WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally based community

  1. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  2. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...

  4. CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF EVIDENCE-BASED HOME-VISITATION MODELS IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Parker, Myra E; Sanchez, Jenae; Riley, Rebecca; Heath, Debra; Chomo, Julianna C; Beltangady, Moushumi; Sarche, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    The Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (Tribal MIECHV) Program provides federal grants to tribes, tribal consortia, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations to implement evidence-based home-visiting services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) families. To date, only one evidence-based home-visiting program has been developed for use in AI/AN communities. The purpose of this article is to describe the steps that four Tribal MIECHV Programs took to assess community needs, select a home-visiting model, and culturally adapt the model for use in AI/AN communities. In these four unique Tribal MIECHV Program settings, each program employed a rigorous needs-assessment process and developed cultural modifications in accordance with community strengths and needs. Adaptations occurred in consultation with model developers, with consideration of the conceptual rationale for the program, while grounding new content in indigenous cultures. Research is needed to improve measurement of home-visiting outcomes in tribal and urban AI/AN settings, develop culturally grounded home-visiting interventions, and assess the effectiveness of home visiting in AI/AN communities. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Walter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our conservation work in coastal Melanesia, we have developed a cultural landscape approach that involves the construction of a conceptual model of environment that reflects the indigenous perceptions of landscape. This model incorporates cultural, ideational, and spiritual values alongside other ecosystem services and underpins the conservation activities, priorities, and organizational structure of our programs. This cultural landscape model was a reaction to a survey of environmental values conducted by our team in which Solomon Islanders reported far greater interest in conserving cultural heritage sites than any other ecosystem resources. This caused a radical rethinking of community-based conservation programs. The methodologies we adopted are derived from the fields of archaeology and historical anthropology, in which there is an established practice of working through research problems within the framework of indigenous concepts of, and relationship to, landscape. In our work in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, coastal communities have enthusiastically adopted conservation programs that are based on cultural landscape models that recognize indigenous values. A particularly useful tool is

  6. Engaging the Community Cultural Wealth of Latino Immigrant Families in a Community-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study utilizing ethnographic methods was to understand how family members' participation in Digital Home, a community-based technology program in an urban mid-sized Midwestern city, built on and fostered Latino immigrant families' community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005) in order to increase their abilities to…

  7. The Cultural Adaptation of a Community-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-06-01

    A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  8. [How therapists view the contribution of cultural resources for community-based integrative therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Danielle Samara Tavares; Ferreira Filha, Maria de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the contribution of cultural resources to Community-Based Integrative Care (CBIC), to consolidate it as a model of community-based mental health and a political strategy for local health, and to identify the cultural strategies most used in CBIC sessions. This is a qualitative study, conducted in the city of João Pessoa, state of Paraíba, Brazil, with ten therapists. We used semi-structured interviews and afield diary, from September, 2008, to March, 2009, then proceeded to the interpretive analysis of the data. It was evident that the inclusion of cultural resources contributes to the consolidation of CBIC, for it reclaims and strengthen values, and it underscores the personal and social identity of individuals, encouraging effective participation. The main cultural resources used were music, dynamics and prayers. The conclusion was that cultural resources are an important resource for the work of the therapist, for it strengthens bonds and helps people to give a new meaning to their suffering.

  9. Community Collaborative Problem Solving--Cross-Cultural Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Georgia L.; Marin-Hernandez, Agueda

    1999-01-01

    Examples of Midwestern and Honduran community-based collaborative problem solving provide cross-culturally-adaptable suggestions for community coalitions: adapt the process to the culture, recognize structural constraints, understand reciprocity norms, appreciate the validity of avoidance, and remember that communication roadblocks are always…

  10. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  11. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  12. Community of Communities: An Electronic Link to Integrating Cultural Diversity in Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marilyn; Ali, Nagia; Carlton, Kay Hodson

    2002-01-01

    The Community of Communities (COC) website contains information and case studies based on cultural assessment. Online nursing courses are linked to a cultural module in the COC. Evaluation results from 63 students showed that the COC increased awareness of the role of culture in health care and knowledge of international health practices.…

  13. Culture Development Planning in the Special Region of Yogyakarta (Management Planning of Cultural Heritage in Kotagede District based on Community Empowerment Conservation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suryanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a cultural rich city with excellent cultural resources. Yogyakarta should manage their assets with long-term planning to keep the sustainability. There is a very unique planning process due to a combination of political, technocratic, participatory, top down and bottom up approaches. This planning process is comprehensive or integrated because its involved many actor from multisectoral, multidisciplinary, multi regulatory, and multi planning documents, etc. Local wisdoms have been coloring the planning documents. This study describe and analyze the cultural development planning in Yogyakarta especially on the Management Planning in Kotagede Cultural Heritage District. We used qualitative descriptive approach methods and Miles and Huberman analysis methods. Participation of community and Non Governmental Organization (NGO in conservation planning of cultural heritage in this area is very significant in simplify the government task because people have been more literate in planning, have database of cultural assets, and capable of making their own decisions for the future of the region. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA dan Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA were integrated in the planning process of Kotagede Heritage District management, thus it becomes a model of cultural heritage with community empowerment-based conservation. Keywords: culture development planning, comprehensive planning, heritage cultural district, community empowerment-based conservation.

  14. The Interplay Between Online and Offline Community Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia

    This study examines the interplay between online and offline community cultures based on identifying the distinct features of both. Studying this interaction explicitly and in empirical analysis is new to community literature and brands can through this better know the communities to which...... they relate. The findings reveal that without a thorough understanding of both online and offline cultures and their interaction, companies or brands may get a misleading picture of these cultures. For instance, if only looking at the culture online and not core values offline, the company might intervene...

  15. Factors associated with routine screening for the early detection of breast cancer in cultural-ethnic and faith-based communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal

    2017-07-04

    Studies have shown a lower adherence to health behaviors among women in cultural-ethnic minorities and faith-based communities, especially lower screening attendance for the early detection of breast cancer. This study compares factors related to cancer screening adherence in two distinct cultural-ethnic minorities in Israel: Arab women as a cultural-ethnic minority and Jewish ultra-Orthodox women as a cultural-ethnic faith-based minority. During the year 2014, a total of 398 Jewish ultra-Orthodox women and 401 Arab women between the ages of 40-60, were randomly selected using population-based registries. These women answered questionnaires regarding adherence to mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE), health beliefs and cultural barriers. Arab women adhered more than ultra-Orthodox women to mammography (p faith-based communities. In order to increase adherence, health care professionals and policymakers should direct their attention to the specific nature of each community.

  16. A Community-Based Culture Collection for Targeting Novel Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria from the Sugarcane Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Silveira Leite Armanhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-plant ecosystem harbors an immense microbial diversity that challenges investigative approaches to study traits underlying plant-microbe association. Studies solely based on culture-dependent techniques have overlooked most microbial diversity. Here we describe the concomitant use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to target plant-beneficial microbial groups from the sugarcane microbiome. The community-based culture collection (CBC approach was used to access microbes from roots and stalks. The CBC recovered 399 unique bacteria representing 15.9% of the rhizosphere core microbiome and 61.6–65.3% of the endophytic core microbiomes of stalks. By cross-referencing the CBC (culture-dependent with the sugarcane microbiome profile (culture-independent, we designed a synthetic community comprised of naturally occurring highly abundant bacterial groups from roots and stalks, most of which has been poorly explored so far. We then used maize as a model to probe the abundance-based synthetic inoculant. We show that when inoculated in maize plants, members of the synthetic community efficiently colonize plant organs, displace the natural microbiota and dominate at 53.9% of the rhizosphere microbial abundance. As a result, inoculated plants increased biomass by 3.4-fold as compared to uninoculated plants. The results demonstrate that abundance-based synthetic inoculants can be successfully applied to recover beneficial plant microbes from plant microbiota.

  17. Transformation of dwelling culture based on riverine community in Musi River Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Bambang; Siswanto, Ari; Kusdiwanggo, Susilo; Anwar, Widya Fransiska Febriati

    2017-11-01

    Palembang City development since the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate era to the reformation era has impact on the living culture community, less of the raft houses, houses on stilts transformed into a terraced house, and the house became the dominant land. Dwelling Culture oriented on transformation of river become land-oriented. The development has leaving identity, character, and potential of the riverine architecture and dwelling life of river. The goals of study are to describe a case and revealing the meaning of dwelling cultural transformation in Musi River society from the process of cultural acculturation and investigate the architectural aspect from the form of house and modes of dwelling through the structuralism approach. The data collection is conducted qualitatively by using data collection techniques such as observation, interview, literature study, whereas the method of analysis, is a method that is done through Levi-Strauss structuralism approach that identifies all the elements of community thought in a systematic procedure. The results showed the structure behind the orientation, position, shape, and layout of dwelling revealed through the meanings in it. It means, the change and development from cultural acculturation process which oriented in the land dwelling, based on structure thinking of Palembang society.

  18. Community based fish culture in the public and private floodplains of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfuzul Haque, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal floodplains are water bodies that retain water for 5-6 months during which they are suitable to grow fish and other aquatic animals. Out of 2.8 million ha of medium and deep-flooded areas, about 1.5 million ha are estimated to be suitable for Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC).

  19. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  20. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  1. A cultural critique of community psychiatry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumeet; Jadhav, Sushrut

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive cultural critique of India's official community mental health policy and program. Data are based on a literature review of published papers, conference proceedings, analyses of official policy and popular media, interviews with key Indian mental health professionals, and fieldwork in Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh (2004-2006). The authors demonstrate how three influences have shaped community psychiatry in India: a cultural asymmetry between health professionals and the wider society, psychiatry's search for both professional and social legitimacy, and WHO policies that have provided the overall direction to the development of services. Taken together, the consequences are that rural community voices have been edited out. The authors hypothesize that community psychiatry in India is a bureaucratic and culturally incongruent endeavor that increases the divide between psychiatry and local rural communities. Such a claim requires sustained ethnographic fieldwork to reveal the dynamics of the gap between community and professional experiences. The development of culturally sensitive psychiatric theory and clinical services is essential to improve the mental health of rural citizens who place their trust in India's biomedical network.

  2. Mediating Expectations and Encounters: Community-Based Tourism Protocols- Cultural Tourism Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Mortensen

    2013-01-01

    Across the world an increasing number of communities are embracing cultural tourism as a means to strengthen or build local economies, to revitalize cultural traditions, and also to complement the management of local and cultural resources. The potential for cultural tourism to build cross cultural understanding and the importance of considering the human context of tourism is explored in this presentation by Lena Mortensen (Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Toronto) an...

  3. Responsible Adult Culture (RAC): Cognitive and Behavioral Changes at a Community-Based Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…

  4. Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry A; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Thirgood, Simon J; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-08-01

    Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. We investigated whether local cultural context, particularly local institutions and the efforts of interventions to engage with this culture significantly influence conservation outcomes. We also tested the effects of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration. We systematically reviewed the literature on community-based conservation and identified 68 interventions suitable for inclusion. We used a protocol to extract and code information and evaluated a range of measures of outcome success (attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic). We also examined the association of each predictor with each outcome measure and the structure of predictor covariance. Local institutional context influenced intervention outcomes, and interventions that engaged with local institutions were more likely to succeed. Nevertheless, there was limited support for the role of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration on intervention success. We recommend that conservation interventions seek to understand the societies they work with and tailor their activities accordingly. Systematic reviews are a valuable approach for assessing conservation evidence, although sensitive to the continuing lack of high-quality reporting on conservation interventions.

  5. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  6. Cultural diversity in center-based childcare: Childrearing beliefs of professional caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, S.K.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard

  7. Cultural Diversity in Center-Based Childcare: Childrearing Beliefs of Professional Caregivers from Different Cultural Communities in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, S. K.; Leseman, P. P. M.; Tavecchio, L. W. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard questionnaires, focusing on general and…

  8. Cultural context of school communities in rural Hawaii to inform youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.

  9. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  10. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  11. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  12. A modified culture-based study of bacterial community composition in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Adey F; Dalhammer, Gunnel; Kittuva, Gunatrana R

    2010-01-01

    Though culture-independent methods have been used in preference to traditional isolation techniques for characterization of microbial community of wastewater treatment plants, it is difficult to widely apply this approach in resource-poor countries. The present study aimed to develop a test to identify the culturable portion of bacterial community in a high-strength wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from nitrification-denitrification and settling tanks of the treatment plant of Elmo Leather AB tannery located in Borås, Sweden. After cultivating on nutrient agar with the optimal dilution (10⁻²), phenotypic and biochemical identification of the bacteria were done with colony morphology, Gram reaction, growth on MacConkey, phenylethanol media, triple sugar Iron agar slants, catalase and oxidase tests. Biochemical grouping of the isolates was done based on their test results for MacConkey, phenylethanol media, triple sugar Iron agar and oxidase test reaction. From the biochemical groups, isolates were randomly selected for API test and 16SrRNA gene sequencing. The isolates from the denitrification, nitrification tank were identified to be Paracoccus denitrificans (67%), Azoarcus spp (3%) and Spingomonas wittichii (1%). From the settling tank, Paracoccus denitrificans (22%), Corynebacterium freneyi (20%) and Bacillus cereus (1%) were identified. The grouping based on biochemical test results as well as the identification based on sequencing has shown coherence except for discrepancies with the API test. The preliminary implications of the grouping based on culture-based characteristics and its potential application for resource-limited environmental microbial studies is discussed.

  13. Promoting human subjects training for place-based communities and cultural groups in environmental research: curriculum approaches for graduate student/faculty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    A collaborative team of environmental sociologists, community psychologists, religious studies scholars, environmental studies/science researchers and engineers has been working together to design and implement new training in research ethics, culture and community-based approaches for place-based communities and cultural groups. The training is designed for short and semester-long graduate courses at several universities in the northeastern US. The team received a 3 year grant from the US National Science Foundation's Ethics Education in Science and Engineering in 2010. This manuscript details the curriculum topics developed that incorporate ethical principles, particularly for group protections/benefits within the field practices of environmental/engineering researchers.

  14. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  15. Community Empowerment Strategy Based on Social and Cultural Capital of Coastal Communities at Makassar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzil, Tanzil

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to (1) analyze the form and the function of social capital in fisher communities of Makasar Island (2) formulate a strategy of empowerment through reinforcement of social capital in fisher communities in Makasar Island. The methodological design used is a case study. The data is then analysed through descriptive-qualitative, an analysis carried out continuously from the collection of data until the investigation is completed. The study findings showed that the fisher communities in Makasar Island have social and cultural capital that can be identified on the forms of trust, values/norms, and networks in which each social and cultural capital has become a power for fishermen to survive and adapt to its environment. The results of this study also identify various problems related to the process of empowering fishing communities on the island of Makassar. The problems also become a constraint for fishermen to improve their business so that they obtain relatively low incomes. The problems are: firstly, the weakness on the use of technology so that the productivity of fishermen is relatively low and the small business scale, the second, the difficulty in business development because of the limited access to capital and the third, the poor of business management as the result of limited ability in business management. These factors then lead the fishing communities on the island of Makasar powerless to exploit the rich potential of marine resources.

  16. Community and evidence-based approaches to healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... This project developed community connections, shared cross-cultural teaching experiences, and fostered local community partnerships. Participants in the course were encouraged to continue providing evidence-based care throughout their careers. UniLúrio now plans to include the community-based ...

  17. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2018-03-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes ( Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  18. Legal Design of Domestic Workers Protection Based on Gorontalo Community Local Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.

  19. Community-Based Financial Literacy Education in a Cultural Context: A Study of Teacher Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Forte, Karin Sprow

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings related to teaching beliefs and pedagogical practices of a study that examined how financial literacy educators educate adults from underserved population groups in community-based settings. The study is theoretically framed in the teaching beliefs and culturally responsive education literature. Findings reveal a…

  20. Promoting Culturally Responsive Standards-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifer, Steffen; Barton, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Culturally responsive standards-based (CRSB) teaching can help bring diverse school communities together and make learning meaningful. Unlike multicultural education--which is an important way to incorporate the world's cultural and ethnic diversity into lessons--CRSB teaching draws on the experiences, understanding, views, concepts, and ways of…

  1. Local Cultural Heritage Sites and Spatial Planning for the Bantik Ethnic Community in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egam, P. P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The course of a city’s development has an effect on both spatial and social aspects, and this situation affects ethnic communities. As a result of recent urban developments, the cultural values of a community that are embedded in living arrangements have been disturbed, thus obscuring, or even hiding, the rich cultural heritage therein. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial characteristics of local neighborhoods based on a wealth of cultural heritage objects. This research focuses on the physical cultural heritage of the Bantik settlement in Malalayang. The spatial characteristics of cultural heritage objects are analyzed, based on physical and other characteristics. The results indicate that, although the Bantik ethnic community in Malalayang, Indonesia, has physical cultural heritage sites, it is unable to effectively develop these as significant cultural spaces because of the physical separation of their locations, the declining meaning of these sites to the community, and the lack of support from indigenous organizations. Distance is not the only determinant of the optimization of cultural space. Planning for cultural spaces involves three zones: 1 a promotion zone, 2 a core zone, and 3 a buffer zone. The greatest potential for developing a cultural space is in the vicinity of Minanga Road and the Niopo Stone, with the physical object reinforcement of similar sites. To improve cultural space, it is not enough to only rely on the existence of a physical object, it is necessary to create a close relationship between the object and the community with the support of indigenous organizations.

  2. The New Community Policing: Developing a Partnership-Based Theoretical Foundation

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    Adam J McKee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Partnership Model of Community Policing based on Partnership concepts developed by Riane Eisler and undergirded by Cultural Transformation Theory as a guiding principle (1987, 2010, 2013. This model is more reflective of the daily lived experiences of community police officers. It is culturally relevant and based on the whole of the police officer’s relationship with the community within the context in which the interactions occur. This "New Community Policing" is an extension of Riane Eisler’s Cultural Transformation Theory and is an attempt to answer her call for a movement towards a partnership model of social organization. Ultimately, "8 Pillars of the New Community Policing" are developed to aid in defining and implementing community policing.

  3. Using community-based participatory research and organizational diagnosis to characterize relationships between community leaders and academic researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen H; Ray, Natasha J; Berg, David N; Greene, Ann T; Lucas, Georgina; Harris, Kenn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Tinney, Barbara; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2017-09-01

    Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR) in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011-May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1) Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2) Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3) Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4) Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community-university discussions on race

  4. Resistance and diversity: cultural narratives of a quilombola community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Pierote Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Riacho das Pedras was a remnant quilombo community in the municipality of Rio de Contas (Bahia which lands were flooded after the construction of a dam. The work led to serious impacts on the affected population and to the surrounding environment. We performed a five trajectories study of former residents of this village between 2008 and 2009. Based on the narratives, we sought to map the displacement processes, the establishment in new territories and the group current conditions. Our project was developed based on interviews, literature, ethnographic inspiration field and oral history of life method. This article aims to conduct an analysis focusing on the quilombo cultural manifestations and consequences of these practices in the local context. We believe that despite the diaspora, the community has endured and asserted itself politically through artistic and cultural events. We understand that the quilombo descendants have (recreated specific forms of expression that value them positively. Besides, through these expressions, important cultural variations are accomplished in order to contribute to the expansion of diversity in Rio de Contas.

  5. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  6. Copyright, Culture, and Community in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Burk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communities that interact on-line through computer games and other virtual worlds are mediated by the audiovisual content of the game interface. Much of this content is subject to copyright law, which confers on the copyright owner the legal right to prevent certain unauthorized uses of the content. Such exclusive rights impose a limiting factor on the development of communities that are situated around the interface content, as the rights, privileges, and exceptions associated with copyright generally tend to disregard the cultural significance of copyrighted content. This limiting effect of copyright is well illustrated by examination of the copying of content by virtual diaspora communities such as that formed around the game Uru: Ages of Myst; thus, the opportunity for on-line communities to legally access the graphical elements on which those communities are built is fraught with potential legal liability. This presents the reciprocal situation from efforts to protect the cultural properties of indigenous communities as traditional knowledge. Reconsideration of current copyright law would be required in order to accommodate the cohesion of on-line communities and related cultural uses of copyrighted content.

  7. Engaging Karen refugee students in science learning through a cross-cultural learning community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2017-02-01

    This research explored how Karen (first-generation refugees from Burma) elementary students engaged with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence within the context of a cross-cultural learning community. In this action research, the researcher and a Karen parent served as co-teachers for fourth- and fifth-grade Karen and non-Karen students in a science and culture after-school programme in a public elementary school in the rural southeastern United States. Photovoice provided a critical platform for students to create their own cultural discourses for the learning community. The theoretical framework of critical pedagogy of place provided a way for the learning community to decolonise and re-inhabit the learning spaces with knowledge they co-constructed. Narrative analysis of video transcripts of the after-school programme, ethnographic interviews, and focus group discussions from Photovoice revealed a pattern of emerging agency by Karen students in the scientific practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence and in Karen language lessons. This evidence suggests that science learning embedded within a cross-cultural learning community can empower refugee students to construct their own hybrid cultural knowledge and leverage that knowledge to engage in a meaningful way with the epistemology of science.

  8. Using community-based participatory research and organizational diagnosis to characterize relationships between community leaders and academic researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011–May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1 Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2 Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3 Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4 Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community

  9. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Birol; Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111) among Dutch (religious and non-religious), Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual ('What do you value?') and at the level of the perceived community ('What does your community value?'). Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting) behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture.

  10. Developing Community-Based Rehabilitation Programs for Musculoskeletal Diseases in Low-Income Areas of Mexico: The Community-Based Rehabilitation for Low-Income Communities Living With Rheumatic Diseases (CONCORD) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative impact of musculoskeletal diseases on the physical function and quality of life of people living in developing countries is considerable. This disabling effect is even more marked in low-socioeconomic communities within developing countries. In Mexico, there is a need to create community-based rehabilitation programs for people living with musculoskeletal diseases in low-socioeconomic areas. These programs should be directed to prevent and decrease disability, accommodating the specific local culture of communities. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe a research protocol designed to develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive community-based rehabilitation programs aiming to decrease disability of people living with musculoskeletal diseases in two low-income Mexican communities. Methods A community-based participatory research approach is proposed, including multi and transdisciplinary efforts among the community, medical anthropology, and the health sciences. The project is structured in 4 main stages: (1) situation analysis, (2) program development, (3) program implementation, and (4) program evaluation. Each stage includes the use of quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed method program). Results So far, we obtained resources from a Mexican federal agency and completed stage one of the project at Chankom, Yucatán. We are currently receiving funding from an international agency to complete stage two at this same location. We expect that the project at Chankom will be concluded by December of 2017. On the other hand, we just started the execution of stage one at Nuevo León with funding from a Mexican federal agency. We expect to conclude the project at this site by September of 2018. Conclusions Using a community-based participatory research approach and a mixed method program could result in the creation of culturally sensitive community-based rehabilitation programs that promote community development and

  11. Our games our health: a cultural asset for promoting health in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth; Meiklejohn, Beryl; Patterson, Carla; Edwards, Ken; Preece, Cilia; Shuter, Patricia; Gould, Trish

    2006-08-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher morbidity and mortality rates than non-Indigenous Australians. Until recently, few health promotion interventions have had more than limited success in Indigenous populations. This community-based health promotion initiative introduced traditional Indigenous games into schools and community groups in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). A joint community forum managed the project, and the Indigenous community-based project officers co-ordinated training in traditional games and undertook community asset audits and evaluations. The games have been included in the activities of a range of community organisations in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island. Several other organisations and communities in Australia have included them in their projects. A games video and manual were produced to facilitate the initiative's transferability and sustainability. Conventional approaches to health promotion generally focus on individual risk factors and often ignore a more holistic perspective. This project adopted a culturally appropriate, holistic approach, embracing a paradigm that concentrated on the communities' cultural assets and contributed to sustainable and transferable outcomes. There is a need for appropriate evaluation tools for time-limited community engagement projects.

  12. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111) among Dutch (religious and non-religious), Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual (‘What do you value?’) and at the level of the perceived community (‘What does your community value?’). Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting) behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture. PMID:28957447

  13. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Akkuş

    Full Text Available Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111 among Dutch (religious and non-religious, Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual ('What do you value?' and at the level of the perceived community ('What does your community value?'. Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture.

  14. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from

  15. Culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community from Chungkookjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Jae Young; Chung, Kun Sub

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial community of Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Pure cultures were isolated from Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw on tryptic soy agar plates with 72 to 121 colonies and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. The traditional culture-based method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA confirmed that Pantoea agglomerans and B. subtilis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang, respectively, from Iljuk district of Gyeonggi province, P. ananatis and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Wonju district of Gangwon province, and Microbacterium sp. and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Sunchang district of Jeolla province. Other strains, such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and uncultured bacteria were also present in raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang. A comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms would provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of Chungkookjang and help improve its quality. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or more species than the culture-dependent method. This technique is an effective and convenient culture-independent method for studying the bacterial community in Chungkookjang. In this study, the bacterial community of Chungkookjang collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Cultural Health Capital on the margins: Cultural resources for navigating healthcare in communities with limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Erin Fanning

    2015-05-01

    Communities struggling with access to healthcare in the U.S. are often considered to be disadvantaged and lacking in resources. Yet, these communities develop and nurture valuable strategies for healthcare access that are underrecognized by health scholars. Combining medical sociology and critical race theory perspectives on cultural capital, this paper examines the health-relevant cultural resources, or Cultural Health Capital, in South Texas Mexican American border communities. Ethnographic data collected during 2011-2013 in Cameron and Hidalgo counties on the U.S.-Mexico border provide empirical evidence for expanding existing notions of health-relevant cultural capital. These Mexican American communities use a range of cultural resources to manage healthcare exclusion and negotiate care in alternative healthcare spaces like community clinics, flea markets and Mexican pharmacies. Navigational, social, familial, and linguistic skills and knowledge are used to access doctors and prescription drugs in these spaces despite social barriers to mainstream healthcare (e.g. cost, English language skills, etc.). Cultural capital used in marginalized communities to navigate limited healthcare options may not always fully counteract healthcare exclusion. Nevertheless, recognizing the cultural resources used in Mexican American communities to facilitate healthcare challenges deficit views and yields important findings for policymakers, healthcare providers, and advocates seeking to capitalize on community resources to improve healthcare access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Globalization and the cultural safety of an immigrant Muslim community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cynthia

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.

  18. Building evaluative culture in community services: Caring for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, John

    2017-05-25

    An organization with a strong evaluative culture engages in self-reflection, evidence-based learning and experimentation. It sees evidence as essential for managing well, but building such a culture is challenging. Community service organizations seek to provide effective services for their clients. To build an evaluative culture, they need to acquire basic monitoring and evaluation capabilities, be provided with opportunities for using these capabilities and be adequately motivated to care about evidence as a means to improve services to their clients. Leadership along with a phased in approach are key in bringing about these behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Culture and community psychology: toward a renewed and reimagined vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Michael J; Ramírez García, Jorge I; Aber, Mark S; Masood, Nausheen; Dutta, Urmitapa; Todd, Nathan R

    2011-03-01

    Interest is growing in community psychology to look more closely at culture. Culture has resided in community psychology in its emphasis on context, ecology, and diversity, however we believe that the field will benefit from a more explicit focus on culture. We suggest a cultural approach that values the community's points of view and an understanding of shared and divergent meanings, goals, and norms within a theory of empowerment. Furthermore, we posit the importance of pluralistic, multi-method programs of research and action encompassing both idiographic and nomothetic approaches, and critical reflexivity of our roles and agendas. Culture can be further incorporated into all the branches and fibers of community psychology.

  20. Tourism Communication in Community Based Tourism in Dieng Community, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sunuantari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To encourage a community’s role in the field of tourism, the local government of Central Java, Indonesia promotes a Community Based Tourism (CBT as a tourism development for the sustainable economy. It involves the community in decision-making processes, especially related to the acquisition of income, employment, and the preservation of the environment, and culture of the indigenous people. This research aimed to determine communication activities in the implementation of CBT. The theory used was tourism communication using Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA model. Then, the method was a case study by choosing Dieng as a tourist destination, and the tourism communication activities were undertaken in Dieng’s society, especially in the activities of Dieng Culture Festival (DCF. The results show that the tourism communication activities involving the community, POKDARWIS (Kelompok Sadar Wisata - Tourism Awareness Group, tourism advocates, and local governments should pay attention to the cultural and natural tourism potentials, and empower the local communities.

