was facilitated by the author, with the specific aim of asking the participants to discuss and determine the challenges to managers when managing a culturally diverse workforce. The discussion yielded four main themes collated by the author from which a framework of strategies to facilitate equality and cultural diversity management of the healthcare workers may be developed. The four themes are: assumptions and expectations; education and training to include

  14. Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise

    2014-01-01

    With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.

  15. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Tostevin, Gilbert B

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls "the taskscape"). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls "taskscape visibility." Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data.

  16. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  17. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions. As there is evidence that some skin bacteria may inhibit growth of Bd and prevent infection in some cases, there is interest in using these bacteria as probiotic therapy for conservation of at-risk amphibians. In this study, we used skin swabs from American toads ( Anaxyrus americanus ) to: (1) assess the diversity and community structure of culturable amphibian skin bacteria grown on high and low nutrient culture media, (2) determine which culture media recover the highest proportion of the total skin bacterial community of individual toads relative to culture-independent data, and (3) assess whether the plated communities from the distinct media types vary in their ability to inhibit Bd growth in in-vitro assays. Overall, we found that culture media with low nutrient concentrations facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa and grew distinct communities relative to media with higher nutrient concentrations. Use of low nutrient media also resulted in culturing proportionally more of the bacterial diversity on individual toads relative to the overall community defined using culture-independent methods. However, while there were differences in diversity among media types, the variation among individual hosts was greater than variation among media types, suggesting

  18. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  19. Metacogonitive and Motivational Cultural Intelligence: Superpowers for Creativity an a Culturally Diverse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bogilović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose that employees who are highly motivated for cultural interactions (motivational cultural intelligence and can modify their thinking about cultural differences (metacognitive cultural intelligence are more likely to be creative in culturally diverse environments. Based on the social categorization theory, we propose that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence will be positively related to individual creativity. Moreover, we predict that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence can decrease the negative aspects of the social categorization process and, in turn, be positively related to creativity. A quantitative analysis of 787 employees in 20 SME multicultural companies in the Adriatic region shows that metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence are in fact positively related to individual creativity. We discuss the implications for practice and future research.

  20. Education: 6. The Influence of Cultural Diversity on Openearedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iușcă Dorina Geta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Open-earedness theory has repeatedly been confirmed on several populations including American, English, Dutch, German and Finnish people. Nonetheless the influence of cultural diversity on openness towards unfamiliar music has received little attention from researchers and this may create the possibility of adding essential modifications of Albert LeBlanc’s theory. Considering the contemporary context, people’s migration towards economic developed countries becomes a phenomenon with great implications related to the progress of social and cultural characteristics of any national context. Researching the openearedness of people which have been exposed not only to their native culture but also to the adopted one (due to financial necessities may reveal a series of useful aspects for the intercultural field (by disclosing new ways to promote the tolerance towards cultural diversity and also for the educational field (by describing new strategies of learning in a context of adaptation to an unfamiliar musical space. The present article analyses a series of previous experiments that monitored the way different social categories integrated in cultural communities different from their own assimilate or not the elements of the adopted country into their musical identity. The present analysis has educational implications related to the ways students may develop the preference for unfamiliar music.

  1. Ethnic and cultural diversity: challenges and opportunities for health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aart

    2008-09-01

    Guaranteeing equal health care of appropriate quality implies taking ethnic and cultural diversity into account, without over- or underestimating the importance of these grounds. Besides awareness of its relevance, it is essential to have disaggregated data to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture on the one hand and health and health care on the other hand. From a health law perspective, it is a prerequisite to understand the conceptual and normative meaning of equality and non-discrimination, also in relation to the right to privacy, and to be aware of the need to collaborate with other legal and non-legal disciplines.

  2. A Relational Cultural Approach to Working with Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepal, Heather C.; Boie, Ioana; Kress, Victoria E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine eating disorders through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). Taking into account the importance of relationships and connection, it is suggested that RCT may be a useful lens for conceptualizing and working with people who are experiencing eating disorders. Ways that RCT can be applied to enhance…

  3. Cultural adaptation in measuring common client characteristics with an urban Mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxia; Anderson, Timothy; Beutler, Larry E; Sun, Shijin; Wu, Guohong; Kimpara, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a culturally adapted version of the Systematic Treatment Selection-Innerlife (STS) in China. A total of 300 nonclinical participants collected from Mainland China and 240 nonclinical US participants were drawn from archival data. A Chinese version of the STS was developed, using translation and back-translation procedures. After confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the original STS sub scales failed on both samples, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was then used to access whether a simple structure would emerge on these STS treatment items. Parallel analysis and minimum average partial were used to determine the number of factor to retain. Three cross-cultural factors were found in this study, Internalized Distress, Externalized Distress and interpersonal relations. This supported that regardless of whether one is in presumably different cultural contexts of the USA or China, psychological distress is expressed in a few basic channels of internalized distress, externalized distress, and interpersonal relations, from which different manifestations in different culture were also discussed.

  4. Promoting Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students as Change Agents: A Cultural Approach to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a cultural approach to professional learning to empower pre- and in-service teachers to successfully address increasingly diverse student populations and become culturally responsive to students' diverse backgrounds. This cultural approach treats culture as a vital source for reshaping the politics of identity and…

  5. Cultural Diversity Training: The Necessity of Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers and in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the need to provide culturally sensitive care to the growing number of diverse health care consumers. A literature review of national standards and research on cultural competency was conducted and specifically focused on the field of nursing. This study supports the theory that cultural competence is learned over time and is a process of inner reflection and awareness. The domains of awareness, skill, and knowledge are essential competencies that must be gained by health care providers and especially for nurses. Although barriers to providing culturally sensitive care exist, gaining a better understanding of cultural competence is essential to developing realistic education and training techniques, which will lead to quality professional nursing practice for increasingly diverse populations.

  6. Serving Culturally Diverse E-Learners in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia; Weir, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e-learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a few, give management learners of any age easy…

  7. Cultural diversity and human resources management in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian MARINAS; Monica CONDRUZ- BACESCU

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the international dimensions of human resources management and the extension of European Union represents important premises regarding the harmonization of human resources practices at the level of the European countries. Despite this, the main characteristic of the European model of management is diversity. During the last decade, the human resource function registered profound changes, determined especially by the economic, social, cultural and political context registered a...

  8. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  9. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a calcium carbonate matrix, making extraction of bacterial cells and DNA a challenge and limiting molecular and genomic studies of this environment. To utilize this genetic resource, cultivation at high pH and low temperature was studied as a method for obtaining biomass and DNA from the fraction of this community that would not otherwise be amenable to genetic analyses. The diversity and community dynamics in mixed cultures of bacteria from ikaite columns was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA. Both medium composition and incubation time influenced the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community.

  10. Animal social networks as substrate for cultural behavioural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal; Lusseau, David

    2012-02-07

    We used individual-based stochastic models to examine how social structure influences the diversity of socially learned behaviour within a non-human population. For continuous behavioural variables we modelled three forms of dyadic social learning, averaging the behavioural value of the two individuals, random transfer of information from one individual to the other, and directional transfer from the individual with highest behavioural value to the other. Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c)¹(m)⁻(c)² + (c)³(Log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently modular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  13. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  14. Teaching physiotherapy skills in culturally-diverse classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer-Somers Karen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards. Results This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making. Conclusions Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.

  15. A study of cultural diversity training practices in company-owned franchise restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Uk Charles

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural diversity training practices and to determine the deterrence factors associated instituting cultural diversity training. It attempted to measure the overall effectiveness of cultural diversity training in franchise restaurants. A total of 300 franchise restaurants were surveyed. Three practicing and fiftyeight non-practicing cultural diversity training companies participated in the study. The findings indicated that high tur...

  16. Educating medical students for work in culturally diverse societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, R F; Anderson, P M; Gill, P S; Greenfield, S M

    1999-09-01

    Recent attention has focused on whether government health service institutions, particularly in the United Kingdom, reflect cultural sensitivity and competence and whether medical students receive proper guidance in this area. To systematically identify educational programs for medical students on cultural diversity, in particular, racial and ethnic diversity. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1963-August 1998); Bath International Data Service (BIDS) Institute for Scientific Information science and social science citation indexes (1981-August 1998); BIDS International Bibliography for the Social Sciences (1981-August 1998); and the Educational Resources Information Centre (1981-August 1998). In addition, the following online data sets were searched: Kings Fund; Centre for Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick; Health Education Authority; European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, University of Utrecht; International Centre for Intercultural Studies, University of London; the Refugee Studies Programme, University of Oxford. Medical education and academic medicine journals (1994-1998) were searched manually and experts in medical education were contacted. Studies included in the analysis were articles published in English before August 1998 that described specific programs for medical students on racial and ethnic diversity. Of 1456 studies identified by the literature search, 17 met the criteria. Two of the authors performed the study selection independently. The following data were extracted: publication year, program setting, student year, whether a program was required or optional, the teaching staff and involvement of minority racial and ethnic communities, program length, content and teaching methods, student assessment, and nature of program evaluation. Of the 17 selected programs, 13 were conducted in North America. Eleven programs were exclusively for students in years 1 or 2. Fewer than half (n = 7) the programs were part of

  17. Finding Balance in a Mix of Culture: Appreciation of Diversity through Multicultural Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the understandings of cultural diversity as enacted in multicultural music education and is located in Victoria, which is identified as the most culturally diverse state in Australia with a population that comes from various countries and speaks many languages. This cultural diversity is reflected in the schools. This…

  18. Mapping Cultural Diversity through Children's Voices: From Confusion to Clear Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    This research examines children's conceptualisations of cultural diversity. In particular, this project examines the following two research questions: how do children define and understand the concept of cultural diversity; and what do they perceive as the implications of cultural diversity on their daily lives? To this end, interviews were…

  19. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  20. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  1. Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of the roles of adaptation and chance in determining genetic diversity and evolution has received attention in the last 50 years, but our understanding is still incomplete. All statements about the relative effects of evolutionary factors, especially drift, need confirmation by strong demographic observations, some of which are easier to obtain in a species like ours. Earlier quantitative studies on a variety of data have shown that the amount of genetic differentiation in living human populations indicates that the role of positive (or directional) selection is modest. We observe geographic peculiarities with some Y chromosome mutants, most probably due to a drift-related phenomenon called the surfing effect. We also compare the overall genetic diversity in Y chromosome DNA data with that of other chromosomes and their expectations under drift and natural selection, as well as the rate of fall of diversity within populations known as the serial founder effect during the recent "Out of Africa" expansion of modern humans to the whole world. All these observations are difficult to explain without accepting a major relative role for drift in the course of human expansions. The increasing role of human creativity and the fast diffusion of inventions seem to have favored cultural solutions for many of the problems encountered in the expansion. We suggest that cultural evolution has been subrogating biologic evolution in providing natural selection advantages and reducing our dependence on genetic mutations, especially in the last phase of transition from food collection to food production.

  2. Culture-centered Career Intervention. [and] Diversity, Flexibility, and Career Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokane, Arnold R.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Swanson, Jane L.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Includes two commentaries on the special section. Spokane, Fouad, and Swanson emphasize the importance of two dimensions of clients' cultural context: dominant/subordinate and individual/collective. Walsh highlights research needs related to career intervention and personality, culture, process, and socioeconomic status. (Contains 15 and 11…

  3. Managing cultural diversity in healthcare partnerships: the case of LIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Brown, Sally; Beck, Matthias; Lunt, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) programme was launched in 2001 as an innovative public-private partnership to address the historical under-investment in local primary care facilities in England. The organisations from the public and private sector that comprise a local LIFT partnership each have their own distinctive norms of behaviour and acceptable working practices - ultimately different organisational cultures. The purpose of this article is to assess the role of organisational culture in facilitating (or impeding) LIFT partnerships and to contribute to an understanding of how cultural diversity in public-private partnerships is managed at the local level. The approach taken was qualitative case studies, with data gathering comprising interviews and a review of background documentation in three LIFT companies purposefully sampled to represent a range of background factors. Elite interviews were also conducted with senior policy makers responsible for implementing LIFT policy at the national level. Interpreting the data against a conceptual framework designed to assess approaches to managing strategic alliances, the authors identified a number of key differences in the values, working practices and cultures in public and private organisations that influenced the quality of joint working. On the whole, however, partners in the three LIFT companies appeared to be working well together, with neither side dominating the development of strategy. Differences in culture were being managed and accommodated as partnerships matured. As LIFT develops and becomes the primary source of investment for managing, developing and channelling funding into regenerating the primary care infrastructure, further longitudinal work might examine how ongoing partnerships are working, and how changes in the cultures of public and private partners impact upon wider relationships within local health economies and shape the delivery of patient care

  4. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  5. O significado cultural atribuído ao centro de terapia intensiva por clientes e seus familiares: um elo entre a beira do abismo e a liberdade El significado cultural atribuido al proceso de hospitalización en centro de terapia intensiva por clientes y sus familiares: un eslabón entre el borde del abismo y la libertad The cultural meaning attributed to the intensive care unit by clients and their parents: a link between abysm border and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Cussi Assunção Lemos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo etnográfico teve como objetivo identificar os significados culturais que os clientes admitidos em Centro de Terapia Intensiva e seus familiares atribuem ao processo de hospitalização. Os dados foram coletados mediante a realização de observação participante e entrevistas com 17 sujeitos (clientes e seus familiares, durante a hospitalização. A partir da análise dos dados, surgiram três categorias: 1 CTI, a beira do abismo, um lugar desconhecido e assustador; 2 O elo entre a beira do abismo e a liberdade; 3 A alta do CTI: a liberdade para a vida. O tema central foi: "CTI, um elo entre a beira do abismo e a liberdade". Considerou-se relevante desvelar os significados culturais envolvidos nessa situação, o que poderá subsidiar uma assistência personalizada ao cliente e sua família.Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los significados culturales que los clientes admitidos en Centro de Terapia Intensiva (CTI y sus familiares atribuyen al proceso de hospitalización. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante la realización de observación participante y entrevistas con 17 participantes (clientes y sus familiares, durante la hospitalización. Del análisis de los datos emergieron tres categorías principales: 1 CTI, al borde del abismo: un sitio desconocido y asustador; 2 CTI: el eslabón entre el borde del abismo y la libertad; 3 El alta del CTI: la libertad para la vida. El tema central fue: "CTI: un eslabón entre el borde del abismo y la libertad". Se consideró relevante revelar los significados culturales envueltos en esta situación concediendo una asistencia personalizada al cliente y su familia.The purpose of this ethnographic study was to identify the cultural meaning that patients in an intensive care unit and their relatives attribute to the hospitalization process. Data were collected by means of participant observation and interviews with 17 participants (clients and their family, during hospitalization. Data

  6. [Cultural diversity, tensions and solidarities within the nursing teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessar, Zahia; Kotobi, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    Cultural and ethnic diversities present in the hospital as well as within the nursing teams impact on the way of working. Observing them from the point of view of the caregivers based on experiences of team guidance and training highlights issues related to the way the hospital teams experience these differences. These differences also have an effect conveyed through tensions, conflicts or solidarity. The place and the role of the managers are an important lever for supporting their teams, notably with regard to racism which can sometimes be expressed in the social relations present in the workplace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Games, Diversions & Perl Culture Best of the Perl Journal

    CERN Document Server

    Orwant, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The Perl Journal (TPJ) did something most print journals aspire to, but few succeed. Within a remarkable short time, TPJ acquired a cult-following and became the voice of the Perl community. Every serious Perl programmer subscribed to it, and every notable Perl guru jumped at the opportunity to write for it. Back issues were swapped like trading cards. No longer in print format, TPJ remains the quintessential spirit of Perl--a publication for and by Perl programmers who see fun and beauty in an admittedly quirky little language. Games, Diversions, and Perl Culture is the third volume of Th

  8. The linguistics in othering: Teacher educators’ talk about cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Birgitta Nilsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Othering’ can be conceptually defined as the manner in which social group dichotomies are represented in language via binary oppositions of ‘us’ and ‘them’. The article aims to contribute to a methodological approach for differentiating the concept of othering in educational settings. We will introduce new ways of conceptualising othering based on findings from an empirical critical discourse analytical study of how teacher educators talk about the term ‘cultural diversity’. The study is based on transcriptions of interviews with Norwegian teacher educators. The findings illustrate that teacher educators talk about cultural diversity using seven different ways of othering. These ways of othering are important because teacher educators’ discourses influence preservice teachers, in turn, influencing their future teaching in schools. We argue that a critical linguistic awareness of the ways in which pupils are ‘othered’ is an important tool in counteracting social exclusion and promoting social justice and equity.

  9. [Diversity and bioactivity of culturable actinobacteria from animal feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Cao, Yanru; Han, Li; Jin, Rongxian; Zheng, Dan; He, Wenxiang; Li, Youlong; Huang, Xueshi

    2012-10-04

    In order to provide new source for discovering new lead compounds of drugs and other products, the diversity and some bioactivities of culturable actinobacteria in animal feces were studied. Five animals' fecal samples were collected from Yunnan Wild Animal Park. The pure cultures of actinobacteria were isolated from these samples by using 5 different media. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 119 selected strains were determined; the phylogenetic analysis was carried out; and antimicrobial and anti-tumor activities were determined by using agar diffusion method, tumor cell lines k562and HL60 respectively. In total 20 genera of actinobacteria from the 5 animals' feces were identified. Many strains inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus lentus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Some strains presented antitumor activities. Some known secondary metabolites and Sannastatin, a novel macrolactam polyketide glycoside with bioactivities, were isolated and identified. Fecal actinobacteria are a new potential source for discovering drug lead and other industry products.

  10. Escaping National Tags and Embracing Diversity: Third Culture Kid Songwriters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanfilippo-Schulz Jessica

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more writers cannot be classified according to one single nation. Whereas in Imagined Communities Anderson describes the development of nations and national belongings, in Third Culture Kid (TCK discourse a central theme is the concept of not belonging to one specific nation or culture (“NatioNILism”. TCKs are individuals who were raised moving from one country to the next due to their parents’ career choices. Not having had a fixed home while growing up, rather than accepting classifications according to nations and cultures, many TCKs prefer to embrace diversity. Antje Rauwerda argues that the fiction of adult TCKs comprises typical features that reflect the consequences of a displaced international childhood and accordingly coins the new literary classification Third Culture Literature. Whereas Rauwerda exclusively analyses novels written by TCKs, this article examines whether the effects of hypermobile international childhoods can be detected in the works of TCK songwriters. By analysing not only the song lyrics of contemporary musicians such as Haikaa, Sinkane and Tanita Tikaram but also the artists’ views regarding issues such as belonging, identity and transience, it will be shown that in the scholarly realm the TCK lens can be expanded to song texts too.

  11. Genetic diversity among and within cultured cyanobionts of diverse species of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, A; Prasanna, R; Prasanna, B M; Singh, P K

    2008-01-01

    The cyanobionts isolated from 10 Azolla accessions belonging to 6 species (Azolla mexicana, A. microphylla, A. rubra, A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. pinnata) were cultured under laboratory conditions and analyzed on the basis of whole cell protein profiles and molecular marker dataset generated using repeat sequence primers (STRR(mod) and HipTG). The biochemical and molecular marker profiles of the cyanobionts were compared with those of the free-living cyanobacteria and symbiotic Nostoc strains from Anthoceros sp., Cycas sp. and Gunnera monoika. Cluster analysis revealed the genetic diversity among the selected strains, and identified 3 distinct clusters. Group 1 included cyanobionts from all the 10 accessions of Azolla, group 2 comprised all the symbiotic Nostoc strains, while group 3 included the free-living cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Nostoc and Anabaena. The interrelationships among the Azolla cyanobionts were further revealed by principal component analysis. Cyanobionts from A. caroliniana-A. microphylla grouped together while cyanobionts associated with A. mexicana-A. filiculoides along with A. pinnata formed another group. A. rubra cyanobionts had intermediate relationship with both the subgroups. This is the first study analyzing the diversity existing among the cultured cyanobionts of diverse Azolla species through the use of biochemical and molecular profiles and also the genetic distinctness of these free-living cyanobionts as compared to cyanobacterial strains of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc.