  1. Exploring the potential of cultural villages as a model of community based tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, N. I. K.; Astawa, I. P.; Siwantara, I. W.; Mataram, I. G. A. B.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide better understanding of the potential of cultural villages as a model of Community Based Tourism. The research was held in Buleleng regency, North of Bali, where the tourism is growing in this area. A qualitative research had been applied and data was collected through in-depth interview with informants from the community who directly involve in the tourism businesses. Observation and document review were also utilized. Data was analyzed in qualitative manner following Miles and Huberman method: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. Four villages that won the Anugerah Desa Wisata award were selected as the cases namely Pemuteran Village, Munduk Village, Sambangan Village and Kalibukbuk Village. The findings revealed that those four villages have its own uniqueness and strong points to attract tourists. Pemuteran village has strong point on under water attraction and preservation of coral reefs. Munduk village relies on nature scenery, agro-tourism and traditional game as tourist’s attraction. Sambangan village is famous of waterfalls and adventurous activities. Kalibukbuk village depends on black sandy beach with dolphin watching as the main attraction. It is also apparent that the local community is actively involved and gets benefits from the tourism businesses.

  2. Community Culture and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide explores the concepts of community and culture and provides tools for identifying, assessing and working cooperatively within the social dynamics and local values connected to environmental protection.

  3. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  4. Avoiding "culture rejection" in healthcare mergers and acquisitions: how New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services minimized the culture risk when forming Unison Health and Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Among the requirements for a successful merger or acquisition are strategic rationale, rigorous due diligence, the right price and revenue and cost synergies. However, bridging the culture gap between organizations is frequently overlooked. The leaders of New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services explicitly considered culture in their merger to form Unison Health and Community Services, and they used employee engagement surveys to assess culture in their merger planning and post-merger integration. How Unison Health leaders avoided the risk of culture rejection to achieve a successful merger, and the lessons learned from their experience, is the focus of this article.

  5. Enhancing Social Capital in Children via School-Based Community Cultural Development Projects: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Miller, Evonne

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory pilot study investigates the extent to which participating in a community cultural development (CCD) initiative builds social capital among children. An independent youth arts organisation implemented two cultural activities, developing a compact disc of original music and designing mosaic artworks for a library courtyard, in two…

  6. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G

    2012-03-01

    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  7. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  8. Influence of culture and community perceptions on birth and perinatal care of immigrant women: doulas' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the perceptions of doulas practicing in Washington State regarding the influence of cultural and community beliefs on immigrant women's birth and perinatal care, as well as their own cultural beliefs and values that may affect their ability to work interculturally. The findings suggest that doulas can greatly aid immigrant mothers in gaining access to effective care by acting as advocates, cultural brokers, and emotional and social support. Also, doulas share a consistent set of professional values, including empowerment, informed choice, cultural relativism, and scientific/evidence-based practice, but do not always recognize these values as culturally based. More emphasis on cultural self-awareness in doula training, expanding community doula programs, and more integration of doula services in health-care settings are recommended.

  9. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture

  10. Collaborative measurement development as a tool in CBPR: measurement development and adaptation within the cultures of communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, John; Trickett, Edison J

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the processes we engaged into develop a measurement protocol used to assess the outcomes in a community based suicide and alcohol abuse prevention project with two Alaska Native communities. While the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) is substantial regarding the importance of collaborations, few studies have reported on this collaboration in the process of developing measures to assess CBPR projects. We first tell a story of the processes around the standard issues of doing cross-cultural work on measurement development related to areas of equivalence. A second story is provided that highlights how community differences within the same cultural group can affect both the process and content of culturally relevant measurement selection, adaptation, and development.

  11. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Engberg, R M; Leser, T D; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Pedersen, K

    2006-07-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed. In the ileum, the abundance of the different Lactobacillus species differed between the 2 broiler types. The culture-based and culture-independent techniques complemented each other well. Strengths and limitations of the different methods are discussed.

  12. An organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane L; Carswell, Peter; Harrison, Jeff

    2011-09-01

    The barriers to moving forward and meeting the expectations of policy makers and professional pharmacy bodies appear to relate to the organizational culture of community pharmacy. Despite the importance of cultural change for business transformation, organizational culture has largely gone unnoticed in community pharmacy practice research. To perform an organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies. Mean scores from a cultural rating survey (n=47) were calculated for 8 cultural clusters and mapped onto a typical and a beneficial pattern match (ladder diagram) for each case site. These ladder diagrams provide an understanding of the gap between the 2 ratings based on the gradient of the lines joining cultural clusters-the rungs of the ladder. Software can be used to generate a Pearson correlation describing the strength of the relationship between the typical and beneficial ratings. Eight cultural clusters were mapped: "leadership and staff management"; "valuing each other and the team"; "free-thinking, fun and, open to challenge"; "trusted behavior"; "customer relations"; "focus on external integration"; "provision of systematic advice"; and the "embracing of innovation." Analysis suggested a high level of correlation between the means of the typical and beneficial ratings. Although the variance between average ratings might be quite small, the relative difference can still be meaningful to participants in the cultural setting. The diagrams suggest a requirement for external integration, the provision of systematic advice, and the embracing of innovation to become more typical in most pharmacies. Trusted behavior is the most typical and most beneficial cultural dimension in most pharmacies, whereas valuing each other and the team is the least beneficial. Gaps in organizational culture have been identified through the use of a rating survey. The dimensions of focus on external integration, providing systematic advice, and embracing

  13. Influence of Culture and Community Perceptions on Birth and Perinatal Care of Immigrant Women: Doulas’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the perceptions of doulas practicing in Washington State regarding the influence of cultural and community beliefs on immigrant women’s birth and perinatal care, as well as their own cultural beliefs and values that may affect their ability to work interculturally. The findings suggest that doulas can greatly aid immigrant mothers in gaining access to effective care by acting as advocates, cultural brokers, and emotional and social support. Also, doulas share a consistent set of professional values, including empowerment, informed choice, cultural relativism, and scientific/evidence-based practice, but do not always recognize these values as culturally based. More emphasis on cultural self-awareness in doula training, expanding community doula programs, and more integration of doula services in health-care settings are recommended. PMID:24453465

  14. The co-evolution of cultures, social network communities, and agent locations in an extension of Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Jens; Kirley, Michael; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a variant of the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination in which agents change their physical locations, social links, and cultures. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the evolution of social network communities and the cultural diversity within and between these communities. An analysis of the simulation results shows that an initial peak in the cultural diversity within network communities is evident before agents segregate into a final configuration of culturally homogeneous communities. Larger long-range interaction probabilities facilitate the initial emergence of culturally diverse network communities, which leads to a more pronounced initial peak in cultural diversity within communities. At equilibrium, the number of communities, and hence cultures, increases when the initial cultural diversity increases. However, the number of communities decreases when the lattice size or population density increases. A phase transition between two regimes of initial cultural diversity is evident. For initial diversities below a critical value, a single network community and culture emerges that dominates the population. For initial diversities above the critical value, multiple culturally homogeneous communities emerge. The critical value of initial diversity at which this transition occurs increases with increasing lattice size and population density and generally with increasing absolute population size. We conclude that larger initial diversities promote cultural heterogenization, while larger lattice sizes, population densities, and in fact absolute population sizes promote homogenization.

  15. Engaging cultural resources to promote mental health in Dutch LSES neighborhoods: study of a community-based participatory media project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, Mare; de Vries, Marten; Horstman, Klasien

    2017-06-01

    Community-based participatory media projects form a promising new strategy for mental health promotion that can help address the mental health-gap identified by the World Health Organization. (2008b) mhGAP, Mental Health Gap Action Programme: Scaling Up Care for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva. In this article we present an ethnographic study about a participatory media project that was developed to promote mental health in selected Dutch low socio-economic status neighborhoods. Through narrowcastings (group film viewings), participant observation and interviews we mapped the ways in which the media project effected and facilitated the collective sense-making process of the audience with regard to sources of stress impacting mental health and opportunities for action. These determinants of mental health are shaped by cultural dimensions, since the cultural context shapes everyday experiences of stress as well as the resources and skills to manage them. Our analysis shows that the media project engaged cultural resources to challenge stressful social scripts. We conclude that more attention should be paid to cultural narratives in a community to understand how health promotion strategies can support social resilience. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

    2014-07-30

    The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Event and Community Development: Planning Legacy for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, Liverpool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-De Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Event legacy has become a major topic of discussion in recent years. Especially, European Capital of Culture is emerging as a means of facilitating community development in Europe. Based on a case study of the 2008 European Capital of Culture Liverpool, this article aims to conceptualise the relationship between an event and its sustained effects on community development. Methodologically, adopting case study as approach, both primary and secondary were collected and analysed, including four times neighborhood surveys, official evaluation reports and academic publications. The study period is from 2007 to 2015 to monitor changes in an event’s impacts. The results reveal four dimensions of effects, including: cultural access and engagement, volunteering, governance and infrastructure, and sense of place. Overall, the study stresses the importance of integrating the event into a long-term development strategy of the city, through synergies between culture and urban regeneration and community renewal.

  18. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  19. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A new cell primo-culture method for freshwater benthic diatom communities

    OpenAIRE

    Debenest, Timothée; Silvestre, Jérôme; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François; Pinelli, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new cell primo-culture method was developed for the benthic diatom community isolated from biofilm sampled in rivers. The approach comprised three steps: (1) scraping biofilm from river pebbles, (2) diatom isolation from biofilm, and (3) diatom community culture. With a view to designing a method able to stimulate the growth of diatoms, to limit the development of other microorganisms, and to maintain in culture a community similar to the original natural one, different factors were test...

  1. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  2. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described.

  3. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  4. Community Collectivism : A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkus, Birol; Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its

  5. Food culture of faith communities and potential impact on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Dyess, Susan M; Gropper, Sareen S

    2017-09-01

    To explore the food culture within faith communities (FC) in order to examine the consumption of away-from-home foods, and to provide an evidence base for the future development of healthy away-from-home meal initiatives though FCs. A qualitative descriptive design informed by an ethnographic method of free listing was utilized. A purposive sample of 34 FC leaders from seven distinct FCs participated in this study. The top five salience scores for five research questions are considered in detail. Of note, food is provided at multiple FC events including at worship time and Bible or group study, but also as part of school, youth programming, and special events. The purposes of serving food were reported to be not only for modes of entertainment and fellowship but also for promoting attendance and providing basic nutrition needs. Professionals practicing in public health, faith community nursing, or in community health nursing are apt to engage in focused dialogues regarding the multidimensional health problem of childhood obesity. This research study directs nurses to consider food culture as a dimension of importance, especially within FCs. Appreciating FC food culture is important because many families engage in the settings for years, decades, and possibly a life span. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Integrating Faith-based and Community-based Participatory Research Approaches to Adapt the Korean Parent Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Boutain, Doris; Kim, Sangho; Chun, Jin-Joo; Im, Hyesang

    Faith and community based inquiry approaches are rarely used to develop research interventions. The purpose of this article is to present how a research team worked with six Korean American Christian churches to revise the prototype Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP), based upon the Bright Futures Parenting Program. The collaboration was sought to better integrate and align the KPTP with Korean culture and faith. The KPTP was developed to promote positive parenting practices and decrease mental health disparities of Korean American children. Sixteen church participants completed a Delphi survey, a workshop series, Community Theaters, and focus groups. The participants suggested adding Korean traditional parenting virtues, Christian parenting principles, and revising the standardized parent training and program philosophy. Revisions made KPTP sensitive to Korean culture and faith, and promoted program acceptability. The process demonstrated the importance of working with church volunteers to develop faith-based and community-based health promotion interventions targeting Korean American faith communities. This research presents significant and meaningful implications for working with other faith communities from minority backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Salutogenesis and culture: personal and community sense of coherence among adolescents belonging to three different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra

    2011-12-01

    The salutogenic theory considers sense of coherence (SOC) as a cross-cultural concept ( Antonovsky, 1987 ), meaning that in all cultures and at all stages of coping with a stressor, a person with a strong SOC is at an advantage in preventing tension from being transformed into stress. However, in seeking to understand how the SOC works, it is culture which seems to define which resources are appropriate. The aim of our paper is to examine this theoretical assumption of Antonovsky. Data on personal and community SOC as well as on stress reactions were gathered after the last fire in northern Israel (December 2010) among adolescents aged 12-18 belonging to three cultural groups (Jews, Druze, Muslims). We compared the pattern of personal versus community SOC in explaining stress reactions in the three cultures. Results indicate that personal SOC was the strongest predictor of stress reactions in all cultures. Community SOC, however, played a significant role mainly for Druze. Results are discussed relating to Antonovsky's theory and to adolescence as a 'universal' period, as well as considering the uniqueness of each culture separately.

  8. Community helping services: dynamic of formation and expressiveness of the cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro

    2006-01-01

    Community helping services is an expression used by the social movements to designate families that live in shacks installed in a public area intended for building of own house at a community helping system. Studies in ethnonursing that aimed: in order to detail dynamic configuration in a community helping service. It took place in an community helping area located in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará. The community members acting as general informants from the local culture, while eight (8) women heads-of-families, working as key informers. The data collect used the Observation-Participation-Reflection Model. The analyses were processing by the time that the dates were collected, considering the categories: inserting in the community helping culture to obtain their history; community helping is not a slum -describing the formation dynamic. Established that the formation dynamic of the community helping go on the own house representation as a symbol of " a better life". To assimilate such expression introducing in own cultural universe is a challenge for the nursing to assist a care culture congruent.

  9. Next-generation sequencing and culture-based techniques offer complementary insights into fungi and prokaryotes in beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Daniela; Staley, Christopher; Ferreira, Filipa; Rodrigues, Raquel; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Wang, Ping; Sadowsky, Michael; Brandão, João

    2017-06-15

    A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, in conjunction with culture-based methods, was used to examine fungal and prokaryotic communities for the presence of potential pathogens in beach sands throughout Portugal. Culture-based fungal enumeration revealed low and variable concentrations of the species targeted (yeasts and dermatophytes), which were underrepresented in the community characterized by NGS targeting the ITS1 region. Conversely, NGS indicated that the potentially pathogenic species Purpureocillium liliacinum comprised nearly the entire fungal community. Culturable fecal indicator bacterial concentrations were low throughout the study and unrelated to communities characterized by NGS. Notably, the prokaryotic communities characterized revealed a considerable abundance of archaea. Results highlight differences in communities between methods in beach sand monitoring but indicate the techniques offer complementary insights. Thus, there is a need to leverage culture-based methods with NGS methods, using a toolbox approach, to determine appropriate targets and metrics for beach sand monitoring to adequately protect public health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The fun culture in seniors' online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit

    2011-04-01

    Previous research found that "fun on line" is the most dominant content in seniors' online communities. The present study aimed to further explore the fun culture in these communities and to discover its unique qualities. The study applied an online ethnography (netnography) approach, utilizing a full year's data from 6 leading seniors' online communities. The final database included about 50,000 posts. The majority of posts were part of online social games, including cognitive, associative, and creative games. The main subjects in all contents were sex, gender differences, aging, grandparenting, politics, faith, and alcohol. Main participatory behaviors were selective timing, using expressive style, and personalization of the online character. Although most participants were "lurkers," the active participants nurtured community norms and relationships, as reflected in the written dialogues. In a reality of limited alternatives for digital games that meet older adults' needs and interests, seniors found an independent system to satisfy their need for play. Seniors' online communities provided a unique form of casual leisure, whose nature varied among different groups of participants. The fun culture seemed to offer participants many desired benefits, including meaningful play, liminality and communitas, opportunity to practice and demonstrate their abilities, and means for coping with aging. Therefore, it may have positive impact on seniors' well-being and successful aging.

  11. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Aisenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  12. Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek

    2005-06-01

    Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

  13. Potential profitability of pearl culture in coastal communities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.

  14. A community-based intervention to build community harmony in an Indigenous Guatemalan Mining Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, Claudia Susana; Parroquia de San Miguel Ixtahuacan, Kolol Qnan Tx'otx'

    2018-01-24

    The presence of large-scale mining operations poses many threats to communities. In a rural community in Guatemala, community leaders were motivated to address divisiveness and local conflict that have been exacerbated since the arrival of a mining company in the region. Prior research by our team identified spiritual and cultural strengths as important sources of strength and resilience in the community. We piloted a community-based intervention centred on spiritual and cultural practices in the region, to address divisiveness and build community harmony. One hundred and seventeen participants from over 18 villages in the municipality participated in the workshops and follow-up focus groups. Community leaders facilitated the intervention and partnered with the academic researcher throughout the research process. Overall, community members and facilitators expressed satisfaction with the workshop. Further, our analysis revealed three important processes important to the development of community harmony in the region: (a) mutual recognition and collectivisation; (b) affirmation of ancestral roots and connections to Mother Earth and (c) inspiring action and momentum towards solutions. These mechanisms, and the socio-political contexts that undermine them, have important implications for how global health programmes are developed and how collective processes for well-being are understood within an inequitable, conflict-laden world.

  15. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  16. Barriers beyond words: cancer, culture, and translation in a community of Russian speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Daniel; Levintova, Marya

    2007-11-01

    Language and culture relate in complex ways. Addressing this complexity in the context of language translation is a challenge when caring for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). To examine processes of care related to language, culture and translation in an LEP population is the objective of this study. We used community based participatory research to examine the experiences of Russian-speaking cancer patients in San Francisco, California. A Russian Cancer Information Taskforce (RCIT), including community-based organizations, local government, and clinics, participated in all phases of the study. A purposeful sample of 74 individuals were the participants of the study. The RCIT shaped research themes and facilitated access to participants. Methods were focus groups, individual interviews, and participant observation. RCIT reviewed data and provided guidance in interpreting results. Four themes emerged. (1) Local Russian-language resources were seen as inadequate and relatively unavailable compared to other non-English languages; (2) a taboo about the word "cancer" led to language "games" surrounding disclosure; (3) this taboo, and other dynamics of care, reflected expectations that Russian speakers derived from experiences in their countries of origin; (4) using interpreters as cultural brokers or establishing support groups for Russian speakers could help address barriers. The language barriers experienced by this LEP population reflect cultural and linguistic issues. Providers should consider partnering with trained interpreters to address the intertwining of language and culture.

  17. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  19. Creating a "culture of research" in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Eileen P; St Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-06-01

    The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important component yet often challenging to

  20. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  1. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes

  2. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  3. The Impact of Culture On Smart Community Technology: The Case of 13 Wikipedia Instances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinayida Petrushyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart communities provide technologies for monitoring social behaviors inside communities. The technologies that support knowledge building should consider the cultural background of community members. The studies of the influence of the culture on knowledge building is limited. Just a few works consider digital traces of individuals that they explain using cultural values and beliefs. In this work, we analyze 13 Wikipedia instances where users with different cultural background build knowledge in different ways. We compare edits of users. Using social network analysis we build and analyze co- authorship networks and watch the networks evolution. We explain the differences we have found using Hofstede dimensions and Schwartz cultural values and discuss implications for the design of smart community technologies. Our findings provide insights in requirements for technologies used for smart communities in different cultures.

  4. Developing Patterns of Parenting in Two Cultural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina; Lohaus, Arnold; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at analyzing verbal and nonverbal strategies in terms of body contact, face-to-face contact, and discourse style during the first three months of life in two cultural communities that have been characterized as embodying different cultural models of parenting: German middle-class, and Nso farmer families. It can be demonstrated…

  5. (De)colonizing culture in community psychology: reflections from critical social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.

  6. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  7. Mobilising culture against domestic violence in migrant and ethnic communities: practitioner perspectives from Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel; Kurian, Priya A; Young-Silcock, Faith; Narasimhan, Nirmala

    2017-07-01

    Studies on domestic violence in ethnic minority communities highlight that social norms, family structures and cultural practices are among the key triggers of violence against women. Not surprisingly, most anti-violence interventions in these communities aim to redeem women from the oppressive features of these cultures. More recently, however, emergent scholarship advocates mobilising, rather than erasing, culture within existing anti-violence strategies. This paper explores the nature of culturally informed interventions used by front-line workers. It presents the findings of a small-scale qualitative study in Aotearoa/New Zealand, where around 13% of the population are currently deemed to be from minority ethnic communities. Interviews and one focus group were conducted with nine practitioners - including social workers, counsellors and the police - in Hamilton, Aotearoa in 2013-2014. Based on thematic analysis, the paper identifies two core strands: (a) the distinctive profile of ethnic violence and (b) the strategies that mobilise culture in anti-violence interventions. Specifically within the former strand, it was found that violence in the ethnic community was distinctive for the following reasons: the heightened sense of stigma surrounding disclosure and the consequent silence by women who suffer from it; the lack of trust in authority; and the fear of conventional safety plans necessitating longer time periods for rapport-building. Among the strategies that mobilise culture, the study found that practitioners used a family approach; engaged men in their interventions, at times reinforcing gendered roles; utilised micro-interventions; and deployed cultural tropes, especially around spirituality, as a strategy. The conclusion points to the gap between interventions that challenge and mobilise cultures. While anecdotally, the latter are perceived to be relevant and effective in anti-violence interventions, there is need for a fuller assessment and better

  8. History, culture, and substance use in a rural Scottish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Alan

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of substance use and misuse in a rural community in the Western Highlands of Scotland, United Kingdom. Attention is focused on the way in which patterns of substance use arise from a complex interplay of historical, cultural, social, and personal events. The discussion illustrates how large changes in patterns of intoxication in rural communities can be rendered intelligible through an understanding of the impact of economic, religious, and social changes. The analysis is based on an historical and ethnographic account, carried out between 1987 and 1990 with adolescents, of patterns of use which range from pagan ceremonies in the 16th century to contemporary "soft drug" use.

  9. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  10. Recalling community: Using material culture and digital archives in Salford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores strategies for engaging geographically fragmented urban communities as active participants in conceptually re-mapping their former localities. It looks in detail at the ongoing Retracing Salford project in Salford, UK, which employs the use of everyday objects and oral histories to engage and enable former residents to reconnect with their recently demolished neighbourhoods and each other. The project also seeks to document an urban working class history largely overlooked by the large-scale institutions. The project is based on a PhD study undertaken by the author at The District Six Museum in Cape Town, South Africa, which examined the use of material artefacts in exhibitions and memory workshops at that museum (Cassidy 2009. Like District Six, Salford has undergone wide-scale demolition and population dispersal over the past 40 years. What began as relatively simple installations in museums, libraries and the like, has now grown to include digitised versions of the family snaps, street signs and oral histories, as a developing online Streets Museum archive (www.streetsmuseum.co.uk. This article reflects on how the methodology employed in the Retracing Salford project has helped rejuvenate and reconnect these dispersed communities. The article argues that the approach used is succeeding in widening the circle of participation and debate in relation to heritage issues, in particular the absence of commemoration of working-class community culture in the city. It has also increased awareness of urban land clearance issues. Its continued success depends on numerous factors, such as developing new strategies of engagement with the community, regularly gaining publicity and organising new exhibitions and workshops. Keywords: Material culture, community participation, urban working class history

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Pesantren Educational Management: School Culture and Leadership of a Professional Learning Community

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    Nyimas Mu'azzomi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore supportive and shared leadership structures at one Indonesian Islamic boarding school (Pesantren as a function of school culture policies and procedures in a professional learning community in the disctrict. A qualitative study was conducted at one Pesantren located in Jambi, an Indonesian province in west part of Sumatra island. We interviewed three administrators and five teachers to get in-depth information about the purpose of this paper. The interview transcriptions were translated, coded, divided into themes, and elaborated in the findings of the paper. The findings of study conclude that Pesantren leaders in the perspective of the participants must provide supportive and shared leadership structures for teachers in order to create positive cultures and effective a professional learning community for the development of the Pesantren. Leaders of the Pesantren must directly cooperate with teaching staff to provide policies and procedures for teachers in the leadership structure to directly impact school improvement through professional learning community collaborative attempts. This study was conducted based on the school culture and professional learning communities literature by exploring existent policies and practices in schools as unique cases. This study is significant to the community as specific cases informing educational leaders especially in Islamic education on mechanisms that may be leveraged to ensure successful implementation of policies and procedures on the leadership and school culture of a professional learning community literature.

  12. Engaging Karen Refugee Students in Science Learning through a Cross-Cultural Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This research explored how Karen (first-generation refugees from Burma) elementary students engaged with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence within the context of a cross-cultural learning community. In this action research, the researcher and a Karen parent served as…

  13. Seabirds as a subsistence and cultural resource in two remote Alaskan communities

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    Rebecca C. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small rural Alaskan communities face many challenges surrounding rapid social and ecological change. The role of local subsistence resources may change over time because of changes in social perception, economic need, and cultural patterns of use. We look at the Bering Sea's Pribilof Islands, comprising two very small communities, and investigate the relationship between the local residents and seabirds as a natural resource. Seabirds may strengthen ties to older ways of life and have potential for future economic opportunities, or modernization may direct interest away from seabirds as a cultural and economic resource. We conducted a survey and interviews of residents of the two Pribilof Island communities, St. Paul and St. George, to assess opinions toward seabirds and harvest levels. Seabirds were generally regarded as important both to individuals and the wider community. However, current levels of subsistence harvest are low, and few people continue to actively harvest or visit seabird colonies. Respondents expressed desire for greater knowledge about seabirds and also concerns about the current economy of the islands and a lack of future development prospects. Despite the challenging economic conditions, the villages retain a strong sense of community and place value on their environment and on seabirds. Surveys indicated an interest in developing eco-tourism based around local resources, including seabirds, as a way to improve the economy.

  14. Culturally appropriate environmental education: an example of a partnership with the Hmong American community

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele A. Schermann; Foung Hawj; MaiKia. Moua

    2012-01-01

    Society's increasing diversity poses many challenges to environmental educators. Numerous barriers and constraints to ethnic minority communities' environmental literacy and engagement in nature-based activities have been identified, including lack of outreach, discrimination or the perceived potential for discrimination, cultural differences, economic...

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  16. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  17. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

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    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  18. The Banyamulenge of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A cultural community in the making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Rukundwa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the name Banyamulenge has become associated with a warrior group in Eastern Congo because of the role some of its community members played in the war against the Mobutu regime. Researchers have been intrigued by the political motivations which unfortunately do not cover the cultural aspects of this community. This article attempts to document the cultural heritage of the Banyamulenge community. Many of the practices and traditions have become obsolete. The article explains the Banyamulenge cultural way of living, and how the divine was traditionally revealed to them in the form of human deities. Burnt sacrifice was part of community worship. The article documents what has been learnt from elders about the oral tradition, the cultural and religious realities of the community.

  19. Community-based dental education and the importance of faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen

    2010-09-01

    Community-based dental education offers a variety of positive learning experiences for students while providing needed dental services for the underserved. More dental students are being instructed by a growing body of largely volunteer community-based faculty who practice in a wide range of community settings including community hospitals and clinics, nursing homes, and private practices. These geographically dispersed instructors may have little experience as educators. Their practice styles and their motivation to improve teaching effectiveness are likely to differ from the styles and motivation of school-based faculty members. Moreover, many dental schools have begun to emphasize practices that may be unfamiliar to community-based faculty such as evidence-based practice. Providing faculty development for them is challenging, yet crucial to the success of these programs and dental education in general. Fundamental elements that must be considered for effective community faculty development programming include fostering a culture of respect between school-based and community faculty members, basing programs on the actual needs of these educators, integrating principles of adult learning theory, and establishing ongoing institutional support. This article provides background on this movement, reviews the literature for faculty development programs geared specifically to community-based educators, makes recommendations for development programs for these dental educators, and includes suggestions for future research.

  20. Incorporating Campus-Based Cultural Resources into Humanities Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Amy E.; Nedd, Rolecia

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors reviewed one effort to deepen students' connections to the humanities through the use of campus-based cultural resources at Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a minority-serving institution in one of the most diverse counties in the United States. Focusing specifically on…

  1. Forum: cultural identity and (dis)continuities of children of immigrant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsiye, Mohamed; Cook, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Susan Harper's study centres on `funds of knowledge' as a pedagogical resource for the development of a science curriculum, drawing on Karen refugee parents' cultural knowledge and identity. She argues that engagement in this process helps the parent generation of this community to `rebuild their cultural resilience' and cope with the resettlement process (p. 43). Drawing on our own research with Somali, Sierra Leonean and Nigerian diaspora communities in London, the following article extends this discussion with a particular focus on the intricate intergenerational dynamics between children and their parents' generation in relation to cultural identity development though engagement with education.

  2. Madrasah Culture Based Transformational Leadership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khoiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is the ability to influence, direct behavior, and have a particular expertise in the field of the group who want to achieve the goals. A dynamic organization requires transformational leadership model. A school principal as a leader at school aims to actualize good learning leadership. Leadership learning focuses on learning which components include curriculum, teaching and learning process, assessment, teacher assessment and development, good service in learning, and developing a learning community in schools based on organizational culture as value, assumption, belief evolved from the roots of member thought of the organization and believed by all members of the organization and implemented in everyday life that could give meaning Keywords: leadership, transformational leadership, headmaster, instructional leadership, organizational culture.

  3. Interdisciplinary linkage of community psychology and cross-cultural psychology: history, values, and an illustrative research and action project on intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Glass, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of the respective organizational histories, missions, and scholarly activity of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the Society for Community Research and Action was conducted in order to inform the development of interdisciplinary linkages between members of the two organizations. The analysis revealed many points of shared values and actions, as well as some important differences. Both scholarly organizations developed out of a similar historical and cultural zeitgeist in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The missions emphasize the role of culture/diversity in psychological phenomena, adopting an interdisciplinary orientation, the value of collaboration, the importance of research method and ethics, and the value of action research. However, community psychology generally lacks an adequate treatment of cultural phenomena while cross-cultural psychology often fails to draw on community and participatory methods useful for understanding culture in context. These common roots and differences are examined. Finally, we describe a community based, participatory research and intervention project to address intimate partner violence among Latinos and European-Americans living in Oregon. Analysis of the research process and on some of our initial findings illustrates challenges and potential benefits of an interdisciplinary, cultural community psychology.

  4. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

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    C. Zapka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water. We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001; we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05 and ethanol control (P < 0.05. Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.

  5. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  6. Transforming community members into diabetes cultural health brokers: the Neighborhood Health Talker project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Renee B; Craig, Mary; Rowe, Jimmy; Kahn, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based diabetes education pilot project. The Neighborhood Health Talker project aimed to train and implement cultural health brokers primarily targeting communities of color to improve community members' diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-management skills. A secondary aim was to establish diabetes resource libraries accessible to communities that normally experience barriers to these resources. Recruited community members completed 1 week of formal training developed by a multidisciplinary team in Buffalo, NY. The effect of training was evaluated through the use of baseline surveys, a pretest/posttest covering all training content, and daily quizzes evaluating knowledge relevant to each of the five training modules. Trained NHTs then held at least five community conversations in various locations and administered anonymous postconversation surveys to participants. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis techniques were used to summarize test, quiz, and survey results. Twelve women and 1 man completed the training program. Working alone as well as in pairs, each held at least five community conversations reaching over 700 community members of all ages over 3 months and established 8 diabetes resource libraries in the community. All trainees increased their diabetes knowledge and confidence as well as their abilities to perform the tasks of a cultural health broker. Trainees also indicated that the goals they set at training initiation were met. The training was successful in increasing trainee knowledge and confidence about diabetes prevention and self-management. Participants not only developed proficiency in discussing diabetes, they also made important lifestyle changes that demonstrated their commitment to the cause and the project. Low-cost initiatives like this are easily reproducible in other communities of color and could be modified to meet the needs of other communities as well.

  7. Engaging First Nation and Inuit communities in asthma management and control: assessing cultural appropriateness of educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latycheva, O; Chera, R; Hampson, C; Masuda, J R; Stewart, M; Elliott, S J; Fenton, N E

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a growing concern in First Nations and Inuit communities. As with many health indicators and outcomes, Aboriginal peoples living in remote areas experience greater disparities in respiratory health compared with non-Aboriginal Canadians. Therefore, it is critically important to take into account their unique needs when developing asthma educational materials and resources. The purpose of this study is to assess the cultural relevance of existing asthma education materials for First Nations and Inuit peoples. Five First Nations and Inuit communities from across Canada participated in the project. A combination of quantitative evaluations (eg surveys) and qualitative approaches (eg open discussion, live chats) were used to assess printed and web-based asthma education materials. Participants represented First Nations and Inuit communities from across Canada and were selected on the basis of age and role: 6 to 12 years old (children), 12 and over (youth), parents and grandparents, community leaders and teachers, and community advisory group members. In general, the results showed that although participants of all age categories liked the selection of asthma educational materials and resources, they identified pictures and images related to First Nations and Inuit people living and coping with asthma as ways of improving cultural relevance. This reinforces findings that tailoring materials to include Aboriginal languages, ceremonies and traditions would enhance their uptake. Our findings also demonstrate that visually based content in both printed and virtual form were the preferred style of learning of all participants, except young children who preferred to learn through play and interactive activities. Asthma is a growing concern in First Nations and Inuit communities. Given this concern, it is essential to understand cultural needs and preferences when developing asthma education materials and resources. The findings from this research emphasize the need

  8. Restoring the Balance: First Nations Women, Community, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Rodríguez de France

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With empowering stories and histories from twelve Aboriginal women who are leaders in different contexts and communities, the book acknowledges and celebrates the contributions of Aboriginal women to diverse fields of work and disciplines such as art, culture, politics, language, law, community, education, and social activism. About the Authors Eric Guimond is an assistant director at the Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate at Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Gail Guthrie Valaskakis was a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Concordia University and was a leading authority on Aboriginal Media and Communication. She passed away in 2007. Madeleine Dion Stout is a former nurse and founding director of the Centre of Aboriginal Education, Research, and Culture at Carleton University.

  9. Rural Tourism at its Peak: Socio-Cultural Impacts towards Host Communities of Kinabalu Park, Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangit Tania Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kinabalu Park in Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo represents multiple tourism opportunities for its stakeholders, host communities and tourists. Being the first World Heritage Site in Malaysia endorsed by UNESCO since 2000, this nature-based tourism destination is a popular tourism destination in Malaysia, as well as in the Asia region. The designated study area includes villages nearby Kinabalu Park. Through the popularity of the park and various other attractions within the area, tourism activities contributes to socio-cultural impacts towards its host communities. The perceptions and attitudes of the locals towards tourism are identified and evaluated. By having the input of host communities as part of conserving tourism whilst meeting certain principles of sustainable tourism, the paper aims to attain interesting findings about the perceptions of the host communities towards socio-cultural impacts of tourism on their community. The paper further aims to recommend for the continuous improvement of sustainable tourism development at Kinabalu Park and its surroundings.

  10. The community-based participatory intervention effect of "HIV-RAAP".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Elleen M; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H; Yuan, Keming

    2012-07-01

    To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission.

  11. Community-based adaptation to climate change: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2009-06-15

    Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.

  12. Belonging to a community-based football team: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Lorrae; Howie, Linsey; Collister, Laura

    2009-08-01

    This study considered the benefits derived from participation in a community-based Australian Rules Football league in Melbourne, Australia. The RecLink league deliberately tackles the social and occupational disadvantages associated with mental illness, addictions, unemployment and homelessness. An ethnographic methodology was used to study one team from the RecLink football league throughout an entire season. Fieldnotes were written following participant observation at training, games and events, and five in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed. A constant comparative approach to data analysis was adopted. Three major themes were identified: a spirit of inclusion, team-building and meaning of team involvement. The first describes how members were accepted, welcomed and given the opportunity for team involvement, with the expectation that they 'had a go', and 'tried their best'. The second illustrates how the team collectively fostered a culture of friendship, cooperation and support. The third examines the significance of being part of the team, incorporating personal contributions and gains, and meanings attributed to team involvement. These findings demonstrated how football can be used as non-clinical, community-based occupational therapy: enabling participation in a personally meaningful and culturally valued occupation. Occupational therapists are challenged to explore further how such community-based sports programs may complement existing clinical and welfare-based approaches to social disadvantage.

  13. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  14. University-Community Partnerships: Bridging People and Cultures in an HIV/AIDS Health Intervention in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Head, Rachel; Rikard, R. V.; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-01-01

    As universities become more involved in real-world problems that affect racial and ethnic communities, university members are identifying strategies to effectively work with culturally diverse community partners. The Communities and Health Disparities Project described in this article is an example of collaborative scholarship that engages the…

  15. A community-based program evaluation of community competency trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssmann, Christoph; Morrison, Darius; Russian, Ellery; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Bowen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals encounter a multitude of barriers to accessing clinically and culturally competent health care. One strategy to increase the quality and competence of care delivery is workplace trainings. This study describes a community-based program for the evaluation of this type of training. Using a mixed-methods approach, the research team assessed the effectiveness of three competency trainings administered by a local nonprofit organization in the Northwest United States. Quantitative data indicated a significant shift in self-assessed knowledge associated with completion of the training. Qualitative data confirmed this result and revealed a number of important themes about the effect of the trainings on providers and their ability to implement knowledge and skills in practice. Clinical considerations are proposed for providers who seek similar trainings and who aim to increase clinical and cultural competency in delivering care to transgender and gender-nonconforming patients and clients.

  16. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Willebrand, Mimmie; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  17. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  18. Integrating Cultural Heritage into Contemporary Life. The Perspective of Local Communities: The Case of Arcadia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to highlight the importance of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life as a means to contribute to the economic and tourism development of a historical area and as an asset to local development. The study focuses on the cultural goods of Arcadia in central Peloponnese, Greece, an area of great history and rich architectural heritage, which gives a distinct cultural identity to the region. The overall objective of the current research is to describe how the different kinds of cultural benefits, derived by tourism, are perceived by the local community. A questionnaire based survey, conducted in Arcadia during the period 2012-2014, demonstrates that the locals strongly support the promotion of the architectural richness of the region in order to become an attraction for visitors, contributing both to the improvement of the quality of life, as well as the economic and tourism development of the area. The survey results confirm that cultural tourism is seen as an opportunity to contribute to the economic and cultural sustainability of the area and the local community. The implementation of a linear regression model shows that education is the key factor influencing the residents’ view regarding the promotion of cultural tourism in the region.

  19. Cultural competence in healthcare in the community: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Saras; Horne, Maria; Hills, Ruth; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2018-03-07

    This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research. Articles from 2004 to 2015 were sought from Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus using the terms "cultural competency" AND "health," "cultural competence" OR "cultural safety" OR "cultural knowledge" OR "cultural awareness" OR cultural sensitivity OR "cultural skill" AND "Health." Articles with antecedents, attributes and consequences of cultural competence in community health were included. The 26 articles selected included nursing (n = 8), health (n = 8), psychology (n = 2), social work (n = 1), mental health (n = 3), medicine (n = 3) and occupational therapy (n = 1). Findings identify cultural openness, awareness, desire, knowledge and sensitivity and encounter as antecedents of cultural competence. Defining attributes are respecting and tailoring care aligned with clients' values, needs, practices and expectations, providing equitable and ethical care, and understanding. Consequences of cultural competence are satisfaction with care, the perception of quality healthcare, better adherence to treatments, effective interaction and improved health outcomes. An interesting finding is that the antecedents and attributes of cultural competence appear to represent a superficial level of understanding, sometimes only manifested through the need for social desirability. What is reported as critical in sustaining competence is the carers' capacity for a higher level of moral reasoning attainable through formal education in cultural and ethics knowledge. Our

  20. The community health worker cultural mentoring project: preparing professional students for team work with health workers from urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Laurie N; Schwolsky-Fitch, Elena; Rodriquez, Romelia; Horta, Greg; Lopez, Ivanna

    2007-01-01

    Community Health Workers or CHWs (also known by a variety of alternative titles) are health workers drawn from communities to provide access to care for members of their communities. CHWs have been documented as effective in delivering a variety of services in a culturally-sensitive manner, and in providing a bridge between health professionals and underserved or minority communities. Yet, CHWs have not been well incorporated into interdisciplinary health care teams. The majority of health professionals are not even aware of the possible role and skills of CHWs. Believing that the best time to educate professionals about this valuable health worker and ensure that CHWs become part of interdisciplinary health care teams is during the student years, the Hunter College Schools of the Health Professions, and the Community Health Worker Network of New York City developed a pilot project, the Community Health Worker Cultural Mentoring Project. Community Health Workers, who were members of the Network, served as "community mentors" for health professions students drawn from the programs of community health education, nursing, and nutrition. CHWs worked with faculty of selected courses in each of the professional programs, and served as panelists in these courses, presenting information about health beliefs and alternative health practices of diverse cultural groups in communities of New York City. Class sessions were first held in the fall of 2004; subsequent sessions were held in following semesters. Approximately 40 students participated in 7 classes, with 6 CHWs serving as mentors - two per class. At the end of the classroom presentations, students wrote reflections relating to their understanding of the CHW role and relevance for their future interdisciplinary practice. The majority of reflections met the goal of increasing professional students' understanding of the CHW role and skills. At this point, quantitative and qualitative data will need to be collected to

  1. Reflecting on the tensions faced by a community-based multicultural health navigator service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Saras; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    The community navigator model was developed to assist four culturally and linguistically diverse communities (Sudanese, Burmese, Pacific Islander Group, Afghani) in south-east Queensland to negotiate the Australian health system and promote health. Using participatory action research, we developed the model in partnership with community leaders and members, the local health department and two non-governmental organisations. Following implementation, we evaluated the model, with the results published elsewhere. However, our evaluation revealed that although the model was accepted by the communities and was associated with positive health outcomes, the financial, social and organisational durability of the model was problematic. Ironically, this situation was inadvertently created by critical decisions made during the development process to enhance the durability and acceptability of the model. This paper explores these critical decisions, our rationale for making those decisions and the four hidden tensions that subsequently emerged. Using a reflective case study method to guide our analysis, we provide possible resolutions to these tensions that may promote the longevity and utility of similar models in the future. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The use of community navigators to assist culturally diverse communities to access health services is not new. Many benefits have been documented for communities, individuals and heath service providers following the use of such models. What is not well documented is how to maintain these models in a safe and cost-effective way within the Australian health system while respecting cultural and community practices and reducing the burden of service delivery on the navigators. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper provides a perspective on how the development of community-based service models inherently places them in a position of tension that must be resolved if they are to be long lasting. Four core tensions experienced

  2. Community-based research in action: tales from the Ktunaxa community learning centres project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Elizabeth; Wisener, Katherine; Liman, Yolanda; Beznosova, Olga; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Ho, Kendall; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities, particularly Aboriginal communities, often have limited access to health information, a situation that can have significant negative consequences. To address the lack of culturally and geographically relevant health information, a community-university partnership was formed to develop, implement, and evaluate Aboriginal Community Learning Centres (CLCs). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the community-based research process used in the development of the CLCs. It focuses on the process of building relationships among partners and the CLC's value and sustainability. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including principal investigators, community research leads, and supervisors. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an open-coding process to identify themes. Key challenges included enacting shared project governance, negotiating different working styles, and hiring practices based on commitment to project objectives rather than skill set. Technological access provided by the CLCs increased capacity for learning and collective community initiatives, as well as building community leads' skills, knowledge, and self-efficacy. An important lesson was to meet all partners "where they are" in building trusting relationships and adapting research methods to fit the project's context and strengths. Successful results were dependent upon persistence and patience in working through differences, and breaking the project into achievable goals, which collectively contributed to trust and capacity building. The process of building these partnerships resulted in increased capacity of communities to facilitate learning and change initiatives, and the capacity of the university to engage in successful research partnerships with Aboriginal communities in the future.

  3. Negotiating Culture, Economics and Community Politics: The Practice of Lei Yue Mun Tourism in Postcolonial Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hing Chan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an on-going research project that examines how tourism is constructed in Hong Kong by using the specific tourist spot, Lei Yue Mun, as a case study. The article’s aim is to demonstrate how the local agents of a small, squatter-based community with a distinctive history and cultural traditions may, without making any claim to indigenousness or aboriginality, manage a local economy and engage in cultural negotiation at the metropolitan, national and global levels. Their economic practices lead the authors to enquire whether preservationism or invoking historical traditions from the margins is the most significant form or strategy of cultural tourism.

  4. [Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR): the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aristizabal, Urko; Sanz-Victoria, Silvia; Sahonero-Daza, Milton; Ledesma-Ocampo, Sandra; Cachimuel-Vinueza, Mesías; Torrico, Marisabel

    2012-01-01

    Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Office (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP) in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio-cultural context may determine whether CBR programs succeed or fail.

  5. Future Scope of Community Based Tourism in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is based on the tourism and community based tourism in Nepal. The purpose of selecting tourism as a main topic is to find out the future scope of CBT in Nepal. Despite having small size, Nepal holds many attractive and adventurous tourist destinations. Nepal is famous from its cultural and traditional diversity, natural beauty, trekking trails, moun-taineering and warm and welcoming hospitality. Tourism in Nepal is undoubtedly the most important source for the econo...

  6. A case study in the use of community-based participatory research in public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Christine L; Xu, Yin; Lee, Rebecca; Rose, Barbara L; Kappesser, Mary; Anthony, Jean Spann

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for research using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach. CBPR requires that the academic research team actively partner with community members and stakeholders in the entire research process. The community members are full partners with the researchers in relation to the development and implementation of the study, analysis of the data, and dissemination of the findings. The purpose of this article is to review four basic principles of CBPR and provide an example of how these CBPR principles were used in an ethnographic study related to the culture of African American infant health. In the pilot study, CBPR provided the framework for recruitment and retention of participants, ongoing data analysis, and dissemination of findings. Using CBPR provided the researchers an introduction into the selected community. Community members served as key informants about the culture of the community and provided access to potential participants. The community partners contributed to analysis of emerging themes and in the dissemination of findings to the community, stakeholders, and the scientific community. CBPR provides opportunities for community health nurse researchers to conduct research with vulnerable populations and sets the stage for implementing evidenced-based nursing interventions in the community.

  7. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  8. International Community-Based Service Learning: Two Comparative Case Studies of Benefits and Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…

  9. Culture, regeneration and community: Reinventing the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Hyslop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is just over 12 years since the doors of Tate Modern in London were opened. In converting Gilbert Giles Scott’s Bankside Power Station into a museum we planned for two million visitors in the first year but received over five million – a number exceeding our wildest expectations. Year after year the high levels of attendance continues and now we are very much part of the cultural landscape, not only in the UK but across the world. This article explores the development, challenges and successes of what has become known as the Tate Modern ‘project’. While the museum and its collection is undoubtedly at the project's heart, it also involves a comprehensive strategy to utilise creative organisations and creative thinking in the development, regeneration and reinvention of a key area of a major world city. Central to this model of engaged working are a series of basic challenges: —how can the various needs of local communities, workers and tourists be balanced when developing an area? —how can cultural organisations and other businesses work together, and can culture be good for business? —what is the best way to engage and encourage political leadership and advocacy? —what is the best way to develop an organisation which not only works within local, national and international contexts but makes connections between them? —what are the opportunities to bring artists, creative forces and ideas into urban development and the places and spaces in which we live our everyday lives? It is hoped that this article will help us think about, imagine and practically develop the neighbourhoods and communities that we aspire to create. Keywords: Creative thinking, culture, urban regeneration and reinvention

  10. Cultural differences in ant-dipping tool length between neighbouring chimpanzee communities at Kalinzu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-07-22

    Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities.

  11. Building effective working relationships across culturally and ethnically diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Cheryl A; Gensheimer, Linda; Yang, Mai

    2003-01-01

    Amherst H. Wilder Foundation's Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians is implementing two collaborative, best practice, mental health and substance abuse prevention service models in Minnesota. It faced several issues in effectively bridging multiple cultural groups, including building a diverse collaborative team, involving families and youth, reconciling cultural variation in meeting styles, and making best practice models culturally appropriate. Researchers and program staff used multiple strategies to address these challenges and build successful partnerships. Through shared goals, flexibility, and a willingness to explore and address challenges, collaboratives can promote stronger relationships across cultural communities and improve their service delivery systems.

  12. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen

    2006-04-01

    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  13. The Impact of Software Culture on the Management of Community Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. A.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Sheffield, E.; Lewis, S.; Oldenburg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), a program hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), supports the collection, curation, and distribution of Local and Traditional Knowledge (LTK) data, as well as some quantitative data products. Investigations involving LTK data often involve community participation, and therefore require flexible and robust user interfaces to support a reliable process of data collection and management. Often, investigators focused on LTK and community-based monitoring choose to use ELOKA's data services based on our ability to provide rapid proof-of-concepts and economical delivery of a usable product. To satisfy these two overarching criteria, ELOKA is experimenting with modifications to its software development culture both in terms of how the software applications are developed as well as the kind of software applications (or components) being developed. Over the past several years, NSIDC has shifted its software development culture from one of assigning individual scientific programmers to support particular principal investigators or projects, to an Agile Software Methodology implementation using Scrum practices. ELOKA has participated in this process by working with other product owners to schedule and prioritize development work which is then implemented by a team of application developers. Scrum, along with practices such as Test Driven Development (TDD) and paired programming, improves the quality of the software product delivered to the user community. To meet the need for rapid prototyping and to maximize product development and support with limited developer input, our software development efforts are now focused on creating a platform of application modules that can be quickly customized to suit the needs of a variety of LTK projects. This approach is in contrast to the strategy of delivering custom applications for individual projects. To date, we have integrated components of

  14. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  15. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, J.; Henley, J.; Tittl, J.; De Nardo, E.; Butler, M.; Griggs, R.; Fierer, N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. PMID:28351915

  16. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  17. Systemic Analysis of the Cultural Production of a Virtual Learning Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alejandro Miranda Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a systemic analysis from the standpoint of activity theory of the cultural emergence of a virtual learning community as a complex system. Three levels of analysis were employed: data mining, visualization of complex systems and analysis of discursive interactions, with the aim of understanding the emerging phenomena of online learning and in order to have the necessary elements to assist in planning the formation of virtual communities in formal settings. This was carried out using six years of activity from 3,324 people from different documentary sources: 9,871,531 CMS records; 1,371,907 from LMS; 67,828 IRC statements; and 27,798 online forum comments. In the process, we observed how action aimed at socialization and discussion of its object evolve into historical-cultural milestones such as the culture of merit as opposed to certification, the division of labor and the process of transition from free software to free culture.

  18. Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program to Enhance Community Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rae

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Native Communities Fellowship (HNCF is a grassroots evidence-based mentorship and leadership program that develops the skills and community-building capacities of leaders and community teams to improve health status through several intermediate social and cultural mechanisms: (a strengthening social participation (also known as social capital or cohesion; (b strengthening cultural connectedness and revitalization of cultural identity; and (c advocating for health-enhancing policies, practices, and programs that strengthen systems of prevention and care, as well as address the structural social determinants of health. This leadership program uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR approach and participatory evaluation to investigate how the work of local American Indian and Alaska Native leaders (fellows and their community coalitions contributes to individual, family, and community level health outcomes.

  19. Communities and Cultures of Women: A Study of Neighbourhood Groups and Gated Communities in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakira Sahin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to tease out the factors and forces that enable women to form communities of women and the circumstances within which they act. In addition, the research aims to observe into their activities to see if there is a germination of gender consciousness even if in a nascent form. Taking off from a historical vantage point of women coming together for various kinds of social and political action, the paper tries to delve into the epistemological dilemma encountered by feminist politics, where the subject of feminist politics i.e., women, is presented as a problematic category. Gender is understood not as a sole defining category but one that exists alongside other constituents of identities intersecting with it like class, caste, race, ethnicity etc. Given such an understanding the paper is based on a micro-level qualitative study conducted in an urban set-up of Guwahati city where two different kinds of locality-based women’s communities are taken as case studies, one of which is an all-women local neighbourhood development committee and the other a women’s forum within a gated community. The interesting contrasts as well as complexities of the groups in their membership as well their cultures are analysed to raise questions on whether such groups serve patriarchal interests or whether they present themselves as potential sites through which social change towards a more gender-conscious society can be made possible.

  20. Forum: Cultural Identity and (Dis)Continuities of Children of Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsiye, Mohamed; Cook, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Susan Harper's study centres on "funds of knowledge" as a pedagogical resource for the development of a science curriculum, drawing on Karen refugee parents' cultural knowledge and identity. She argues that engagement in this process helps the parent generation of this community to "rebuild their cultural resilience" and cope…

  1. A Cultural Competence Organizational Review for Community Health Services: Insights From a Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mandy; Gibbs, Lisa; Pradel, Veronika; Morris, Michal; Gwatirisa, Pauline; Tadic, Maryanne; de Silva, Andrea; Hall, Martin; Young, Dana; Riggs, Elisha; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Gondal, Iqbal; Waters, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Cultural competence is an important aspect of health service access and delivery in health promotion and community health. Although a number of frameworks and tools are available to assist health service organizations improve their services to diverse communities, there are few published studies describing organizational cultural competence assessments and the extent to which these tools facilitate cultural competence. This article addresses this gap by describing the development of a cultural competence assessment, intervention, and evaluation tool called the Cultural Competence Organizational Review (CORe) and its implementation in three community sector organizations. Baseline and follow-up staff surveys and document audits were conducted at each participating organization. Process data and organizational documentation were used to evaluate and monitor the experience of CORe within the organizations. Results at follow-up indicated an overall positive trend in organizational cultural competence at each organization in terms of both policy and practice. Organizations that are able to embed actions to improve organizational cultural competence within broader organizational plans increase the likelihood of sustainable changes to policies, procedures, and practice within the organization. The benefits and lessons learned from the implementation of CORe are discussed.

  2. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-07-01

    Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion.

  3. Researching in the community: the value and contribution of nurses to community based or primary health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthow, Christine; Jones, Bernadette; Macdonald, Lindsay; Vernall, Sue; Gallagher, Peter; McKinlay, Eileen

    2015-05-01

    To describe the role, contribution and value of research nurses in New Zealand community-based or primary health care research. Research nurses are increasingly recognised as having a key role in undertaking successful research in hospitals and clinical trial units however only limited work has been undertaken to examine their role in community-based research. Undertaking health research in the community has unique challenges particularly in relation to research design and recruitment and retention of participants. We describe four community-based research projects involving research nurses, each with particular recruitment, retention and logistical problems. Vignettes are used to illustrate the role, contribution and value of research nurses in a diverse range of community research projects. The knowledge and skills used by research nurses in these projects included familiarity with communities, cultural competence, health care systems and practice philosophies and in particular with vulnerable populations. Their research actions and activities include competence with a broad range of research methodologies, organisational efficiency, family-centred approach, along with advocacy and flexibility. These are underpinned by nursing knowledge and clinical expertise contributing to an ability to work autonomously. These four projects demonstrate that research nurses in community-based research possess specific attributes which facilitate successful study development, implementation and outcome.

  4. Healthy options: a community-based program to address food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Hess, Audrey; Horton, Camille; Constantian, Emily; Monani, Salma; Wargo, Betsy; Davidson, Kim; Gaskin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to better understand the lived experience of food insecurity in our community and to examine the impact of a community-based program developed to increase access to local, healthy foods. Participants were given monthly vouchers to spend at local farmers' markets and invited to engage in a variety of community activities. Using a community-based participatory research framework, mixed methods were employed. Survey results suggest that most respondents were satisfied with the program and many increased their fruit and vegetable consumption. However, over 40% of respondents reported a higher level of stress over having enough money to buy nutritious meals at the end of the program. Photovoice results suggest that the program fostered cross-cultural exchanges, and offered opportunities for social networking. Building on the many positive outcomes of the program, community partners are committed to using this research to further develop policy-level solutions to food insecurity.