  12. Client Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Oleksiak, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Training Sections can best serve the needs of their clients by encouraging them to recognize that self-determination and overall training program ownership are the key ingredients of a successful program. In a support role, Training Sections should provide excellent lesson plans and instructors, good record keeping, and feedback vehicles. Most importantly, Training Sections should communicate closely with their clients and provide maximum flexibility to support overall client responsibilities

  13. Ma(r)king Differences in Dutch Social Work : Professional Discourse and Ways of Relating to Clients in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, M. van der

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the ways social workers in the Netherlands deal with a diversity of clients, particularly focussing on allochtonous clients. The study is motivated by the current hegemonic tendency to problematise allochtonous Dutch, often explained along the lines of culture. It was assumed

  14. Addressing cultural diversity: the hepatitis B clinical specialist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack; Smith, Elizabeth; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-08-31

    Hepatitis B is a viral infection primarily affecting people from culturally diverse communities in Australia. While vaccination prevents infection, there is increasing mortality resulting from liver damage associated with chronic infection. Deficits in the national policy and clinical response to hepatitis B result in a low diagnosis rate, inadequate testing and diagnosis processes, and poor access to hepatitis B treatment services. While research identifies inadequate hepatitis B knowledge among people with the virus and primary health care workers, this project sought to identify how specialist clinicians in Australia negotiate cultural diversity, and provide often complex clinical information to people with hepatitis B. A vignette was developed and presented to thirteen viral hepatitis specialist clinicians prior to an electronically recorded interview. Recruitment continued until saturation of themes was reached. Data were thematically coded into themes outlined in the interview schedule. Ethical approval for the research was provided by the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee. Key messages provided to patients with hepatitis B by clinical specialists were identified. These messages were not consistently provided to all patients with hepatitis B, but were determined on perceptions of patient knowledge, age and highest educational level. While the vignette stated that English was not an issue for the patient, most specialists identified the need for an interpreter. Combating stigma related to hepatitis B was seen as important by the specialists and this was done through normalising the virus. Having an awareness of different cultural understandings about hepatitis B specifically, and health and well-being generally, was noted as a communication strategy. Key core competencies need to be developed to deliver educational messages to people with hepatitis B within clinical encounters. The provision of adequate resources to specialist clinics will

  15. Resistance and diversity: cultural narratives of a quilombola community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Pierote Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Riacho das Pedras was a remnant quilombo community in the municipality of Rio de Contas (Bahia which lands were flooded after the construction of a dam. The work led to serious impacts on the affected population and to the surrounding environment. We performed a five trajectories study of former residents of this village between 2008 and 2009. Based on the narratives, we sought to map the displacement processes, the establishment in new territories and the group current conditions. Our project was developed based on interviews, literature, ethnographic inspiration field and oral history of life method. This article aims to conduct an analysis focusing on the quilombo cultural manifestations and consequences of these practices in the local context. We believe that despite the diaspora, the community has endured and asserted itself politically through artistic and cultural events. We understand that the quilombo descendants have (recreated specific forms of expression that value them positively. Besides, through these expressions, important cultural variations are accomplished in order to contribute to the expansion of diversity in Rio de Contas.

  16. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  17. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  18. A Multilevel Model of Team Cultural Diversity and Creativity: The Role of Climate for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ci-Rong; Lin, Chen-Ju; Tien, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We developed a multi-level model to test how team cultural diversity may relate to team- and individual-level creativity, integrating team diversity research and information-exchange perspective. We proposed that the team climate for inclusion would moderate both the relationship between cultural diversity and team information sharing and between…

  19. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  20. Cultural diversity among nursing students: reanalysis of the cultural awareness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Chontichachalalauk, Jiraporn; Lee, H Y

    2014-02-01

    Nurses are educated to provide culturally competent care. Cultural competence begins with cultural awareness, a concept previously measured with the Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the CAS to determine construct validity and differences in cultural awareness among students of varying educational levels and experiences. The sample consisted of 150 nursing students (92% female, 33.6% racial minorities). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded three factors (CFI = 0.868, TLI = 0.854, RMSEA = 0.065, and SRMR = 0.086). Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. There were significant differences among educational levels, with lower division BSN students generally scoring higher than upper division and master's of science in nursing students. Students who had taken courses on cultural diversity or global health generally outscored those who had not taken such courses. Findings support the validity of the CAS and its applicability to research studies of cultural awareness in nursing. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  2. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  3. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  4. Diverse cultures and official laws: multiculturalism and Euroscepticism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Örücü

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normative pluralism refers to a social fact: the co-existence of different bodies of norms within the same social space. State legal pluralism indicates a single overarching national legal system but plural laws, the state recognising different rules for specific categories of persons. However, the equating of multiculturalism and legal pluralism with state law is challenged. In the modern unitary nation state of the Western type only a weak version of legal pluralism in which state centralism still prevails is acceptable. Below it is advanced that in this state the accommodation of cultural diversity and multiple normative orders can only be brought about by the judge, the tuner or the navigator and steersman of the law, by using discretion and creative interpretation and not by the legislators, whose main demarcation lines are clearly drawn within domestic law by the Constitution, and within Europe and within the EU by the demands of human rights and 'ever closer integration'. In both of the critical illustrations below - the equality of the spouses in Turkish family law and the General Principles of the CEFL on divorce and maintenance - more scope should be given to judges to cope with and to create the necessary 'fit' between law and culture that do not coincide.

  5. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  6. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  7. Cultural diversity in the digital age: EU competences, policies and regulations for diverse audio-visual and online content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Valcke, P.; Psychogiopoulou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a multifaceted concept that differs from the notion of media pluralism. However, the two concepts share important concerns particularly as regards content production, content distribution and access to content. This chapter considers the EU’s role in contributing to diverse

  8. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  9. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  10. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work : development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  11. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  12. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  13. Culture of Peace and Musical Education in contexts of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural diversity of the world needs to education for the peace, working the values related to the Culture of Peace, like the respect, the justice, the equality, the tolerance and the interculturality. The fundamental aim of our research is to know and to value how the educational centers turn into the most suitable scenes to develop the education. For it we have realized a study in a center of Infantile and Primary Education of the Autonomous City of Melilla, the College Velázquez, with which we try to know the reality that is lived in the school centers of the city in the relative to the promotion of the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace between the pupils of different groups. We have used a qualitative methodology, which has allowed us to form a group of discussion with several teachers of different professional profiles. As more relevant result stands out than the music, in spite of the hourly restrictions that the legislation has established for this matter, it is one of the best resources to educate in values and to promote the Interculturality and the Culture of Peace.

  14. Client Predictors of Short-term Psychotherapy Outcomes among Asian and White American Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Zane, Nolan W.; Blozis, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine predictors of psychotherapy outcomes, focusing on client characteristics that are especially salient for culturally diverse clients. Method Sixty clients (31 women; 27 White Americans, 33 Asian Americans) participated in this treatment study. Client characteristics were measured at pre-treatment, and outcomes were measured post-fourth session via therapist ratings of functioning and symptomatology. Regression analyses were utilized to test for predictors of outcomes, and bootstrap analyses were utilized to test for mediators. Results Higher levels of somatic symptoms predicted lower psychosocial functioning at post-treatment. Avoidant coping style predicted more negative symptoms and more psychological discomfort. Non-English language preference predicted worse outcomes; this effect was mediated by an avoidant coping style. Conclusions Language preference, avoidant coping style, and somatic symptoms predicted treatment outcome in a culturally diverse sample. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity-related variables may function through mediating proximal variables to affect outcomes. PMID:22836681

  15. A cultural diversity seen in Croatian family medicine: a lady from Janjevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Renata

    2014-12-01

    The role of cultural diversities in doctor's everyday work is going more and more important in globalised world, therefore it draws lots of attention in literature. Cultural differences that exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, are usually distinguished from the term cultural diversity which is mainly understood as having different cultures respect each other's differences. The great effort is made to educate culturally competent practitioners, nurses or doctors. The presented case of lady from Janjevo was a good role model for work with all patients with culturally different background coming to family practice. This lady example could also help to other colleagues to learn from experience on systematic way.

  16. An Ethnography of Children's Friendships in a Fifth-Grade Culturally Diverse Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine friendships of early adolescents in a culturally diverse fifth grade class in an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States. The study described and interpreted the experiences of being a friend and having a friend in a culturally diverse classroom. The approach was grounded in…

  17. Cultural Diversity in Compulsory Education: An Overview of the Context of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurena, Ines Gil

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines educational practices in Spain and in particular Madrid. With this contextual frame as the starting point the following issues are discussed: the "official" conceptualization of cultural diversity, educational policies and resolutions related to cultural diversity, and school programs and resources facilitated by…

  18. Breaking the Silence of Exclusion: Examining the Complexities of Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on an in-depth case study that examined how a teacher education programme in New Zealand prepared pre-service teachers for cultural diversity (based on the author's unpublished PhD thesis, "Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity"; conferred by Curtin University, June 2012). Framed within a critical constructivist…

  19. Making cultural differences matter? : Diversity perspectives in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Gürkan Çelik; Menno Vos; Sjiera de Vries

    2016-01-01

    The higher education sector has become increasingly aware of how the increasing diversity in society affects their institutions. The student population has become more diverse and future employers increasingly require trained students who are able to meet the demands of dealing with a more diverse

  20. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  1. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  2. Monocropping Cultures into Ruin: The Loss of Food Varieties and Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic diversity of thousands of plants and crops has been well documented at least since the 1970s, and has been understood as a result of epistemological and political economic conditions of the Green Revolution. The political economic arrangement of the Green Revolution, alongside a post-war focus on economies of scale and export-oriented growth, replace high-yield single varieties of crops for a diverse array of varieties that may not have the same yield, but may be able to resist pests, disease, and changing climatic conditions. Also, the harvest does not flow in all directions equally: Whereas small holder subsistence farming uses a large variety of crops as a food source and small-scale trade, the industrial economic system requires simplified, machine harvested ship-loads of one variety of maize, for example. Diverse varieties of different crops confound the machines, whereas one variety of wheat can be harvested with one setting on a machine. However, none of this is new. The purpose of this article is to analyze how the twin concerns of lost varietals and lost cultures are bound together in the socio-political process of standardization, and to explain some areas of resistance.

  3. Nursing philosophy: Foucault and cultural diversity issues in the nursing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chin Kang

    2007-03-01

    Cultural diversity is a highly important issue in nursing education and nursing practice today. This study is a philosophical approach to the power relationship between a health care provider and a care recipient. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships between nurses and ethnic minority patients based on the discussions of some Foucauldian concepts that are related to cultural diversity. Based on the analysis, this study provides some suggestions for cultural competency in nursing practice.

  4. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R.; Gray, Russell D.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Jordan, Fiona M.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E.; Botero, Carlos A.; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R.; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S.; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  5. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R; Gray, Russell D; Greenhill, Simon J; Jordan, Fiona M; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E; Botero, Carlos A; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  6. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  8. The Culture Audit: A Leadership Tool for Assessment and Strategic Planning in Diverse Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2006-01-01

    This module is designed to introduce educational leaders to an organizational assessment tool called a "culture audit." Literature on organizational cultural competence suggests that culture audits are a valuable tool for determining how well school policies, programs, and practices respond to the needs of diverse groups and prepare…

  9. Community Psychology, Diversity, and the Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen argued that psychology must broaden its conceptualization of culture to consider its many forms, such as religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The current author could not agree more with Cohen's proposed conceptualization of culture and its potential impact on…

  10. Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…

  11. STRATEGIC CHANGES IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL LEVEL. CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY, BETWEEN "UNITY IN DIVERSITY" AND DISSOLUTION IN DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Gabriela EANA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Change existed in various forms in all stages of development of human society, is that we were dealing with in all economic aspects, social, cultural or others, all of which have affected human existence. A complex phenomenon, which occurs in a longer or shorter period of time and which requires humans to be located in the center, through their own will, constituted into a veritable binder between cause and effect, old and new, nature and culture. Today the exchange of cultural information in the context of international system allows groups of people to interact generating complex changes, so it is essential to take into account processes that could limit diversity in evolution. As well as the cultural phenomenon develops by increasing its social size, density and diversity, society will always be interested in the way how every new element changes human individual universe.

  12. Understanding the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Molly

    1997-01-01

    .... It is from this basic framework that tools such as empowerment, training, and mentoring are presented for leaders to consider when dealing with diversity in their organization. Finally, these tools are interrelated to a five-step continuous process developed by Ann M. Morrison that a leader can use in analyzing the diversity climate of their organization.

  13. Bacterial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere: culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Ge, Guang Bo; Yang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    The regional variability of Taxus rhizosphere bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of three large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the Taxus rhizosphere in different regions of China (subtropical and temperate regions). One hundred and forty-six clones were screened for three libraries. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was higher in the library from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region compared with the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. On the other hand, Acidobacteria was more abundant in libraries from the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. Richness estimates and diversity indices of three libraries revealed major differences, indicating a higher richness in the Taxus rhizosphere bacterial communities of the subtropical region and considerable variability in the bacterial community composition within this region. By enrichment culture, a novel Actinobacteria strain DICP16 was isolated from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region and was identified as Leifsonia shinshuensis sp. via 16S rRNA gene and gyrase B sequence analyses. DICP16 was able to remove the xylosyl group from 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylbaccatin III and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel, thereby making the xylosyltaxanes available as sources of 10-deacetylbaccatin III and the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Taken together, the present studies provide, for the first time, the knowledge of the biodiversity of microorganisms populating Taxus rhizospheres.

  14. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g. – cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users. The data were analysed and themes identified. Results There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Conclusion Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient

  15. Cultural diversity teaching and issues of uncertainty: the findings of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Giordano, James; France, Nicholas

    2007-04-26

    There is considerable ambiguity in the subjective dimensions that comprise much of the relational dynamic of the clinical encounter. Comfort with this ambiguity, and recognition of the potential uncertainty of particular domains of medicine (e.g.--cultural factors of illness expression, value bias in diagnoses, etc) is an important facet of medical education. This paper begins by defining ambiguity and uncertainty as relevant to clinical practice. Studies have shown differing patterns of students' tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty that appear to reflect extant attitudinal predispositions toward technology, objectivity, culture, value- and theory-ladeness, and the need for self-examination. This paper reports on those findings specifically related to the theme of uncertainty as relevant to teaching about cultural diversity. Its focus is to identify how and where the theme of certainty arose in the teaching and learning of cultural diversity, what were the attitudes toward this theme and topic, and how these attitudes and responses reflect and inform this area of medical pedagogy. A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. There were diverse views about what the term cultural diversity means and what should constitute the cultural diversity curriculum. There was a need to provide certainty in teaching cultural diversity with diversity teachers feeling under considerable pressure to provide information. Students discomfort with uncertainty was felt to drive cultural diversity teaching towards factual emphasis rather than reflection or taking a patient centred approach. Students and faculty may feel that cultural diversity teaching is more about how to avoid professional, medico-legal pitfalls, rather than improving the patient experience or the patient-physician relationship. There may be pressure to imbue cultural diversity issues

  16. On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education : The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzali, L.; Gocłowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Stathi, S

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study with the aim of testing certain conditions under which engaging with cultural diversity increases creativity among schoolchildren. Results obtained from a sample of 149 Italian elementary schoolchildren revealed that engaging with cultural diversity,

  17. Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M; Abuelroos, Dena; Dabaja, Emman; Jurva, Stephanie; Martin, Kimberly; McCarron, Joshua; Reed-Hendon, Caryn; Yeow, Raymond Y; Harriott, Melphine M

    2015-01-01

    Fostering cultural competence in higher education institutions is essential, particularly in training future health care workers to care for diverse populations. The opportunity to explore techniques to address diversity and cultural competence at a new medical school was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, staff, and medical students. From 2011 to 2015, the team sponsored a voluntary programming series to promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities for the medical school. Thirteen events were hosted with 562 participants across all. This approach to diversity proved effective and could be adapted in any higher education setting.

  18. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  19. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  20. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes

  1. Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches provide insights into diversity of jakobids, an extremely plesiomorphic eukaryotic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ePánek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida, an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids - 60 % or 80 %, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists – Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  2. An analysis of cultural diversity in spanish educational legislation: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Peñalva Vélez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the Educational Laws approved in Spain since 1990, with the aim of identifying any references about cultural diversity. All these laws have come into force within a new multicultural Spanish reality, which has already been existing in other European countries for decades. However, the Spanish legal system (including educational law still focuses on cultural differences of those migrants that are non EU members. Our Social Imaginary is composed of distorted images of what cultural diversity is, and what it means. We should introduce intercultural educational model at schools, as interculturality pursues the renovation of monocultural scholar curricula. Its objective is to promote the diverse cultural groups at schools, apart from trying to achieve cultural feedback within society. The most important problem we have currently faced in the educational system is that cultures, far from being clearly defined as global, dynamic and open, are being constrained to ethnic, geographical or religious features

  3. Don't neglect cultural diversity in oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-05-01

    The growing Hispanic population in the United States mandates the need for oncology providers to become more familiar with disease patterns and cultural belief systems that can impact cancer care. "Culturally competent care" should be the mandate of all providers. This comprises awareness of cultural differences, communication in a manner that the patient understands, and respect. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  4. A Framework for Understanding Cultural Diversity in Cognition and Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Janet L; Pierce, Linda G

    2003-01-01

    .... The Army's Objective Force leaders and soldiers must understand cultural differences affecting team performance before they can learn adaptive behaviors that would ensure mission success when working...

  5. Cultural Diversity, Geographical Isolation, and the Origin of the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Quamrul Ashraf; Oded Galor

    2011-01-01

    This research argues that variations in the interplay between cultural assimilation and cultural diffusion have played a significant role in giving rise to differential patterns of economic development across the globe. Societies that were geographically less vulnerable to cultural diffusion benefited from enhanced assimilation, lower cultural diversity, and more intense accumulation of society-specific human capital. Thus, they operated more efficiently with respect to their production-possi...

  6. Cultural intelligence: A Pathway for Emergency Responder Engagement with Ethnically Diverse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6, no. 4 (2012): 297, doi: 10.1111/j.1751...subjective culture .34 According to this research, “Subjective cultural aspects include hidden, psychological factors such as values, beliefs, norms...research from leading researchers in the “domains of international and cross - cultural management as well as management of domestic diversity.”65 A

  7. Intellectual Assessment of Children from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1992-01-01

    Examines assumptions and premises of standardized tests of mental ability and reviews extant theories and research on intellectual functioning of children from culturally different backgrounds. Discusses implications of these issues and perspectives for new directions for intellectual assessment for children from culturally different backgrounds.…

  8. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  9. One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Talewicz-Kwiatkowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland There are no universal criteria which would be useful to describe the diversity of all of the Roma. Their presence in given country is linked to adaptive processes to majority societies. It is the majority that creates condition and space to which minorities need to adapt somehow. The results of the above-mentioned adaptive processes also vary and depend on an external context. The attitude of given populations towards minorities and the current political and economic situation of given country, where the Roma settled had and still has significant influence on mentioned processes. The way of life of different Romani groups has also a great importance, because sedentary way of life (typical for most European Roma and external influences especially on culture and models of lifestyle also furthered the adaptive processes. The cultural diversity among the Roma is the case not only with the groups living in different countries. It needs to be emphasized that the Roma who have lived in one country for centuries are not a homogenous group in terms of their culture. Previous migration processes and sedentary or nomadic way of life had a great influence on this internal diversity. In Poland with four distinguished Romani groups such diversity occurs between Carpathian Roma (Bergitka Roma, Polish Highlander Roma and traditionally nomadic groups: Polska Roma, Lovara, Kelderari. This article is mainly based on available sources and dissertations on the subject. However it refers to the field research regarding the use of European Union’s funds for the Roma community in Poland, which was conducted by the author in 2010 and 2011.   Kultura jedna czy wieloraka? Zróżnicowanie populacji romskiej w Polsce Nie istnieją uniwersalne kryteria użyteczne w opisie zróżnicowania wszystkich Romów. Ich obecność w danym kraju wiąże się z procesami adaptowania się do społeczeństw wi

  10. Counseling Older Japanese American Clients: An Overview and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Goro; McRae, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses important aspects of providing counseling to older Japanese American clients, including ethical issues based on cultural differences and nontraditional approaches to counseling. Examines unique historical and cultural characteristics of these clients. Includes 26 citations. (Author/CRR)

  11. Cultural diversity in community sport: an ethnographic inquiry of Somali Australians' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sport organisations aim to grow the participation of culturally and linguistically diverse communities, including newly arrived people from refugee backgrounds. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research conducted by the author at community sport organisations in the multicultural city of

  12. Cultural diversity in the workforce: the tension between creativity and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation of the modern business, changing demographics and the rapid growth of multinational firms has meant that managing cultural diversity in organisations is more important today than ever before. Whilst the existence of a culturally diverse workforce can increase an organisations' competitiveness, by providing creative ideas and solutions, it can also be detrimental to overall performance, given the issues of conflict that may arise. The multicultural challenge, therefore, revolves...