  5. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  6. Cultural diversity in community sport: an ethnographic inquiry of Somali Australians' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sport organisations aim to grow the participation of culturally and linguistically diverse communities, including newly arrived people from refugee backgrounds. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research conducted by the author at community sport organisations in the multicultural city of

  7. Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana

    2007-09-01

    In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure

  8. The Professional Culture of Community Pharmacy and the Provision of MTM Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagen M. Rosenthal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States’ (US community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables. The third objective was to examine any relationships between the scores on the identified cultural factors and the provision of MTM services. This study was a cross-sectional online survey for community pharmacists in the southeastern US. The survey contained questions on socialization/education, respondents’ self-reported provision of medication therapy management (MTM services, and the organizational culture profile (OCP. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a principle components analysis (PCA, independent samples t-test, and multivariate ordinal regression. A total of 303 surveys were completed. The PCA revealed a six-factor structure: social responsibility, innovation, people orientation, competitiveness, attention to detail, and reward orientation. Further analysis revealed significant relationships between social responsibility and years in practice, and people orientation and attention to detail and pharmacists’ training and practice setting. Significant positive relationships were observed between social responsibility, innovation, and competitiveness and the increased provision of MTM services. The significant relationships identified between the OCP factors and community pharmacist respondents’ provision of MTM services provides an important starting point for developing interventions to improve the

  9. The Professional Culture of Community Pharmacy and the Provision of MTM Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen M; Holmes, Erin R

    2018-03-21

    The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States' (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables. The third objective was to examine any relationships between the scores on the identified cultural factors and the provision of MTM services. This study was a cross-sectional online survey for community pharmacists in the southeastern US. The survey contained questions on socialization/education, respondents' self-reported provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services, and the organizational culture profile (OCP). Analyses included descriptive statistics, a principle components analysis (PCA), independent samples t-test, and multivariate ordinal regression. A total of 303 surveys were completed. The PCA revealed a six-factor structure: social responsibility, innovation, people orientation, competitiveness, attention to detail, and reward orientation. Further analysis revealed significant relationships between social responsibility and years in practice, and people orientation and attention to detail and pharmacists' training and practice setting. Significant positive relationships were observed between social responsibility, innovation, and competitiveness and the increased provision of MTM services. The significant relationships identified between the OCP factors and community pharmacist respondents' provision of MTM services provides an important starting point for developing interventions to improve the uptake of practice

  10. Inscription and interpretation of text: a cultural hermeneutic examination of virtual community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burnett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available People engaging in electronic exchanges can create communities--places with socially constituted norms, values, and expectations. We adopt an anthropological perspective, yoked with a methodology based in hermeneutics, to illustrate how language use both reflects and influences culture in a virtual community. Our study analyses contributions to a Usenet newsgroup. Four elements of our conceptual model--coherence, reference, invention, and intention--provide mechanisms to examine a community's texts as it engages in social interaction and knowledge creation. While information exchange and socializing are intertwined, our model allows a robust understanding of the relationship between the two. Texts are not merely vehicles for communication but serve multiple purposes simultaneously. While they transfer information, texts also provide information within a social context, and create an expanding archive of socially-contextualized information well beyond the capabilities of any individual participant. This allows groups to negotiate reputations, socialize, and define the limits of their knowledge.

  11. Developing a Measure of Community Well-Being Based on Perceptions of Impact in Various Life Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Widgery, Robin N.; Lee, Dong-Jin; Yu, Grace B.

    2010-01-01

    A new measure of community well-being is developed based on the notion that community residents perceive the quality-of-life (QOL) impact of community services and conditions in various life domains (e.g., family, social, leisure, health, financial, cultural, consumer, work, spiritual, and environmental domains). These perceptions influence…

  12. COMMUNITY INTERVENTION IN THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT TO RAISE THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amalia Rodríguez-Barrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern university has the mission of training of competent professionals, able to preserve, develop and promote the strengthening of cultural development of students and the community through academic, research and social work practice processes. This paper aims to present the results of Community action in the university context Career Early Childhood Education, to raise the cultural development of families. The intervention was designed according to three basic processes: planning, implementation, evaluation and control, and to ensure, as previous steps, the study programs of disciplines and subjects of the race, for determining the didactic treatment of the required content Community intervention from academic, scientific and practical work; of the main needs of the community and preparing students for the fulfillment of the tasks. The research was conducted with the application of a quasi-experiment Teaching and the use of theoretical, empirical (interview, observation, document analysis and for the collection and statistical data processing methods. The comparison of results between the experimental and control groups before and after application of the Community intervention allowed to check their effectiveness from raising the cultural development of families in the experimental group, in the motivational-regulative dimensions, cognitive, attitudinal and communication. The essential differences in the results of each dimension not only differ significantly between the groups, but all of them is able to distinguish very well the cultural development of families applied after the intervention actions.

  13. Treating the untreated: applying a community-based, culturally sensitive psychiatric intervention to confined and physically restrained mentally ill individuals in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Luh Ketut; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2011-11-01

    This study identified, mapped and treated the clinical features of mentally ill people, who had been isolated and restrained by family and community members as a result of a functional failure of the traditional medical, hospital-based mental health model currently practiced in Indonesia. A 10-month epidemiological population survey was carried out in Karangasem regency of Bali, Indonesia. A total of 404,591 individuals were clinically interviewed, of which 895 individuals with mental health problems were identified, with 23 satisfying criteria of physical restraint and confinement. Of the latter, twenty were males; age range was 19-69 years, all diagnosed by the researchers with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (ICD-10 diagnostic criteria). Duration of restraint ranged from 3 months to 30 years (mean = 8.1 years, SD = 8.3 years). Through the application of a holistic intervention model, all patients exhibited a remarkable recovery within 19 months of treatment. We conclude that the development of a community-based, culturally sensitive and respectful mental health model can serve as an optimum promoter of positive mental health outcomes.

  14. Community-Based Management of Diabetes in Nepal: Exploring the Potential Role of Female Community Health Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    , and this is particularly apparent in the South Asian countries, including Nepal. Despite the growing burden and chronic nature of type 2 diabetes, prevention and control of this disease is far from adequate in these settings. One possibility could be through the involvement of community health workers to prevent, diagnose...... and treat type 2 diabetes. We suggest that involving Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) of Nepal offering culturally appropriate health promotion may be the blue print for community-based management programmes tackling type 2 diabetes. We aim to explore the potential role of FCHVs of Nepal...... for diabetes management at community level. It is anticipated that the study can give valuable information regarding effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of an innovative way to improve diabetes management in low resource settings....

  15. Interrupting Mythic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnell Secomb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available If nation is increasingly perceived as a less than honourable institution formed through war, invasion and geo-political territorialisation, and government is widely denounced as the site of political intrigue and the means of subjectification of citizen–voters, community appears to escape this critique and to be viewed as an idyllic formation based on bonds of affinity. However, this romancing of community is disrupted by trans-cultural and sub-cultural formations that expose the fantasy of a harmonious, homogenous community. While community is often conceived as arising organically from familial, tribal or cultural similarity, or as constituted through a common history and shared cultural institutions, this totalising conception of community is interrupted by the demands of difference and heterogeneity and by a questioning of the idyll of community authenticated in myths of archaic origin.

  16. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-base...

  18. The Community-based Participatory Intervention Effect of “HIV-RAAP”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Elleen M.; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H.; Yuan, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. Methods A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. Results The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). Conclusions The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22488405

  19. Moving Into Communities: Developing Cultural Competence with Pre-service Educators through Community Service-Learning Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Coffey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators who participated in service-learning partnerships for thirty hours in multiple community settings in the southeast United States. Pre-service teachers not only volunteered in the community, but they also engaged in critically reflective journal writing and participated in evaluative class discussions. Students praised the benefits of a service experience in both school and community placements and discussed how interactions with the community agencies gave them the insight into how community organizations often play a significant role in the lives of the underserved students they will eventually teach. The author argues that the inclusion of a service-learning component in early pre-service teacher education field experiences has the potential to facilitate the examination of the relationships between community organizations and schools and encourage development of cultural competence among pre-service teachers. KEYWORDSservice-learning, pre-service teacher preparation, community partnerships

  20. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  1. USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO PROMOTE ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Basar Gezgin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global openness of Vietnam brought out very fast major social changes. The country is a party to a number of international economic agreements and frameworks including World Trade Organization, Trans Pacific Partnership as well as ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations. External economic factors such as those associated with South East Asian integration are coupled with ASEAN’s ambition to set up a socio-cultural community in addition to the economic community. In the meantime, the popularity of social media is rapidly growing in Vietnam with more than 30 million Vietnamese Facebook accounts. Considering these 2 major influences, ie social media and regional integration efforts, this article proposes a number of recommendations to use social media to promote ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

  2. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  3. From "Water Boiling in a Peruvian Town" to "Letting them Die": culture, community intervention, and the metabolic balance between patience and zeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2011-03-01

    While the concept of culture has long been central to community psychology research and intervention, it has most frequently referred to the communities in which such work occurs. The purpose of this paper is to reframe this discussion by viewing community interventions as instances of intercultural contact between the culture of science, reflected in community intervention research, and the culture of the communities in which those interventions occur. Following a brief discussion of the complexities of culture as a concept, two illustrative stories of failed community interventions are provided to highlight the centrality of cultural and contextual understanding as prelude to community intervention. These stories, set 50 years apart, reflect the depth and pervasive influence of both the culture of science and the culture of communities. Next, a series of propositions about the culture of social science as a partial reflection of the broader culture of the United States are offered, and their implications for the conduct of community interventions drawn. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations which, together, provide an ecological mind-set for taking culture seriously in community interventions. Central to this mind set are the importance of focusing on communities rather than programs and emphasizing the intervention goal of choice over change.

  4. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  5. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  6. Cultivating the Spatial Politics of Community-Based Literacy Practices in Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the social imagination of community-based sites of urban resistance enable out-of-school literacy practices in Black popular culture to foreground the contemporary context in which youth empowerment is nurtured in out-of-school learning settings. Second, the author chronicles how youth advocates in hip-hop--based community…

  7. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  8. African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Tenisha Celita

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the cultural congruity and academic self-concept of African American students in a community college setting who participated in a Black Culture Center. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between cultural congruity and academic self-concept through the following two research…

  9. Community based rehabilitation: a strategy for peace-building

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson Jennifer; Koros Michael; Boyce William

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This p...

  10. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  11. Social Change and Cultural Values in a Small Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín Arce, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how social change has affected the cultural values in a small community of fishermen in the Albufera Lake of Valencia. Industrial development, tourism, new employment and jobs changed the ecology of the lake, the mutual dependency among neighbours and the efficiency of old cultural values to orient social interaction. Both the new role played by of women and the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lie at the basis of new conflicts which are at once a challenge and an opportunity for the emergence of new horizons.

    El artículo describe cómo ha afectado el cambio social a los valores culturales en una pequeña comunidad de pescadores en el lago de la Albufera de Valencia. El desarrollo industrial, el turismo y el nuevo empleo y trabajos cambiaron la ecología del lago, la mutua dependencia entre los vecinos y la eficiencia de los viejos valores culturales para orientar la interacción social. El nuevo rol de la mujer y la Constitución están en la base de nuevos conflictos como reto y como apertura de nuevos horizontes a la vez.

  12. The Theory of Translation as a Condition of Chance for of Cultures Protection: The Case of Cultural Community Protocols in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Benini Agne Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to study the theory of translation of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and its application in crop protection. As well as examining the case of Community biocultural protocols in Colombia in search for alternative protection for traditional knowledge. The questions in this study were performed: A Theory of Translation Boaventura de Sousa Santos could be a condition of possibility for the protection of culture and traditional knowledge? And the biocultural community protocols could be an example of the theory of translation? To answer these research questions we used the combination of two methods: deductive and monographic. The first was used to guide the documentary and doctrinal research as it relates to globalization and culture. The monographic method was used for the second part, to address the translation theory of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and the case of bio-cultural Community Protocols in Colombia.

  13. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Erkus, O.; Spus, M.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the

  14. The red road to wellness: cultural reclamation in a Native First Nations community treatment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2011-03-01

    This article explores how Native American cultural practices were incorporated into the therapeutic activities of a community-controlled substance abuse treatment center on a "First Nations" reserve in the Canadian north. Analysis of open-ended interviews with nineteen staff and clients-as contextualized by participant observation, program records, and existing ethnographic resources-yielded insights concerning local therapeutic practice with outpatients and other community members. Specifically, program staff adopted and promoted a diverse array of both western and Aboriginal approaches that were formally integrated with reference to the Aboriginal symbol of the medicine wheel. Although incorporations of indigenous culture marked Lodge programs as distinctively Aboriginal in character, the subtle but profound influence of western "therapy culture" was centrally evident in healing activities as well. Nuanced explication of these activities illustrated four contributions of cultural analysis for community psychology.

  15. Evaluation of the organizational cultural competence of a community health center: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca; Olavarria, Marcela; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim; Marchant, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Cultural competence is an important component of client-centered care in health promotion and community health services, especially considering the changing demographics of North America. Although a number of tools for evaluating cultural competence have been developed, few studies have reported on the results of organizational cultural competence evaluations in health care or social services settings. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a description of a cultural competence evaluation of a community health center serving a diverse population. Data collection included reviewing documents, and surveying staff, management, and the Board of Directors. The organization fully met 28 of 53 standards of cultural competence, partially met 21 standards, and did not meet 2 standards, and 2 standards could not be assessed due to missing information. The advantages and lessons learned from this organizational cultural competence evaluation are discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  17. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  18. Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices in an Early Childhood Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…

  19. Narrative and Experience of Community as Philosophy of Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the distinctive feature of African philosophising is a communitarian outlook expressed through various forms of narrative. The paper first illustrates the close relationship between narrative and community in the African cultural milieu. It then goes on to examine the way in which African academics in ...

  20. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Randolph, Kevin C; Osborn, Shelly L; Tyler, Heather L

    2013-12-01

    Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1). The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 10(3) to 5.8 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by traditional

  1. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Results Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 103 to 5.5 × 108 CFU g-1. The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 103 to 5.8 × 105 CFU g-1. Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by

  2. Community-based rehabilitation offers cost-effective epilepsy treatment in rural Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diessen, Eric; van der Maas, Frank; Cabral, Vladimir; Otte, Willem M

    Treatment of epilepsy in low-income countries is a challenge considering the lack of resources, availability of antiepileptic drugs, and cultural beliefs. We used a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) service for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of epilepsy. A local network of trained

  3. Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Polonsky, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is rising among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups who show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. We examined the barriers and facilitators to the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention initiatives. We used the nominal group technique to collect data from 39 participants from Vietnamese, Burmese, African, Afghani and Indian origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Data analysis revealed ranked priorities for barriers and facilitators for CALD community engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. CALD parents identified key barriers as being: competing priorities in the post-migration settlement phase; language, cultural and program accessibility barriers; low levels of food and health literacy; junk food advertisement targeting children; and lack of mandatory weight checks for schoolchildren. Key facilitators emerged as: bicultural playgroup leaders; ethnic community groups; and school-based healthy lunch box initiatives. This study has identified several policy recommendations including: the implementation of robust food taxation policies; consistent control of food advertising targeting children; improving CALD health literacy using bicultural workers; and matching health promotional materials with CALD community literacy levels. Implications for Public Health: These recommendations can directly influence public health policy to improve the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention services and ultimately reduce the widening obesity disparities in Australia. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. EFFORTS TO IMPROVE WELFARE BASED ON AQUACULTURE TOWARDS THE COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunikewaty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a continuous improvement model of river basin community welfare by applying the moral values of the society culture. The subject of research is the community of the river Kahayan River Palangkaraya. Based on the results of research can be concluded that the aquaculture based eco-business activities can be done by applying the moral values of the river society culture, so that all economic activities do not damage the environment. The Kahayan River has a high economic potential for the people living around it. However, the current condition has been greatly reduced due to various obstacles encountered, including environmental damage in the upper river, due to refinery plantation companies (accompanied by high levels of pesticide use and chemical fertilizers and intensive cultivation, illegal gold mining, deforestation, illegal use of poison while fishing, industrial and household waste disposal into the Kahayan river.

  5. Cultural/Community Mentoring with Maori and Pacific Electrical Apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Holland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand government policy documents over the last decade have committed to supporting Maori and Pasifika learners, yet still today there is little real support in place for learners in apprenticeships. There is even less support in place that acknowledges the cultural dimension of learning in the workplace. This paper discusses the establishment and review of a development project which sets out to provide culturally supportive mentoring for Maori and Pasifika apprentices. The project sought to do this by engaging experienced Maori and Pasifika tradesmen who were located in the local communities of their learners.

  6. Creating Qungasvik (a Yup'ik intervention "toolbox"): case examples from a community-developed and culturally-driven intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Stacy M; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup'ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup'ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men's House), Yup'ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong.

  7. Physical education and physical culture in the coloured community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A scienti fic-historical li terature review was undertaken in order to place the history of physical education and physical culture in the Coloured community at the epicenter of research. This review was extracted and adapted from research done in preparation for a doctoral dissertation. A broad range of approaches, from ...

  8. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and a...

  9. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Eddy J; Erkus, Oylum; Spus, Maciej; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Alexeeva, Svetlana; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-08-29

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the population dynamics during cheese making and during starter culture propagation. Furthermore, the link between starter composition and starter functionality will be discussed. Finally, recent advances in predictive metabolic modelling of the multi-strain cultures will be discussed in the context of microbe-microbe interactions.

  10. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  11. Cultural conflicts, dilemmas and disillusionment among the San communities at Platfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Batha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the cultural conflicts, dilemmas and disillusionment among the San communities at Platfontein in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. A critical review of written texts, interviews, observations and focus group discussions with the community knowledge-holders shows that the community’s new Westernised lifestyle in the midst of the capitalist society at Platfontein turns the collective spirit, human relations, mutual reverence, sincerity and self-confidence that existed before their contact with Westernised societies into unusual selfishness, individualism, impiety, dishonesty, greed and disregard for others. The conflict between the communal hunter-gatherer culture and the alien individualist mode of existence has created serious dilemmas and moral conflicts in the community. The Westernised mode of existence has alienated the community from their human nature, their natural environment, their productive chores and their communal life. The community has an undefined, unclear and controversial understanding of their own racial identity. The San refer to the black and white races that have historical relationships with them as Others, which in turn has an Othering effect on the San themselves. The causes of moral and psychological conflicts, identity crises, dilemmas and disillusionment are power relations related to ethnic and racial politics, colonial discourse and identity politics. The researcher recommends that to achieve harmonious relationships with other communities and among themselves, the San need to redefine themselves and other societies that have historical ties with them.

  12. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik

    2010-03-24

    What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  13. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  14. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  15. Institutional Arrangements in seasonal floodplain management under community-based Aquaculture in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.B.M.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dey Madan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal floodplains under private and public ownership in the Indo-Ganges river basin provide food and income for millions of people in Bangladesh. Floodplain ownership regimes are diverse, covering the whole spectrum from public to private ownership. The paper compares community-based fish culture

  16. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation - a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinen Petri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly. Water-damaged buildings (n = 2 were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2. Results Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p Conclusions We examined a small number of target buildings and found indications of elevated fungal diversity associated with water damage. Some of the fungi in dust were attributable to building growth, but more information on the material-associated communities is needed in order to understand the dynamics of microbial communities between

  17. Teaching nutrition to medical students: a community-based problem-solving approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharji, S; Joseph, A; Abraham, S; Muliyil, J; John, K R; Ethirajan, N

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a community-based problem-solving educational programme which aims at teaching medical and other health science students the importance of nutrition and its application. Through community surveys students assess the nutritional status of children under five using different anthropometric methods. They understand the cultural beliefs and customs related to food fads and the reasons for them. They also acquire the skill to educate the community using the information gathered. They use epidemiological methods such as case control study to find associations between malnutrition and other causative factors. Feedback from students has been positive and evaluation of students' knowledge before and after the programme has shown significant improvement.

  18. PERCEPTION OF TOURISTS TOWARD COMMUNITY-BASED FESTIVAL OF KUTA MAJELANGU MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ruki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify foreign tourist perception toward service of KutaMajelangu Market as an Attraction of community-based tourism. Foreign tourist’s perception was analyzed by Likert scale. This research used various approaches such as: social and culture, community based tourism, sustainable tourism, and perception theory. Respondents were taken from foreign tourist come from many  countries such as Japan, Australia, China, America, Germany, Austria, Holland, and British, while the informants were taken from districts officers, around Kuta Village: such as the head of traditional village known as bendesa, head od subvillage/kelihan banjar,  and Kuta community leaders. Data were taken from observation, Interview, questionnaire, and some documents. The results of this study revealed that perception of tourists toward the festival Market Majelangu Kuta as community-based tourist attraction for a variety of requirements had been fulfillment where starting from the land use, planning, management, preservation, benefit economically performed independently by local community. While the perception of tourists toward the activities and services of the Market Majelangu Kuta were well perceived by 79% percent of tourists

  19. Describing the organisational culture of a selection of community pharmacies using a tool borrowed from social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter

    2010-02-01

    To describe the dimensions of organisational culture within a selection of community pharmacies. Community pharmacy in the New Zealand primary care sector which is partially government funded and currently undergoing major reform. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles, integrate within the wider primary care team and deliver the expectations of contemporary health policy. The mixed methods approach of concept mapping was undertaken with 10 representatives from six community pharmacies selected as case sites. The process was split into three parts (a) face to face brainstorming to generate statements describing culture, followed by (b) statement reduction, piloting and approval of statement list by participants, followed by (c) sorting the statements into 'like' groups. Multidimensional scaling analysis of participant sorting allows the development of discrete clusters of statements that describe aspects of organizational culture. A set of 105 statements were generated at the brainstorming meeting. Eight clusters of organisational culture resulted from participant sorting: leadership and staff management; valuing each other and the team; free thinking, fun and open to challenge; trusted behaviour; customer relations; focus on external integration; providing systematic advice; embracing innovation. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles and deliver and there is some evidence organisational culture of pharmacy may be a barrier. Our paper outlines the development of a survey instrument for describing organisational culture through Concept mapping, a tool borrowed from social sciences. This tool can be used for exploration of aspects of culture that may be important in the change management process for improving the effectiveness of community pharmacy as expected by contemporary primary health care policy.

  20. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  1. Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means to understand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Joanna S; Gorden, Patrick J; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1-V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease.

  2. Cultural significance of wild mammals in Mayan and mestizo communities of the Lacandon Rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Del Valle, Yasminda; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Caballero, Javier; Martorell, Carlos; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Enríquez, Paula L

    2015-05-07

    Several ethnobiology studies evaluate the cultural significance (CS) of plants and mushrooms. However, this is not the case for mammals. It is important to make studies of CS allowing the comparison of cultural groups because the value given to groups of organisms may be based on different criteria. Such information would be valuable for wildlife preservation plans. In this study, the most culturally significant species of mammals from the Lacandon Rainforest (Chiapas, Mexico) for people from two Mayan-Lacandon and mestizo communities were identified. The reasons behind the CS of the studied species were explored and the existence of differences among the cultural groups was evaluated. One hundred ninety-eight semi-structured and structured interviews were applied to compile socio-demographic information, qualitative data on CS categories, and free listings. Frequency of mention was a relative indicator to evaluate the CS of each species of mammal. Comparison of responses between communities was carried out through multivariate analyses. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the number of mentioned species by Lacandons and mestizos as well as different responses in the qualitative categories. A χ2 test was used to compare frequency of categories. 38 wild mammal species were identified. The classification and Principal Components Analyses show an apparent separation between Lacandon and mestizo sites based on the relative importance of species. All four communities mentioned the lowland paca the most, followed by peccary, white-tailed deer, armadillo, and jaguar. No significant difference was found in the number of mentioned species between the two groups. Eight CS categories were identified. The most important category was "harmful mammals", which included 28 species. Other relevant categories were edible, medicinal, and appearing in narratives. The data obtained in this study demonstrates the existence of differential cultural patterns in the

  3. Engaging Families in Cross-Cultural Connections through a School-Based Literacy Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Chicola, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how 20 pre-service teachers enrolled in two social studies methods courses at Buffalo State College worked collaboratively to produce a Cross-cultural Literacy Fair at an urban-based elementary school. The participatory activities created for the event were provided in conjunction with a community after-school program and…

  4. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  5. Community Business in Scotland: An Alternative Vision of 'Enterprise Culture', 1979-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gillian

    2018-06-09

    The force and coherency with which Margaret Thatcher and her inner circle outlined their vision for 'enterprise culture', like so many aspects of Thatcherism, have masked the complexity of its origins and the histories of alternative responses. This article provides a history of an alternative vision for enterprise culture by examining the community business movement in Scotland, the largest experiment of its kind in the UK in the 1980s and a forerunner of social enterprise. Working across Scotland, but with a hub of activity in the Strathclyde region, practitioners worked with local people to find ways to develop their neighbourhood economy while improving their environment, creating jobs, and developing services needed in their area. This article outlines the origins of the movement, the shared values of its founding members, and how their training in community development informed the community business model. It analyses how practitioners put their ideas into practice and the reasons behind the fragmentation of the movement in the 1990s. It argues that although at face value the concept of community business may appear to chime with the dominant political rhetoric of Thatcher's 'enterprise culture', the history of the movement provides a signpost to an alternative, if unrealised, vision for Scotland's recovery from social and economic depression. Where previous historical research has focused on the political consequences of Thatcher's policies in Scotland, this research connects this discussion to the transformation of Scotland's civic society in the wake of deindustrialization.

  6. Engaging with culturally and linguistically diverse communities to reduce the impact of depression and anxiety: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy E Z; Procter, Nicholas G; Ferguson, Monika S

    2016-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Australia face significant challenges in terms of reducing barriers to information and support for depression and anxiety. Increased stigma surrounding mental ill-health in some cultures and related concerns about trust and confidentiality all impact upon timely access to information, services and support for consumers and carers from CALD backgrounds. For health services, there is a need to understand how to better engage CALD communities in mental healthcare. The objective of this narrative review was to identify examples of evidence-based, best practice for what works effectively for engaging with CALD communities to reduce the impact of depression and anxiety. In January 2014, we searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Health-Source Consumer Edition, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO (all databases within the EbscoHost platform) and PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2014. The search revealed a total of 706 records contained within the EbscoHost platform and 689 records in PubMed; 15 matched the inclusion criteria. Six key themes were identified: (i) setting the scene for engagement; (ii) cultural values and preferences; (iii) language considerations; (iv) 'engagers' in the therapeutic process; (v) opening out engagement to include others; and (vi) engaging through the use of technology and alternative mediums. The literature obtained provides a small body of evidence regarding approaches to engaging CALD communities, with findings highlighting the importance of processes which are tailored to the CALD community of interest and which take into account different cultural explanatory models of mental ill-health. Review findings are also discussed within the framework of intersectionality, in which broader structural inequalities and power imbalances - in areas such as gender and social class - collectively impact on help-seeking and mental health outcomes. This review supports further

  7. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples ( P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in

  8. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lind

    Full Text Available What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  9. Examining the Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Community-Based Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bera, Victoria; Elsemore, Johanna; Snelling, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    Background: Latinos in the United States are at heightened risk for obesity and health disparities, yet community-based interventions to promote health are limited. Purpose: This research examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program (Vivir Sano), which included stress reduction and behavioral lifestyle…

  10. A Community-Based Randomized Trial of Hepatitis B Screening Among High-Risk Vietnamese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y; Seals, Brenda; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Siu, Philip; Yeh, Ming Chin; Golub, Sarit A; Nguyen, Minhhuyen T; Tran, Tam; Wang, Minqi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based liver cancer prevention program on hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among low-income, underserved Vietnamese Americans at high risk. We conducted a cluster randomized trial involving 36 Vietnamese community-based organizations and 2337 participants in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York City between 2009 and 2014. We randomly assigned 18 community-based organizations to a community-based multilevel HBV screening intervention (n = 1131). We randomly assigned the remaining 18 community-based organizations to a general cancer education program (n = 1206), which included information about HBV-related liver cancer prevention. We assessed HBV screening rates at 6-month follow-up. Intervention participants were significantly more likely to have undergone HBV screening (88.1%) than were control group participants (4.6%). In a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis, the intervention effect on screening outcomes remained statistically significant after adjustment for demographic and health care access variables, including income, having health insurance, having a regular health provider, and English proficiency. A community-based, culturally appropriate, multilevel HBV screening intervention effectively increases screening rates in a high-risk, hard-to-reach Vietnamese American population.

  11. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  12. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the community-acquired pneumonia score questionnaire in patients with mild-to-moderate pneumonia in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vargas, Mónica Alejandra; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Sánchez, Ricardo

    2017-01-24

    One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test. The pilot test was conducted at a second-level public hospital in Bogotá after the study was approved by the ethics and research institutional boards. The changes suggested by the forward translators were applied. There were no discrepancies between the backward and forward translations, consequently, no revisions were necessary. Five items had modifications based on suggestions made by eleven patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during the pilot test. A Spanish version of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score was crossculturally adapted and is now available.

  13. Creating Qungasvik (A Yup’ik Intervention “Toolbox”): Case Examples from a Community-Developed and Culturally-Driven Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Stacy M.; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup’ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup’ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men’s House), Yup’ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong. PMID:24764018

  14. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Paassen, Annemarie van; Leeuwis, Cees; Bos, Sandra; Leonardo, Wilson; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  16. Community-centred Networks and Networking among Companies, Educational and Cultural Institutions and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2010-01-01

    This article presents visions for community-centred networks and networking among companies, educational and cultural institutions and research based on blended on- and off-line collaboration and communication. Our point of departure is the general vision of networking between government, industry...... and research as formulated in the Triple Helix Model (Etzkowitz 2008). The article draws on a case study of NoEL, a network on e-learning among business, educational and cultural institutions and research, all in all 21 partners from all around Denmark. Focus is how networks and networking change character......’ in Networked Learning, Wenger et al. 2009; The analysis concerns the participation structure and how the network activities connect local work practices and research, and how technology and online communication contribute to a change from participation in offline and physical network activities into online...

  17. Community health center provider and staff's Spanish language ability and cultural awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-05-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.

  18. Social and cultural features of cholera and shigellosis in peri-urban and rural communities of Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responding to the high burden of cholera in developing countries, the WHO now considers vaccination as a supplement to the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation in the strategy for cholera control in endemic settings. Cultural concepts of illness affect many aspects of public health. In the first step of a two-step strategy to examine determinants of cholera vaccine acceptance, this study identified social and cultural features of diarrhoeal illness for cholera control in endemic communities. Methods A cultural epidemiological study with locally adapted vignette-based interviews was conducted in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar. A random sample of unaffected peri-urban (n = 179 and rural (n = 177 adults was interviewed to study community ideas of cholera and shigellosis, considering categories of distress, perceived causes, and help-seeking behaviour. Results Cholera was recognised by 88%. Symptoms of dehydration were most prominent in reports at the peri-urban site. Interference with work leading to strain on household finances was frequently emphasised. Dirty environment was the most prominent perceived cause, followed by unsafe drinking water and germ-carrying flies. Causes unrelated to the biomedical basis of cholera were reported more often by rural respondents. Rural women had more difficulty (20% to identify a cause than men (7.1%, p = 0.016. Peri-urban self treatment emphasised rehydration; the rural community preferred herbal treatment and antibiotics. Shigellosis was recognised by 70%. Fewer regarded it as very serious compared with cholera (76% vs. 97%, p Conclusions This study clarified local views of cholera and shigellosis relevant for diarrhoeal disease control in Zanzibar. The finding that rural women were less likely than men to specify causes of cholera suggests more attention to them is required. Better health education is needed for cholera in rural areas and for shigellosis

  19. A Pilot Study: Facilitating Cross-Cultural Understanding with Project-Based Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…

  20. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  1. Using a community-based participatory research approach to develop a faith-based obesity intervention for African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Goldmon, Moses V; Coker-Appiah, Dionne S

    2011-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a major epidemic, with African American (AA) children aged 6 to 11 years experiencing increased burden. The AA faith community has numerous assets that point to the need for the intersection of faith and health to address obesity-related racial disparities. The purpose of the Our Bodies, God's Temples (OBGT) study was to examine diet, physical activity, and body image behaviors among AA children aged 6 to 11 years; receptivity to a faith-based obesity intervention among AA children, parents, and church leaders; and strengths and barriers of implementing a faith-based obesity curriculum in the Sunday school setting. A community-based participatory research approach was used to develop an obesity intervention to be integrated into the church Sunday school setting for AA children. A Community Advisory Network worked with researchers to develop a 12-week culturally appropriate faith-based obesity intervention. Future work will test the effectiveness of the newly created curriculum on obesity-related outcomes in AA children.

  2. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health.

  3. Place-Based Dialogics: Adaptive Cultural and Interpersonal Approaches to Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Sowards

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conservation campaigns and how they employ place-based interpersonal communication tactics to better engage local communities in rural locations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Colombia. In collaboration with the non-governmental organization Rare, the authors explore how social marketing campaigns coupled with interpersonal communication can influence communities that are often considered the most marginalized and affected by environmental problems. Field research was conducted in Indonesia since 2008 and Colombia since 2014. Ethnography through participant observation and interviews were primary methods for data collection as well as a thorough analysis of organizational documents, such as websites, blogs, reports, and other written work. Using theories of dialogue and place-based studies of interpersonal communication, three key campaign strategies emerged from our research. First, cooperative engagement through semi-formalized information sharing is an important component of building a campaign in rural areas, which might include key stakeholder meetings, relationship building with local governmental, religious, and community leaders, and training sessions with local farmers or fishers. A second approach is based on critical listening and understanding through word of mouth involvement, such as community activities and improved understanding of the challenges that local people face in their communities. Finally, a third approach relates to the recognition of difference through engaging local culture. Campaign managers have used religious leaders, local languages, traditional customs and activities, and other place-based approaches to create inclusive conservation campaigns. These strategies demonstrate that conservation campaigns require intense interpersonal dialogue, long-term commitment, and place-based understanding.

  4. Negotiating cultures: disclosure of HIV-positive status among people from minority ethnic communities in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Henrike

    2007-01-01

    Because of the multiple stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus is a considerable social risk for those who disclose. While HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects all HIV-positive people, for people from minority cultures additional cultural factors may play a significant role in self-disclosure. This paper draws on data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with HIV-positive people from minority cultures in Sydney. Disclosure decisions were influenced by gender, sexual orientation, as well as cultural background. Gay men drew on both collectivist and individualist notions of interdependence and self-reliance in different socio-cultural contexts. This enabled them to accommodate the imperative to maintain harmony with the family and meet their individual needs for support. Heterosexual men who had disclosed voluntarily or involuntarily experienced discrimination and avoidance, and interdependence with family and ethnic community was disrupted. Heterosexual women disclosed to no one outside the health care system and were anxious to avoid any disclosure in the future. For all participants, voluntary and involuntary disclosure caused potential and actual disruption of relationships with their families and ethnic communities. The paper concludes by arguing for an ecological perspective of health in which decisions are not located in rational decision making alone but in the broader context of family and community.

  5. Organizational culture: an important context for addressing and improving hospital to community patient discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Pijnenborg, L.; Barach, P.; Gademan, P.; Dudzik-Urbaniak, E.; Flink, M.; Orrego, C.; Toccafondi, G.; Johnson, J.K.; Schoonhoven, L.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organizational culture is seen as having a growing impact on quality and safety of health care, but its impact on hospital to community patient discharge is relatively unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore aspects of organizational culture to develop a deeper understanding of the discharge

  6. Stirring up the Mud: Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach to Address Health Disparities through a Faith-Based Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sue A.; Ruddock, Charmaine; Golub, Maxine; Davis, Joyce; Foley, Robert; Devia, Carlos; Rosen, Rosa; Berry, Carolyn; Barretto, Brenda; Carter, Toni; Irish-Spencer, Evalina; Marchena, Maria; Purcaro, Ellenrita; Calman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This case study provides a mid-course assessment of the Bronx Health REACH faith-based initiative four years into its implementation. The study uses qualitative methods to identify lessons learned and to reflect on the benefits and challenges of using a community-based participatory approach for the development and evaluation of a faith-based program designed to address health disparities. Key findings concern the role of pastoral leadership, the importance of providing a religious context for health promotion and health equality messages, the challenges of creating a bilingual/bi-cultural program, and the need to provide management support to the lay program coordinators. The study also identifies lessons learned about community-based evaluation and the importance of addressing community concern about the balance between evaluation and program. Finally, the study identifies the challenges that lie ahead, including issues of program institution-alization and sustainability. PMID:20168022

  7. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project which is descriptive in nature and uses quantitative techniques to examine school efficiencies in low-income communities in a developing country – Bolivia. The article describes the partnership between a US-based university and a Bolivian not-for-profit organisation, the research context and the history of the research project, including its various phases. It focuses on the (yet unpublished process of the community-based research as opposed to its content (which has been published elsewhere. The article also makes the case that the robust partnership between the US-based university and the Bolivian NGO has been a determining factor in achieving positive results. Strengths and limitations are examined in the hope that the experience may be helpful to others conducting descriptive quantitative management research using community-engaged frameworks in cross-cultural settings. Keywords: international partnership, community-engaged scholarship, education efficiency, multicultural low-income education.

  8. Culturally-Relevant Online Cancer Education Modules Empower Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners to Disseminate Cancer Information and Reduce Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Revels, Laura; Cueva, Melany; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2017-04-12

    To address a desire for timely, medically accurate cancer education in rural Alaska, ten culturally relevant online learning modules were developed with, and for, Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps). The project was guided by the framework of Community-Based Participatory Action Research, honored Indigenous Ways of Knowing, and was informed by Empowerment Theory. A total of 428 end-of-module evaluation surveys were completed by 89 unique Alaska CHA/Ps between January and December 2016. CHA/Ps shared that as a result of completing the modules, they were empowered to share cancer information with their patients, families, friends, and communities, as well as engage in cancer risk reduction behaviors such as eating healthier, getting cancer screenings, exercising more, and quitting tobacco. CHA/Ps also reported the modules were informative and respectful of their diverse cultures. These results from end-of-module evaluation surveys suggest that the collaboratively developed, culturally relevant, online cancer education modules have empowered CHA/Ps to reduce cancer risk and disseminate cancer information. "brought me to tears couple of times, and I think it will help in destroying the silence that surrounds cancer".

  9. The Role of Culture Theory in Cross-Cultural Training: A Multimethod Study of Culture-Specific, Culture-General, and Culture Theory-Based Assimilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawuk, Dharm P. S.

    1998-01-01

    In a multimethod evaluation of cross-cultural training tools involving 102 exchange students at a midwestern university, a theory-based individualism and collectivism assimilator tool had significant advantages over culture-specific and culture-general assimilators and a control condition. Results support theory-based culture assimilators. (SLD)

  10. DESA WISATA SEBAGAI COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Setyo Nugroho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community-based tourism in the dome house tourism village has succeeded in becoming a tool to trigger the development of the dome house resident and its environment. All of the development can be obviously seen from the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political aspects with a very enthusiastic participation of the resident. The rapid development of the resident and their high participation can emerge a strategy to make the tourist village survive from the tourism industry competition. In this case, the author found that there is a connection between the high level of community participation and the rapid development as the result of it. Therefore, the more the resident willing to participate, the more it will affect the development of the resident and its environment. This research uses qualitative method. The data were obtained by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. After those steps, the data were processed by interactive and SWOT analysis. Then, questionnaire was used to validate the data towards 21 residents.

  11. Though This be Madness: Heritage Methods for Working in Culturally Diverse Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Petersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the NSW Migration Heritage Centre was conceived by the NSW Government as a virtual heritage centre to help ageing former migrants tell their stories. Migration museums and other organisations interested in heritage are grappling with how to identify, record, preserve and interpret the heritage legacy of migration and settlement in their communities. The distinctions between museum and environmental heritage practices have diminished during the past decade in Australia. The Centre’s methodologies are based on historic method and thematic and typology studies, better known for their application to heritage place identification and archaeological artefact studies than for their more recent use by some Australian museum curators for the survey and documentation of collections and community participation in heritage. The ‘virtual museum’ has enabled the Centre to break away from the centralised museum concept, with the associated trappings of venue management, to pioneer a decentralised and dispersed museum model that works almost entirely in collaborative community history research partnerships to document culturally significant collections, and associated migration memories, held by communities and private individuals. The work is centralised on the Centre’s website as a virtual collection of objects, places and associated memories. They are presented in online exhibitions for student research and as a destination for the mass audiences of the worldwide web.

  12. Serving an Indigenous community: Exploring the cultural competence of medical students in a rural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hoong Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, medical students from the International Medical University (IMU in Malaysia have been providing primary healthcare services, under the supervision of faculty members, to the indigenous people living in Kampung Sebir. The project has allowed the students to learn experientially within a rural setting. This study aims to examine the cultural competence of IMU medical students through an examination of their perspective of the indigenous people who they serve and the role of this community service in their personal and professional development. Students who participated in the project were required to complete a questionnaire after each community engagement activity to help them reflect on the above areas. We analysed the responses of students from January to December 2015 using a thematic analysis approach to identify overarching themes in the students’ responses. Students had differing perceptions of culture and worldviews when compared to the indigenous people. However, they lacked the self-reflection skills necessary to understand how such differences can affect their relationship with the indigenous people. Because of this, the basis of their engagement with the indigenous community (as demonstrated by their views of community service is focused on their agenda of promoting health from a student’s perspective rather than connecting and building relationships first. Students also lacked the appreciation that building cultural competency is a continuous process. The results show that the medical students have a developing cultural competence. The project in Kampung Sebir is an experiential learning platform of great value to provide insights into and develop the cultural competency of participating students. This study also reflects on the project itself, and how the relationship with stakeholders, the competence and diversity of academic staff, and the support of the university can contribute toward training in cultural

  13. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  14. Organizational culture: an important context for addressing and improving hospital to community patient discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Gijs; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Pijnenborg, Loes; Barach, Paul; Gademan, Petra; Dudzik-Urbaniak, Ewa; Flink, Maria; Orrego, Carola; Toccafondi, Giulio; Johnson, Julie K; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Wollersheim, Hub

    2013-01-01

    Organizational culture is seen as having a growing impact on quality and safety of health care, but its impact on hospital to community patient discharge is relatively unknown. To explore aspects of organizational culture to develop a deeper understanding of the discharge process. A qualitative study of stakeholders in the discharge process. Grounded Theory was used to analyze the data. In 5 European Union countries, 192 individual and 25 focus group interviews were conducted with patients and relatives, hospital physicians, hospital nurses, general practitioners, and community nurses. Three themes emerged representing aspects of organizational culture: a fragmented hospital to primary care interface, undervaluing administrative tasks relative to clinical tasks in the discharge process, and lack of reflection on the discharge process or process improvement. Nine categories were identified: inward focus of hospital care providers, lack of awareness to needs, skills, and work patterns of the professional counterpart, lack of a collaborative attitude, relationship between hospital and primary care providers, providing care in a "here and now" situation, administrative work considered to be burdensome, negative attitude toward feedback, handovers at discharge ruled by habits, and appreciating and integrating new practices. On the basis of the data, we hypothesize that the extent to which hospital care providers value handovers and the outreach to community care providers is critical to effective hospital discharge. Community care providers often are insufficiently informed about patient outcomes. Ongoing challenges with patient discharge often remain unspoken with opportunities for improvement overlooked. Interventions that address organizational culture as a key factor in discharge improvement efforts are needed.

  15. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  16. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  17. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequenci...

  18. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  19. Cross-Cultural “Allies” in Immigrant Community Practice: Roles of foreign-trained former Montagnard health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot case study describes foreign-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians’ practice experiences in Vietnam and their current community health worker and “ally” roles within the Montagnard refugee community. It highlights key features that facilitate cross-culturally responsive health care. We interviewed five Vietnam-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians using an open-ended interview format during March, 2012. We used content analysis procedures to identify key themes characterizing Montagnard physicians’ former and current practice experiences and emphasizing the roles they currently play in their new homeland. Montagnard physicians were fighting infectious diseases in homeland Vietnamese communities. Since coming to the U.S., Montagnard physicians have reoriented their competencies to fit within a community health workers model, and have shifted practice to fighting chronic disease in this refugee community. Tasks now include describing and contextualizing unique characteristics of the Montagnard languages and cultures to outside constituents. They become cross-cultural allies to the U.S. health care and facilitate individuals’ medical adherence with mainstream physicians’ orders. They ensure accuracy of interpretation of Montagnard patients’ medical complaints during a medical visit. Our findings reveal the potential roles that can be ascribed to a cross-cultural ally and can be built into practice to fulfill the Montagnard community’s unmet health needs: oral historian, mediator, facilitator/negotiator, quality assurer, psychosocial confidant, and health advocate. Normal 0 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE

  20. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  1. Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ahjeong; Schmidt, Carl J.; Shin, Hyejin; Cha, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

  2. Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: ason@auburn.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Schmidt, Carl J. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Shin, Hyejin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Cha, Daniel K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

  3. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Integrating Medication Therapy Management (MTM Services Provided by Community Pharmacists into a Community-Based Accountable Care Organization (ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Isetts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO. (2 Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3 Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4 Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements.

  5. Community Health Center Provider and Staff’s Spanish Language Ability and Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866

  6. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  7. Development of a Cross-Cultural HPV Community Engagement Model within Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Elaine; Whittaker, Anne; Gray Brunton, Carol; Hogg, Rhona; Kennedy, Catriona; Hilton, Shona; Harding, Seeromanie; Pollock, Kevin G.; Pow, Janette

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cultural barriers and participant solutions regarding acceptance and uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine from the perspective of Black African, White-Caribbean, Arab, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani young people. Methods: In total, 40 young people from minority ethnic communities in Scotland took part in a…

  8. Transgressing the norm: Transformative agency in community-based learning for sustainability in southern African contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona

    2017-12-01

    Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.

  9. Implementing health promotion activities using community-engaged approaches in Asian American faith-based organizations in New York City and New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S C; Patel, S; Choy, C; Zanowiak, J; Rideout, C; Yi, S; Wyatt, L; Taher, M D; Garcia-Dia, M J; Kim, S S; Denholm, T K; Kavathe, R; Islam, N S

    2017-09-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) (e.g., churches, mosques, and gurdwaras) can play a vital role in health promotion. The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health for Asian Americans (REACH FAR) Project is implementing a multi-level and evidence-based health promotion and hypertension (HTN) control program in faith-based organizations serving Asian American (AA) communities (Bangladeshi, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian) across multiple denominations (Christian, Muslim, and Sikh) in New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ). This paper presents baseline results and describes the cultural adaptation and implementation process of the REACH FAR program across diverse FBOs and religious denominations serving AA subgroups. Working with 12 FBOs, informed by implementation research and guided by a cultural adaptation framework and community-engaged approaches, REACH FAR strategies included (1) implementing healthy food policies for communal meals and (2) delivering a culturally-linguistically adapted HTN management coaching program. Using the Ecological Validity Model (EVM), the program was culturally adapted across congregation and faith settings. Baseline measures include (i) Congregant surveys assessing social norms and diet (n = 946), (ii) HTN participant program surveys (n = 725), (iii) FBO environmental strategy checklists (n = 13), and (iv) community partner in-depth interviews assessing project feasibility (n = 5). We describe the adaptation process and baseline assessments of FBOs. In year 1, we reached 3790 (nutritional strategies) and 725 (HTN program) via AA FBO sites. Most AA FBOs lack nutrition policies and present prime opportunities for evidence-based multi-level interventions. REACH FAR presents a promising health promotion implementation program that may result in significant community reach.

  10. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  11. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  12. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Network-Based Community Brings forth Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has already been shown that an artificial society based on the three relations of social configuration (market, communal, and obligatory relations) functioning in balance with each other formed a sustainable society which the social reproduction is possible. In this artificial society model, communal relations exist in a network-based community with alternating members rather than a conventional community with cooperative mutual assistance practiced in some agricultural communities. In this paper, using the comparison between network-based communities with alternating members and conventional communities with fixed members, the significance of a network-based community is considered. In concrete terms, the difference in appearance rate for sustainable society, economic activity and asset inequality between network-based communities and conventional communities is analyzed. The appearance rate for a sustainable society of network-based community is higher than that of conventional community. Moreover, most of network-based communities had a larger total number of trade volume than conventional communities. But, the value of Gini coefficient in conventional community is smaller than that of network-based community. These results show that communal relations based on a network-based community is significant for the social reproduction and economic efficiency. However, in such an artificial society, the inequality is sacrificed.

  14. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  15. Microbial community analysis of a coastal hot spring in Kagoshima, Japan, using molecular- and culture-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Minako; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2013-08-01

    Ibusuki hot spring is located on the coastline of Kagoshima Bay, Japan. The hot spring water is characterized by high salinity, high temperature, and neutral pH. The hot spring is covered by the sea during high tide, which leads to severe fluctuations in several environmental variables. A combination of molecular- and culture-based techniques was used to determine the bacterial and archaeal diversity of the hot spring. A total of 48 thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from two sites (Site 1: 55.6°C; Site 2: 83.1°C) and they were categorized into six groups based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Two groups (including 32 isolates) demonstrated low sequence similarity with published species, suggesting that they might represent novel taxa. The 148 clones from the Site 1 bacterial library included 76 operational taxonomy units (OTUs; 97% threshold), while 132 clones from the Site 2 bacterial library included 31 OTUs. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were frequently detected in both clone libraries. The clones were related to thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Approximately half of the sequences in bacterial clone libraries shared <92% sequence similarity with their closest sequences in a public database, suggesting that the Ibusuki hot spring may harbor a unique and novel bacterial community. By contrast, 77 clones from the Site 2 archaeal library contained only three OTUs, most of which were affiliated with Thaumarchaeota.

  16. Cultures of engagement: The organizational foundations of advancing health in immigrant and low-income communities of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemraad, Irene; Terriquez, Veronica

    2016-09-01

    A rich civic infrastructure of community-based organizations (CBOs) can help generate, diffuse and maintain a culture of engagement and health that benefits marginalized populations most at risk for illness, disability, and poor health. Attention to CBOs advances "meso-level" frameworks for understanding health cultures and outcomes by going beyond attention to social networks and social identities. We focus on three mechanisms: CBOs can (1) empower individuals by developing civic capacity and personal efficacy; (2) foster solidarity by building networks, social identities and a shared commitment to collective well-being; and (3) mobilize people to have a voice in health-related policies and programming, thereby affecting community well-being. We draw on theory and research in sociology, political science and psychology, and we illustrate the utility of a CBO approach by examining survey and semi-structured interview data from participants in youth civic groups in 13 low-income, predominantly immigrant communities in California. Interview data illustrate the ways in which CBOs enhance members' civic capacities, provide a sense of empowerment and efficacy to engage in healthy behaviors, develop solidarity among diverse participants, and elaborate networks among those committed to community well-being. We also discuss CBO-led campaigns in which youth mobilized for change in policies and practices of local institutions to illustrate possible community-wide health consequences of CBO engagement. CBOs can thus generate individual-level well-being effects, and reduce structural barriers to good health through changes in the broader environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities (Wildcat 2013), variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation (Maldonado et al. 2013), affecting Tribal water resources (Cozzetto et al. 2013), traditional foods (Lynn et al. 2013; Gautam et al. 2013), forests and forest resources (Voggesser et al. 2013) and Tribal health (Donatuto et al 2014; Doyle et al. 2013). This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by Tribal communities (USEPA, 2014a, www.epa.gov/ncer/tribalresearch). The Tribal Research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STA

  18. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    1992-01-01

    Defines community-based programing as a cooperative process in which the community college serves as leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among community members, leaders, and groups. Recommends 15 tasks for community college leaders involved in community-based programing, including environmental scanning and coalition building. (DMM)

  19. Ghanaian migrant women's involvement in microlevel community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When migrants remit, there is no expectation to receive a gift but such reciprocity is based on cultural norms, obligations and loyalty to one's kin and community. These cultural norms and obligations override selfinterest in reciprocal arrangements. Keywords: Solidarity, community projects, remittance, Ghanaian migrant ...

  20. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  1. Utilizing Science to Ensure Safe Access to Cultural Resources on Public Lands: The Portland Native American Community and Traditional Gathering of Camas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C.

    2017-12-01

    Native Americans have been conducting and contributing to science for millenia. We have observed nature and passed on evidence-based Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from generation to generation. Prior to colonization, this knowledge enabled our people to live with ample nutritional resources. Our long-standing relationship to nature continues today in tribal, rural, and urban communities, yet access to cultural resources (traditional food and medicines) proves challenging due to modern land management practices. The Native American community and public land managers in Portland, Oregon are addressing this challenge through the restoration of cultural resources across the landscape. One focus in these efforts is the camas plant (Camssia quamash), which grows in wetland and prairie ecosystems. The harvested bulbs are traditionally pit roasted, converting the indigestible inulin into carbohydrates of high nutritional value. Access to local natural areas has been granted for Native American community members to gather camas, yet pesticide and herbicide application as land management practices have created uncertainty regarding the safety of ingesting the camas bulbs. The Native American community gathered camas bulbs in November 2015 for analysis, which resulted in glyphosate (pesticide) and triclopyr (herbicide). There are various factors which may influence the uptake of pesticide and herbicide residuals in camas which need further investigation, including pesticide/herbicide application details (date, location), preferential uptake of pesticide/herbicides in camas among the present plant community, the impact of pit roasting bulbs on residuals, and traditional land management practices like prescribed burning. Utilizing TEK and science to ensure safe access to cultural resources is paramount in preserving our cultures and enhancing the value of indigenous perspectives on land management practices and policies.

  2. Effects of Community Service-Learning on Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes toward Their Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…

  3. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  4. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita M; Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-02-07

    This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships). Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal additional costs for delivery by community agencies, and high

  5. Community-based child health nurses: an exploration of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Stephanie; Munns, Ailsa; Henderson, Saras

    2011-12-01

    community development and capacity building, often through a multidisciplinary partnership, which requires them to have sound brokerage and facilitation skills to enable community inclusion and inter-agency collaboration at the local level. The study has highlighted the importance and multifaceted nature of the role of the community-based child health nurse. To enable them to function optimally, the following suggestions/recommendations are offered. These being: More physical resources be allocated to community-based child health nursing More resources allocated to assist community-based child health nurses to support culturally and linguistically diverse families Mapping of child health nurses' workloads The development of community health client dependency rating criteria reflecting the social determinants of health in order for health service refinement of staffing allocations based on an acuity scale Specific staff development opportunities to reflect the increased workload complexity Managerial support for the implementation of formal clinical (reflective) supervision Additional clerical assistance with non-nursing duties.

  6. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  7. Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Community-Based Promotion Strategy on Use of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a Local Community Health Education Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle; Mateo, Katrina F; Morita, Haruka; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2015-07-01

    The use of health communication extends beyond simply promoting or disseminating a particular product or proposed behavior change; it involves the systematic and strategic integration and execution of evidence-based, theory-driven, and community engagement strategies. Much like in public health intervention design based on health behavior theory, health communication seeks to encourage the target audience to make a positive behavior change through core concepts such as understanding and specifying the target audience, tailoring messages based on audience segmentation, and continually conducting evaluation of specific and overarching goals. While our first article "Development of a Culturally Relevant Consumer Health Information Website for Harlem, New York" focused on the design, development, and initial implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org between 2004 and 2009, this article delves into the process of promoting the website to increase its use and then evaluating use among website visitors. Just as for the development of the website, we used community-based participatory research methods, health behavior theory, and health communication strategies to systemically develop and execute a health communication plan with the goals of increasing awareness of GetHealthyHarlem.org in Harlem, driving online traffic, and having the community recognize it as a respected community resource dedicated to improving health in Harlem. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  9. Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Iuri; Willis, Sarah Caroline; Schafheutle, Ellen Ingrid; Hassell, Karen

    2018-04-09

    Purpose Organisational culture (OC) shapes individuals' perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it. Design/methodology/approach Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work. Findings Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions - business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate ( r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes. Originality/value This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.