  13. Managing the effects of cultural diversity in HR in a non profit organization, Case organization: Moniheli

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organizations traditionally operate within limited resources. They cannot spend much of their resources to increase motivation. Especially when the bigger goal of the organization is to promote cultural diversity in society, it is very interesting to observe how a non-profit organization manages the cultural diversity that exists within its own human resources. This report is an attempt to identify the ways through which the case organization Moniheli, a non-profit network of diffe...

  14. Diversity as a motive for entrepreneurship?: The case of gender, culture and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Laurice Alexandre-Leclair

    2014-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly considered as a motive for entrepreneurship. In our article, we set the hypothesis that diversity positively affects self-employment. In order to validate our hypothesis, we discuss two literature reviews: the first one about the link between culture, ethnicity and entrepreneurship and the other one about gender and entrepreneurship. We also discuss the last study led by OECD (2012) on gender entrepreneurship. Our article reveals that culture and ethnicity may be con...

  15. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...... to reach other goals rather than as an end in itself. In particular, the discourse of market liberalism is prevalent in the representation of ICD as cultural cooperation and also as an instrument to increase economic competitiveness and growth. In terms of ICD as a part of policies on cultural industries...

  16. What client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    rising pressure for new approaches towards space, urbanization, environmental challenges, technological inventions, transformation of cities and buildings on one hand and the decline in impact, reputation, self-esteem and economy of ´conventional´architectural profession on the other hand. In Asia like...... engage architects, no matter how urgent the problems are. It is the architects who must reverse their understanding of ´clients´, for the sake of these challenges as well as for their own professional future. This started happen very much in contrast to predominant architectural education models: Young...

  17. The relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquiao, Dula

    2007-01-01

    This article attempted to examine the relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings. In addition to the review of the literature, a panel of experts was interviewed regarding institutional practices in response to the challenge of increasing diversity and cultural competence education. Evidence of positive outcomes of cultural competent care and impact of race and ethnic concordance between patients and providers are presented. The challenge of increasing underrepresented minorities in health care professions remains elusive. An ecological analysis is recommended to address the social and cultural barriers that transcend the micro system of the school and the macro system of the society. The challenge of increasing diversity and realizing outcomes of cultural competence education requires social and comprehensive remedies to level life inequities that perpetuate a history of disadvantages in some groups.

  18. Cultural diversity in Brazilian children’s literature: The project Literatura em Minha Casa in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira de Paula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to search for representations of Brazilian cultural diversity in children’s literature of the Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola [National Program of School Library] (PNBE, in the editions of 2001, 2002, and 2003, years of the project Literatura em Minha Casa [Literature in My House], especially those addressed to fourth and fifth grades of Elementary School. The selection criteria of works claimed that the collections should “[…] present a small picture of the Brazilian culture […]” (Brasil, 2001; 2002; 2003, p. 12, understanding that culture as characterized by diversity. Therefore, the analysis was divided into two phases: the first dealt with ethnic plurality and the second with culture and regionalism. In general, the results showed that among 120 works analyzed, 15 had ethnic-racial diversity and 12 works presented aspects of regionalism and culture from different parts of Brazil.

  19. Culturally Diverse Communities and End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Azen, S.P. (1995). Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy. JAMA, 274, 820-5 . Phipps, E., True, G., & ... briefly about end-of-life options and neglect culture or values (Tulsky, Fischer, Rose, & Arnold, 1998). Speaking ...

  20. The effect of cultural diversity on employee productivity in work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... to improving workers' skills and knowledge to the detriment of employees' daily ... Since conflict arising from cultural differences wastes time and reduces employee morale, this ...

  1. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capparis deciduas) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was assessed and defined by culture-dependent and cultureindependent approaches on the basis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The average ...

  2. No problem! Avoidance of cultural diversity in teacher training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    commendable classroom and learning "on the job" model. During the ... to the approach of multicultural education, but merely as a result. South African ..... Revealing the deep meaning of culture in school learning: framing a new paradigm for ...

  3. Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking about Cultural Diversity and Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Floya

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the concepts of cultural diversity, belonging and identity which inform important debates for managing "difference" in contemporary European societies. These address issues relating to transnational migration, ethnic diversity and racialisation in a range of social contexts. The article also reflects on the concept of…

  4. Four Approaches to Cultural Diversity: Implications for Teaching at Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Dankwa, Joseph; Lane, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to cultural diversity that professors at institutions of higher education may take. These are neutrality, similarity, diversity, and diversimilarity. Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches, and argues for the diversimilarity approach, using the teaching of the death penalty (and examination…

  5. Speech-Language Pathologists' Preparation, Practices, and Perspectives on Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Atkins, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the backgrounds, diversity training, and professional perspectives reported by 154 Colorado speech-language pathologists in serving children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. The authors compare the results of the current survey to those of a similar survey collected in 1996. Respondents reported…

  6. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  7. Cultural competency: providing quality care to diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to define cultural competence and present a practical framework to address crosscultural challenges that emerge in the clinical encounter, with a particular focus on the issue of nonadherence. English-language literature, both primary and reports from various agencies, and the author's personal experiences in clinical practice. Relevant literature on patient-centered care and cultural competence. There is a growing literature that delineates the impact of sociocultural factors, race, ethnicity, and limited-English proficiency on health and clinical care. The field of cultural competence focuses on addressing these issues. Health care providers need a practical set of tools and skills that will enable them to provide quality care to patients during a brief encounter, whatever differences in background that may exist. Cultural competence has evolved from the gathering of information and making of assumptions about patients on the basis of their sociocultural background to the development of skills to implement the principles of patient-centered care. This patient-based approach to cross-cultural care consists of first, assessing core cross-cultural issues; second, exploring the meaning of the illness to the patient; third, determining the social context in which the patient lives; and fourth, engaging in negotiation with the patient to encourage adherence. Addressing adherence is a particularly challenging issue, the determinants of which are multifactorial, and the ESFT (explanatory/social/fears/treatment) model--derived from the patient-based approach--is a tool that identifies barriers to adherence and provides strategies to address them. It obviously is impossible to learn everything about every culture and that should not be expected. Instead, we should learn about the communities we care for. More important, we should have a framework that allows us to provide appropriate care for any patient--one that deals with issues of adherence

  8. Escaping National Tags and Embracing Diversity: Third Culture Kid Songwriters

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo-Schulz Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more writers cannot be classified according to one single nation. Whereas in Imagined Communities Anderson describes the development of nations and national belongings, in Third Culture Kid (TCK) discourse a central theme is the concept of not belonging to one specific nation or culture (“NatioNILism”). TCKs are individuals who were raised moving from one country to the next due to their parents’ career choices. Not having had a fixed home while growing up, rather than acce...

  9. Cultural diversity and Ottoman heritage in contemporary Greek popular novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Trine Stauning

    Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility/migration. Such ...... will place the contemporary novels in relation to earlier Greek literature dealing with cultural identity in the Ottoman period from different angles (e.g. Βιζυηνός, Δέλτα, Σωτηρίου, Φακίνος, Γαλανάκη).......Public and scholarly interest in the impact of Ottoman history and culture on the successor states is increasing. Cultural co-existence in Ottoman society is explored perhaps in an attempt to find answers in the past to contemporary challenges emerging from transnational mobility....../migration. Such interest is obvious in international academia as well as in the cultural sphere of the countries in South-eastern Europe. In Greece, the recent celebration of the 100 years of Thessaloniki’s incorporation in the Greek state has accentuated the city’s Ottoman heritage. A plenitude of exhibitions...

  10. clientes surdos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliam César Alves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar cómo profesionales de la unidad municipal de rehabilitación física se comunican con personas sordas que buscan atención especializada. Métodos: estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, de enfoque cualitativo, realizado con 32 profesionales que trabajan en rehabilitación física a través de instrumento auto aplicable. Resultados: del análisis de datos, surgieron dos categorías temáticas: Usando el Lenguaje Brasileño de Signos; Improvisación de Estrategias de comunicación para interactuar con clientes sordos. Improvisación de estrategias utilizadas por los profesionales para comunicarse con personas sordas pueden causar barreras que inciden negativamente en la calidad de los servicios prestados a esta población. Conclusión: la comunicación es deficiente, e iniciativas eficaces centradas en la cualificación de los profesionales que trabajan en el ámbito de la rehabilitación, pueden contribuir para que puedan dominar el Lenguaje Brasileño de Signos, garantizándose a los clientes sordos la atención adecuada, conforme a lo dispuestos para personas sin discapacidad auditiva.

  11. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Der Gang, Ineke

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is

  12. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  13. Student perspectives on diversity and the cultural climate at a U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Robert; McClendon, Jennifer; Henderson, Anita; Evans, Yolanda; Colquitt, Rosa; Saha, Somnath

    2007-02-01

    To obtain the perspectives of medical students at one school on racial/ethnic campus diversity and cultural competence and to gain their perceptions of the institutional climate around diversity at their university and of reasons for minority underrepresentation at their medical school. A student-driven survey of all medical students (N = 398) at a single medical school in the spring of 2003, supplemented by four focus groups from all racial and ethnic groups on the campus. A large majority of the responding students (n = 216; 54%) endorsed the value of campus diversity and the importance of cultural competence to the process of becoming a clinician. Most students felt their university had achieved a positive cultural climate, characterized by openness to diverse perspectives and attention to equity. Most students also felt that the university's programs and policies reflected a commitment to diversity, but fewer students--those from underrepresented minorities (URMs) in particular--felt that the university truly valued having a diverse student body and faculty. Most students felt that the lack of diversity on campus was a barrier to recruiting and retaining minority candidates. Some minority students also blamed the medical school's limited social, academic, and financial support, as well as inadequate efforts to recruit minority students. Medical students generally place a high value on campus diversity and cultural competence. URM students in particular felt that their university could do more to implement its commitment to diversity, including making greater efforts to recruit and retain URM students. These views constitute a barometer for medical schools to gauge and track their efforts to enhance campus diversity, incorporate cultural competence education, and create an inclusive and welcoming climate for students of all backgrounds.

  14. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarainen, Ashlee; Mikkonen, Kristina; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Elo, Satu; Pitkänen, Salla; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring. Healthcare education is confronted by several challenges in a time characterized by globalization and increasing international migration. Nursing students from diverse backgrounds continue to experience difficulties during clinical placement. Students can overcome these difficulties and assume responsibility for their learning when mentored by supportive and competent mentors. A cross-sectional, descriptive explorative study design was used. Data were collected during spring 2016 through a survey sent to mentors (n = 3,355) employed at five university hospitals in Finland. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students was measured with the self-assessment Mentors' Competence Instrument and the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Mentoring scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression analysis. Mentors with experience mentoring nursing students from diverse backgrounds rated their overall competence in mentoring as good. However, the results show continued challenges related to competence in linguistic diversity in mentoring. Seven factors that affect mentors' competence in linguistic diversity were identified. Despite high evaluations by mentors of competence related to cultural diversity in mentoring, there are still opportunities for improvement in this area. Innovative and effective strategies are needed to develop mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students. Educational and healthcare organizations should strive to enhance collaboration and increase the competence of both mentors and nursing students to work in increasingly diverse healthcare environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Simeon; Rossi, Giovanni; Baranova, Julija; Blythe, Joe; Dingemanse, Mark; Kendrick, Kobin H; Zinken, Jörg; Enfield, N J

    2018-05-01

    Gratitude is argued to have evolved to motivate and maintain social reciprocity among people, and to be linked to a wide range of positive effects-social, psychological and even physical. But is socially reciprocal behaviour dependent on the expression of gratitude, for example by saying 'thank you' as in English? Current research has not included cross-cultural elements, and has tended to conflate gratitude as an emotion with gratitude as a linguistic practice, as might appear to be the case in English. Here, we ask to what extent people express gratitude in different societies by focusing on episodes of everyday life where someone seeks and obtains a good, service or support from another, comparing these episodes across eight languages from five continents. We find that expressions of gratitude in these episodes are remarkably rare, suggesting that social reciprocity in everyday life relies on tacit understandings of rights and duties surrounding mutual assistance and collaboration. At the same time, we also find minor cross-cultural variation, with slightly higher rates in Western European languages English and Italian, showing that universal tendencies of social reciprocity should not be equated with more culturally variable practices of expressing gratitude. Our study complements previous experimental and culture-specific research on gratitude with a systematic comparison of audiovisual corpora of naturally occurring social interaction from different cultures from around the world.

  16. Social work in diverse ethno-cultural contexts: a case study of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Nigeria was conducted to ascertain the impact of social work on the country's ethno-cultural diversity and its impartation of local knowledge to the profession via a triangulation technique, which involved searching for evidence of multicultural social work, culturally rooted social development, indigenous social ...

  17. Building Cultural Competence for Work with Diverse Families: Strategies from the Privileged Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Marty

    2001-01-01

    A model of social work education for undergraduates from primarily privileged backgrounds links postmodern perspectives of cultural competence, diversity, social constructionism, and a generalist strengths-based orientation for work with families. Four steps for helping students recognize the role of culture in generating a worldview and develop a…

  18. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions towards Multicultural Education & Teaching of Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Roben; Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Ringlaben, Ravic P.

    2016-01-01

    The issue of diversity in U.S. K-12 schools requires significant training and experiences for preservice teachers to recognize the importance of students' socio-cultural, religious values, and the influence their cultural background have in their quest to succeed in their educational endeavors. This study provides significant information to…

  20. A Systematic Review: The Next Generation Science Standards and the Increased Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asowayan, Alaa A.; Ashreef, Samaar Y.; Omar, Sozan H.

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to explore the effect of NGSS on students' academic excellence. Specifically, considering increased cultural diversity, it is appropriate to identify student's science-related values, respectful features of teachers' cultural competence, and underlying challenges and detect in what ways these objectives are addressed by…

  1. Critical Perspectives on Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood: Building an Inclusive Curriculum and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the complexities that arise from addressing issues of cultural diversity in the early years context. It explores the challenges of developing an effective early years provision and pedagogy that values cultural difference within the framework of a mandated curriculum, "The Early Years Foundation Stage…

  2. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  3. Caregiving to patients who are culturally diverse by Swedish last-year nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Bäckström, Josefin; Widén, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    With Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality as a framework, the aim of this study was to describe Swedish last-year nursing students' experiences of caregiving to patients who are culturally diverse. The students participated voluntarily, 107 by completing a questionnaire with open-ended questions and 15 by participating in in-depth semistructured interviews. Three categories of experience were identified by use of qualitative method, namely, cultural awareness, cultural insufficiency, and cultural curiosity. The students were found to be on the level of Leininger's first phase of transcultural knowledge. It is concluded that cultural sensitivity should be promoted by integrating transcultural concepts into the curricula on all levels of nursing education and by offering special courses on transcultural nursing to nursing students and health care providers.

  4. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  5. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...... dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally...... diverse organizations represent. This is illustrated with data from an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish multicultural organization. The final section reflects on implications of using a combination of different theories in analyzing the results, and suggests other possibilities for future research....

  6. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons.

  7. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    TNO-DV2008A513 Opdrachtnummer Datum december 2008 Auteur (s) dr. I.M. Wetzer dr. D.A. van Hemert Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd TM0...been reported. Based on Allport’s (1954) intergroup contact theory , positive effects of intercultural contact may occur under certain conditions...diversity on perceived team effectiveness, but only at the 11-30% level. In contrast, social identity theory would lead one to expect negative effects of

  8. Beyond billiard balls: transnational flows, cultural diversity and digital games

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra

    2010-01-01

    Current mass media policy and regulation in Western Europe is primarily state‐based and increasingly based on the presumption that a competitive market will maximise individual choice and diversity. Policy interventions are primarily justified in terms of specific market failures including concentration of producers in the marketplace, the need to financially reward content developers financially for their work and issues related to distribution bottlenecks.1 Nevertheless, it is clear that at...

  9. Resident and family member perceptions of cultural diversity in aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2017-03-01

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Sexual Orientation: A Cultural Diversity Issue for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misener, Terry R.; Sowell, Richard L.; Phillips, Kenneth D.; Harris, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the development of a culturally aware work force have consistently ignored the importance of gender role and sexual orientation as sources of potential conflict in the workplace. Nursing must end personal and professional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (JOW)

  11. Successful Components of School Improvement in Culturally Diverse Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary phenomena, including modernization, globalization, and migration, have altered the sociopolitical and cultural conditions of schooling. Schools are called upon to respond to such change through improvement efforts fostering intercultural education. To this end, this research examines school actors' perceptions of the successful…

  12. Manifestation of cultural diversity in the novel Megokgo ya Lethabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the South African black communities comprising Venda, Tsonga, Sotho, Nguni and Khoisan, marriage is not viewed as a union of two individuals, but rather as a joining together of a number of families by means of various rituals, practices such as 'bride wealth' ilobola and negotiations. This has created a cultural ...

  13. Cultural Diversity and the Imagined Community of the Global Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Green, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Transnational academic mobility and the ongoing push towards "internationalization" together raise challenges for the cultural climate of today's universities. This paper explores these issues from the perspective of supervisors of research degrees in an Australian university in which "internationalization" and "academic…

  14. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  15. What client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is growing exponentially, global streams of refugees are at an all-time high, 10 million people found their homes destroyed by one typhoon on the Philippines, 2,000,000,000 people have no access to basic sanitation. The building sector produces a gigantic 60% of global waste. 40...... has been a popular art and that the clients were the rich and powerful, documented by a legacy of palaces, churches, villas, office blocs and alienated ´property developments´. Slum dwellers, climate victims, war refugees, the urban poor but also endangered species as well as tormented spaces cannot......% of (non-renewable) energy is consumed by buildings (without calculating energy used in construction). Growing amounts of buildings become abandoned and derelict, infrastructural failures and junk spaces surge and whole urban quarters decline socially and physically. Any more challenges needed? Looking...

  16. Meeting the Needs of Our Clients Creatively: The Impact of Art and Culture on Caregiving. Death, Value and Meaning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John D., Ed.

    This book integrates traditional understandings of care of the dying and bereaved with the use of arts and other forms of cultural creativity in therapy and funeralization. Authors provide insights into the practical aspects of caring for the dying and bereaved as well as new understandings of creativity. Chapters include: (1) "The Knowledge…

  17. Teaching University Students Cultural Diversity by Means of Multi-Cultural Picture Books in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Fen

    2017-01-01

    In a pluralistic society, learning about foreign cultures is an important goal in the kind of multi-cultural education that will lead to cultural competency. This study adopted a qualitative dominant mixed-method approach to examine the effectiveness of the multi-cultural picture books on: (1) students' achieving awareness towards cultural…

  18. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  19. Human Rights in the Context of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human rights understood in the sense of fundamental inalienable rights are therefore considered as universal – they apply to everything and egalitarian exist in two ways: as natural or legal rights, both in the rights doctrine in the international practice within the international law, the global and regional institutions, in the state policies and the activities of non from all over the world regardless of peoples’ cultures. manage the ethnic-cultural communities living on the territory of a state often contributes, in fact, to the separation and not to the reunion of peoples, the ideological and political factors acting rather as division factors whereas the affective spiritual connection exists only between the states having deep similarities. For this purpose, serving justice having as a goal the pres on the social feelings of humanity.

  20. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  1. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in speech-language pathology courses: A platform for culturally responsive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2017-06-01

    Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.