  10. Advance care planning, culture and religion: an environmental scan of Australian-based online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; Boyd, Leanne M

    2017-04-20

    Objectives Culture and religion are important in advance care planning (ACP), yet it is not well understood how this is represented in ACP online resources. The aim of the present study was to identify the availability of Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets containing cultural and religious information. Methods An environmental scanning framework was used with a Google search conducted from 30 June 2015 to 5 July 2015. Eligible Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets were reviewed by two analysts (APS & PM) for information pertaining to at least one culture or religion. Common characteristics were agreed upon and tabulated with narrative description. Results Seven Australian-based ACP websites were identified with varying degrees of cultural and religious information. Seven Australian-based ACP informational booklets were identified addressing culture or religion, namely of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (n=5), Sikh (n=1) and Italian (n=1) communities. Twenty-one other online resources with cultural and religious information were identified, developed within the context of health and palliative care. Conclusions There is no comprehensive Australian-based ACP website or informational booklet supporting ACP across several cultural and religious contexts. Considering Australia's multicultural and multifaith population, such a resource may be beneficial in increasing awareness and uptake of ACP. What is known about the topic? Health professionals and consumers frequently use the Internet to find information. Non-regulation has resulted in the proliferation of ACP online resources (i.e. ACP websites and online informational booklets). Although this has contributed to raising awareness of ACP, the availability of Australian-based ACP online resources with cultural and religious information is not well known. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to use an environmental scanning methodology to identify

  11. The role of values-based leadership in sustaining a culture of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of healthcare are fundamental values like caring and compassion as well as the duty shared by healthcare organizations to address the care needs of those in their communities who are vulnerable, injured, or ill. A concern being raised by some political analysts in Canada is that fundamental values are being challenged by current economic and political influences that are reshaping the landscape of healthcare in this country. Influences from industry, technology, and business have significantly shifted healthcare from its moral foundations. A culture of caring is also challenged by the values and behaviours of individuals that negatively impact staff morale and inter-professional collaboration in many work settings. If a "culture of caring" is to survive the canons of cost containment, the impact of recurrent political wrangling, and other substantive influences, then healthcare must be guided by committed values-based leadership. Using case illustrations, this article attempts to explain the characteristics and role of values-based leaders in promoting those values that inspire a culture of caring.

  12. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    that swabbing more individuals in a population is the best way to maximize culture collections, regardless of media type. Lastly, the function of the plated communities against Bd did not vary across culture media type or between high and low nutrient media. These results inform current efforts for developing a probiotic-based approach for amphibian conservation and help to ensure that culture collections are capturing the majority of the important diversity in these systems.

  13. Bacterial community from gut of white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, cultured in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique and conventional method were used to analyse the bacterial community in the gut of white shrimp cultured in earthen ponds. Samples were collectedfrom three parts, hepatopancreas, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Gut bacterial community was enumerated by 15 probes in FISH and 3 bacterial culture technique media. The results showed that bacteriaspecific probes determined bacterial community and Eubacteria as the dominant group of microbial community in the studied gut portions. β-Proteobacteria group (29.53±5.39% and γ-Proteobacteria group (26.18±6.88% were major groups of bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, low G+C gram positive bacteria group (LGC was the most abundant group detected in anterior intestine (36.40±3.53% andposterior intestine (30.32±4.63%. Vibrio spp. were detected very less in hepatopancreas (0.25±0.43% and were present in 3 of 9 samples. In the case of bacterial detection using cultivation method, the number ofbacterial groups verified by TSA, TCBS and MRS showed high variation in every part of the studied digestive tract portions; however, no vibrio or lactic acid bacteria were present in the hepatopancreas ofhealthy shrimp. This study reveals the proportion of bacterial community in the digestive tract of white shrimp which can be used as important database for studying the change of the bacterial community in an abnormal condition including the efficiency of probiotics in the gut (in vivo of white shrimp.

  14. Collaboration in Visual Culture Learning Communities: Towards a Synergy of Individual and Collective Creative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Andrea; Freedman, Kerry; Castro, Juan Carlos; Kallio-Tavin, Mira; Heijnen, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    A visual culture learning community (VCLC) is an adolescent or young adult group engaged in expression and creation outside of formal institutions and without adult supervision. In the framework of an international, comparative research project executed between 2010 and 2014, members of a variety of eight self-initiated visual culture groups…

  15. Cultural stereotypes of women from South Asian communities: mental health care professionals' explanations for patterns of suicide and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, J

    2002-09-01

    Low rates of treated depression and high rates of suicide in women from some South Asian communities are evident in epidemiological studies in the UK. It is argued here that explanations for these apparent differences are likely to be located in stereotypes of repressive South Asian cultures. This small scale study, utilising focus groups and individual interviews, sought to explore the construction of cultural stereotypes within mental health discourse with specific reference to stereotypes of women from South Asian communities. Mental health carers from a UK inner city area of relatively high social deprivation were targeted. Focus groups were conducted with a range of mental health care professionals who worked in both inpatient and outpatient mental health care services. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with consultant psychiatrists and General Practitioners. Extensive reference is made in this paper to the content of focus groups and interviews and how health carer's knowledge about and experience of South Asian cultures and caring for women from these communities was contextualised. Mental health care professionals constructed cultural difference in terms of fixed and immutable categories which operated to inferiorise Britain's South Asian communities. It is argued that their knowledge is constructed upon stereotypes of western culture as superior to a construction of eastern cultures as repressive, patriarchal and inferior to a western cultural ideal. Ultimately, it is argued that these stereotypes become incorporated as 'fact' and have the potential to misdirect diagnosis and therefore, also misdirect treatment pathways.

  16. The Physical Rehabilitation: a therapeutically field that links the Faculty of Physical Culture with the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Milhet Cruz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research project stands for a new glance to the integration school-community, this one is aimed at providing the theoretical-practical contents to the rehabilitation of individuals in the territory called Capitán San Luis based on a therapeutically field, it also contributes to the academic process in the faculty by facilitating the unit theory-practice. On behalf of the subjects comprising the discipline physical Culture and prophylactic taught by the members of the project. In this field are duly attended students, professors of the faculty, also members of the community nearby, by using equipment and means showed and validated in some scientific events. In brief this rehabilitation resource improves the quality of life of everyone who undergoes any of the treatments put into practice. Different methods were carried out just as observation, surveys and interviews. The expert criterion based on Delphi method, the pre experiment which means served for the diagnosis and the feasibility confirmation of the research.

  17. assessment of socio-economic characteristics of community based

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Keywords: Socio-cultural, Characteristics, Neighbours, Festivals, Community, ... diffusion of power through a wider circle of population (Claudia, 2003; Nallari .... growth to conquer material poverty; the corrupt theory, which recognizes that ...

  18. Tobacco control recommendations identified by LGBT Atlantans in a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence; Damarin, Amanda K; Marshall, Zack

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are increasingly aware that disproportionately high smoking rates severely impact the health of their communities. Motivated to make a change, a group of LGBT community members, policymakers, and researchers from Atlanta carried out a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. This formative research study sought to identify recommendations for culturally relevant smoking prevention and cessation interventions that could improve the health of Atlanta's LGBT communities. Data presented here come from four focus groups with 36 participants and a community meeting with 30 participants. Among study participants, the most favored interventions were providing LGBT-specific cessation programs, raising awareness about LGBT smoking rates, and getting community venues to go smoke-free. Participants also suggested providing reduced-cost cessation products for low-income individuals, using LGBT "role models" to promote cessation, and ensuring that interventions reach all parts of the community. Findings reinforce insights from community-based research with other marginalized groups. Similarities include the importance of tailoring cessation programs for specific communities, the need to acknowledge differences within communities, and the significance of community spaces in shaping discussions of cessation. Further, this study highlights the need for heightened awareness. The Atlanta LGBT community is largely unaware that high smoking rates affect its health, and is unlikely to take collective action to address this problem until it is understood.

  19. The brand, culture & stakeholder-based brand management phenomenon: an international Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Docter of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Most recently in academic literature, over the past decade, it has been observed that the cultural approach to brand management represents a new school of thought. This has emerged from relational and community based brand perspectives: which chart the rising role, significance and influence in brand management of connected and savvy consumers. Furthermore, the researcher has identified that ...

  20. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  1. Cultural competence and perceptions of community health workers' effectiveness for reducing health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda M; Okoye, Mekam T; Boulware, L Ebony; Carson, Kathryn A; Marsteller, Jill A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions improve health outcomes of patients from underserved communities, but health professionals' perceptions of their effectiveness may impede integration of CHWs into health care delivery systems. Whether health professionals' attitudes and skills, such as those related to cultural competence, influence perceptions of CHWs, is unknown. A questionnaire was administered to providers and clinical staff from 6 primary care practices in Maryland from April to December 2011. We quantified the associations of self-reported cultural competence and preparedness with attitudes toward the effectiveness of CHWs using logistic regression adjusting for respondent age, race, gender, provider/staff status, and years at the practice. We contacted 200 providers and staff, and 119 (60%) participated. Those reporting more cultural motivation had higher odds of perceiving CHWs as helpful for reducing health care disparities (odds ratio [OR] = 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.48-28.80). Those reporting more frequent culturally competent behaviors also had higher odds of believing CHWs would help reduce health disparities (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.61-7.92). Attitudes toward power and assimilation were not associated with perceptions of CHWs. Cultural preparedness was associated with perceived utility of CHWs in reducing health care disparities (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.21-4.51). Providers and staff with greater cultural competence and preparedness have more positive expectations of CHW interventions to reduce healthcare disparities. Cultural competency training may complement the use of CHWs and support their effective integration into primary care clinics that are seeking to reduce disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  3. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujumba, Joseph; Kwiringira, Japheth

    2010-11-22

    Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail

  4. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  5. Community-Based Tourism in the Citizens 'Territory of the Jalapão (TO: the Experience of Silver Quilombolas Communities e Mumbuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antônia Valadares de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article aims to describe the experience lived by the quilombola communities of Prata and Mumbuca in the implementation of a community based tourism project, both communities belong to the Territory of Jalapão Citizenship in the state of Tocantins. The methodology used in the construction of the work was a talk round, carried out with the actors of the communities involved in the project and participant observation. The operationalization of the tourist routes in the molds that were elaborated was active for a short time. Soon, the community returned to receive tourists of the form that received previously, exploring only the natural beauties. The recognition by the communities themselves of the richness of their cultural identity and natural potential seems to be the most valuable in this experience. O Turismo de Base Comunitária no Território da Cidadania do Jalapão (TO: a Experiência das Comunidades Quilombolas Prata e Mumbuca Resumo: este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a experiência vivida pelas comunidades quilombolas do Prata e do Mumbuca na implantação de um projeto de turismo de base comunitária, ambas as comunidades pertencem ao Território da Cidadania do Jalapão no estado do Tocantins. A metodologia utilizada na construção do trabalho foi roda de conversa, realizada com os atores das comunidades envolvidas no projeto e a observação participante. A operacionalização dos roteiros turísticos nos moldes que foram elaborados ficou ativa por pouco tempo. Logo, a comunidade voltou a receber turistas da forma que recebia anteriormente, explorando apenas as belezas naturais. O reconhecimento pelas próprias comunidades da riqueza da sua identidade cultural e do potencial natural parece ser o que ficou de maior valor nessa experiência. El Turismo de Base Comunitaria en el Territorio De La Ciudadanía del Jalapão - TO: la Experiencia de las Comunidades Quilombolas Plata y Mumbuca Resumen: este art

  6. Shared Knowledge and Mutual Respect: Enhancing Culturally Competent Practice through Collaboration with Families and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; Wong, Sandie; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration with families and communities has been identified as one of six overarching principles to speech and language therapists' (SLTs') engagement in culturally competent practice (Verdon et al., 2015a). The aim of this study was to describe SLTs' collaboration with families and communities when engaging in practice to support the speech,…

  7. Examining Enabling Conditions for Community-Based Fisheries Comanagement: Comparing Efforts in Hawai'i and American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle S. Levine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention in global fisheries management has been directed toward increasing the involvement of local communities in managing marine resources. Although community-based fisheries comanagement has the potential to address resource conservation and societal needs, the success of these programs is by no means guaranteed, and many comanagement regimes have struggled. Although promising in theory, comanagement programs meet a variety of political, social, economic, ecological, and logistical challenges upon implementation. We have provided an analysis of two community-based fisheries comanagement initiatives: Hawai'i's Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA legislation and American Samoa's Community-Based Fisheries Management Program (CFMP. Although Hawai'i's initiative has struggled with only two CBSFAs designated, neither of which has an approved management plan, American Samoa's program has successfully established a functioning network of 12 villages. We have explored the factors contributing to the divergent outcomes of these initiatives, including cultural and ethnic diversity, the intactness of traditional tenure systems and community organizing structures, local leadership, and government support. Differences in program design, including processes for program implementation and community involvement, supportive government institutions, adequate enforcement, and adaptive capacity, have also played important roles in the implementation of comanagement regimes on the two island groups. The different outcomes manifested in these case studies provide insight regarding the conditions necessary to enable successful community-based comanagement, particularly within U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions.

  8. Development of a Culturally-Adapted Graphic Novella about Emergency Communication: Collaborations with a Limited English Speaking Chinese Immigrant Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Devora; Seino, Lena; Meischke, Hendrika; Tu, Shin-Ping; Turner, Anne M; Ike, Brooke; Painter, Ian; Yip, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Bystander CPR doubles survival from cardiac arrest but limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face barriers calling 911 and performing CPR. Previous training increases the chance that an individual will perform CPR, yet access to classes in non-English speaking populations is limited. We used a cultural adaptation approach to develop a graphic novella for Chinese LEP immigrants about how to call 911 and perform bystander CPR. Collaboration with members of this community occurred through all stages of novella development. One hundred and thirty-two LEP Chinese adults read the novella and answered a survey measuring behavioral intentions. All respondents stated they would call 911 after witnessing a person's collapse, but those previously trained in CPR were more likely to say that they would perform CPR. All participants indicated that they would recommend this novella to others. Developing culturally-responsive evidence-based interventions is necessary to reduce disproportionate death and disability from cardiac arrest in LEP communities.

  9. Building Learning Communities for Research Collaboration and Cross-Cultural Enrichment in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.

    2003-12-01

    classes of students have engaged in and contributed data to science investigations. In Alaska, classes and individual students have conducted their own inquiry studies and have successfully presented their investigations and competed at science fairs and statewide high school science symposium and international conferences. Two students presented their research investigations at the GLOBE Learning Expedition in Croatia and four students presented their study at the GLOBE Arctic POPs Conference in Sweden. These students increased not only their understanding and knowledge of science but also in appreciation of people in other countries and their cultures. Friendships have also bloomed. The learning community in Alaska has expanded to include family and community members including Native elders (using OLCG), teachers, scientists and students from other countries. The following challenges remain: 1) getting funds to be able to provide GLOBE equipment and continuous support to GLOBE teachers and students throughout the year, 2) reaching teachers and students in remote areas, 3) rapid teacher turn-over rate in rural areas, 4) using inquiry-based pedagogies during GLOBE professional development workshops including the opportunity for teacher participants to conduct their own inquiries during the workshop, 5) time, school curriculum and national education requirement constraints, 6) involving school administrators, and more local scientists and community members, and 7) providing culturally relevant and responsive science education programs and life-long learning communities.

  10. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...

  11. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  12. Culture shock and healthcare workers in remote Indigenous communities of Australia: what do we know and how can we measure it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, A; Lenthall, S; Lindeman, M

    2011-01-01

    Culture shock or cultural adaptation is a significant issue confronting non-Indigenous health professionals working in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. This article is presented in two parts. The first part provides a thorough background in the theory of culture shock and cultural adaptation, and a comprehensive analysis of the consequences, causes, and current issues around the phenomenon in the remote Australian healthcare context. Second, the article presents the results of a comprehensive literature review undertaken to determine if existing studies provide tools which may measure the cultural adaptation of remote health professionals. A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilising the meta-databases CINAHL and Ovid Medline. While there is a plethora of descriptive literature about culture shock and cultural adaptation, empirical evidence is lacking. In particular, no empirical evidence was found relating to the cultural adaptation of non-Indigenous health professionals working in Indigenous communities in Australia. In all, 15 international articles were found that provided empirical evidence to support the concept of culture shock. Of these, only 2 articles contained tools that met the pre-determined selection criteria to measure the stages of culture shock. The 2 instruments identified were the Culture Shock Profile (CSP) by Zapf and the Culture Shock Adaptation Inventory (CSAI) by Juffer. There is sufficient evidence to determine that culture shock is a significant issue for non-Indigenous health professionals working in Indigenous communities in Australia. However, further research in this area is needed. The available empirical evidence indicates that a measurement tool is possible but needs further development to be suitable for use in remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

  13. Theoretical Communities of Praxis: The University Writing Center as Cultural Contact Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monty, Randall William

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of "Theoretical Communities of Praxis: The University Writing Center as Cultural Contact Zone" is to investigate the situatedness of Writing Center Studies, defining it as an autonomous (sub)discipline and interdisciplinary contact zone within the larger discipline of Rhetoric and Composition. In order to meet…

  14. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing incidences of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups. A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight the challenges faced in practical implementation of community rehabilitation and point to possible strategies for its enhancement. PMID:24004881

  15. Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ... the local population and resources to do that which the governments had failed to do. ... country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria.

  16. Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrie E. Malaluan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed topics in physics where culture-based pedagogy may be utilized and the applicability of Batangueño culture to these topics. It also determined the visual presentations which canbe prepared by teachers to incorporate Batangueñoculture in physics instruction. The end purpose of the study was to develop a teaching guide using culture-based pedagogy to reinforce the student’s learning, and help them achieve high academic performance. Descriptive method was adopted with questionnaire as tool in gathering data. Interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted. Thirty physics teachers in public secondary schools of the Division of Batangas City served as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied in determining the respondents. Frequency, percentage, ranking and weighted mean were statistical tools applied. Findings revealed that the culture-based pedagogy that could be utilized in teaching physics was on topics: Constant and Uniformly Acceleration; Work, Power and Energy; Laws of Motion; Projectile Motion; Heat and Light. Batangueño culture was found applicable in teaching physics. The visual presentations which could be used were pictures, powerpoint and video clips. Moreover, the proposed teaching guide utilizing culture-based pedagogy may be used by teachersto heighten students’ interest and motivation and to attain active participation and high achievement. It may be a reference of employing Batangueño culture in teaching the topics. It was recommended that the output be presented to the school heads and supervisors for their comments and suggestions for enrichment of content and application of culture-based pedagogy not only in science but in other learning areas.

  17. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sunita M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. Methods The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships. Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Results Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. Conclusions This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal

  18. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  19. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić; Dragan Bagić

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary w...

  20. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  1. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joniqua Ceasar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB, which influenced the study’s design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  2. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, Joniqua; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene H; Mitchell, Valerie; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M

    2017-11-21

    Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB), which influenced the study's design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  3. Does geography or ecology best explain 'cultural' variation among chimpanzee communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Marshack, Joshua L

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior, but few studies have applied quantitative techniques to explain this variation. Here, we apply methods typically utilized in macroecology to explain variation in the putative cultural traits of chimpanzees. We analyzed published data containing 39 behavioral traits from nine chimpanzee communities. We used a canonical correspondence analysis to examine the relative importance of environmental characteristics and geography, which may be a proxy for inter-community gene flow and/or social transmission, for explaining geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior. We found that geography, and longitude in particular, was the best predictor of behavioral variation. Chimpanzee communities in close longitudinal proximity to each other exhibit similar behavioral repertoires, independent of local ecological factors. No ecological variables were significantly related to behavioral variation. These results support the idea that inter-community dispersal patterns have played a major role in structuring behavioral variation. We cannot be certain whether behavioral variation has a genetic basis, is the result of innovation and diffusion, or a combination of the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culturally sensitive strategies designed to target the silent epidemic of hepatitis B in a Filipino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Michelle; Tice, Alan D; Taylor-Garcia, David; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather; Ona, Fernando

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis B is frequent in the Philippines. A high rate of immigration to the United States has brought many Filipinos with infections who are asymptomatic yet will go on to develop liver cancer and cirrhosis unless diagnose and evaluated. Interventions are necessary to educate this ethnic community, identify those infected, and offer therapy. In an effort to reach this high risk population in Hawai'i an intervention program was designed to address the silent epidemic of hepatitis. Ethnic barriers were crossed through involvement of trusted, key stakeholders and individuals within the Filipino health care and church communities, along with groups that had joint missions to address viral hepatitis. After extensive planning and meetings with faith-based organizations and health care providers in the Filipino community, it was decided to hold a community health fair in the Filipino community to provide culturally appropriate health information and services. More than 500 individuals attended the health fair; 167 participated in a survey and were tested for hepatitis B. Significant knowledge gaps were found in relation to risk factors, prevention strategies, and transmission. Five individuals tested positive; all were immigrants and did not know of their disease. The objective to educate people and test them for hepatitis was successful through utilizing ethnic community leaders, religious organizations, health care professionals, and a collaborative health fair.

  5. Visual methodologies and participatory action research: Performing women's community-based health promotion in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton; Scheib, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from disaster and displacement involves multiple challenges including accompanying survivors, documenting effects, and rethreading community. This paper demonstrates how African-American and Latina community health promoters and white university-based researchers engaged visual methodologies and participatory action research (photoPAR) as resources in cross-community praxis in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the flooding of New Orleans. Visual techniques, including but not limited to photonarratives, facilitated the health promoters': (1) care for themselves and each other as survivors of and responders to the post-disaster context; (2) critical interrogation of New Orleans' entrenched pre- and post-Katrina structural racism as contributing to the racialised effects of and responses to Katrina; and (3) meaning-making and performances of women's community-based, cross-community health promotion within this post-disaster context. This feminist antiracist participatory action research project demonstrates how visual methodologies contributed to the co-researchers' cross-community self- and other caring, critical bifocality, and collaborative construction of a contextually and culturally responsive model for women's community-based health promotion post 'unnatural disaster'. Selected limitations as well as the potential for future cross-community antiracist feminist photoPAR in post-disaster contexts are discussed.

  6. Participatory Action Research with "Minority Communities" and the Complexities of Emancipatory Tensions: Intersectionality and Cultural Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah, Momodou

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research with communities constructed as the "other" from a purely positivist paradigm can often be replete with colossal flaws with enormous potential to oppress the researched--especially minority communities in this case. This article presents an analysis of the cultural and experiential affinity experiences of the author…

  7. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  8. C.A.M.P.: A Community-Based Approach to Promoting Safe Sex Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Bianca L.; Casad, Bettina J.; Schlehofer-Sutton, Michele M.; Villanueva, Christina M.; Feria, Aida

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the Community Awareness Motivation Partnership (C.A.M.P.) theater intervention based on the behavioral ecological model. C.A.M.P addresses the role of contraceptive use in safe sex behavior through an informative and entertaining culturally relevant dramatization program. Adolescents (N=1613) between…

  9. The Role of Cultural Activities in Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiba Tjarve

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture has a critical role in transforming localities into more attractive places to work and invest. Cultural activities and facilities significantly affect the development of the physical environment of cities. But what does it all mean for the local residents of the neighbourhoods? How do they feel or participate in cultural activities organized for them? The overall aim of this study has been to evaluate participation effect on the development of Riga’s neighbourhoods during the year of The European Capital of Culture. During the research, the authors have used the mixed research methodology. The qualitative analysis of the Riga 2014 programme has been done based on the qualitative interviews with the artistic team, project managers and entrepreneurs from Riga’s neighbourhoods; besides, a detailed analysis of Riga 2014 programme events has been performed. The main findings show that cultural life in the neighbourhoods is among the most important factors determining the satisfaction with life by the neighbourhoods’ inhabitants. Personalities, not infrastructure have a crucial importance in the development of neighbourhood cultural life. Cultural activities in neighbourhood should be carried out in close cooperation with the stakeholders from different sectors. This can bring to sustainable and long‑term effects.

  10. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  11. Wiisokotaatiwin: development and evaluation of a community-based palliative care program in Naotkamegwanning First Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Shevaun; Crow, Maxine; Prince, Holly; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 474 000 Indigenous people live in 617 First Nations communities across Canada; 125 of those communities are located in Ontario, primarily in rural and remote areas. Common rural health challenges, including for palliative care, involve quality and access. The need for culturally relevant palliative care programs in First Nations communities is urgent because the population is aging with a high burden of chronic and terminal disease. Because local palliative care is lacking, most First Nations people now leave their culture, family and community to receive care in distant hospitals or long-term care homes. Due to jurisdictional issues, a policy gap exists where neither federal nor provincial governments takes responsibility for funding palliative care in First Nations communities. Further, no Canadian program models existed for how different levels of government can collaborate to fund and deliver palliative care in First Nations communities. This article describes an innovative, community-based palliative care program (Wiisokotaatiwin) developed in rural Naotkamegwanning, and presents the results of a process evaluation of its pilot implementation. The evaluation aimed to (i) document the program's pilot implementation, (ii) assess progress toward intended program outcomes and (iii) assess the perceived value of the program. The Wiisokotaatiwin Program was developed and implemented over 5 years using participatory action research (http://www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). A mixed-method evaluation approach was adopted. Descriptive data were extracted from program documents (eg client registration forms). Client tracking forms documented service provision data for a 4-month sample period. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through client and family member questionnaires (n=7) and healthcare provider questionnaires (n=22). A focus group was conducted with the program leadership team responsible for program development. Quantitative data were

  12. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  13. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  14. Renewal Strategy and Community Based Organisations in Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction. Programme ... regions or areas. In Nigeria, for ... industries in the growing and developing urban areas. ..... Security network is also provided by the community. To ..... Development Efforts in Nigeria: Case Study of Anambra and Oyo State, NISER.

  15. Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

  16. Links between real and virtual networks: a comparative study of online communities in Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Ogasahara, Morihiro

    2007-04-01

    The present study explores how online communities affect real-world personal relations based on a cross-cultural survey conducted in Japan and Korea. Findings indicate that the gratifications of online communities moderate the effects of online communities on social participation. Online communities are categorized into a real-group-based community and a virtual-network-based community. The membership of real-group-based online community is positively correlated with social bonding gratification and negatively correlated with information- seeking gratification. Japanese users prefer more virtual-network-based online communities, while their Korean counterparts prefer real-group-based online communities. Korean users are more active in online communities and seek a higher level of socializing gratifications, such as social bonding and making new friends, when compared with their Japanese counterparts. These results indicate that in Korea, personal relations via the online community are closely associated with the real-world personal relations, but this is not the case in Japan. This study suggests that the effects of the Internet are culture-specific and that the online community can serve a different function in different cultural environments.

  17. In or Out: The Cultural Integration of Part-Time Faculty at Two New England Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Ellen C.

    2013-01-01

    Public community colleges rely increasingly on high percentages of adjunct or part-time faculty. While these faculty members often teach many course sections, they often are disconnected from the institutional culture and mission. This comparative case study examined two New England community colleges, one with 100% part-time faculty and one with…

  18. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  19. Comparing antiretroviral treatment outcomes between a prospective community-based and hospital-based cohort of HIV patients in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibhai Arif

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved availability of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is intended to benefit all eligible HIV-infected patients; however in reality antiretroviral services are mainly offered in urban hospitals. Poor rural patients have difficulty accessing the drugs, making the provision of antiretroviral therapy inequitable. Initial tests of community-based treatment programs in Uganda suggest that home-based treatment of HIV/AIDS may equal hospital-based treatment; however the literature reveals limited experiences with such programs. The research This intervention study aimed to; 1 assess the effectiveness of a rural community-based ART program in a subcounty (Rwimi of Uganda; and 2 compare treatment outcomes and mortality in a rural community-based antiretroviral therapy program with a well-established hospital-based program. Ethics approvals were obtained in Canada and Uganda. Results and outcomes Successful treatment outcomes after two years in both the community and hospital cohorts were high. All-cause mortality was similar in both cohorts. However, community-based patients were more likely to achieve viral suppression and had good adherence to treatment. The community-based program was slightly more cost-effective. Per capita costs in both settings were unsustainable, representing more than Uganda’s Primary Health Care Services current expenditures per person per year for all health services. The unpaid community volunteers showed high participation and low attrition rates for the two years that this program was evaluated. Challenges and successes Key successes of this study include the demonstration that antiretroviral therapy can be provided in a rural setting, the creation of a research infrastructure and culture within Kabarole’s health system, and the establishment of a research collaboration capable of enriching the global health graduate program at the University of Alberta. Challenging questions about the

  20. Cancer screening education: can it change knowledge and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Queensland, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, MaryLou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish

    2016-06-29

    Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Low participation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland. Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening. Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n=146). Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of developing screening approaches that address the barriers to participation among CALD communities and that a culturally-tailored education program is effective in improving knowledge, attitudes about and intentions to participate in cancer screening. So what?: It is important that culturally-tailored programs are developed in conjunction with communities to improve health outcomes.