  2. Cross-cultural feigning assessment: A systematic review of feigning instruments used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2017-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The most frequently studied cognitive effort measures included the Word Recognition Test, the Test of Memory Malingering, and the Rey 15-item Memory test. The classification accuracy of these measures is compared and the implications of this research literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. THE CITIZEN CLIENT PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Bueno Vieira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In our experience and work in the Medical Clinic at the Federal University of Goiás Clinical Hospital (HC/UFG, we observe that in despite of the most patients get orientations about their pathology by the health team, they don’t accomplish these orientations. For the continuous self-care promotion was implanted project "Citizen Client", with intention to contribute to patient citizenship rescue, guiding and strengthening its rights and duties while carrying on pathology. This article is an experience related by a qualitative approach with a group of patients interned in the Medical Clinic of the HC/UFG that rambles, their familiars and that ones who participates in the project Citizen Client during their internment in the year of 2003. On the meeting we work with lectures, workshops and groups by the multi-professional team and coordinated by a Nurse. The subjects had been diverse, approaching some pathology and its cares, social and spiritual assistance. The client participation in its recovery has extreme importance and, so that this occurs, it is necessary health education understood in its extended form, recognizing the client’s life reality, their day-by-day, providing mechanisms for them to become an asset subject with autonomy to act in favor of own health. KEYWORDS: Health Education; Self Care; Quality of Life.

  4. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  5. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rocky; Kalaitzis, John A.; Wood, Susanna A.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus. PMID:23917066

  6. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Neilan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus.

  7. Universality, Diversity and Legal Certainty: Cultural Diversity in the Dialogue between the CEDAW and States Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vleugel, V.; Kanetake, M.; Nollkaemper, A.

    2016-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that the universal value and application of international human rights norms does not imply a uniform implementation of these rights, thereby leaving room for local and culture specific implementation at the national level. The question remains, however, what the precise scope

  8. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Dunn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  9. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Cultural diversity in physical diseases among patients with mental illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens I; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective:People with psychiatric diseases have a severely increased risk for physical morbidity and premature death from physical diseases. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes (DM) and obesity in schizophrenia and depression in three...... in Europe and Japan.Method:Patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) F2 diseases (schizophrenia spectrum disorders) and F3 diseases (affective disorders) admitted to one Nigerian, one Japanese, two Swiss, two German and six Danish centres during 1 year were included. Physical diseases...... in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western...

  11. Individual and cultural-diversity competency: focus on the therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jessica Henderson; Roysircar, Gargi; Abeles, Norman; Boyd, Cyndy

    2004-07-01

    The Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology was held in Arizona in November 2002. One of the workshops, Individual and Cultural Differences (ICD), focused on racism, homophobia, and ageism. The consensus was that self-awareness and knowledge about the three "isms" are critical components in the education and training of psychologists. This article, authored by four of the workshop attendees, is a review of the current research and theoretical literature. Implications that address both content and context in graduate programs and training sites are presented. This is one of a series of articles published in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Several other articles that resulted from the Competencies Conference will appear in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and The Counseling Psychologist. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Navigating Cultural Borders in Diverse Contexts: Building Capacity through Culturally Responsive Leadership and Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic shift and increasing diversity in the student population demand urgency and attention from educational leaders. Those who argue for greater attention to equity and diversity suggest that all students regardless of their gender, social class, ethnic or racial characteristics must have equal opportunities to learn and be engaged. These…

  13. Circles of Consensus: The Preservation of Cultural Diversity through Political Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Jaria i Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western modern culture has expanded at the universal level and has thereby become a threat to other cultures, particularly those of chthonic communities. But these cultures have progressively recognized its worth as a source of richness, which can be very useful in facing future challenges to humanity. Moreover, in terms of human dignity and the equality of all human beings, Western modern culture has to be recognized as having an intrinsic value as well. Given these facts, we must find a way to protect this cultural diversity in an effective manner. It is obvious that assimilationist or isolationist models are not satisfactory. So I propose a third way. I call it an integrationist or a deep approach. It consists of giving political density to cultural diversity through the design of federalist strategies that have, as a result, the definition of different levels of decision (circles of consensus. After having exposed my model, I will pay attention to the recent constitutional experiences in Ecuador and Bolivia, where some new developments in this sense are intended. I compare these models with my proposal and, finally, I analyze the main problems that a deep approach to preserving cultural diversity has to face up to.

  14. Customer relationship management scale for the B2C market: a cross-cultural comparison / Escala de relacionamento com clientes para o mercado B2C: uma comparação transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objectives of this study were to validate the Customer Relationship Management Scale (CRMS in France, and to compare the French model to both Brazilian and American ones. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: Based on the premise that scientific measurement instruments may be used to reflect customers' perception about the organization actions and effectiveness, it is important to validate a scale within a multidimensional cultural context. Therefore, the applicability of the instrument shall be possible in different contexts, longitudinally, with diverse subjects, thus providing external validity and generalization. Key methodological aspects: This is a descriptive, instrumental, quantitative, cross-sectional survey where we used the Customer Relationship Management Scale (CRMS. The sampling method was non-probabilistic convenience and the total of answered questionnaires added up to 454. We carried out a quantitative research through Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Summary of key results: The results obtained in the analyses allow us to conclude that the relation between clients and companies is really two-dimensional and it involves two distinct factors, namely Loyalty and Customer Service. The scale validated in Brazil and in the United States remained stable, in terms of validity (quality of items and reliability, when validated in a distinct context, that is, France. This makes its application in French organizations possible, improving its external validity and generalization. Key considerations/conclusions: The main objective of this study was reached and an instrument to assess what aspects French customers rank as relevant regarding CRM was produced showing theoretical consistency, reliability and construct validity as well. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi validar a Escala de Relacionamento com Clientes (ERC na França, e comparar a escala francesa com a brasileira e americana. Originalidade

  15. Culturable diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Aarzoo; Ahmad, Irshad; Kim, Seung Bum

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl such as inland salt lakes and evaporated sea-shore pools, as well as environments such as curing brines, salted food products and saline soils. Dependence on salt is an important phenotypic characteristic of halophilic bacteria, which can be used in the polyphasic characterization of newly discovered microorganisms. In this study the diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils of Daecheon, Chungnam, and Saemangeum, Jeonbuk, was investigated. Two types of media, namely NA and R2A supplemented with 3%, 5%, 9%, 15%, 20% and 30% NaCl were used. More than 200 halophilic bacteria were isolated and BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis was done for the typing of the isolates. The BLAST identification results showed that isolated strains were composed of 4 phyla, Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (5%) and Actinobacteria (4%). Isolates were affiliated with 16 genera and 36 species. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the phylum Firmicutes, comprising 24% of the total isolates. Halomonas (12%) and Shewanella (12%) were also found as the main genera. These findings show that the foreshore soil of Daecheon Beach and Saemangeum Sea of Korea represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity.

  16. Culturable diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarzoo Irshad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic bacteria are commonly found in natural environments containing significant concentration of NaCl such as inland salt lakes and evaporated sea-shore pools, as well as environments such as curing brines, salted food products and saline soils. Dependence on salt is an important phenotypic characteristic of halophilic bacteria, which can be used in the polyphasic characterization of newly discovered microorganisms. In this study the diversity of halophilic bacteria in foreshore soils of Daecheon, Chungnam, and Saemangeum, Jeonbuk, was investigated. Two types of media, namely NA and R2A supplemented with 3%, 5%, 9%, 15%, 20% and 30% NaCl were used. More than 200 halophilic bacteria were isolated and BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis was done for the typing of the isolates. The BLAST identification results showed that isolated strains were composed of 4 phyla, Firmicutes (60%, Proteobacteria (31%, Bacteriodetes (5% and Actinobacteria (4%. Isolates were affiliated with 16 genera and 36 species. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the phylum Firmicutes, comprising 24% of the total isolates. Halomonas (12% and Shewanella (12% were also found as the main genera. These findings show that the foreshore soil of Daecheon Beach and Saemangeum Sea of Korea represents an untapped source of bacterial biodiversity.

  17. Culturally diverse attitudes and beliefs of students majoring in speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos

    Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.

  18. A two level mutation-selection model of cultural evolution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2010-11-21

    Cultural evolution is a complex process that can happen at several levels. At the level of individuals in a population, each human bears a set of cultural traits that he or she can transmit to its offspring (vertical transmission) or to other members of his or her society (horizontal transmission). The relative frequency of a cultural trait in a population or society can thus increase or decrease with the relative reproductive success of its bearers (individual's level) or the relative success of transmission (called the idea's level). This article presents a mathematical model on the interplay between these two levels. The first aim of this article is to explore when cultural evolution is driven by the idea's level, when it is driven by the individual's level and when it is driven by both. These three possibilities are explored in relation to (a) the amount of interchange of cultural traits between individuals, (b) the selective pressure acting on individuals, (c) the rate of production of new cultural traits, (d) the individual's capacity to remember cultural traits and to the population size. The aim is to explore the conditions in which cultural evolution does not lead to a better adaptation of individuals to the environment. This is to contrast the spread of fitness-enhancing ideas, which make individual bearers better adapted to the environment, to the spread of "selfish" ideas, which spread well simply because they are easy to remember but do not help their individual bearers (and may even hurt them). At the same time this article explores in which conditions the adaptation of individuals is maximal. The second aim is to explore how these factors affect cultural diversity, or the amount of different cultural traits in a population. This study suggests that a larger interchange of cultural traits between populations could lead to cultural evolution not improving the adaptation of individuals to their environment and to a decrease of cultural diversity

  19. Cultural Diversity and Reasonable Accommodation. An Approach based on Freedom as Non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Wences

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges that culturally diverse societies now face is that of learning to live with differences. Harmonization practices such as concerted adjustment and reasonable accommodation are some of the mechanisms proposed by cultural diversity management policies to deal with this contemporary situation. In the case of reasonable accommodation, this practice can be justified not only because it is based on a recognition of equality in difference, but also on a belief in freedom as a form of non domination, given the inequality present in power relations.

  20. Vigilance as a caring expression and Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J M

    1998-01-01

    Vigilance, or the close, protective involvement of families caring for hospitalized relatives, was explored in this study using holistic ethnography. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality provided direction for the researcher to generate substantive data about the meanings, patterns, and day-to-day experience of vigilance. Five categories of meaning were derived from the data: commitment to care, emotional upheaval, dynamic nexus, transition, and resilience. The research findings expand understanding of vigilance as a caring expression, suggest direction for nursing practice, and contribute to Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality and the development of nursing science.

  1. Education and cultural diversity - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irizelda Martins de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the main issues concerning the main tensions to be resolved by the education, aiming to clear the theme of cultural diversity. Here in it is argued in the context of the emergence of concepts, such as cultural diversity, pluralism, multiculturalism, interculturality, identity, among others. This study is based on a research conducted by teachers of the area of public policy of the State University of Maringá, which examine important aspects of the history of Brazilian education, in particular documents of international organizations like UNESCO.

  2. Using non-feature films to teach diversity, cultural competence, and the DSM-IV-TR outline for cultural formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Russell F; Diamond, Ronald J; Chang, Jacquelyn B; Primm, Annelle B; Lu, Francis G

    2008-01-01

    Feature films have been used for teaching in psychiatry for many years to demonstrate diagnoses, but the use of documentary and instructional films in resident and staff cultural competence training have not been extensively written about in the medical and psychological literature. This article will describe the films that have been used by the authors and suggest methods for their use in cultural competence and diversity training. A literature search was done using MEDLINE and PsychINFO and the authors were asked to describe their teaching methods. One article was found detailing the use of videotapes as a stimulus but not for cultural competence education, and two articles were found documenting the use of The Color of Fear as a stimulus for the discussion of racism. However, many educators use these films all across the country for the purpose of opening discussion about racism. Documentary, instructional, and public service announcements can be useful in teaching culturally competent assessment and treatment.

  3. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  4. Professional football squads as multicultural teams: Cultural diversity, intercultural experience, and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maderer, Daniel; Holtbrügge, Dirk; Schuster, Tassilo

    2014-01-01

    After the Bosman ruling in 1995, the cultural diversity of professional football teams in Europe has increased considerably. Recruiting players regardless of their nationality allows football clubs to make use of a global talent pool and to combine the specific strengths of individuals with different cultural backgrounds. At the same time, it confronts them with the challenge of having players who speak different languages and who have different football philosophies ingrained in them. Based ...

  5. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The impact of cross-cultural interactions on medical students' preparedness to care for diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nina N; Syed, Zeba A; Krupat, Edward; Crutcher, Betty N; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Medical students who graduate from schools with diverse student populations are more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients compared with students who graduate from more homogenous schools. This study aimed to identify the types of cross-cultural interactions associated with students' self-rated preparedness. In 2010, the authors developed and administered a Web-based survey that queried Harvard Medical School students about their voluntary interethnic interactions (studying, socializing), participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities, and self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. The authors separated students' responses regarding interethnic interactions and participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities into high and low participation, then determined the association between these responses and those to questions about students' self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. They used ANOVA and Z tests of proportion to analyze their data. Of 724 eligible students, 460 completed the survey (64%). Seventy-five percent (324/433) believed they were prepared to care for patients from backgrounds different from their own. Students who spent >75% of their study time with students from different backgrounds or who participated in a greater number of diversity-related extracurricular activities were more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients overall and to perform seven other skills. Voluntary cross-cultural interactions, both studying and socializing, are associated with higher self-rated preparedness to care for patients from diverse backgrounds. Medical schools should continue to support multicultural pursuits to prepare students to become physicians sensitive to the needs of diverse patients.

  7. Social Networking Sites Use and Cross Cultural Adaptation of Muslim Indonesian Students in Australian Universities: Valuing Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraryo, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Muslim Asian students have diverse specific needs when undertaking education in western country universities. Many international students use social networking sites as media for distance communication and helping in their adjustment.This study attempts to investigate the impact of using new social networking sites on the cross cultural adaptation process. Qualitative methodology was used for the study. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. The study investigates ...

  8. Culture-dependent and -independent investigations of microbial diversity on urinary catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Moser, Claus Ernst; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, which ascend the catheter along its external or internal surface to the bladder and subsequently develop into biofilms on the catheter and uroepithelium. Antibiotic-treated bacteria and bacteria residing in biofilm can be difficult...... to culture. In this study we used culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent methods (fingerprinting, cloning, and pyrosequencing) to determine the microbial diversity of biofilms on 24 urinary catheters. Most of the patients were catheterized for...

  9. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Boga, Hamadi I; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well

  10. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  11. Culturally Diverse Students in Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities within Academic Literacy Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tkachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With growing diversity in the population, higher education faces a new situation with increasing student diversity. In our paper, we will explore questions concerning the consequences student diversity has for higher-education institutions. Based on our experience from three different R&D projects, the differences in culture and academic literacy practices give culturally diverse students challenges that have often been ignored in academia. Some other studies also document that this group of students has a much higher risk of dropping out and underachieving than majority students (Andersen & Skaarer- Kreutz, 2007; Støren, 2009. In our paper, we are going to discuss the students’ challenges and discourse of remediation that is often associated with their challenges and suggest how higher-education institutions can adjust their practices to be more oriented to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication as a dialogic approach may create dynamics in academic tutoring and lead to mutual change/transformation instead of a one-way adaptation of existing academic literacy norms. We argue that all teachers should be aware of cultural differences in literacy practices in the education systems and strive to adjust their teaching practices to the diversity in the classroom. This approach, we believe, can contribute to a better learning environment for all students, independently of their backgrounds. 

  12. Celebrating Musical Diversity: Training Culturally Responsive Music Educators in Multiracial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article explores outcomes of research into the role and place of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five government schools in Singapore. The study highlights the ways in which a variety of factors such as specialist music training, government policy, curriculum documents, and professional development influence teacher practice.…

  13. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  14. School Psychologists and the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Afifi, Amanda F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, school psychologists have increasingly recognized the importance of using valid and reliable methods to assess culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students for special education eligibility. However, little is known about their assessment practices or preparation in this area. To address these questions, a Web-based survey…

  15. Cultural Diversity in the News Media: A Democratic or a Commercial Need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Awad Cherit (Isabel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper distinguishes between laissez-faire and interventionist models used to justify and implement cultural diversity initiatives in the news media. The laissez-faire model is characteristic of U.S journalism. However, due to the convergence of media systems and the widespread

  16. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  17. Sex Roles and Cultural Diversity in Recent Award Winning Picture Books for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Updated previous research on how gender is being presented in award-winning picture books for young children by replicating a study conducted by Collins, Ingoldsby, and Dellmann in 1984. This study also extended the research design used in the prior investigation by examining the books for portrayal of both androgyny and cultural diversity. (TJQ)

  18. Barriers to Full Participation in the Individualized Education Program for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…

  19. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  20. The Office of Diversity and Inclusion at a Large Texas University: A Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curette, Alvin R.

    2016-01-01

    This single, holistic, instrumental case study investigated the organizational history of the Office of Diversity and Inclusion (ODI) at Lone Star University. The study included an examination of changes to ODI's cultural identity. This study was guided by two principal research questions: a) Why was the office created and how has its cultural…

  1. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  2. Online Collaborative Learning Activities: The Perceptions of Culturally Diverse Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Yuan, Guangji; Dogbey, James

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the perceptions of minority graduate students toward online collaborative learning activities. The participants were 20 minority graduate students from diverse cultural backgrounds (10 African Americans, 5 Hispanics, and 5 international students from Africa) enrolled in online graduate instructional technology and…

  3. Using Enrichment Clusters to Address the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Margaret A.; Payne, Yolanda Denise; Brown, Katherine Backes

    2016-01-01

    Using data from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a professional development workshop, this article explains how one component of the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM) has been implemented at a culturally diverse elementary school serving primarily Latina/o and African American students. Based on a broadened conception of giftedness,…

  4. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  5. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  6. Critical Entanglement: Research on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parental Involvement in Special Education 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    If parental involvement in a child's education is generally viewed in positive terms, then it is important to understand what sorts of barriers might hinder it. This article reviews literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parental involvement in special education in the United States and Canada. In analyzing 20 articles published in…

  7. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  8. Social-Skill Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Yan, Min-Chi; Kulkarni, Saili S.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have considered social-skill interventions to be an essential component in the development and progress of students with disabilities. However, there is still relatively limited research on these interventions for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. This literature review was conducted…

  9. Community College Faculty Members' Perceived Multicultural Teaching Competence and Attitudes Regarding Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittz, Mia Web

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the Survey of Community College Faculty (SCCF), a combined survey of the Multicultural Teaching Scale (MTS) and Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment (PADAA) that framed the research. The MTS assessed self-reported cultural competencies categorized into five dimensions: (a) Content Integration, (b) Knowledge Construction,…

  10. From Remediation to Acceleration: Recruiting, Retaining, and Graduating Future Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Socorro G.; Morales, Amanda R.; Holmes, Melissa A.; Terry, Dawn Herrera

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study explores one mid-western state university's response to the challenge of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), especially Latino/a, student recruitment and retention. BESITOS (Bilingual/Bicultural Education Students Interacting To Obtain Success) is an integrated teacher preparation program implemented at a…

  11. Exploring Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students' Identities in an Afterschool Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate identity positions of elementary school students with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background in an afterschool book club. The increasing population of CLD students and their learning needs have become a national focus in American schools. Scholars have highlighted that understanding…

  12. Transition Planning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Too often, culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youth with disabilities have a tougher road to adulthood than their Caucasian peers with disabilities. Reverse the odds with this concise how-to book, the first guide to easing the complex transition process for CLD students with a wide range of special needs. A veteran trainer of transition…

  13. Drawing upon Lessons Learned: Effective Curriculum and Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Julie Dingle

    2016-01-01

    Javits Gifted and Talented Education Program has provided a wealth of knowledge on culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) gifted learners and how to support teachers in their work with CLD students. This study examined five impactful Javits projects through qualitative inquiry centered on how innovative practice takes root or not. Using…

  14. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  15. Learning to Teach Elementary Science through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves…

  16. Serving culturally diverse learners in the 24/7 management classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S.G.M.; Weir, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e-learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a

  17. Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

  18. Cultural Diversity on the Council of Europe Documents: The Role of Education and the Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Democratic governance of cultural diversity is one of the more important worries of the majority of European states. A few years ago, this concern existed mainly in central and northern Europe; today, however, it has become a matter of general interest for the whole continent. This is shown through two relevant facts: the European Union declared…

  19. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Beliefs toward Cultural Diversity Employing an Inquiry through Literature Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangseechatchawan, Dusadee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' beliefs toward cultural diversity by employing an inquiry through literature approach. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an inquiry through literature instructional format, such as book clubs, and whole class and individual inquiry, on preservice teachers' beliefs regarding cultural…

  20. No Longer "Catholic, White and Gaelic": Schools in Ireland Coming to Terms with Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie; Masterson, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Irish society has experienced unprecedented demographic change since the turn of the twenty-first century, and increasingly, educators are facing the prospect of having to respond to the changing nature of cultural diversity in their classrooms. Traditionally characterised as"Catholic, white and Gaelic", Irish schools are said to be…

  1. Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand…

  2. Editorial: Papers from the 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Elaine K. Sutherland

    2008-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability was held in Beijing, China from 11 to 17 June 2006. The conference was organized and hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IB_CAS) in conjunction with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Group 5.01.07 (Tree-...