  1. Counseling Psychology in Chinese Communities in Asia: Indigenous, Multicultural, and Cross-Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S. Alvin; Chen, Ping-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the need to develop an indigenous counseling psychology in Chinese communities in Asia. The cross-cultural limitations and applications of counseling psychology are discussed, using the literature on multicultural counseling and competence as illustrations. The authors elaborate on the scope and nature of indigenous…

  2. Research Note: Yavirau: A traditional Fijian fish drive as an example of culturally embedded community development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A yavirau (traditional Fijian fish drive is an ancient Fijian custom which has been adapted to today’s needs. Implemented and organised by a village community without external assistance, this highly this culturally specific custom is an example of development on a local level. According to theorists and practitioners working on development issues, such a strategy for Community Development (CD is promising because it seizes current approaches as it fosters local, decentralised, cultural specific development and aims at a high level of local participation. This research note analyses a yavirau as an example of CD, showing its advantages as well as its limitations.

  3. Organizational cultural competence in community health and social service organizations: how to conduct a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarria, Marcela; Beaulac, Julie; Bélanger, Alexandre; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to address the significant socio-cultural changes in the population demographics of the United States (US) and Canada, organizations are increasingly seeking ways of improving their level of cultural competence. Evaluating organizational cultural competence is essential to address the needs of ethnic and cultural minorities. Yet, research related to organizational cultural competence is relatively new. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature with a specific focus on: (1) identifying the key standards that define culturally competent community health and social service organizations; and (2) outlining the core elements for evaluating cultural competence in a health and social service organization. Furthermore, issues related to choosing self-assessment tools and conducting an evaluation will be explored.

  4. Urine Culture Testing in Community Nursing Homes: Gateway to Antibiotic Overprescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Kistler, Christine E; Reed, David; Weber, David J; Ward, Kimberly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe current practice around urine testing and identify factors leading to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in community nursing homes (NHs) DESIGN Observational study of a stratified random sample of NH patients who had urine cultures ordered in NHs within a 1-month study period SETTING 31 NHs in North Carolina PARTICIPANTS 254 NH residents who had a urine culture ordered within the 1-month study period METHODS We conducted an NH record audit of clinical and laboratory information during the 2 days before and 7 days after a urine culture was ordered. We compared these results with the urine antibiogram from the 31 NHs. RESULTS Empirical treatment was started in 30% of cases. When cultures were reported, previously untreated cases received antibiotics 89% of the time for colony counts of ≥100,000 CFU/mL and in 35% of cases with colony counts of 10,000-99,000 CFU/mL. Due to the high rate of prescribing when culture results returned, 74% of these patients ultimately received a full course of antibiotics. Treated and untreated patients did not significantly differ in temperature, frequency of urinary signs and symptoms, or presence of Loeb criteria for antibiotic initiation. Factors most commonly associated with urine culture ordering were acute mental status changes (32%); change in the urine color, odor, or sediment (17%); and dysuria (15%). CONCLUSIONS Urine cultures play a significant role in antibiotic overprescribing. Antibiotic stewardship efforts in NHs should include reduction in culture ordering for factors not associated with infection-related morbidity as well as more scrutiny of patient condition when results become available. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:524-531.

  5. Medicinal, Aromatic and Cosmetic (MAC) plants for community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Liesbeth Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of this ethno-botanical study is to document, describe and analyse the Balinese community members’ knowledge, belief and practices with regard to medicinal, aromatic and cosmetic (MAC) plants in relation to community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation of MAC plants. This

  6. From Archives to Action: Zines, Participatory Culture, and Community Engagement in Asian America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Honma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a pedagogical tool, zines exist at the intersection of radical history, analog creativity, participatory culture, and community engagement. This article highlights the importance of contextualizing zines within a history of social activism to shift the focus of zines from individualism and self motivation to their role in community empowerment and social justice. This is particularly relevant when teaching about the topic of Asian American zines and community engagement. The first half of this article discusses the use of Densho’s online archive of the complete print run of the Asian American movement periodical Gidra as a way to teach students about histories of Asian American independent publishing, racial formation, and community activism. The second part of this article moves from archives to practice, concerning how students can use the skills and knowledge that they learn from these archival materials and apply them to current events and community engagement projects surrounding gentrification and tenants’ rights in Los Angeles Chinatown.

  7. Pleading for Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture designates “the tools through which the human polishes himself and develops his multiple spiritual and physical gifts.” The humans interact and change opinions and become conscious that they belong to a global cultural space and are also “authors of the culture of their own community.” Through these tools human “exerts to disobey the world, humanizes social, family and physical life, through progress of mores and institutions, in the end human, expresses, communicates and keeps in its operas, during the times, its great major experiences, because them to serve the progress… of whole human people.” The human valorizes itself but also contributes to the progress of society. Today we talk about the plurality of culture through which is opened the path to the cultural dissemination and perfection. In this way, the humans get a responsibility towards the cultural progress of their community which is anchored in global community, and then appears the question: “what must be done so that all the humans of the world to participate to cultural gods? It is observed here a “spiritual and moral maturity of humans,” defined as “new humanism”. This new type of humanism is not a simple talk, but it represents a new “type of responsibility towards human and towards history.” In this way, it appears the need of a new type of education because the nowadays human must be prepared to become creator and responsible to integrate in a global culture based on values as “intelligence, will, conscience and human fraternity.”

  8. Federal enclaves: The community culture of Department of Energy cities Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick Kerry

    During the Second World War, the United States Government funded the research of nuclear fusion to create the first atomic weapons. To accomplish this task, the Manhattan Engineering District recruited scientists and engineers to remote sites in New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. During the five decades of the Cold War, the congressionally created Atomic Energy Commission, and later the Department of Energy (DOE), funded and operated numerous facilities throughout the United States. The mission of the facilities was to design and stockpile atomic weapons and to further the understanding of nuclear energy. This dissertation examines the influences of the United States federal government on three communities associated with these facilities, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Livermore, California. As isolated secret cities, these environments each created complex community structures. This work identifies how, unlike other community settings, the influences of the federal government, both directly and indirectly, created distinctive patterns of behavior within the residents of each city. Examining these behaviors within the framework of the dissertation's chapters provides the necessary context to understand fully the community culture of these Department of Energy cities. This work addresses contemporary community settings in new ways. It approaches the topic broadly by examining five specific areas of community interaction: social, political, business and economic, educational, and ethical. Through the use of oral history methodology and techniques, the researcher captured significant information from respondents. This approach provides valuable insights to the behavior and interaction of the individual populations while revealing important insights all aspects of each town's community culture.

  9. Cultural competence in working with the Arab Australian community: a conceptual review and the experience of the Arab Council Australia (ACA gambling help counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Mazbouh-Moussa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD communities participate less in gambling than the general population, those who gamble are more likely to show signs of disordered gambling (Moore and Ohtsuka International Gambling Studies, 1, 87–101, 2001; Raylu and Oei Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114, 2004; Yamine and Thomas The impact of gaming on specific cultural groups, Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority, Melbourne, 2000. Research data on gambling problems and interventions in the Arab Australian community are extremely scarce. Therefore, this article will present an overview of the Arab Australian community and cultural issues regarding gambling within the Arab Australian community. Identifying these issues is important to work effectively with Arab Australians clients and those from other CALD backgrounds. The article also presents a conceptual review of peer-reviewed research articles on cultural competence in working with the Arab clients, the overview of Arab migration history to Australia and a summary of recent events that suggest a tension between Arab and non-Arab Australian communities. Observations and experiences that were encountered during the gambling counselling service operating in the Australian Arab community in New South Wales are also discussed. The research data to validate the effectiveness and positive impact of cultural competence are still in its early stages. However, a small number of community education resources have been available for working with the Arab community. From the data in annual reviews on the Arab Council Australia gambling counselling service, it was identified that cultural beliefs and expectations influence risk-taking decisions, identification of gambling issues, and preference of help seeking within the client’s social network. Further, culturally-specific sensitive issues related to political and global security events, which in turn influenced openness and

  10. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Components of cultural competence in three mental health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole; Haugland, Gary; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Hopper, Kim

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify components of cultural competence in mental health programs developed for cultural groups by community and mental health professionals from these groups. Three programs were studied: a prevention program primarily serving African-American and Afro-Caribbean youth, a Latino adult acute inpatient unit, and a Chinese day treatment program in a community-based agency. Nine study-trained field researchers used a semistructured instrument that captures program genealogy, structure, processes, and cultural infusion. Program cultural elements were identified from field notes and from individual and group interviews of consumers and staff (N=104). A research-group consensus process with feedback from program staff was used to group elements by shared characteristics into the program components of cultural competence. Components included communication competencies (with use of colloquialisms and accepted forms of address); staff in culturally acceptable roles; culturally framed trust building (such as pairing youths with mentors), stigma reduction, friendly milieus (such as serving culturally familiar foods and playing music popular with the culture), and services; and peer, family, and community involvement (including use of peer counselors and mentors, hosting parent weekends, and linking clients with senior center and community services). Incorporating these components into any program in which underserved cultural populations are seen is recommended for improving cultural competence.

  12. Community gardens: lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz

    2003-09-01

    Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills.

  13. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  14. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  15. Taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial community in belgian sourdough ecosystems as assessed by culture and population fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-04-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  16. From Campuses to Communities: Community-Based Cultism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...

  17. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Katie Owens,1 Jim Eggers,2 Stephanie Keller,1 Audrey McDonald1 1HealthStream Engagement Institute, Pensacola, FL, 2Analytics, HealthStream, Laurel, MD, USA Abstract: Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88 on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and

  18. Challenges of Biopiracy: Implementing Community Based Ecotourism (CBET in the Sri Lankan context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I.G.C. Kumara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProtecting the right of the local community/country to use their own genetic resourcesavailable in a particular area is an important element of environmental and biodiversityconservation. However, one of the biggest biodiversity conservation challenges faced bysouthern peripheral countries is biopiracy and related issues. Community based ecotourism(CBET is a well-established concept and its implementation is an important component in manyregional development strategies. This research argues that though CBET which originated as awestern concept has been successfully applied in number of projects, it generates biopiracychallenges in its implementation when CBET operates within different geo-political, economicand cultural contexts. This research examines such challenges to CBET initiatives in theSinharaja world heritage site, Sri Lanka. A qualitative-inductive research methodology hasprincipally guided this research to examine the socio-cultural and socio-economic context ofbiopiracy issues. A total of 293 participants have informed this research including 193interviews. A critical discourse analysis (CDA method is used to examine both primaryqualitative data collected through participant and direct observation, interviews and secondarydata. One of the main findings is that despite plans being developed at a community level, inwider context, challenges of biopiracy related to superimposed capitalism contest CBETideologies. Superimposed capitalism results in individualistic and competitive behaviours thatundermine collaborative and responsible community approach. Presently, smuggling out ofWallapatta plant (Gyrinops walla and gathering of Spotted bowfinger gecko (Cyrtodactylustriedra which is an endemic nocturnal reptile species have become profitable in KudawaSinharajasite and a growing number of biopirates venture into here. Local community of this sitetakes risks in forest genetic resources smuggling because it provides them with the

  19. Abortion services in a high-needs district: a community-based model of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snook S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2009, a high-deprivation district health board in New Zealand set up a community-based abortion clinic in order to provide a local service and to avoid out-of-region referrals. The service offers medical abortions for women with pregnancies of up to 63 days' gestation, and surgical abortion with local anaesthetic for women with pregnancies of up to 14 weeks' gestation. AIM: To describe the services developed and assess safety and timeliness for the first year of community-based services. METHODS: An audit of clinical records for patients seen in 2010 was performed in order to obtain data on location of services, timeliness, safety and complications. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of locally provided abortions in 2010 were medical abortions, completed on average less than two days after referral to the service. One percent of patients experienced haemorrhaging post abortion, and 4% had retained products. These rates are within accepted standards for an abortion service. DISCUSSION: This report illustrates that a community-based model of care can be both clinically and culturally safe, while providing a much-needed service to a high-needs population.

  20. Archaeological culture and medieval ethnic community: theoretical and methodical problems of correlation (the case of medieval Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to archaeological culture and ethnos comparison in the case of medieval Bulgaria are discussed in the article. According to the author, in recent years it has become evident that the traditional concept and methodology of the study of the Bulgars’ ethnogenesis and ethnic history are in contradiction with the facts accumulated. The methods of “archaeological ethno-genetics”, which dictated solving problems of ethnogenesis of the ancient population belonging to an archaeological culture in direct correlation with ethnicity, are currently being criticized. According to modern ideas about ethnos and ethnicity, ethnicity is based upon identity with a complex hierarchical nature. Contemporary methodology requires proceeding with the integrated study of the problems of ethnogenesis on the basis of archaeology and ethnology. This kind of analysis is based upon the study of the medieval Bulgar mentality as a source of information on key aspects of ethno-political ideas. The analysis of authentic historical sources, historiographical tradition elements and folklore materials makes it possible to reconstruct the basic ideas that were significant for an ethnic group. The archaeological culture of the population of Bulgaria is characterized by two clearly distinguished and interconnected elements – the common Muslim culture and that of the elite military “druzhina” (squad. These elements directly characterize the Bulgar ethno-political community. These theoretical conclusions and empirical research concerning the case of the medieval Bulgars’ ethnogenesis attest to the productivity of ethnological synthesis techniques on an interdisciplinary basis.

  1. Developing a culturally appropriate branding for a social and emotional wellbeing intervention in an Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Murray, Lesley; Hicks, Jolleen; Nicholas, Amberlee; Anwar-McHenry, Julia

    2018-02-22

    An initial consultation process to implement a culturally appropriate social and emotional wellbeing campaign in an Aboriginal community indicated that the fundamental principles of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign were acceptable, but that a cultural adaptation of the branding should be sought. A competition was held inviting community members to design a brand logo for the campaign in their community. Local judges selected "winners" in various categories, and six of the submissions were selected for testing in the broader community via street intercept interviews. Respondents were asked which logo they liked best, their perceived meanings of the designs and the perceived appropriateness of the designs for a social and emotional wellbeing campaign. A convenience sample of N = 26 local Aboriginal people who lived and/or worked in Roebourne completed the questionnaire. There was a clear majority preference for logo "D," which communicated appropriate meanings of pride and strength in standing together, and reflected the underlying strengths and capacities of Aboriginal people which this project seeks to harness and support. The approach of using a logo competition to develop the campaign brand was highly successful and enabled further meaningful engagement with the community and other service providers in the town. The success of the competition process resulted from an emphasis on relationship building, listening to the local community and involving the community in decision-making. So what? By conforming to established, but not always adhered to, recommendations for community consultation, successful and more enduring outcomes are likely. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  2. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  3. Yours, Mine, and Ours: Art and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Deborah; TerAvest, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Christopher Adejumo identified community-based art as "works of art produced by people living within the same locality, and defined by common interests such as shared concerns, cultural heritage, traditions, and language patterns." Community-based art has the potential of heightening students' sense of personal responsibility and generating…

  4. Motivational, Parental, and Cultural Influences on Achievement and Persistence in Basic Skills Mathematics at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…

  5. Effects of Institutional Climate and Culture on the Perceptions of the Working Environments of Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have found that, although community colleges continue to remain gendered organizations, their climates and cultures are perceived to be more open to women than are their college and university peers. Community colleges may in fact still have the male orientation of the higher education system despite their efforts to be…

  6. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  7. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  8. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  9. Teaching Culture as a Relational Process through a Multiliteracies-Based Global Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Recent scholarship in second and foreign language (FL) pedagogy has advocated for approaches to teaching culture that move beyond static notions of culture-as-fact, construed in terms of national traditions, towards relational approaches that foster strategies for interaction within discourse communities, where members embody and express a range…

  10. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...

  11. A heuristic framework for understanding the role of participatory decision making in community-based non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Kimberly D; Perkins, Douglas D; Cooper, Daniel G; Jones, Diana L

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the role of member participation in decision-making (PDM) from an organizational learning (OL) perspective. Community-based organizations (CBOs) serve as mediators between the individual and the local community, often providing the means for community member participation and benefiting organizationally from members' input. Community psychologists have recognized these benefits; however, the field has paid less attention to the role participation plays in increasing CBOs' capacity to meet community needs. We present a framework for exploring how CBO contextual factors influence the use of participatory decision-making structures and practices, and how these affect OL. We then use the framework to examine PDM in qualitative case study analysis of four CBOs: a youth development organization, a faith-based social action coalition, a low-income neighborhood organization, and a large human service agency. We found that organizational form, energy, and culture each had a differential impact on participation in decision making within CBOs. We highlight how OL is constrained in CBOs and document how civic aims and voluntary membership enhanced participation and learning.

  12. Cultura en la enfermería comunitaria Culture in the community nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba T Estrada Molné

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Hacer patente la importancia de la Cultura en el desarrollo de la Enfermería Comunitaria es el propósito fundamental de este trabajo. Se analiza, en primer lugar, el concepto de Cultura en su más amplio significado y se adopta la definición de Kagán como la más abarcadora. El fenómeno social de la Enfermería se comprende como fenómeno cultural y se realiza un análisis multilateral del mismo, estudiando sus rasgos y propiedades que al integrarse en combinación dialéctica constituyen este fenómeno. Se estudian algunos de los elementos más importantes que forman parte de este sistema socio- cultural tales como son: • Conocimientos científicos específicos de la carrera • Conocimientos básicos de Sociología. • Capacitación para el enfoque social del trabajo de la Enfermería. • Valores: Humanismo, Creatividad, Lenguaje, Comunicación, Información, Memoria no heredada de la Humanidad. Se propone una definición de lo que podría denominarse "Cultura para el Trabajo Social de la Enfermería" y se concluye que la comprensión de la cultura de los demás y la expansión de la propia ayuda en gran medida a perfeccionar la atención de enfermería en la comunidad, con las familias y distintos grupos humanos.(iTo reveal the importance of culture in the development of Community nursing is the fundamental purpose of this work. First, the concept of Culture in its widest meaning is analized and the definition of Kagán is adopted as the most comprehensive one. Nursing is understood as both, a social and cultural phenomenon and a multilateral analysis of it is carried out, studying the features and properties that constitute this phenomenon when being integrated in dialectical combination. Some of the most important elements that are part of this socio- cultural system are studied. Among them we could mention: Specific scientific knowledge of the career, Basic knowledge of Sociology, Training to achieve the social focus of Nursing

  13. Associations Among Depressive Symptoms, Wellness, Patient Involvement, Provider Cultural Competency, and Treatment Nonadherence: A Pilot Study Among Community Patients Seen at a University Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Huffman, Lauren E; Higginbotham, John C; Mugoya, George C T; Smith, Annie K; Dumas, Tia N

    2018-02-01

    Treatment nonadherence is a pernicious problem associated with increasing rates of chronic diseases, escalating healthcare costs, and rising mortality in some patients. Although researchers have suggested numerous factors related to treatment nonadherence, several understudied aspects warrant attention, such as primary-care settings, provider cultural competence, and patient involvement. Adding to the research base, the present pilot study examined 88 primarily Black American and White American community patients from a large university medical center in the southern part of the United States. The study explored two research questions: (a) To what extent are there associations among depressive symptoms, wellness, patient involvement, cultural competency, and treatment nonadherence in a racially diverse community patient population? And (b) to what extent do the study exploratory variables and background characteristics predict treatment nonadherence, both separately and jointly? Depressive symptoms, the patient's perception of a provider's cultural competence, and marital/partnered status were found to be statistically significantly associated with treatment nonadherence, but not entirely in the directions expected.

  14. Embracing a competency-based specialty curriculum for community-based nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Pamela F; Swider, Susan M; Breakwell, Susan; Cowell, Julia M; Reising, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Quad Council competencies for public health nursing (PHN) provide guidance in developing curricula at both the generalist and specialist level. However, these competencies are based on nursing roles in traditional public health agencies and community/public health is defined more broadly than official agency practice. The question arises as to whether community-based specialties require largely the same knowledge and skill set as PHN. The purpose of the competency cross-mapping project reported here was to (a) assess the intersection of the Quad Council competencies with four community-based specialties and (b) ensure the appropriateness of a Quad Council-based curriculum to prepare graduates across these four specialties (home health, occupational health, environmental health, and school nursing). This article details the multistep cross-mapping process, including validation with practice leaders. Results indicate strong alignment of community-based specialty competencies with Quad Council competencies. Community-based specialty-specific content that did not align well is identified, along with examples of didactic and clinical strategies to address gaps. This work indicates that a Quad Council-based curriculum is appropriate to prepare graduates in community-based specialties when attention to the specialty-specific competencies in the clinical setting is included. This work guides the development of a doctorate of nursing practice curriculum in PHN, encompassing the four additional community-based specialties. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  16. The Cultural Approach to Studying Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key concepts from the theoretical literature on organizational change and school learning cultures. It concludes with eight actions school leaders can take to help school communities develop or enhance learning cultures that are receptive to change. [This report is based on a literature review by Albert J. Boerema.

  17. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  18. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  19. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katie; Eggers, Jim; Keller, Stephanie; McDonald, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and organizational performance. To best impact these key performance outcomes, health care leaders should pay attention to culture and actively steer workforce engagement in attributes that

  20. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katie; Eggers, Jim; Keller, Stephanie; McDonald, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and organizational performance. To best impact these key performance outcomes, health care leaders should pay attention to culture and actively steer workforce engagement in attributes that

  1. Engaging community volunteers in participatory action research in Tāmaki community of Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari; Liew, Theresa C H; Smith, John F; Esekielu, Iutita; Mason, Gabrielle; Tariu, Imele

    2018-04-01

    This article discusses the experiences of community volunteers' participation in a community-based participatory research project in Tāmaki, a low socio-economic and ethnically diverse suburban community within greater Auckland City, New Zealand. In the Tāmaki Community Action Research project, community volunteers were recruited and trained to conduct random household surveys (RHS) and asset mapping commissioned by community groups and government agencies in that area. The volunteers were involved in planning, coordination and ongoing governance of the project and ∼70 residents and local university students participated at different stages of the 2-year project. Over 600 RHS were completed and the volunteers' experiences were recorded in field notes, informal group discussions, daily team meetings and individual interviews and form the basis of this article. Only their experiences are discussed here, not the survey results which will be presented elsewhere. The project reflected the inherent asset-rich nature of the community via examples of individual volunteer empowerment and collective social/community capacity building. Volunteers increased their interpersonal and organizational skills, their understanding of the complexity of their community's logistics and cultural diversity, and gained an increased sense of community purpose and commitment. There was very strong endorsement of culturally sensitive research practice to recognize cultural differences and to engage productively within their richly ethnically diverse community. Full community volunteer participation in the project's governance (i.e. through design, training, implementation and ongoing consultation/management phases) was considered key to sustaining the life of project.

  2. International Journal of Community Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : 2384 - 6828] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. IJCR publishes research articles, review articles, short reports and commentaries that are community-based or inter and intra-cultural based. IJCR also accepts ...

  3. Validity of calendar day-based definitions for community-onset bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupland, Kevin B; Gregson, Daniel B; Church, Deirdre L

    2015-04-02

    Community-onset (CO) bloodstream infections (BSI) are those BSI where the blood culture is drawn culture draw or hospital admission are not always available. We evaluated the validity of using 2- or 3- calendar day based definitions for CO-BSI by comparing to a "gold standard" 48-hour definition. Among the population-based cohort of 14,106 episodes of BSI studied, 10,543 were classified as CO based on "gold standard" 48-hour criteria. When 2-day and 3-day definitions were applied, 10,396 and 10,707 CO-BSI episodes were ascertained, respectively. All but 147 (1.4%) true CO-BSI cases were included by using the 2-day definition. When the 3-day definition was applied, all cases of CO-BSI were identified but and additional 164 (1.5%) cases of hospital-onset HO-BSI were also included. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of the 2-day definition was 98.6% and 100% and for the 3-day definition was 100% and 98.5%, respectively. Overall, only 311 (2.2%) cases were potentially miss-classifiable using either the 2- or 3-calendar day based definitions. Use of either a 2- or 3-day definition is highly accurate for classifying CO-BSI.

  4. Indigenous Maori and Tongan Perspectives on the Role of Tongan Language and Culture in the Community and in the University in Aotearoa--New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Mere; Atu, Linita Manu

    2006-01-01

    Po Ako, a community-based project, was created to break the experience of absence--cultural alienation and educational exclusion--overwhelming the Tongan students in Aotearoa New Zealand. In January 1991, not a single Tongan student attending Mt. Roskill Grammar School in Auckland passed the national examination for a School Certificate. In May…

  5. Grey Literature on Caste-based Minority Community in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhabal, Jyoti (SNDT); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    Problem/Goal: In India, caste system is very strong even in the 21st century. From ages the backward communities were suppressed at many fronts. These backward communities include Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), Nomadic Tribes (NT), and Other Backward Classes (OBC). Each category is further divided into sub-categories. Amongst all OBCs are better in their socio-economic, socio-cultural position. Earlier the SCs and STs were the most oppressed class. Numbers of studies were under...

  6. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  7. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  8. The Impact Of Indigenous Community-Based Groups Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access funding from government and/or other donors. Working in groups is indigenous to. African communities and has far-reaching effects, which reverberate beyond the boundaries of these groups and has historically been an embodiment of the way of life, custodian of customs, traditions and cultures and provide venue ...

  9. Development of a community-based diabetes and hypertension preventive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Abbott, L J

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop rapport with a Chinese Community Association and then establish preventive diabetic and hypertension programs with the Chinese in Chinatown, Hawaii. Subjects were recruited from this Chinese Community Association. Two hundred Chinese responded to the invitation. Among these, 75 individuals had either Type 2 diabetes, hypertension or both. Thirty-six males and 39 females ranging in age from 51 years old to 96 years old (Mean = 71.76, SD = 9.58) participated. Surveys and educational programs were carried out in Chinese. Results were described in terms of quantitative measures (family support and health outcomes) and qualitative experiences (case studies). Eighty percent of participants had decreased their diastolic blood pressure from above 95 mmHg to below 90 mmHg and systolic blood pressure from above 155 mmHg to below 140 mmHg. Ninety-five (n = 71) percent of participants had maintained their glucose level within the 90 mg/dL to 150 mg/dL range with a mean reduction of 57.86 mg/dL in one year. The hardest thing for families was the glucose self-monitoring. Case studies suggested that open-minded active listening and persistence formed the basis for developing a culturally sensitive community-based self management program for chronic diseases. Collaboration among the community, public health nurses, and diabetes nurse educators facilitated the process of community education and health promotion.

  10. a System Dynamics Approach for Looking at the Human and Environmental Interactions of Community-Based Irrigation Systems in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    In the arid southwestern United States community water management systems have adapted to cope with climate variability and with socio-cultural and economic changes that have occurred since the establishment of these systems more than 300 years ago. In New Mexico, the community-based irrigation systems were established by Spanish settlers and have endured climate variability in the form of low levels of precipitation and have prevailed over important socio-political changes including the transfer of territory between Spain and Mexico, and between Mexico and the United States. Because of their inherent nature of integrating land and water use with society involvement these community-based systems have multiple and complex economic, ecological, and cultural interactions. Current urban population growth and more variable climate conditions are adding pressure to the survival of these systems. We are conducting a multi-disciplinary research project that focuses on characterizing these intrinsically complex human and natural interactions in three community-based irrigation systems in northern New Mexico. We are using a system dynamics approach to integrate different hydrological, ecological, socio-cultural and economic aspects of these three irrigation systems. Coupled with intensive field data collection, we are building a system dynamics model that will enable us to simulate important linkages and interactions between environmental and human elements occurring in each of these water management systems. We will test different climate variability and population growth scenarios and the expectation is that we will be able to identify critical tipping points of these systems. Results from this model can be used to inform policy recommendations relevant to the environment and to urban and agricultural land use planning in the arid southwestern United States.