  3. Culturally Diverse Literature: Enriching Variety in an Era of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Causey, Lauren L.; Galda, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The authors argue for the overwhelming importance of finding and including culturally diverse literature into the curricula teachers are authorized to teach. They discuss the implications of use and offer ideas on how to identify quality literature to include in classroom and school libraries.

  4. Improving Achievement for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Learners through an Inquiry-Based Earth Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie; Ariza, Eileen N. Whelan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an inquiry-based Earth systems curriculum and strategies for teaching diverse students, which were embedded in the curriculum. The curriculum was implemented with 5th-grade students with varied linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds in five schools in a large, southeastern U.S., urban school district. At the end…

  5. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  6. Cultural Diversity and School Equity: A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Teresa; Ballesteros, Belen; Malik, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Cultural diversity in society is reflected in schools but it is seldom taken into account as an influential variable in the personal and social development of students. School culture transmits specific socio-cultural values (those of the dominant group), excluding other cultural features that are not in accordance with it. Certain educational…

  7. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  9. The importance of moral emotions for effective collaboration in culturally diverse healthcare teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine; Brunton, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Moral emotions shape the effectiveness of culturally diverse teams. However, these emotions, which are integral to determining ethically responsive patient care and team relationships, typically go unrecognised. The contribution of emotions to moral deliberation is subjugated within the technorational environment of healthcare decision-making. Contemporary healthcare organisations rely on a multicultural workforce charged with the ethical care of vulnerable people. Limited extant literature examines the role of moral emotions in ethical decision-making among culturally diverse healthcare teams. Moral emotions are evident in ethnocentric moral perspectives that construct some colleagues' practices as 'other'. This article examines how moral emotions are evoked when cultural dissonance influences nurses' moral perceptions. We use a qualitative investigation of teamwork within culturally diverse healthcare organisations. We use Haidt's () account of moral emotions to examine practice-based accounts of 36 internationally educated and 17 New Zealand educated nurses practising in New Zealand. The study provides evidence that moral emotions are frequently elicited by communication and care practices considered 'foreign'. The main implication is that although safe practice in healthcare organisations is reliant on highly functioning teams, collaboration is challenged by interprofessional power relations of contested culturally shaped values. We address practice-based strategies that enable engagement with moral emotions to enhance effective teamwork. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microbial culture collections as pillars for promoting fungal diversity, conservation and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara Durães; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Rodrigues, André

    2013-11-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with an overall global number of 1.5M up to 3.3M species on Earth. Besides their ecological roles as decomposers, fungi are important in several aspects of applied research. Here, we review how culture collections may promote the knowledge on diversity, conservation and biotechnological exploitation of fungi. The impact of fungi diversity on biotechnological studies is discussed. We point out the major roles of microbial repositories, including fungal preservation, prospecting, identification, authentication and supply. A survey on the World Data Center for Microorganisms (WDCM) powered by the World Federation for Culture Collections and on the Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) database revealed that 46 Brazilian culture collections registered in these databases are dedicate to preserving fungi. Most of these culture collections are located in the Southeast of Brazil. This scenario also demonstrates that Brazil has many collections focused on fungal strains, but the lack of up-to-date information in WDCM as well as of a solid national platform for culture collections registration do not allow accurate assessment of fungal preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond Diversity as Usual: Expanding Critical Cultural Approaches to Marginalization in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secules, Stephen

    In general, what we think of as "diversity work" in undergraduate engineering education focuses in the following ways: more on the overlooked assets of minority groups than on the acts of overlooking, more on the experiences of marginalized groups than on the mechanisms of marginalization by dominant groups, more on supporting and increasing minority student retention than on critiquing and remediating the systems which lead minority students to leave engineering. This dissertation presents a series of arguments which push beyond a status quo understanding of diversity in engineering education. The first approach the dissertation takes up is to problematize educational facts around failure by interrogating their roots in interactions and cultural norms in an engineering classroom. In another argument, the dissertation places the engineering classroom cultural norms of competition, whiteness, and masculinity in a critical historical context of the discipline at large. Finally, I demonstrate how engaging students in a critique of marginalizing educational culture can be an important source of agency. In addition to applying and demonstrating the value of specific novel approaches in engineering education, the dissertation contributes to the research community by discussing the respective affordances between these and other possible scholarly approaches to culture and marginalization in education. I also suggest how a consideration of the taken-for-granted culture of engineering education can be an important tool for instructors seeking to gain insight into persistent educational problems. In addition, this dissertation makes implications for diversity support practice, envisioning new forms of support programming rooted in intersectionality and critical praxis.

  12. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  13. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  14. Cultural diversity training for UK healthcare professionals: a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Jovanovic, Ana; Sharma, Pankaj

    2008-10-01

    Healthcare inequalities within the UK based on patients' ethnicity have been found over the last five years in a large number of medical specialties. One possible explanation for this lies in ignorance of ethnic minority healthcare needs among professionals. Cultural diversity programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes including compliance, yet these are not as yet requirements for any UK healthcare professionals with the exception of psychiatrists. This paper documents the frequency, regional variation, characteristics and motivations for cultural diversity training through a questionnaire survey of the educational leads of every UK medical school, postgraduate deanery and schools of nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and pharmacy. The results showed a wide variation in teaching practices between healthcare professions and geographical regions. This study provides evidence for the need for national guidelines to incorporate cultural competency training by all UK healthcare professional training bodies.

  15. How should we teach diverse students? Cross-cultural comparison of diversity issues in K-12 schools in Japan and the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyu Shimomura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student diversity in K-12 schools has gained attention in Japan and the US. In the US, racial diversity has historically shaped inequity in educational access and teacher quality. In Japan, regardless of its reputation for cultural homogeneity among its residents, issues surrounding student diversity have gained attention because of the increasing number of returnees—Japanese students raised overseas because of their parents’ expatriation. This paper compares and contrasts the diversity issues in K-12 school settings in both countries, and explores potential approaches to improve the accommodation of diversity in K-12 schools.

  16. It ain't what you say, it's how you say it: linguistic and cultural diversity in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cynthia Cole; Clardy, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between the cultural and linguistic diversity of the teaching population and the student population continues to grow as teacher education programs enroll and graduate primarily white teacher candidates (83.7%). At the same time, the diversity of the K-12 student body has increased with 65% of public school students being from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). This chasm between the diversity of the teaching force and student population is of concern as many teachers report that they do not have the cultural knowledge and experience of working or living in diverse environments, yet will be faced with teaching a very diverse student population. Hence, the need for teacher candidates and current teachers to be explicitly taught the skills needed to successfully teach diverse student populations is urgent. In this article, we explore the following phenomena: how linguistic and cultural diversity is regarded in teacher education programs, as well as teacher candidates' and current K-12 teachers' dispositions towards students who do not share their cultural backgrounds or language (including those who vary in their dialects). Finally, we will present strategies that teacher educators can use to embrace and empower culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) teacher candidates, as well as prepare teacher candidates to teach diverse student populations.

  17. The Intersection of Cultural Diversity and Special Education in Catalonia: The Subtle Production of Exclusion through Classroom Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic data collected in two primary schools, this paper examines the nature of the exclusion experienced by three children of linguistically, culturally, and socioeconomically diverse families labeled as having special education needs. Ambiguities and dilemmas surrounding the intersection of cultural diversity and special…

  18. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  19. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  20. Diversity and cultural competence training in health care organizations: hallmarks of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L; Sinioris, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed recent literature on diversity training interventions and identified effective practices for health care organizations. Self-reported satisfaction was especially likely to be found as a result of training, whereas attitude change measured by standardized instruments was mixed. Although those responsible for diversity training in the workplace agree that behavioral change is key, awareness building and associated attitude change remain the focus of most diversity training in the workplace. Consequently, the authors recommend a systems approach to diversity training interventions wherein training is a key component of a health care organization's strategic approach to organizational performance, and diversity training is linked to the organizations' strategic goals for improved quality of care. The systems approach requires these steps: determine diversity and cultural competence goals in the context of strategy, measure current performance against needs, design training to address the gap, implement the training, assess training effectiveness, and strive for continuous improvement. Higher level evaluations measuring whether employees have transferred learning from training to their jobs are paramount to the systems approach to diversity training interventions. Measuring other positive changes in a "return on investment" format can be used to convince stakeholders of training's value.

  1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THREE MOTINGO BUSYE’S ROMANCE “POPULAR” NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizufri -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is entitled Cultural Diversity in Three Motingo Busye’s Romance “Popular” Novels and explored three novels written by Motingo Busye (hereinafter abbreviated to MB, Fatimah Chen Chen, Hotel Halekulani, and Seribu Senja di Roma. It aimed at identifying the cultural styles used in the three novels using the theory of intertextuality proposed by Julia Kristeva. It investigated how the writer described the images of many cultures in the world narrated in the three novels using the sociological approach and psychological approach. It revealed the characterization of the main characters during their lives through the sequence of id, ego, and super ego. Apart from that, several cultural forms as to how the writer named the characters in the three novels were also investigated. The forms of cultural diversity found in the present study are as follows (1 out of 76 characters in the three novels coming from four countries, seven cities and regions, 38 forms of images coming Europe, America, and Asia (Taiwan and Indonesia were found; (2 from the process of characterization of the main characters, as far as their images were concerned, it was found that the forms of cultural pluralism varied; they were samen leven (living together, polygamy, and the phenomenon of illegitimate children; (3 Apart from that, with regard to how the characters were named (the naming process, the three novels showed the nuance of cultural pluralism involving various cultures in the world. It turned out that how the so many characters were named needed high and wide awareness and knowledge of various cultures as the material of the essence of the images.

  2. The Use of Culturally Relevant Videos To Draw Attention to Cultural Diversity: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charlene M.; Rivera, Lourdes M.; Collins, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Videos celebrating Hispanic Heritage and Black History month were presented at two regionally and ethnically distinct college campuses. Students (N=62) were interviewed regarding what attracted them to the video. Students of color commented positively on the cultural content as well as the musical and dance components of each video. Presents…

  3. Learning to Teach Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students through Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Teacher participation in cross-cultural experiences is often associated with the broadening of perspectives and increased intercultural sensitivity. While these qualities provide an overarching and important framework for intercultural development, they remain highly abstract. What exactly do we mean when we refer to these qualities? And in what…

  4. Curriculum-Based Language Assessment With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in the Context of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Johnson, Valerie E

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the use of curriculum-based language assessment (CBLA) with students who are English language learners and students who speak nonmainstream varieties of English, such as African American English. The article begins with a discussion of the discourse of mathematics and the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP), followed by a review of studies that includes those that examined the performance of English language learner and nonmainstream dialect-speaking students on word-based math items. The literature review highlights the linguistic and content biases associated with word-based math problems. Useful strategies that SLPs and educators can incorporate in culturally and linguistically appropriate assessments are discussed. The tutorial ends with a discussion of CBLA as a viable assessment approach to use with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Tests used at national, state, and school levels to assess students' math abilities have associated linguistic bias and content bias often leading to an inaccurate depiction of culturally and linguistically diverse students' math skills. CBLA as an assessment method can be used by school-based SLPs to gather valid and useful information about culturally and linguistically diverse students' language for learning math. By using CBLA, SLPs can help modify curricular tasks in broader contexts in an effort to make math, including high-level math, "accessible and achievable for all" students (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017).

  5. Online cancer communication: meeting the literacy, cultural and linguistic needs of diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an analysis of issues and empirical evidence related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online health and cancer communication, and recommendations to improve cancer communication for diverse audiences. We examined English-language online literature and selected books and policy documents related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in health and cancer communication. Studies about literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online cancer communication for diverse audiences are limited, but have increased during the past 15 years. Empirical evidence and theoretical guidance describe the critical importance of these factors, significant unmet needs among low-literate, multicultural and non-English-speaking populations, and strategies to improve communication. Overall, online cancer communication has not met the literacy, cultural, and linguistic needs of diverse populations. The literature offers valuable recommendations about enhancing research, practice, and policy for better cancer communication. Practitioners should understand the strengths and weaknesses of online cancer communication for vulnerable groups, guide patients to better Websites, and supplement that information with oral and tailored communication.

  6. How should we teach diverse students? Cross-cultural comparison of diversity issues in K-12 schools in Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Fuyu Shimomura

    2016-01-01

    Increasing student diversity in K-12 schools has gained attention in Japan and the US. In the US, racial diversity has historically shaped inequity in educational access and teacher quality. In Japan, regardless of its reputation for cultural homogeneity among its residents, issues surrounding student diversity have gained attention because of the increasing number of returnees—Japanese students raised overseas because of their parents’ expatriation. This paper compares and contrasts the div...

  7. Diversity and functional traits of culturable microbiome members, including cyanobacteria in the rice phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, S; Ranjan, K; Prasanna, R; Ramakrishnan, B; Thapa, S; Kanchan, A

    2016-07-01

    The diversity and abundance of culturable microbiome members of the rice phyllosphere was investigated using cv. Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509. Both diversity and species richness of bacteria were significantly higher in plants in pots in a semi-controlled environment than those in fields. Application of fertilisers reduced both diversity and species richness in field-grown plants under a conventional flooded system of rice intensification (SRI) and in dry-seeded rice (DSR) modes. Sequence analyses of 16S rDNA of culturable bacteria, those selected after amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), showed the dominance of α-proteobacteria (35%) and actinobacteria (38%); Pantoea, Exiguobacterium and Bacillus were common among the culturable phyllospheric bacteria. About 34% of 83 culturable bacterial isolates had higher potential (>2 μg·ml(-1) ) for indole acetic acid production in the absence of tryptophan. Interestingly, the phyllosphere bacterial isolates from the pot experiment had significantly higher potential for nitrogen fixation than isolates from the field experiment. Enrichment for cyanobacteria showed both unicellular forms and non-heterocystous filaments under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. PCR-DGGE analysis of these showed that aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as the three modes of cultivation of rice in the field strongly influenced the number and abundance of phylotypes. The adaptability and functional traits of these culturable microbiome members suggest enormous diversity in the phyllosphere, including potential for plant growth promotion, which was also significantly influenced by the different methods of growing rice. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Developing Pluralistic Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Using What the Client Knows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McLeod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of pluralism is increasingly used to indicate the rich diversity of theory and practice in the field of counselling and psychotherapy. A version of pluralism is described that takes account of the range of ideas about health and healing that exist within contemporary culture, and the expression of these positions in the personal knowledge and preferences held by clients in respect of different therapy formats and techniques. A review of recent research is used to provide a basis for discussion of some of the practical manifestations of client knowledge, and the ways in which practitioners can work with these factors.

  10. Clusters of cultures: diversity in meaning of family value and gender role items across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlimmeren, Eva; Moors, Guy B D; Gelissen, John P T M

    2017-01-01

    Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across countries, these countries share a common way of assigning meaning to the items. Clusters of cultures can then be observed by doing a cluster analysis on the (co)variance matrices of sets of related items. This study focuses on family values and gender role attitudes. We find four clusters of cultures that assign a distinct meaning to these items, especially in the case of gender roles. Some of these differences reflect response style behavior in the form of acquiescence. Adjusting for this style effect impacts on country comparisons hence demonstrating the usefulness of investigating the patterns of meaning given to sets of items prior to aggregating scores into cultural characteristics.

  11. Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portraits In Courage Vol. VIII Portraits In Courage Vol. IX Portraits In Courage Vol. X AF Sites Social -Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce Executive Order 13548 : Virtual Diversity Conference Air Force Diversity & Inclusion Air Force Diversity Graphic There is no

  12. A multilevel investigation of motivational cultural intelligence, organizational diversity climate, and cultural sales: evidence from U.S. real estate firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Dong; Portnoy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a multilevel theoretical framework, the authors examined how motivational cultural intelligence influences individual cultural sales--the number of housing transactions occurring between people of different cultural origins. Data from 305 real estate agents employed at 26 real estate firms in the United States demonstrated that an individual's motivational cultural intelligence is positively related to his or her cultural sales. This positive relationship is enhanced by the firm's motivational cultural intelligence and diversity climate. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings in a workplace context that involves cross-cultural interpersonal interactions.

  13. Diversity in european school populations: a study in Portugal and Greece with particular attention to romany cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Stathopoulou, Charoula; Moreira, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    The growing cultural diversity of school populations poses new challenges to schools and also to schooling equity. Schools (as well as minority and dominant group leaders) should avoid cultural closure and instead should involve recognition of different ways of knowing, in order to share cultural elements and to enable constructive interactions; these practices promote education for peace, respect for diversity and social justice. In this paper, we explore the contributions of Ethnomathematic...

  14. Implementing sponge physiological and genomic information to enhance the diversity of its culturable associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Adi; Keren, Ray; Haber, Markus; Schwartz, Inbar; Ilan, Micha

    2014-02-01

    In recent years new approaches have emerged for culturing marine environmental bacteria. They include the use of novel culture media, sometimes with very low-nutrient content, and a variety of growth conditions such as temperature, oxygen levels, and different atmospheric pressures. These approaches have largely been neglected when it came to the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria. Here, we used physiological and environmental conditions to reflect the environment of sponge-associated bacteria along with genomic data of the prominent sponge symbiont Candidatus Poribacteria sp. WGA-4E, to cultivate bacteria from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Designing culturing conditions to fit the metabolic needs of major bacterial taxa present in the sponge, through a combined use of diverse culture media compositions with aerobic and microaerophilic states, and addition of antibiotics, yielded higher diversity of the cultured bacteria and led to the isolation of novel sponge-associated and sponge-specific bacteria. In this work, 59 OTUs of six phyla were isolated. Of these, 22 have no close type strains at the species level (< 97% similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence), representing novel bacteria species, and some are probably new genera and even families. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward Culturally Sustaining Leadership: Innovation beyond ‘School Improvement’ Promoting Equity in Diverse Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorri J. Santamaría

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whilst school principals and educational leaders are increasingly constrained by standardized assessment results and student achievement, persistent achievement gaps continue to separate poor and historically underserved students from their wealthier mainstream peers in the United States (US and similar countries. Unprecedented levels of cultural, linguistic, ethnic, racial, and gender school diversity underscore these phenomena. As a result, leadership for ‘school improvement’ has become the norm and as evidenced by chronic academic disparities, ineffective. This review article considers culturally sustaining leadership as an innovative practice to promote and advance equity in schools.

  16. CulSim: A simulator of emergence and resilience of cultural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto

    CulSim is an agent-based computer simulation software that allows further exploration of influential and recent models of emergence of cultural groups grounded in sociological theories. CulSim provides a collection of tools to analyze resilience of cultural diversity when events affect agents, institutions or global parameters of the simulations; upon combination, events can be used to approximate historical circumstances. The software provides a graphical and text-based user interface, and so makes this agent-based modeling methodology accessible to a variety of users from different research fields.

  17. Employee perceptions of the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal S. Zulu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses managerial perceptions of the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation in three production companies in Gauteng. A sample comprising 668 employees was drawn from a population of 1 259 (53% response rate using simple random sampling and data were collected through self-developed questionnaires and personal interviews. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that whilst the South African Transformation (SAT Agenda has propelled change in the political and economic spheres, similar developments have not been realised in the South African labour market. Hence, based on the findings, recommendations are made to enhance the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation, and the need for urgent government intervention, through legislative amendments, is emphasised.

  18. Loss of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in trap cultures during long-term subculturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Aguilar, Dora; Lara-Capistrán, Liliana; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Zulueta-Rodríguez, Ramón; Sangabriel-Conde, Wendy; Mancera-López, María Elena; Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Barois, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Long-term successional dynamics of an inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the maize rhizosphere (from traditionally managed agroecosystems in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico), was followed in Bracchiaria comata trap cultures for almost eight years. The results indicate that AMF diversity is lost following long-term subculturing of a single plant host species. Only the dominant species, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, persisted in pot cultures after 13 cycles. The absence of other morphotypes was demonstrated by an 18S rDNA survey, which confirmed that the sequences present solely belonged to C. etunicatum. Members of Diversisporales were the first to decrease in diversity, and the most persistent species belonged to Glomerales.

  19. Linguistic Diversity and Traffic Accidents: Lessons from Statistical Studies of Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]–[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories. PMID:23967132

  20. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  1. Governmentalities of Alevi Cultural Heritage: On Recognition, Surveillance and "Domesticated Diversity" in Contemporary Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weineck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Cultural Heritage as such has a rather positive connotation, bringing together notions of safeguarding and human creativity, critical investigations have underlined the various strategic, economic and political rationalities inscribed in this term. In 2010 the UNESCO rendered the Alevi ritual sequence semah Intangible Cultural Heritage and as such it was inscribed in the Turkish National Inventory of Cultural Heritage – although Alevis are not recognized by the Turkish state and its Sunni-Turkist understandings of belonging. The celebration of an Alevi ritual as enriching Turkey’s ‘cultural diversity’ thus asks for an analytical approach that comes to terms with this tension of recognition, ongoing political surveillance and the very specific understandings of diversity that are put into play. With reference to Foucaults (and particularly Roses approach to contemporary government as “governmentality”, Cultural Heritage can be grasped in its ambivalent (but not necessarily conflicting nature as cultural self-fulfillment and governmental control. The paper thus enlarges the analytical scale of thinking about Cultural Heritage in its correlation with identity-formation, the politics of recognition and governance.

  2. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  3. Blueprint for Sustainable Change in Diversity Management and Cultural Competence: Lessons From the National Center for Healthcare Leadership Diversity Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreachslin, Janice L; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Gail, Judith; Epané, Josué Patien; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    How can healthcare leaders build a sustainable infrastructure to leverage workforce diversity and deliver culturally and linguistically appropriate care to patients? To answer that question, two health systems participated in the National Center for Healthcare Leadership's diversity leadership demonstration project, November 2008 to December 2013. Each system provided one intervention hospital and one control hospital.The control hospital in each system participated in pre- and postassessments but received no preassessment feedback and no intervention support. Each intervention hospital's C-suite leadership and demonstration project manager worked with a diversity coach provided by the National Center for Healthcare Leadership to design and implement an action plan to improve diversity and cultural competence practices and build a sustainable infrastructure. Plans explored areas of strength and areas for improvement that were identified through preintervention assessments. The assessments focused on five competencies of strategic diversity management and culturally and linguistically appropriate care: diversity leadership, strategic human resource management, organizational climate, diversity climate, and patient cultural competence.This article describes each intervention hospital's success in action plan implementation and reports results of postintervention interviews with leadership to provide a blueprint for sustainable change.

  4. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  5. Class diversity and youth volunteering in the UK : applying Bourdieu's habitus and cultural capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article utilizes Pierre Bourdieu’s theories of habitus and cultural capital to offer some explanation as to why there is a lack of class diversity in formal volunteering in the United Kingdom. Recent studies have shown that participation in volunteering is heavily dependent on social class revolving around a highly committed middle-class “civic core” of volunteers. This article draws on original qualitative research to argue that the delivery of recent youth volunteering policies has uni...

  6. Diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacterial species in Indonesian Sayur Asin

    OpenAIRE

    Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo; Abinawanto,; Salamah, Andi; Sukara, Endang; Sulistiani,; Dinoto, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in processing of Sayur Asin (spontaneously fermented mustard). Unfortunately, information about LAB in Indonesian Sayur Asin, prepared by traditional manufactures which is important as baseline data for maintenance of food quality and safety, is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacteria in Sayur Asin of Indonesia.Materials and Methods: Four Sayur As...

  7. The New Audiovisual Media Services Directive : Television without Frontiers, Television without Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Mira

    2007-01-01

    After long deliberations, the European Community (EC) has completed the reform of its audiovisual media regulation. The paper examines the main tenets of this reform with particular focus on its implications for the diversity of cultural expressions in the European media landscape. It also takes into account the changed patterns of consumer and business behaviour due to the advances in digital media and their wider spread in society. The paper criticises the somewhat unimaginative approach of...

  8. Managing Cultural Diversity in Federal Germany: Bavaria and Berlin as Classic Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the type of federalism applied in Germany the level of analysis best suited for studying integration is that of the 16 Länder. For comparing the approaches of two of these - Bavaria and Berlin - in managing migration-related diversity, the paper uses a double differentiation as analytical starting point. The first refers to the bulk of literature of different national models of integration and proposes two ideal types of integration/diversity policy. The second differentiation seizes the suggestion that integration in some areas of life is socially much more consequential than in others with the consequence that state intervention in these areas is much easier to justify from a normative point of view. From the descriptive comparison it becomes clear that both Länder, though coming from rather diverging starting points, by now employ hybrid strategies to accommodate or manage different aspects of cultural diversity.

  9. "We Are Clinicians Committed to Cultural Diversity and Social Justice": Good Intentions that Can Wane Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, Jose Ruben; Holtrop, Kendal; Cordova, David

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance given to issues of social justice and training in cultural competence in the counselling field, little attention has been given to the fact that counsellors' commitment to issues of cultural diversity and cultural competence can erode over time. In this article, we propose that relying exclusively on training in cultural…

  10. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoebert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 20–30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. Methods This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. IMS Health’s MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Results Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho

  11. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-11-06

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation) and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. IMS Health's MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day) for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho = 0.51, p = 0.014) and three years after market

  12. Fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Mounier, Arnaud; Steinberg, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. They cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. Surveys of Fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. In the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze Fusarium diversity directly from soil DNA. We designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward Fusarium using a large collection of fungi. We used the specific primers to construct a clone library from three contrasting soils. Sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of the assay, with 750 clones identified as Fusarium and distributed among eight species or species complexes. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) was the most abundant one in the three soils, followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). We then compared our molecular approach results with those obtained by isolating Fusarium colonies on two culture media and identifying species by sequencing part of the EF-1α gene. The 750 isolates were distributed into eight species or species complexes, with the same dominant species as with the cloning method. Sequence diversity was much higher in the clone library than in the isolate collection. The molecular approach proved to be a valuable tool to assess Fusarium diversity in environmental samples. Combined with high throughput sequencing, it will allow for in-depth analysis of large numbers of samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The role of cultural diversity climate in recruitment, promotion, and retention of faculty in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Eboni G; Gozu, Aysegul; Kern, David E; Powe, Neil R; Wand, Gary S; Golden, Sherita; Cooper, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    Ethnic diversity among physicians may be linked to improved access and quality of care for minorities. Academic medical institutions are challenged to increase representation of ethnic minorities among health professionals. To explore the perceptions of physician faculty regarding the following: (1) the institution's cultural diversity climate and (2) facilitators and barriers to success and professional satisfaction in academic medicine within this context. Qualitative study using focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Nontenured physicians in the tenure track at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Focus groups and interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for thematic content in a 3-stage independent review/adjudication process. Study participants included 29 faculty representing 9 clinical departments, 4 career tracks, and 4 ethnic groups. In defining cultural diversity, faculty noted visible (race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, gender) and invisible (religion, sexual orientation) dimensions. They believe visible dimensions provoke bias and cumulative advantages or disadvantages in the workplace. Minority and foreign-born faculty report ethnicity-based disparities in recruitment and subtle manifestations of bias in the promotion process. Minority and majority faculty agree that ethnic differences in prior educational opportunities lead to disparities in exposure to career options, and qualifications for and subsequent recruitment to training programs and faculty positions. Minority faculty also describe structural barriers (poor retention efforts, lack of mentorship) that hinder their success and professional satisfaction after recruitment. To effectively manage the diversity climate, our faculty recommended 4 strategies for improving the psychological climate and structural diversity of the institution. Soliciting input from faculty provides tangible ideas regarding interventions to improve an institution's diversity

  14. Science knowledge and cognitive strategy use among culturally and linguistically diverse students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Fradd, Sandra H.; Sutman, Frank X.

    Science performance is determined, to a large extent, by what students already know about science (i.e., science knowledge) and what techniques or methods students use in performing science tasks (i.e., cognitive strategies). This study describes and compares science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among four diverse groups of elementary students: (a) monolingual English Caucasian, (b) African-American, (c) bilingual Spanish, and (d) bilingual Haitian Creole. To facilitate science performance in culturally and linguistically congruent settings, the study included student dyads and teachers of the same language, culture, and gender. Science performance was observed using three science tasks: weather phenomena, simple machines, and buoyancy. Data analysis involved a range of qualitative methods focusing on major themes and patterns, and quantitative methods using coding systems to summarize frequencies and total scores. The findings reveal distinct patterns of science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among the four language and culture groups. The findings also indicate relationships among science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use. These findings raise important issues about science instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students.Received: 3 January 1995;

  15. Client Centred Desing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources....

  16. Reduction in Blood Culture Contamination Through Use of Initial Specimen Diversion Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Mark E; Cavalieri, R Jennifer; Marolf, Cole; Lyden, Elizabeth

    2017-07-15

    Blood culture contamination is a clinically significant problem that results in patient harm and excess cost. In a prospective, controlled trial at an academic center Emergency Department, a device that diverts and sequesters the initial 1.5-2 mL portion of blood (which presumably carries contaminating skin cells and microbes) was tested against standard phlebotomy procedures in patients requiring blood cultures due to clinical suspicion of serious infection. In sum, 971 subjects granted informed consent and were enrolled resulting in 904 nonduplicative subjects with 1808 blood cultures. Blood culture contamination was significantly reduced through use of the initial specimen diversion device™ (ISDD) compared to standard procedure: (2/904 [0.22%] ISDD vs 16/904 [1.78%] standard practice, P = .001). Sensitivity was not compromised: true bacteremia was noted in 65/904 (7.2%) ISDD vs 69/904 (7.6%) standard procedure, P = .41. No needlestick injuries or potential bloodborne pathogen exposures were reported. The monthly rate of blood culture contamination for all nurse-drawn and phlebotomist-drawn blood cultures was modeled using Poisson regression to compare the 12-month intervention period to the 6 month before and after periods. Phlebotomists (used the ISDD) experienced a significant decrease in blood culture contamination while the nurses (did not use the ISDD) did not. In sum, 73% of phlebotomists completed a post-study anonymous survey and widespread user satisfaction was noted. Use of the ISDD was associated with a significant decrease in blood culture contamination in patients undergoing blood cultures in an Emergency Department setting. NCT02102087. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Respect for cultural diversity and the empirical turn in bioethics: a plea for caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Karori

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there have been numerous calls for a culturally sensitive bioethics. At the same time, bioethicists have become increasingly involved in empirical research, which is a sign of dissatisfaction with the analytic methods of traditional bioethics. In this article, I will argue that although these developments have broadened and enriched the field of bioethics, they can easily be construed to be an endorsement of ethical relativism, especially by those not well grounded in academic moral philosophy. I maintain that bioethicists must resist the temptation of moving too quickly from cultural relativism to ethical relativism and from empirical findings to normative conclusions. Indeed, anyone who reasons in this way is guilty of the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude by saying that properly conceptualized, empirical research and sensitivity to cultural diversity should give rise to objective rational discourse and criticism and not indiscriminate tolerance of every possible moral practice. Bioethics must remain a normative discipline that is characterized by rigorous argumentation.

  18. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  19. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended.

  20. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  1. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in health professional programs: an exploration of concerns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, C; Outram, S

    2012-07-01

    Cultural diversity among students in tertiary institutions in Australia and globally has increased rapidly in the last decade, and is continuing to do so. Focus groups were held at the University of Newcastle, NSW to: (1) examine the specific needs of international students in the Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Nursing programs in relation to language and cultural considerations and (2) to understand the attitudes of domestic students to the cultural issues faced among their peers. The project explored these issues with the intention to inform curricula changes to accommodate the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students. The key themes emerging from international students were: difficulties in spoken language, differences in professional roles and expectations, differences in methods of learning, inadequate social interaction outside the classroom and acceptance of differences in cultural and religious practices. The domestic student views reinforced the comments from international students both in regard to social interaction and in regard to participation in class discussions. Although local students were interested in learning from international students about their culture and religious beliefs, there were limited initiatives from both sides. There is a need for tertiary institutions that benefit economically from increasing the numbers of international students to help them to study and live in a new environment. Assistance needs to go beyond learning the English language to helping students understand its use in a professional context (health terminology and slang used by patients), the nuances of the health professional disciplines in a western society, the approach to study and problem-based learning styles and skills to assist with social interaction. The results of the present exploration have led to a series of proposed actions for the University of Newcastle. These recommendations are applicable to any "Western

  2. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  3. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  4. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists' management of children with language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette; Van Dulm, Ondene

    2015-02-10

    South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children(monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African

  5. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette; van Dulm, Ondene

    2015-01-01

    Background South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? Aims To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn: 71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). Results The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children (monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. Conclusion More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African

  6. A population memetics approach to cultural evolution in chaffinch song: meme diversity within populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A; Baker, A J

    1993-04-01

    We investigated cultural evolution in populations of common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in the Atlantic islands (Azores, Madeira, Canaries) and neighboring continental regions (Morocco, Iberia) by employing a population memetics approach. To quantify variability within populations, we used the concept of a song meme, defined as a single syllable or a series of linked syllables capable of being transmitted. The frequency distribution of memes within populations generally fit a neutral model in which there is an equilibrium between mutation, migration, and drift, which suggests that memes are functionally equivalent. The diversity of memes of single syllables is significantly greater in the Azores compared to all other regions, consistent with higher population densities of chaffinches there. On the other hand, memes of two to five syllables have greater diversity in Atlantic island and Moroccan populations compared to their Iberian counterparts. This higher diversity emanates from a looser syntax and increased recombination in songs, presumably because of relaxed selection for distinctive songs in these peripheral and depauperate avifaunas. We urge comparative population memetic studies of other species of songbirds and predict that they will lead to a formulation of a general theory for the cultural evolution of bird song analogous to population genetics theory for biological traits.

  7. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104

  9. Factors affecting walking activity of older people from culturally diverse groups: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of novel types of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans grown on different culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to compare production of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of A. pullulans grown on different culture media. Results: Liamocins produced by strains of A. pullulans have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity aga...

  11. Transcultural nursing: providing culturally congruent care to the Hausa of Northwest Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielarczyk, V

    1991-01-01

    Research around the world is now beginning to validate the theory of Cultural Care as an important means to provide culturally congruent care to clients, families, and groups of diverse cultures. Knowledge of Leininger's Theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality can provide meaningful care to clients who have different traditional and current beliefs and values. The Leininger Sunrise Model can serve as a valuable guide to discover care meanings and practices related to the theory, and to provide practical and meaningful culture specific care decisions and actions by nurses. The three major modes of action, namely, cultural care maintenance or preservation, accommodation or negotiation, and repatterning or restructuring, are important differential means to provide culturally congruent care to clients within their own cultural setting. This article considers the application of such care for the Hausa of Northwest Africa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in Daishan Saltern of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Qian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Min

    2012-11-01

    Soil and saline water samples were collected from the Daishan Saltern of East China, and the halophilic bacteria were isolated and cultured by using selective media, aimed to investigate the diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in saltern environment. A total of 181 strains were isolated by culture-dependent method. Specific primers were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. The operation taxonomy units (OTUs) were determined by ARDRA method, and the representative strain of each OTU was sequenced. The phylogenetic position of all the isolated strains was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that the isolated 181 strains displayed 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which, 12 OTUs belonged to halophilic bacteria, and the others belonged to halophilic archaea. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were 7 genera presented among the halophilic bacteria group, and 4 genera presented among the halophilic archaea group. The dominant halophilic strains were of Halomonas and Haloarcula, with 46.8% in halophilic bacteria and 49.1% in halophilic archaea group, respectively. Enzyme-producing analysis indicated that most strains displayed enzyme-producing activity, including the activities of producing amylase, proteinase and lipase, and the dominant strains capable of enzyme-producing were of Haloarcula. Our results showed that in the environment of Daishan Saltern, there existed a higher diversity of halophilic bacteria, being a source sink for screening enzyme-producing bacterial strains.

  13. Cultural diversity and recognition in the communication and culture policies frame in Brazil: challenges and prospects for the implementation of the 2005 Unesco Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2017v16n35p94 This paper discusses the mismatch between the communication and cultural policies regarding broadcasting in Brazil, notably television and audiovisual (movies, with the principle of cultural diversity mentioned in UNESCO’S Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of 2005. We start by reflecting on cultural diversity as a built-in problem of the multicultural societies in which demands for recognition operate from the idea of self-esteem and mutual respect as much as from that of social justice, resulting in permanent social struggles in individuals daily lives. Following, we take a glimpse at the problem of cultural diversity in scenarios of broad-range media monopolies, e.g. Brazil’s case, where elements of the democratic ethics, such as freedom of expression, find resistance due to the presence of hegemonic cultural model of production and commercialization of culture and communication. In this respect, we advocate that the fulfillment of the democratizing principles of UNESCO’s 2005 Convention requires reforms in our legal framework for Communications which must be based on the tripod of citizenship, recognition and cultural diversity. The emergence of a cosmopolitan symbolic space that gives visibility to universal and particular narratives and aesthetic forms that inhabit our cultural diversity depends on institutional support and routinization of the “normative recognition” as a norm within our inter-subjective action in the life-world.

  14. Designing 3ERP to meet use and users - methods to handle cultural diversity and collaborative networking in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Nielsen, Janni

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to describe a project the aim of which is to develop and validate the scientific methodological foundation for design of user friendly and usable, flexible and configurable global Enterprise Resource Planning system for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) which are adoptable ...... to cultural diversity and support the collaborative networking tasks embedded in 3gERP. Focus is on Human Centered Design methods and tools which must be developed to handle cultural diversity....

  15. Multicultural Education: Learners with Diverse Linguistic and Cultural Background : A Case Study of one Primary School in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tosic, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate how a primary school in Norway addresses learners with diverse linguistic and cultural background, in this study referred as culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD learners). The study is founded on the premises of multicultural education (MCE) which is considered essential to address the education of CLD learners. Therefore, the scope of the study is based on a five- category theoretical framework comprising: understanding the concept ...

  16. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture

    KAUST Repository

    Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Vicente, Má rio; Sayres, Melissa A. Wilson; Jä rve, Mari; Talas, Ulvi Gerst; Rootsi, Siiri; Ilumä e, Anne-Mai; Mä gi, Reedik; Mitt, Mario; Pagani, Luca; Puurand, Tarmo; Faltyskova, Zuzana; Clemente, Florian; Cardona, Alexia; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Hudjashov, Georgi; DeGiorgio, Michael; Loogvä li, Eva-Liis; Eichstaedt, Christina; Eelmets, Mikk; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tambets, Kristiina; Litvinov, Sergei; Mormina, Maru; Xue, Yali; Ayub, Qasim; Zoraqi, Grigor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Akhatova, Farida; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah; Momynaliev, Kuvat; Ricaut, Franç ois-Xavier; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Pierron, Denis; Cox, Murray P.; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Willerslev, Rane; Muller, Craig; Westaway, Michael; Lambert, David; Skaro, Vedrana; Kovačevic´ , Lejla; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar; Khusainova, Rita; Trofimova, Natalya; Akhmetova, Vita; Khidiyatova, Irina; Lichman, Daria V.; Isakova, Jainagul; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Sabitov, Zhaxylyk; Barashkov, Nikolay A.; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Mihailov, Evelin; Seng, Joseph Wee Tien; Evseeva, Irina; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Abdullah, Syafiq; Andriadze, George; Primorac, Dragan; Atramentova, Lubov; Utevska, Olga; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Marjanovic´ , Damir; Kushniarevich, Alena; Behar, Doron M.; Gilissen, Christian; Vissers, Lisenka; Veltman, Joris A.; Balanovska, Elena; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Andres; Fedorova, Sardana; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; Bradman, Neil; Hammer, Michael F.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Johnsen, Knut; Remm, Maido; Thomas, Mark G.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A.; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Rasmus; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50–100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192–307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47–52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males.