  11. Culturally Responsive Leadership for Community Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Culturally responsive leadership, derived from the concept of culturally responsive pedagogy, incorporates those leadership philosophies, practices, and policies that create inclusive schooling environments for students and families from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. In this essay I extend the tenets of culturally responsive…

  12. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  13. Producing "science/fictions" about the rural and urban poor: Community-based learning at a medical college in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arur, Aditi Ashok

    This dissertation is an ethnographic case study of a community-based teaching program (CBTP) in public health at a medical college in South India that explored how the CBTP produced particular ways of seeing and understanding rural and urban poor communities. Drawing from critical, feminist, and postcolonial scholars, I suggest that the knowledge produced in the CBTP can be understood as "science/fictions", that is, as cultural texts shaped by transnational development discourses as well as medical teachers' and students' sociospatial imaginations of the rural and urban poor. I explored how these science/fictions mediated medical students' performative actions and interactions with a rural and an urban poor community in the context of the CBTP. At the same time, I also examined how knowledge produced in students' encounters with these communities disrupted their naturalized understandings about these communities, and how it was taken up to renarrativize science/fictions anew. Data collection and analyses procedures were informed by critical ethnographic and critical discourse analysis approaches. Data sources includes field notes constructed from observations of the CBTP, interviews with medical teachers and students, and curricular texts including the standardized national textbook of public health. The findings of this study illustrate how the CBTP staged the government and technology as central actors in the production of healthy bodies, communities, and environments, and implicitly positioned medical teachers and students as productive citizens of a modern nation while rural and urban poor communities were characterized sometimes as empowered, and at other times as not-yet-modern and in need of reform. However, the community also constituted an alternate pedagogical site of engagement in that students' encounters with community members disrupted students' assumptions about these communities to an extent. Nevertheless, institutionalized practices of assessment

  14. Influence of phosphorus availability on the community structure and physiology of cultured biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangshuang; Wang, Chun; Qin, Hongjie; Li, Yinxia; Zheng, Jiaoli; Peng, Chengrong; Li, Dunhai

    2016-04-01

    Biofilms have important effects on nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems. However, publications about the community structure and functions under laboratory conditions are rare. This study focused on the developmental and physiological properties of cultured biofilms under various phosphorus concentrations performed in a closely controlled continuous flow incubator. The results showed that the biomass (Chl a) and photosynthesis of algae were inhibited under P-limitation conditions, while the phosphatase activity and P assimilation rate were promoted. The algal community structure of biofilms was more likely related to the colonization stage than with the phosphorus availability. Cyanobacteria were more competitive than other algae in biofilms, particularly when cultured under low P levels. A dominance shift occurred from non-filamentous algae in the early stage to filamentous algae in the mid and late stages under P concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.6 mg/L. However, the total N content, dry weight biomass and bacterial community structure of biofilms were unaffected by phosphorus availability. This may be attributed to the low respiration rate, high accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances and high alkaline phosphatase activity in biofilms when phosphorus availability was low. The bacterial community structure differed over time, while there was little difference between the four treatments, which indicated that it was mainly affected by the colonization stage of the biofilms rather than the phosphorus availability. Altogether, these results suggested that the development of biofilms was influenced by the phosphorus availability and/or the colonization stage and hence determined the role that biofilms play in the overlying water. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Community College Faculty Members' Perceived Multicultural Teaching Competence and Attitudes Regarding Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittz, Mia Web

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the Survey of Community College Faculty (SCCF), a combined survey of the Multicultural Teaching Scale (MTS) and Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment (PADAA) that framed the research. The MTS assessed self-reported cultural competencies categorized into five dimensions: (a) Content Integration, (b) Knowledge Construction,…

  16. Considering the culture of disability in cultural competence education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddey, Gary E; Robey, Kenneth L

    2005-07-01

    Cultural competence extends beyond understanding those values, beliefs, and needs that are associated with patients' age or gender or with their racial, ethnic, or religious backgrounds. People hold many simultaneous cultural associations, and each have implications for the care process. The "culture of disability" is a pan-ethnic culture for which a set of physician competencies are required to ensure appropriate, culturally sensitive care to persons with congenital or acquired disabilities. Such competencies include communicating with patients who have deficits in verbal communication and avoidance of infantilizing speech; understanding the values and needs of persons with disabilities; the ability to encourage self-advocacy skills of patients and families; acknowledging the core values of disability culture including the emphasis on interdependence rather than independence; and feeling comfortable with patients with complex disabilities. Medical schools have developed programs to increase students' exposure to persons with disabilities and it is suggested that such programs are most effective when they are the result of collaboration with community-based facilities or organizations that serve persons with disabilities in the natural environment. Combining lecture-based instruction and structured experiences with the opportunity for students to interact with patients in their natural environments may facilitate development of competencies with respect to patients with disabilities. The culture of disability should be included as one of the many cultures addressed in cultural competence initiatives in medical school and residency curricula.

  17. Assessing community perspectives of the community based education and service model at Makerere University, Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okullo Isaac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES, facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region. The College is motivated to improve the health of Ugandans through innovative responsive teaching, provision of service, and community partnerships. Evaluating the COBES program from the community perspective can assist the College in refining an innovative and useful model that has potential to improve the health of Ugandans. Methods A stratified random sample of 11 COBES sites was selected to examine the community’s perception of the program. Key Informant Interviews of 11 site tutors and 33 community members were completed. The data was manually analyzed and themes developed. Results Communities stated the students consistently engaged with them with culturally appropriate behaviour. They rated the student’s communication as very good even though translators were frequently needed. Half the community stated they received some feedback from the students, but some communities interpreted any contact after the initial visit as feedback. Communities confirmed and appreciated that the students provided a number of interventions and saw positive changes in health and health seeking behaviours. The community reflected that some programs were more sustainable than others; the projects that needed money to implement were least sustainable. The major challenges from the community included community fatigue, and poor motivation of community leaders to continue to take students without compensation. Conclusions Communities hosting Makerere students valued the

  18. Cross-cultural research: challenge and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Jo

    2012-07-01

    Increasing globalization, population diversity and health disparities among non-dominant cultures necessitate cross-cultural research. Research with other cultures is fraught with challenges that must be addressed by the competent cross-cultural researcher. Areas for consideration include choice of research foci, ethical concerns, cultural adaptation of research measurements and interventions, participant recruitment and retention, strategies for data collection and analysis, dissemination of findings and perspectives of time. Approaches to dealing with these challenges are addressed, with an emphasis on community-based participatory research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Community capacity building and sustainability: outcomes of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Tendulkar, Shalini A; Rideout, Catlin; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Savage, Clara P; Grullon, Milagro; Strelnick, Hal; Leung, Carolyn; DiGirolamo, Ann

    2012-01-01

    For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. This paper describes a community-academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. "Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health" was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher-community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to "transfer of knowledge" from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.

  20. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. Finally, the private sector plays a key and potentially beneficial role in the harvest, transport and marketing of CBNRM products. Thus, dialogue partners should include......This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM...... from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction...

  1. Community-based health care for indigenous women in Mexico: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Ruiz, Myriam; Meneses, Sergio; Amaya, Claudia; Márquez, Margarita; Taboada, Arianna; Careaga, Katherine

    2014-01-06

    Indigenous women in Mexico represent a vulnerable population in which three kinds of discrimination converge (ethnicity, gender and class), having direct repercussions on health status. The discrimination and inequity in health care settings brought this population to the fore as a priority group for institutional action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the processes and performance of the "Casa de la Mujer Indígena", a community based project for culturally and linguistically appropriate service delivery for indigenous women. The evaluation summarizes perspectives from diverse stakeholders involved in the implementation of the model, including users, local authorities, and institutional representatives. The study covered five Casas implementation sites located in four Mexican states. A qualitative process evaluation focused on systematically analyzing the Casas project processes and performance was conducted using archival information and semi-structured interviews. Sixty-two interviews were conducted, and grounded theory approach was applied for data analysis. Few similarities were observed between the proposed model of service delivery and its implementation in diverse locations, signaling discordant operating processes. Evidence gathered from Casas personnel highlighted their ability to detect obstetric emergencies and domestic violence cases, as well as contribute to the empowerment of women in the indigenous communities served by the project. These themes directly translated to increases in the reporting of abuse and referrals for obstetric emergencies. The model's cultural and linguistic competency, and contributions to increased referrals for obstetric emergencies and abuse are notable successes. The flexibility and community-based nature of the model has allowed it to be adapted to the particularities of diverse indigenous contexts. Local, culturally appropriate implementation has been facilitated by the fact that the Casas have been

  2. CONFIGURATION OF CULTURAL NORMS IN TRADITIONAL RICE PLANTING RITUAL DISCOURSE THE TRADITIONAL FARMING COMMUNITY OF BAYAN, NORTH LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Netra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of traditional rice planting ritual discourse of the traditional farming community of Bayan, North Lombok in an ethno-pragmatic perspective.  It is specifically aimed at describing the cultural norms and their meaning configurations.  The theory used in the study is the cultural scripts developed by Wierzbicka (2002a considering that cultural norms constitute rules and regulations in social interaction practices. They can be investigated from the use of grammatical aspects of language and linguistic routines which are context-bound. They can be configured by paraphrasing in simple and mini language using single space. The results of the study showed that there were some cultural norms found on the traditional rice planting ritual discourse of the traditional farming community of Bayan, North Lombok. They included: (1 asserting thought and hope, (2 respecting other entities, (3 apologizing, (4 promising, and (5 giving advice. The configuration of these cultural norms was in accordance with the understanding of local cultural scripts and wisdom in terms of rituals of the local farming system. The configuration is constructed in low-level script with components of “when” and “if”. It contains the aspects of thinking, speaking, and doing. It is derived from the semantic primes of both evaluation and perception.

  3. The autonomy and culture in Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro Tiaki

    2015-01-01

    The author explores the unique experience of social interacting Okinawa’s community, based on local traditional culture and history, cooperation and mutual help, unity of the prefecture’s population.

  4. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  5. Factors Affecting Participation by Adults in Community Educational Activities Concerned with the Cultural Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlum, Michael Frank

    The study seeks to determine and describe factors which are related to, and which may be responsible for, adult participation or lack of participation in a large-scale, community-wide, cultural arts project involving considerable volunteer effort. While serving as a participant observer, the researcher gathered data from sources directly related…

  6. Cultural Community Connection and College Success: An Examination of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Shiroma, Kiana; Dizon, Jude Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low rates of college success continue to be a persisting problem in the United States, particularly among Southeast Asian Americans and other populations of color. The purpose of the current inquiry was to understand how cultural community connections influence the success of Southeast Asian American college students. Qualitative methods were…

  7. Cultural Identities in Sustaining Religious Communities in the Arctic Region: An Ethnographic Analysis on Religiosity from the Northern Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Yeasmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern countries are facing the challenges of declining human capital, and admitting immigrants, many of whom belong to religious minorities, to satisfy the demand for labour. If northern societies accept multiculturalism and immigrants, they should not disregard the cultures and religious practices (for example, ritual slaughter of immigrants, as they need to survive and integrate as a minority community in a secular society. However, there is clash between secularism and religions permitting animal slaughter, which is prohibited by some and allowed by other European countries. Community viability and sustainability depend partly on the exercise of community beliefs and ideology that support identity behaviour. This study will present an ethnographic analysis of the religiosity related to ritual slaughter and Muslim cultural identity in the European Arctic region and explore how religious relativism and practice sustain the community and support the overall integration of the Muslim minority in the North.

  8. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  10. Engaging Community Leaders in the Development of a Cardiovascular Health Behavior Survey Using Focus Group–Based Cognitive Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R Wallen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.

  11. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  12. Reconceptualizing Leadership in Migrant Communities: Latina/o Parent Leadership Retreats as Sites of Community Cultural Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the Education Leadership Foundation (a leadership development community based organization) in partnership with the Migrant Education Program use parent retreats for building leadership, and skill development of migrant farm-working families. Utilizing cooperative and community responsive practices, these retreats build…

  13. Cross, culture, confusion: conflict and community in a Chinese church in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Weichong Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Through oral history, this project studies a church congregation consisting of families from Hong Kong who came to Canada after the 1970s, professing Chinese ethnicity, while laying claims also to Canadian and Christian identities. As congregants made lives and raised children in both Chinese and Canadian cultures, they changed the way they imagined themselves as a community. Their divergent Chinese, Christian, and Canadian self-identifications affected their varied understandings and experie...

  14. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation--a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkäranta, Miia; Meklin, Teija; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Lignell, Ulla; Rintala, Helena

    2011-10-21

    Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly). Water-damaged buildings (n = 2) were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2). Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p environments. However, making conclusions concerning the effect of building conditions on building mycobiota using this methodology was complicated by the wide natural diversity in the dust samples, the incomplete knowledge of material-associated fungi fungi and the semiquantitative nature of sequencing based methods.

  15. [Community-based approaches in the fight against Buruli ulcer : review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndongo, Paule Yolande; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Deccache, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects poor communities living close to bodies of water. In the absence of early treatment, this "neglected" disease can cause lasting deformities and may require limb amputation. It is reported in 34 countries and is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent patients. Considerable progress has been made in treatment and prevention. The Cotonou Declaration (2009) describes the recommended control strategies. Although effective, current control strategies are limited because they do not take into account all the factors that influence emergence, prevention and cure of the disease. The control of Buruli ulcer mainly depends on intervention on social, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence preventive and self-care behaviour. The health promotion approach requires collaboration with populations in order to perform simultaneous actions on BU factors in the community setting. Although effective on many health problems, health promotion is not applied in the fight against BU due to the absence of action on all factors such as poverty. This article presents a review of the literature on BU strategies and community approaches. 407 relevant articles published in 1998-2013 period were examined. Eleven programmes are based on a top-down approach, which does not include populations in decision-making processes, unlike the bottom-up participatory approaches recommended in health promotion. Three health promotion programmes and 6 community-based participatory approaches were identified and examined. Community participation and empowerment constitute the basis for a community approach in the fight against Buruli ulcer.

  16. Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chad; Dutton, William Blake; Durant, Taryn; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. Methods. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S) applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. Discussion. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach. PMID:24804086

  17. Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. Methods. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. Discussion. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach.

  18. Achieving cultural congruency in weight loss interventions: can a spirituality-based program attract and retain an inner-city community sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chad; Dutton, William Blake; Durant, Taryn; Annunziato, Rachel A; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. METHODS. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S) applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach.

  19. Effect of changing temperature on anaerobic hydrogen production and microbial community composition in an open-mixed culture bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Dogan; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    The temperature effect (37-65 C) on H{sub 2} production from glucose in an open-mixed culture bioreactor using an enrichment culture from a hot spring was studied. The dynamics of microbial communities was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). At 45 and 60 C the H{sub 2} production was the highest i.e. 1.71 and 0.85 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. No H{sub 2} was produced at temperatures 50 and 55 C. At 37-45 C, H{sub 2} production was produced by butyrate type fermentation while fermentation mechanism changed to ethanol type at 60 C. Clostridium species were dominant at 37-45 C while at 50-55 C and 60 C the culture was dominated by Bacillus coagulans and Thermoanaerobacterium, respectively. In the presence of B. Coagulans the metabolism was directed to lactate production. The results show that the mixed culture had two optima for H{sub 2} production and that the microbial communities and metabolic patterns promptly changed according to changing temperatures. (author)

  20. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2015-07-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. A Model for Community-Based Pediatric Oral Heath: Implementation of an Infant Oral Care Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Gomez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0–5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC, and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance “in health” not in “disease modality”. IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the “age-one visit”. This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  2. A model for community-based pediatric oral heath: implementation of an infant oral care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP) in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0-5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance "in health" not in "disease modality". IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the "age-one visit". This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  3. CULTURAL TOURISM MOTIVATION n#8211; THE CASE OF ROMANIAN YOUTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrusa Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural attractions have become particularly important and play an important role in tourism at all levels. They are also increasingly being placed at the centre of urban and rural development and constitute an important aspect of social and cultural lives of the residents. Cultural tourism is defined as n#8216;visits by persons from outside the host community motivated wholly or in part by interest in the historical, artistic, scientific or lifestyle/heritage offerings of a community, region, group or institution. The main purpose of this research is to identify and understand the general dimensions of motivation for attending cultural tourism. Cultural tourism is motivated by touristsn#8217; interest in historical, artistic, scientific or heritage offering by a community, region, group or institution. It can be considered an independent segment of the tourism industry as well as a complement to mainstream tourism, in connection with other forms of attraction. In this sense, local communities and national organizations all over the world have developed particular cultural and heritage tourism products that attract increase the number of tourist visits each year. The study examine the motivations of Romanian young people in attending cultural tourism for underling the perspectives of cultural tourism development in Romania. We developed a quantitative study and designed a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding youthsn#8217; motivations and perceptions toward attending cultural tourism, including their demographic characteristics. Based on significant literature review we included 7 composite motives: learning reasons, cultural motives, experience something new, pleasure-seeking and entertainment, physical reasons, relaxation-based motives and indirect motives. The findings of this research provide a comprehensive view of cultural tourism behavior in Romania. The evidence suggests that for the young and highly educated

  4. Idealized cultural beliefs about gender: implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Ramaswami; Jackson, Benita

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we examined the relationship between culture-specific ideals (chastity, masculinity, caste beliefs) and self-esteem, shame and depression using an idealized cultural model proposed by Mahalingam (2006, In: Mahalingam R (ed) Cultural psychology of immigrants. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 1-14). Participants were from communities with a history of extreme male-biased sex ratios in Tamilnadu, India (N = 785). We hypothesized a dual-process model of self-appraisals suggesting that achieving idealized cultural identities would increase both self-esteem and shame, with the latter leading to depression, even after controlling for key covariates. We tested this using structural equation modeling. The proposed idealized cultural identities model had an excellent fit (CFI = 0.99); the effect of idealized identities on self-esteem, shame and depression differed by gender. Idealized beliefs about gender relate to psychological well-being in gender specific ways in extreme son preference communities. We discuss implications of these findings for future research and community-based interventions.

  5. The dialogue in the development of cultural-educational space of youth communities: philosophy of intercultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Troitska

    2016-06-01

    It is defined the systemic mistakes in the cultural­educational practices of youth organizations, which is connected with the poor level of worldview culture and that presented as a peculiar break in the formation of intercultural: often revealing of emotional, impulsive state in contrast to balanced civil position; the interests of the community not always articulated correctly in authorized and other documents; in the real process of communication and dialogue appears conflict factors, conditioned by psychology of «a crowd», elements of ochlocracy, anarchy and stereotypic thinking; contextual «immaturity» of the process of consolidation, connected with specific incompleteness of consolidation of Ukrainian political nation and etc. It is pointed out some warnings on the subject of implementation of ideas in real cultural­educational practice: in particular, when it is about the integration of the culture, about multy­culture and etc. Constructivist approach in the research of mentioned process with the necessary requires making strategies and programmes of intercultural activity on the basis of intercultural universals and standards of cultural «code».

  6. Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annali E Fichardt

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  7. The Relation of Drug Trafficking Fears and Cultural Identity to Attitudes Toward Mexican Immigrants in Five South Texas Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B

    This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans' attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US-Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy.

  8. Best practices for community gardening in a US-Mexico border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta

    2017-12-01

    Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Study of Evaluation OSH Management System Policy Based On Safety Culture Dimensions in Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Armyn Machfudiyanto, Rossy; Arifuddin, Rosmariani; Mahendra Fira Setiawan, R.; Yogiswara, Yoko

    2017-07-01

    Safety Culture in the construction industry is very influential on the socio economic conditions that resulted in the country’s competitiveness. Based on the data, the accident rate of construction projects in Indonesia is very high. In the era of the Asian Economic Community (AEC) Indonesian contractor is required to improve competitiveness, one of which is the implementation of the project without zero accident. Research using primary and secondary data validated the results of the literature experts and questionnaire respondents were analyzed using methods SmartPLS, obtained pattern of relationships between dimensions of safety culture to improve the performance of Safety. The results showed that the behaviors and Cost of Safety into dimensions that significantly affect the performance of safety. an increase in visible policy-based on Regulation of Public Work and Housing No 5/PRT/M/2014 to improve to lower the accident rate.

  10. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Lallimo

    2008-07-01

    community. Teachers' in-service training programs should be more sensitive to the culture of teacher communities and teachers' reciprocal relations. Further, teacher trainers should design teachers' in-service training of web-based learning in co-evolution with supporting networks which include the media and artefacts as well as people.

  11. Two approaches, one problem: Cultural constructions of type II diabetes in an indigenous community in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sarah M; Durden, T Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The emerging epidemic of obesity and type II diabetes in Mexico has recently propelled the nation into the public health spotlight. In the state of Yucatán, the experience of diabetes is greatly impacted by two cultural constructions of disease. In this setting, elements of Yucatec Mayan health practices as well as the biomedical model affect the approach to type II diabetes. Both frameworks offer unique understandings of the etiology of diabetes and recommend different ways to manage the condition. Based on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with both community members and clinicians, the present study seeks to understand how diabetes is understood and treated in indigenous settings in rural Yucatán. We explore the context in which community members navigate between locally available healthcare options, choose one over the other, or incorporate strategies from both into their diabetes care regimens. The tension between indigenous community members and their biomedical healthcare providers, the changing food environment of this community, and the persistence of traditional gender constructions affect the management of type II diabetes and its associated symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a model of dementia support and pathway for culturally and linguistically diverse communities using co-creation and participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, Dianne; King, Jordan; Koch, Susan

    2016-12-07

    To develop an inclusive model of culturally sensitive support, using a specialist dementia nurse (SDN), to assist people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities and their carers to overcome barriers to accessing health and social care services. Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and stakeholders. An SDN support model embedded within a home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia was implemented between October 2013 and October 2015. People experiencing memory loss or with a diagnosis of dementia from CALD backgrounds and their carers and family living in the community setting and expert stakeholders. Reflections from the SDN on interactions with participants and expert stakeholder opinion informed the CALD dementia support model and pathway. Interaction with 62 people living with memory loss or dementia from CALD backgrounds, carers or family members receiving support from the SDN and feedback from 13 expert stakeholders from community aged-care services, consumer advocacy organisations and ethnic community group representatives informed the development and refinement of the CALD dementia model of care and pathway. We delineate the three components of the 'SDN' model: the organisational support; a description of the role; and the competencies needed. Additionally, we provide an accompanying pathway for use by health professionals delivering care to consumers with dementia from CALD backgrounds. Our culturally sensitive model of dementia care and accompanying pathway allows for the tailoring of health and social support to assist people from CALD backgrounds, their carers and families to adjust to living with memory loss and remain living in the community as long as possible. The model and accompanying pathway also have the potential to be rolled out nationally for use by health professionals across a variety of health services. Published

  13. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  14. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  15. A Socio-Cultural Model Based on Empirical Data of Cultural and Social Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture and social relationship as a computational term in an embodied conversational agent system by employing empirical and theoretical approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific cultures...... in different social relationship. So, first, we introduce the theories of social and cultural characteristics. Then, we did corpus analysis of human interaction of two cultures in two different social situations and extracted empirical data and finally, by integrating socio-cultural characteristics...... with empirical data, we establish a parameterized network model that generates culture specific non-verbal expressions in different social relationships....

  16. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  17. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  18. Research on Livable Community Evaluation Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.

  19. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  20. Community Based Networks and 5G Wi-Fi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues on why Community Based Networks should be recognized as potential 5G providers using 5G Wi-Fi. The argument is hinged on findings in a research to understand why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out...... inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated. Two Community Based Network Mobilization Models were identified. The findings indicate that 5G Wi-Fi deployment by Community Based Networks is possible if policy initiatives and the 5G Wi-Fi standards are developed to facilitate the causal...

  1. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  2. Community-Based Nursing versus Community Health Nursing: What Does It All Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Marianne E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers practice models for community-based nursing and community health nursing that demonstrate the different roles, philosophies, and activities of the two approaches. Points to curriculum changes that are needed to prepare students to practice in an increasingly community-oriented health care industry. (Author)

  3. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  4. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Ariana J., E-mail: ariana.mckay@outlook.com; Johnson, Chris J., E-mail: chris.johnson@unbc.ca

    2017-05-15

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  5. Examining physical activity service provision to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD communities in Australia: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Caperchione

    Full Text Available Strong evidence exists for the role of physical activity in preventing and managing a range of chronic health conditions. A particular challenge in promoting physical activity as a health strategy exists in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD groups, as such groups demonstrate high risk for a range of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this research was to examine the perspective of multicultural health service providers for CALD groups with respect to the physical activity services/initiatives on offer, access barriers to these services, and ideas for future service delivery in this area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 multicultural health service providers across the capital cities of the three most populous states in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria, and thematic content analysis was used to examine the data. Findings indicated that the majority of physical activity initiatives were associated with organizations offering other social services for CALD communities but were greatly restrained by resources. As well, it was found that most services were not designed by taking into account specific cultural requirements for CALD communities or their cultural expectations. Common barriers identified to service uptake were classified as socio-cultural (e.g., gender, language, context of health and environmental (e.g., transportation in nature. These findings should be utilized when planning future physical activity and health promotion initiatives for increasing CALD participation. In particular, programs need to be culturally tailored to the specific expectations of CALD groups, addressing cultural safety and sensitivity, and should be in partnership with other organizations to extend the reach and capacity.

  6. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  7. Culturicon model: A new model for cultural-based emoticon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukhi, Mohd Zhafri Bin Mohd; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    Emoticons are popular among distributed collective interaction user in expressing their emotion, gestures and actions. Emoticons have been proved to be able to avoid misunderstanding of the message, attention saving and improved the communications among different native speakers. However, beside the benefits that emoticons can provide, the study regarding emoticons in cultural perspective is still lacking. As emoticons are crucial in global communication, culture should be one of the extensively research aspect in distributed collective interaction. Therefore, this study attempt to explore and develop model for cultural-based emoticon. Three cultural models that have been used in Human-Computer Interaction were studied which are the Hall Culture Model, Trompenaars and Hampden Culture Model and Hofstede Culture Model. The dimensions from these three models will be used in developing the proposed cultural-based emoticon model.

  8. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  9. Connecting Coastal Communities with Ocean Science: A Look at Ocean Sense and the Inclusion of Place-based Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, M. A.; Brown, J.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. Technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories have been adapted for small coastal installations called "community observatories," which enable community members to directly monitor conditions in the local ocean environment. In 2014, ONC pioneered an innovative educational program, Ocean Sense: Local observations, global connections, which introduces students and teachers to the technologies installed on community observatories. The program introduces middle and high school students to research methods in biology, oceanography and ocean engineering through hands-on activities. Ocean Sense includes a variety of resources and opportunities to excite students and spark curiosity about the ocean environment. The program encourages students to connect their local observations to global ocean processes and the observations of students in other geographic regions. The connection to place and local relevance of the program is further enhanced through an emphasis on Indigenous and place-based knowledge. ONC is working with coastal Indigenous communities in a collaborative process to include local knowledge, culture, and language in Ocean Sense materials. For this process to meaningful and culturally appropriate, ONC is relying on the guidance and oversight of Indigenous community educators and knowledge holders. Ocean Sense also includes opportunities for Indigenous youth and teachers in remote communities to connect in person, including an annual Ocean Science Symposium and professional development events for teachers. Building a program which embraces multiple perspectives is effective both in making ocean science more relevant to Indigenous students and in linking Indigenous knowledge and place-based knowledge to ocean science.

  10. Community Music in Cultural Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Quirijn; Bisschop Boele, Evert; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Higgins, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Community Music presents a contested field. Its art status, its methods and its effects all are under scrutiny as the various actors involved in community music practices frequently have very different backgrounds and different objectives. Aesthetic intentions, social objectives and economic

  11. Responsiveness of culture-based segmentation of organizational buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much published work over the four decades has acknowledged market segmentation in business-to-business settings yet primarily focusing on observable segmentation bases such as firmographics or geographics. However, such bases were proved to have a weak predictive validity with respect to industrial buying behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to add a debate to this topic by introducing new (unobservable segmentation base incorporating several facets of business culture, denoted as psychographics. The justification for this approach is that the business culture captures the collective mindset of an organization and thus enables marketers to target the organization as a whole. Given the hypothesis that culture has a merit for micro-segmentation a sample of 278 manufacturing firms was first subjected to principal component analysis and Varimax to reveal underlying cultural traits. In next step, cluster analysis was performed on retained factors to construct business profiles. Finally, non-parametric one-way analysis of variance confirmed discriminative power between profiles based on psychographics in terms of industrial buying behavior. Owing to this, business culture may assist marketers when targeting more effectively than some traditional approaches.

  12. "Venimos Para Que se Oiga la Voz": Activating Community Cultural Wealth as Parental Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; Paredes Scribner, Samantha M.

    2