  17. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture

    KAUST Repository

    Karmin, Monika

    2015-04-30

    It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50–100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192–307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47–52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males.

  18. A Coral Reef as an Analogical Model to Promote Collaborative Learning on Cultural & Ethnic Diversity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…

  19. Collaborative Teaching in a Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Higher Education Setting: A Case Study of a Postgraduate Accounting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elaine; Tindale, Jen; Cable, Dawn; Mead, Suzanne Hamil

    2009-01-01

    The Language for Professional Communication in Accounting project has changed teaching practice in a linguistically and culturally diverse postgraduate accounting program at Macquarie University in Australia. This paper reflects on the project's interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to diversity in the classroom by tracing its growth and…

  20. Themes in the Research on Preservice Teachers' Views of Cultural Diversity: Implications for Researching Millennial Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    This article traces themes found in the research on preservice teachers' views of cultural diversity published in peer-reviewed journals from 1985 to 2007. The article seeks to draw insights that inform education researchers interested in interrogating and unpacking views about diversity expressed by today's millennial college students. Findings…

  1. Diversity in context: how organizational culture shapes reactions to workers with disabilities and others who are demographically different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Sandra E

    2005-01-01

    Successfully integrating workers with disabilities into their organizations is both a challenge and an opportunity facing managers today. Despite laws and business practices prohibiting discrimination against those with disabilities, people with disabilities are consistently underutilized in organizations. This article applies theories of demographic diversity in organizations to assert that a richer understanding of organizational cultures and their implications for workers with disabilities may shed light on the question of how and why workers with disabilities may be excluded from mainstream work experiences and career progression. The article briefly reviews business arguments that support integration of workers with disabilities into organizations based on their contribution to the overall diversity within the organization, and reviews complications in the research on diversity to date that leave important questions of the potential gains or detriments from increasing this diversity unanswered. The article then goes on to introduce organizational culture as an underinvestigated but likely potent tool in explaining how and when workers who are demographically different, in general, and with disabilities, specifically, may be successfully integrated into an organization's work force. The article introduces three types of organizational culture: culture of differentiation, culture of unity, and culture of integration. Each is explained in terms of its content and its implications for managing diversity. A discussion of the implications of culture as a primary tool for managing the integration of workers with disabilities concludes the paper. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity: reflections on a career in transcultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-04-01

    The three issues of gender equality, human rights and cultural diversity have dominated my organizational commitments, research, and clinical practice in transcultural psychiatry. These issues are intertwined in many ways and have broad implications for transcultural psychiatry. With increasing globalization, psychiatrists in many countries are likely to be treating patients who have migrated from different cultures and who may have been exposed to a variety of traumatic experiences that have a profound impact on their mental health. Of particular concern is the group of torture survivors and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender aspects in the interpretation of the findings and their therapeutic, as well as policy, implications.

  3. Cultural diversity in causal attributions for illness: the role of the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, H; Klonoff, E A

    1994-04-01

    We investigated cultural diversity in beliefs about the causes of illness and assessed the possibility that popular free-form methodologies (asking subjects to generate causes) inhibit minorities from expressing their belief in supernatural causes. As predicted, when asked to generate causes of illness and rate these in terms of their importance, whites and minorities did not differ in the number or type (natural vs supernatural) of causes they generated or in the importance rating they assigned to these. However, when these same subjects were provided with natural and supernatural causes to rate in terms of importance, minorities rated supernatural causes significantly more important than did whites, and more minorities than whites endorsed such causes. Cultural differences in causal attributions for illness are examined, and the role of methodology in determining such attributions is highlighted.

  4. Deciding about Design Quality : Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity,

  5. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport: case studies exploring cultural and religious diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation of stakeholders' voices on the inclusion of Muslim girls and the analysis of PE discourses in these countries. Findings illustrate similarities and differences at the interface of cultural diversity, political rhetoric of inclusion and realities of sport experiences for Muslim girls in both countries. Complex influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport environments to enable participation and retention of their cultural identities. Highlighted throughout the paper are the ways in which school sport policy and practice, providers and gatekeepers, can include or exclude groups, in this case Muslim girls. Too often coaches and teachers are unaware of crucial facts about their learners, not only in terms of their physical development and capabilities but also in terms of their cultural needs. Mistakes in creating conducive learning environments leave young people to negotiate a way to participate or refrain from participation.

  6. Hospital cultural competency as a systematic organizational intervention: Key findings from the national center for healthcare leadership diversity demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Epané, Josué Patien; Gail, Judith; Gupta, Shivani; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels. This demonstration project employs a pre-post control group design. Two hospital systems participated in the study. Within each system, two hospitals were selected to serve as the intervention and control hospitals. Executive leadership (C-suite) and all staff at one general medical/surgical nursing unit at the intervention hospitals experienced a systematic, planned cultural competency intervention. Assessments and interventions focused on three organizational level competencies of cultural competency (diversity leadership, strategic human resource management, and patient cultural competency) and three individual level competencies (diversity attitudes, implicit bias, and racial/ethnic identity status). In addition, we evaluated the impact of the intervention on diversity climate and workforce diversity. Overall performance improvement was greater in each of the two intervention hospitals than in the control hospital within the same health care system. Both intervention hospitals experienced improvements in the organizational level competencies of diversity leadership and strategic human resource management. Similarly, improvements were observed in the individual level competencies for diversity attitudes and implicit bias for Blacks among the intervention hospitals. Furthermore, intervention hospitals outperformed their respective

  7. New perspectives on understanding cultural diversity in nurse–patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia; Candlin, Sally; Roger, Peter

    Effective communication is essential in developing rapport with patients, and many nursing roles such as patient assessment, education, and counselling consist only of dialogue. With increasing cultural diversity among nurses and patients in Australia, there are growing concerns relating to the potential for miscommunication, as differences in language and culture can cause misunderstandings which can have serious impacts on health outcomes and patient safety (Hamilton & Woodward-Kron, 2010). According to Grant and Luxford (2011)) there is little research into the way health professionals approach working with cultural difference or how this impacts on their everyday practice. Furthermore, there has been minimal examination of intercultural nurse–patient communication from a linguistic perspective. Applying linguistic frameworks to nursing practice can help nurses understand what is happening in their communication with patients, particularly where people from different cultures are interacting. This paper discusses intercultural nurse–patient communication and refers to theoretical frameworks from applied linguistics to explain how miscommunication may occur. It illustrates how such approaches will help to raise awareness of underlying causes and potentially lead to more effective communication skills, therapeutic relationships and therefore patient satisfaction and safety.

  8. Cultural diversity: do we need a new wake-up call for parent training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilo; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2013-09-01

    In 1996, Forehand and Kotchick concluded that parent-training (PT) interventions largely ignored cultural influences on parenting behavior. They reasoned that the failure to integrate the influence of ethnicity into theories of parenting behavior could result in culturally biased and less effective interventions. The present article addresses whether their "wake-up call" went unheard. We review research on PT treatment studies and examine (a) the rate of inclusion of ethnic minority parents in PT research, (b) the effectiveness of PT across ethnic groups, and (c) the effectiveness of culturally adapted PT interventions. Results show that there has been an increase in the ethnic diversity of PT treatment studies over the past three decades, yet only one methodologically sound study directly examined ethnicity as a moderator of PT treatment outcome. Despite the paucity of evidence that ethnicity is a moderator of parent-training outcomes, a number of culturally adapted PT treatments have been developed. These adapted interventions have rarely been tested against the unadapted interventions on which they are based. The results fail to support the current emphasis on ethnicity in efforts to improve the effectiveness of PT. We present methodological and conceptual limitations in the existing literature and provide recommendations for researchers studying the effects of ethnicity on PT outcomes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  10. Comparing the importance of different aspects of quality of life to older adults across diverse cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzahn, Anita E; Kalfoss, Mary; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-03-01

    there is limited research examining the relative importance of aspects of quality of life (QOL) to older adults across cultures. to examine the relative importance of 31 internationally agreed areas of QOL to older adults in 22 countries in relation to health status, age and level of economic development. a survey quota sampling design was used to collect cross-cultural data. This study reports a secondary analysis of WHOQOL-OLD pilot study, which was collected simultaneously in 22 centres. a variety of community, primary, secondary and tertiary health care settings located in Australia, France, Switzerland, England, Scotland, USA, Israel, Spain, Japan, China (mainland and Hong Kong), Turkey, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Hungary, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Brazil and Uruguay. the total sample contained 7,401 people over 60 years with a mean age of 73.1 years; 57.8% were women and 70.1% considered themselves 'healthy'. there were significant differences in the importance given to various aspects of QOL for people living in medium and high-development countries. Culture explained 15.9% of the variance in the importance ratings of QOL. However, the interaction showed that cultural differences were reduced once health status, gender and age were taken into account. The importance of QOL to age bands in different cultures was not significantly affected by whether or not participants perceived themselves to be healthy. understanding the self-reported importance of diverse aspects of QOL for different cultures and for healthy and less healthy people may assist national and international policy makers to decide on priorities for the development of programmes for the ageing population.

  11. Cultural Diversity: Resources for Music Educators in Selected Works of Three Contemporary African-American Classical Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjung; Keith, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary African-American classical composers Cedric Adderley, John Lane, and Trevor Weston intertwine strands of culture and individual experience to produce musical works whose distinct designs offer cultural resources that music educators can use to integrate diversity into instructional settings. Of special interest is their ability to…

  12. Diachronic assessment of cultural diversity in historic neighbourhoods using space syntax : Studies of three neighbourhoods in Istanbul

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toprak, I.; Ünlü, A.; van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the mutual effects of cultural diversity and neighbourhood change in three historic neighbourhoods in Istanbul. Through history, some neighbourhoods in Istanbul have been home for people from different cultural and religious backgrounds. In some of these neighbourhoods,

  13. Testing the Emotional Vulnerability Pathway to Problem Gambling in Culturally Diverse University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Sandra; Carr, Sherilene M

    2018-02-12

    Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship. A total of 463 female and 165 male university students (aged 18-38) from Australian (38%), mixed Australian and CALD (23%) and CALD (28%) backgrounds responded to an online survey of problem gambling behaviour, loneliness, and coping strategies. The results supported the hypothesis that loneliness would be related to problem gambling in CALD students. There was no evidence of a moderating effect of coping strategies. Future research could test whether the introduction of programs designed to alleviate loneliness in culturally diverse university students reduces their risk of developing problem gambling.

  14. Workforce ethnic diversity and culturally competent health care: the case of Arab physicians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.

  15. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  16. Microbial diversity in an Armenian geothermal spring assessed by molecular and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phyla, and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the dominant group, representing 52% of the bacterial clones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments also indicated the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria populations. Most of the sequences were most closely related to uncultivated microorganisms and shared less than 96% similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, indicating that this spring harbors a unique community of novel microbial species or genera. The majority of the sequences of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene library, generated from a methanogenic enrichment, were close relatives of members of the genus Methanoculleus. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria mainly belonging to Bacillus and Geobacillus were detected only by culture-dependent methods. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 99, 96, and 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Arcobacter sp., Methylocaldum sp., and Methanoculleus sp., respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Can Higher Education Meet the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse and Global Society? Campus Diversity and Cross-Cultural Workforce Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Uma M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Uma Jayakumar investigates the relationship between white individuals' exposure to racial diversity during college and their postcollege cross-cultural workforce competencies. Using survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, housed in the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California at…

  18. ESL TEACHER CANDIDATES' PERCEPTIONS OF STRENGTHS AND INADEQUACIES OF INSTRUCTING CULTURALLY AND LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE STUDENTS: POST CLINICAL EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiu-Yin; Indiatsi, John; Wong, Gary K W

    2016-01-01

    The present case study examined English as a second language (ESL) teacher candidates' views on their preparedness on instructing culturally and linguistically diverse students. A survey was administrated to a group of ESL teacher candidates at the end of the training program. Results revealed that although the participants received training in culture and instructional strategies, lacking adequate knowledge in students' diverse cultures and languages was reported as a major challenge. Personality traits and knowing specific strategies are reported as their strengths. However, there is a mismatch between the data gathered from the self-ranking component and the open-ended questions. Implications and suggestions are discussed.

  19. Investigating the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil using culture dependent and independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Bergmark, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Less than 1% of bacterial populations present in environmental samples are culturable, meaning that cultivation will lead to an underestimation of total cell counts and total diversity. However, it is less clear whether this is also true for specific well-defined groups of bacteria for which sele...... selective culture media is available. In this study, we use culture dependent and independent techniques to describe whether isolation of Pseudomonas spp. on selective nutrient-poor NAA 1: 100 agar-medium can reflect the full diversity, found by ...

  20. Bacterial diversity associated with the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex determined by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Ryota; Iehata, Shunpei; Nakano, Miyo; Tanaka, Reiji; Yoshimatsu, Takao; Maeda, Hiroto

    2012-03-01

    The bacterial communities associated with rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex) and their culture water were determined using culture-dependent and -independent methods (16S rRNA gene clone library). The bacterial communities determined by the culture-independent method were more diverse than those determined by the culture-dependent method. Although the culture-dependent method indicated the bacterial community of rotifers was relatively similar to that of the culture water, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses revealed a great difference between the two microbiotas. Our results suggest that most bacteria associated with rotifers are not easily cultured using conventional methods, and that the microbiota of rotifers do not correspond with that of the culture water completely.

  1. Culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of learning in a clinical environment: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Elo, Satu; Kuivila, Heli-Maria; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Learning in the clinical environment of healthcare students plays a significant part in higher education. The greatest challenges for culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students were found in clinical placements, where differences in language and culture have been shown to cause learning obstacles for students. There has been no systematic review conducted to examine culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of their learning in the clinical environment. This systematic review aims to identify culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of learning in a clinical environment. The search strategy followed the guidelines of the Centre of Reviews and Dissemination. The original studies were identified from seven databases (CINAHL, Medline Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premiere, Eric and Cochrane Library) for the period 2000-2014. Two researchers selected studies based on titles, abstracts and full texts using inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of studies independently. Twelve original studies were chosen for the review. The culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' learning experiences were divided into three influential aspects of learning in a clinical environment: experiences with implementation processes and provision; experiences with peers and mentors; and experiences with university support and instructions. The main findings indicate that culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students embarking on clinical placements initially find integration stressful. Implementing the process of learning in a clinical environment requires additional time, well prepared pedagogical orientation, prior cultural and language education, and support for students and clinical staff. Barriers to learning by culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students were not being recognized and individuals were not considered motivated; learners experienced the

  2. Hyperspectral analysis of cultural heritage artifacts: pigment material diversity in the Gough Map of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-08-01

    The Gough Map, one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain, was created and extensively revised over the 15th century. In 2015, the map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system while in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. The goal of the collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) of the Gough Map was to address questions such as enhancement of faded text for reading and analysis of the pigments used during its creation and revision. In particular, pigment analysis of the Gough Map will help historians understand the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of, and methods used in, the creation and revision of the map. Multiple analysis methods are presented to analyze a particular pigment in the Gough Map with an emphasis on understanding the within-material diversity, i.e., the number and spatial layout of distinct red pigments. One approach for understanding the number of distinct materials in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation) is the Gram matrix approach. Here, this method is used to study the within-material differences of pigments in the map with common visual color. The application is a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels (here, the red pigments) from the Gough Map and estimates the material diversity of the pixels. Results show that the Gough Map is composed of at least five kinds of dominant red pigments with a particular spatial pattern. This research provides a useful tool for historical geographers and cartographic historians to analyze the material diversity of HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.

  3. Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Srivastava, Rani; Craig, Dianna; Tucker, Donna; Grinspun, Doris; Bajnok, Irmajean; Griffin, Pat; Long, Leslye; Porritt, Kylie; Han, Thuzar; Gi, Aye A

    2007-03-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence on the structures and processes that support development of effective culturally competent practices and a healthy work environment. Culturally competent practices are a congruent set of workforce behaviours, management practices and institutional policies within a practice setting resulting in an organisational environment that is inclusive of cultural and other forms of diversity. Inclusion criteria  This review included quantitative and qualitative evidence, with a particular emphasis on identifying systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. For quantitative evidence, other controlled, and descriptive designs were also included. For qualitative evidence, all methodologies were considered. Participants were staff, patients, and systems or policies that were involved or affected by concepts of cultural competence in the nursing workforce in a healthcare environment. Types of interventions included any strategy that had a cultural competence component, which influenced the work environment, and/or patient and nursing staff in the environment. The types of outcomes of interest to this review included nursing staff outcomes, patient outcomes, organisational outcomes and systems level outcomes. Search strategy  The search sought both published and unpublished literature written in the English language. A comprehensive three-step search strategy was used, first to identify appropriate key words, second to combine all optimal key words into a comprehensive search strategy for each database and finally to review the reference lists of all included reviews and research reports. The databases searched were CINAHL, Medline, Current Contents, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Econ lit, ABI/Inform, ERIC and PubMed. The search for unpublished literature used Dissertation Abstracts International. Methodological

  4. Role of mobile health in the care of culturally and linguistically diverse US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Emerging trends in the health-related use of cell phones include the proliferation of mobile health applications for the care and monitoring of patients with chronic diseases and the rise in cell phone usage by Latinos and African Americans in the United States. This article reviews public policy in four areas with the goal of improving the care of patients belonging to culturally and linguistically diverse populations: 1) mobile health service access and the physician's duty of care, 2) affordability of and reimbursement for health related services via mobile phone, 3) protocols for mobile health enabled patient health data collection and distribution, and 4) cultural and linguistic appropriateness of health related messages delivered via cell phone. The review demonstrates the need for policy changes that would allow for reimbursement of both synchronous and asynchronous patient-provider communication, subsidize broadband access for lower-income patients, introduce standards for confidentiality of health data transmitted via cell phone as well as amplify existing cultural and linguistic standards to encompass mobile communication, and consider widespread public accessibility when certifying new technologies as "medical devices." Federal and state governments must take prompt action to ensure that the benefits of mobile health are accessible to all Americans.

  5. Living on the Outside: cultural diversity and the transformation of public space in Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jakubowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Melbourne has been described as Australia’s most liveable and most multicultural city. What relation do these descriptions have to each other? How has the public culture of Victoria been influenced by the cultural diversity of the state? The political class in Victoria has tended to be more in favour of multiculturalism as a policy, more resistant to populist racism and more positive about immigration than elsewhere in Australia. How has this orientation been affected by the institutional embedding of ethnic power during the past four decades? The organization of ethnic groups into political lobbies, which have collaborated across ethnic borders, has brought about cultural transformations in the “mainstream”. Often the public experiences these transformations through changing uses of public spaces. This paper offers an historical sociology of this process, and argues for a view of public space as a physical representation of the relative power of social forces. It is based on research for the Making Multicultural Australia (Victoria project. (http://multiculturalaustralia.edu.au. An online version of the paper inviting user-generated comments can be found at http://mmav1.wordpress.com.

  6. Cultural diversity and entertainment in the media ambience of the spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Farias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2017v16n35p178 The scope of this figurative-procedural analysis is the correlation between communication and cultural diversity. Firstly, it is discussed the role played by image in contemporary Western culture. It is affirmed, then, that the audiovisual production integrates the transactions between sociohuman and machinic networks, which not only support and question the forms and means of symbolization, but also correspond to a late example of this same interaction. More specifically, the analysis falls on the interaction of audiovisual production with other modes of production and circulation of symbolic goods, especially in the setting of mediatic environments, in the very act of recomposing other modes of symbolization as contents of these socio-technical environments. The examination of the convergence of televisual media and the carnival ludic-aesthetic eventgenre of the Rio de Janeiro Samba Schools Parade demonstrates that in the reconstitution of the spectacle-show’s ambience, it is possible to observe mechanisms of contemporary entertainment, and especially the mechanism of cultural valuing of a given social expression.

  7. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  8. Enjoying Cultural Differences Assists Teachers in Learning about Diversity and Equality. An Evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnšek, Nada

    2013-01-01

    The present study is based on a quasi-experimental research design and presents the results of an evaluation of Antidiscrimination and Diversity Training that took place at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana, rooted in the anti-bias approach to educating diversity and equality issues (Murray & Urban, 2012). The experimental group included…

  9. An Action Learning Project on Diversity: Pitfalls and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    In a college course on diversity in the workplace, students' experiences with conducting a cultural audit of the university as a workplace illustrate the dilemmas that can arise when students conduct action research in a real client system. Despite the inherent problems, the project resulted in significant student learning about the subject and…

  10. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes one of the largest and anciently divergent phyla within the Bacteria domain. Actinobacterial diversity has been thoroughly researched in various environments due to its unique biotechnological potential. Such studies have focused mostly on soil communities, but more recently marine and extreme environments have also been explored, finding rare taxa and demonstrating dispersal limitation and biogeographic patterns for Streptomyces. To test the distribution of Actinobacteria populations on a small scale, we chose the extremely oligotrophic and biodiverse Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB, an endangered oasis in the Chihuahuan desert to assess the diversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in the Churince System with a culture-dependent approach over a period of three years, using nine selective media. The 16S rDNA of putative Actinobacteria were sequenced using both bacteria universal and phylum-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed to analyze OTUs clustering and taxonomic identification of the isolates in an evolutionary context, using validated type species of Streptomyces from previously phylogenies as a reference. Rarefaction analysis for total Actinobacteria and for Streptomyces isolates were performed to estimate species’ richness in the intermediate lagoon (IL in the oligotrophic Churince system. A total of 350 morphologically and nutritionally diverse isolates were successfully cultured and characterized as members of the Phylum Actinobacteria. A total of 105 from the total isolates were successfully subcultured, processed for DNA extraction and 16S-rDNA sequenced. All strains belong to the order Actinomycetales, encompassing 11 genera of Actinobacteria; the genus Streptomyces was found to be the most abundant taxa in all the media tested throughout the 3-year sampling period. Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates and another 667 reference strains of the family Streptomycetaceae

  11. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Souza, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes one of the largest and anciently divergent phyla within the Bacteria domain. Actinobacterial diversity has been thoroughly researched in various environments due to its unique biotechnological potential. Such studies have focused mostly on soil communities, but more recently marine and extreme environments have also been explored, finding rare taxa and demonstrating dispersal limitation and biogeographic patterns for Streptomyces. To test the distribution of Actinobacteria populations on a small scale, we chose the extremely oligotrophic and biodiverse Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), an endangered oasis in the Chihuahuan desert to assess the diversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in the Churince System with a culture-dependent approach over a period of three years, using nine selective media. The 16S rDNA of putative Actinobacteria were sequenced using both bacteria universal and phylum-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed to analyze OTUs clustering and taxonomic identification of the isolates in an evolutionary context, using validated type species of Streptomyces from previously phylogenies as a reference. Rarefaction analysis for total Actinobacteria and for Streptomyces isolates were performed to estimate species’ richness in the intermediate lagoon (IL) in the oligotrophic Churince system. A total of 350 morphologically and nutritionally diverse isolates were successfully cultured and characterized as members of the Phylum Actinobacteria. A total of 105 from the total isolates were successfully subcultured, processed for DNA extraction and 16S-rDNA sequenced. All strains belong to the order Actinomycetales, encompassing 11 genera of Actinobacteria; the genus Streptomyces was found to be the most abundant taxa in all the media tested throughout the 3-year sampling period. Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates and another 667 reference strains of the family Streptomycetaceae shows that our

  12. Diverse cultures at work: ensuring safety and health through leadership and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Luijters, K.; Drupsteen, L.; Vilkevicius, G.; Stulginskis, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Elsler, D.

    2013-01-01

    The differences between cultures are helpful in understanding discrepancies when several nationalities are working together. Cross-cultural studies describe characteristics of cultures and differences between different cultures. Therefore, the cross-cultural literature is very helpful in describing

  13. AHP 37: ETHNICITY AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY ON THE NORTHEAST TIBETAN PLATEAU - SANCHUAN'S WEATHER MANAGEMENT RITUALS IN COMPARATIVE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Roche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity? This paper is part of a broader project to investigate this question in the context of a region of supposed ethno-cultural rupture – the Sino-Tibetan Frontier. My investigations of ethnicity, culture, and language in this region (Roche 2011, 2014, 2015, Roche and Lcag mo tshe ring 2013, Roche and Stuart 2015 have focused on a population referred to as the Monguor or Tu. My work also aims to contribute to broader trends in the study of Tibet and ethnic minorities in China that look at the complex relations between ethnicity and diversity (Jinba Tenzin 2013, Chao 2012, Merriam 2012, Hayes 2014. My research has been inspired by Barth's (1969 critique of the 'Herderian trinity' of community, culture, and identity (Wimmer 2013. In contrast to the Romantic notion of bounded communities professing a common identity based on shared culture, Barth suggested that the landscape of cultural difference is frequently divided arbitrarily, with ethnic boundaries often placed between culturally similar groups. He therefore advises placing emphasis on boundary marking and maintenance over the 'cultural stuff' contained within ethnic bounds. Within this 'boundary paradigm', "Researchers would no longer study 'the culture' of ethnic group A or B, but rather how the ethnic boundary between A and B was inscribed onto a landscape of continuous cultural transitions" (Wimmer 2013:22-23. ...

  14. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  15. Caring for Clients and Families With Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated Japanese home care nurses’ experiences of supporting clients and families with anxiety. We interviewed 10 registered nurses working in home care agencies and analyzed the data using grounded theory to derive categories pertaining to the nurses’ experiences of providing care. We conceptualized nurses’ approaches to caring for anxiety into three categories: First, they attempted to reach out for anxiety even when the client/family did not make it explicit; second, they tried to alter the outlook of the situation; and third, they created comfort in the lives of the client/family. The conceptualizations of nurses’ strategies to alleviate client/family anxiety may reflect Japanese/Eastern cultural characteristics in communication and their view of the person and social care system, but these conceptualizations may also inform the practice of Western nurses by increasing awareness of skills they may also have and use.

  16. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  17. Effects of Growth Media on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi from Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Muggia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups. According to sequence data, most isolates besides the lichen mycobionts belong to the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. With our approach we can further explore the hidden fungal diversity in lichens to assist in the search of novel compounds.

  18. Effects of Growth Media on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi from Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Kopun, Theodora; Grube, Martin

    2017-05-17

    Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups. According to sequence data, most isolates besides the lichen mycobionts belong to the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. With our approach we can further explore the hidden fungal diversity in lichens to assist in the search of novel compounds.

  19. Preparing culturally and linguistically diverse preservice Early Childhood teachers for field experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project focussed on preparing culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD preservice early childhood teachers for field experience. A series of targeted workshops delivered over one semester was designed to support the students to develop intercultural competence in relation to knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviours that contribute to success on field placement. Findings indicate that short-term initiatives targeted specifically to students’ identified needs and strengths can help to build intercultural competence for both students and teacher educators. For the participants, access to communication strategies, opportunities for rehearsal of teaching practice, and peer and academic support contributed to shifts in attitude, and the development of skills and new knowledge. New learnings for the teacher educators included challenging assumptions about CALD students’ sense of community and belonging in the university context.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mansooreh; Ghanbari, Mahdi; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria isolated from the gut microbiota of two freshwater fish species namely Schizothorax zarudnyi and Schizocypris altidorsalis was investigated employing classical cultivation techniques, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), partial and full 16S rDNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 277 isolates were cultured by applying three different agar media. Based on rep-PCR profile analysis a subset of 33 strains was selected for further phylogenetic investigations, antimicrobial activity testing and diversity analysis of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic genes. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belong to eight genera distributed among six families. At the family level, 72% of the 277 isolates belong to the family Streptomycetaceae. Among the non-streptomycetes group, the most dominant group could be allocated to the family of Pseudonocardiaceae followed by the members of Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that many of the isolates in the genera Streptomyces, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium and Agromyces formed a single and distinct cluster with the type strains. Notably, there is no report so far about the occurrence of these Actinobacteria in the microbiota of freshwater fish. Of the 33 isolates, all the strains exhibited antibacterial activity against a set of tested human and fish pathogenic bacteria. Then, to study their associated potential capacity to synthesize diverse bioactive natural products, diversity of genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis including PKS I, PKS II, NRPS, the enzyme PhzE of the phenazine pathways, the enzyme dTGD of 6-deoxyhexoses glycosylation pathway, the enzyme Halo of halogenation pathway and the enzyme CYP in polyene polyketide biosynthesis were investigated among the isolates. All the strains possess at least two types of the investigated

  1. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  2. Effects of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil. The changes in diversity were monitored in soil microcosms, enriched with 25 mug Hg(II) g(-1) soil, over a period of 3 months...... by purification of total soil DNA and amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction. Concentrations of bioavailable and total mercury were measured throughout the experiment. The effect on the culturable heterotrophic and genetic diversity was very similar, showing an immediate...... decrease after mercury addition but then slowly increasing throughout the entire experimental period. Pre-exposure levels were not reached within the time span of this investigation. The DGGE band pattern indicated that a shift in the community structure was responsible for recovered diversity. When...

  3. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, Minna M.; Jurgens, German; Lindstroem, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG) 5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  4. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Vicente, Mário; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A; Järve, Mari; Talas, Ulvi Gerst; Rootsi, Siiri; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Mägi, Reedik; Mitt, Mario; Pagani, Luca; Puurand, Tarmo; Faltyskova, Zuzana; Clemente, Florian; Cardona, Alexia; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Hudjashov, Georgi; DeGiorgio, Michael; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Eichstaedt, Christina; Eelmets, Mikk; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tambets, Kristiina; Litvinov, Sergei; Mormina, Maru; Xue, Yali; Ayub, Qasim; Zoraqi, Grigor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Akhatova, Farida; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah; Momynaliev, Kuvat; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Pierron, Denis; Cox, Murray P; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Willerslev, Rane; Muller, Craig; Westaway, Michael; Lambert, David; Skaro, Vedrana; Kovačevic, Lejla; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar; Khusainova, Rita; Trofimova, Natalya; Akhmetova, Vita; Khidiyatova, Irina; Lichman, Daria V; Isakova, Jainagul; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Sabitov, Zhaxylyk; Barashkov, Nikolay A; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Mihailov, Evelin; Seng, Joseph Wee Tien; Evseeva, Irina; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Abdullah, Syafiq; Andriadze, George; Primorac, Dragan; Atramentova, Lubov; Utevska, Olga; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Marjanovic, Damir; Kushniarevich, Alena; Behar, Doron M; Gilissen, Christian; Vissers, Lisenka; Veltman, Joris A; Balanovska, Elena; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Andres; Fedorova, Sardana; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Mendez, Fernando L; Karafet, Tatiana M; Veeramah, Krishna R; Bradman, Neil; Hammer, Michael F; Osipova, Ludmila P; Balanovsky, Oleg; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Johnsen, Knut; Remm, Maido; Thomas, Mark G; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Rasmus; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50-100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192-307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47-52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males. © 2015 Karmin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  6. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…

  7. Enhancing pediatric workforce diversity and providing culturally effective pediatric care: implications for practice, education, and policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This policy statement serves to combine and update 2 previously independent but overlapping statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on culturally effective health care (CEHC) and workforce diversity. The AAP has long recognized that with the ever-increasing diversity of the pediatric population in the United States, the health of all children depends on the ability of all pediatricians to practice culturally effective care. CEHC can be defined as the delivery of care within the context of appropriate physician knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of all cultural distinctions, leading to optimal health outcomes. The AAP believes that CEHC is a critical social value and that the knowledge and skills necessary for providing CEHC can be taught and acquired through focused curricula across the spectrum of lifelong learning. This statement also addresses workforce diversity, health disparities, and affirmative action. The discussion of diversity is broadened to include not only race, ethnicity, and language but also cultural attributes such as gender, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and disability, which may affect the quality of health care. The AAP believes that efforts must be supported through health policy and advocacy initiatives to promote the delivery of CEHC and to overcome educational, organizational, and other barriers to improving workforce diversity.

  8. Harmony of Coastal Community Regarding Its Ethnic Religion and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghsari, Diah; Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Abbas, Nurlaelah

    2018-05-01

    West Papua is often known to be the miniature of Indonesia. The diversity of ethnicity, religion and culture embraced by the people of West Papua is very much like the concept of Bhinneka and Tunggal Ika. However, there is a negative stigma towards the people of West Papua, namely in its underdevelopment and conflicts. This research was conducted in West Papua using the observation method, library research and interview. This study aimed at providing an overview of West Papua using emic and etic approaches. The people of West Papua have an ingredient to maintain harmony, namely through local wisdom such as the term “One Stove Three Stones”, “One House Four Doors” and the principle of brotherhood that is held firmly. Ultimately, this forms a culture of understanding in the community and establishes religious harmony. Apparently, the negative stigma of outsiders about West Papua is formed by the mass media as well as films containing negative elements about West Papua. Therefore, there is a misperception about the people of West Papua.

  9. Look what the cat dragged in: do parasites contribute to human cultural diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2005-01-01

    If human culture emerges from the modal personality of a population, can global variation in parasitism that affects personality lead to cultural diversity among nations? The answer could help explain why people seem to vary so much from one land to another. Thomas et al. (2005) review how parasites manipulate behaviour, including human behaviour. To quote them, “The rabies virus lives in the brain, affording the virus ample opportunity to directly affect host behaviour. Rabid animals do show changes in behaviour, including increased aggression and biting.” Rabies affects a wide range of mammals and the aggressive biting associated with furious rabies appears to increase transmission. The personality transformation of infected humans can be horrifying, transforming loved ones into thrashing, baying beasts. Not coincidentally, in Europe, past periods of rabies outbreaks correspond to increases in werewolf trials. Although rabies can have a dramatic effect, the present rarity of human rabies cases and the availability of a vaccine, means that the behavioural effects of rabies are primarily an illustrative curiosity.

  10. The cultural fairness of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire among diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Anica

    2017-01-01

    The 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used in the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE; N = 15,770) to collect measures on adolescent mental health. Given the debate in current literature regarding the dimensionality of the GHQ-12, this study examined the cultural sensitivity of the instrument at the item level for each of the 7 major ethnic groups within the database. This study used a hybrid approach of ordinal logistic regression and item response theory (IRT) to examine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) on the questionnaire. Results demonstrated that uniform, nonuniform, and overall DIF were present on items between White and Asian adolescents (7 items), White and Black Caribbean adolescents (1 item), and White and Black African adolescents (7 items), however all McFadden's pseudo R² effect size estimates indicated that the DIF was negligible. Overall, there were cumulative small scale level effects for the Mixed/Biracial, Asian, and Black African groups, but in each case the bias was only marginal. Findings demonstrate that the GHQ-12 can be considered culturally sensitive for adolescents from diverse ethnic groups in England, but follow-up studies are necessary. Implications for future education and health policies as well as the use of IR-based approaches for psychological instruments are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cross-cultural consistency and diversity in intrinsic functional organization of Broca's Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Fan, Lingzhong; Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-04-15

    As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers. A consistent topological organization of the 13 subdivisions within the extended Broca's region was revealed on the basis of a new in-vivo parcellation map, which corresponded well to the previously reported receptorarchitectonic map. Based on this parcellation map, consistent functional connectivity patterns and modularity organization of these subdivisions were found. Some cultural difference in the functional connectivity patterns was also found, for instance stronger connectivity in Chinese subjects between area 6v2 and the motor hand area, as well as higher correlations between area 45p and middle frontal gyrus. Our study suggests that a generally invariant organization of Broca's region, together with certain regulations of different language experiences on functional connectivity, might exists to support language processing in human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disordered eating & cultural diversity: a focus on Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2014-04-01

    A dearth of data concerning eating problems among adult women from minority population groups leaves substantial knowledge gaps and constrains evidence-based interventions. To examine prevalence and predictors of disordered eating behaviors (DEB) among Arab Muslim women in Israel, whose eating behaviors have not been previously examined and to compare with second generation Israeli-born Jews of European heritage. Community-based study includes sub-samples of Arab Muslims and Israeli-born Jews. DEB is assessed with fourteen DSM-IV related symptoms. Hierarchical regressions examine influence of weight, self-criticism and psychological distress on DEB severity. Relatively high prevalence rates emerge for Muslims (27%) and Jews (20%), a nonsignificant difference. In contrast, regressions reveal substantially different predictor patterns. For Arab Muslims, weight has the strongest association; for Jews, weight is not significant while self-criticism is the strongest predictor. Explained variance also differs considerably: 45% for Muslims and 28% for Jews. Surprising similarities and distinct differences underscore complex patterns of eating disturbances across culturally diverse groups. Culturally sensitive interventions are warranted along with more illuminating explanatory paradigms than 'one size fits all.' Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen

    2006-04-01

    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  14. The Role of Common Culture and Cultural Diversity in the Creation of the Anti-Biased Classroom and Curriculum: A Case Study and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamier-Wilhelm, Billie Lois; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper first explores the problem of increased cultural diversity in public education and then offers suggestions and guidelines for educators in the creation of an anti-biased classroom and curriculum. Case studies of two Hispanic students illustrate the role of acculturation and the middle school classroom setting and curriculum on academic…

  15. Critical Aspects of Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Examining the Established Practices and Cultural Forms in Minority Language Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Westvall, Maria; Heimonen, Marja

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the role of general music education within the framework of cultural diversity. The empirical part of the article focuses on teachers in Swedish-speaking minority schools in Finland and their perceptions of the relationship between music and multicultural perspectives. The results showed that in some instances it took some…

  16. Molecular Phylogenetic Exploration of Bacterial Diversity in a Bakreshwar (India) Hot Spring and Culture of Shewanella-Related Thermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dhritiman; Bal, Bijay; Kashyap, V. K.; Pal, Subrata

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial diversity of a hot spring in Bakreshwar, India, was investigated by a culture-independent approach. 16S ribosomal DNA clones derived from the sediment samples were found to be associated with gamma-Proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, and green nonsulfur and low-GC gram-positive bacteria. The first of the above phylotypes cobranches with Shewanella, a well-known iron reducer. This phylogenetic correlation has been exploited to develop culture conditions for thermophilic iron-reducing microorganisms. PMID:12839826

  17. The New Voices = Nuevas Voces Guide to Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Early Childhood/The New Voices = Nuevas Voces Facilitator's Guide to Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Dina C.; Ayankoya, Betsy; Kasprzak, Christina

    2011-01-01

    As early childhood programs and schools become more culturally and linguistically diverse, professionals need to create settings that welcome "new voices" and help all children succeed. This comprehensive professional development course gives them the in-depth practical guidance they need. Developed by respected scholar Dina Castro and her expert…

  18. Cultural Conditions in Diversity Management: The Case Study of the Corporation Operating in the Transportation and Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Czerniachowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present selected aspects of organi­sational culture and human capital management, and indicate the deter­minants of cultural conditions in diversity management based on the corporation A. A modern enterprise, in order to remain competitive, poses challenges to its employees to encourage their need for learning, explora­tion of knowledge and the change along with the changing environment. In order to achieve the aim of the paper, the following operational objec­tives have been formulated: (1 to discuss the concepts of organisational culture and cultural factors of changes in the organisation on the example of the corporation operating in the transportation and logistics industry; (2 to identify mutual correlations between organisational culture and diversity management; (3 to assess the impact of cultural factors related to the base of diversity management in the corporation A. The analysis is based on the findings from questionnaire surveys, detailed interviews with the top management and source materials collected from the corporation.

  19. More diversity, less tolerance? The effect of type of cultural diversity on the erosion of tolerance in Swiss municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Immigration and the ways in which host societies receive newcomers pose challenges for modern civil societies. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion about how ethnic diversity influences tolerance towards immigrants. Compared to previous studies, we analyse tolerance as a sequential ...

  20. Cultural diversity in center-based childcare: Childrearing beliefs of professional caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, S.K.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard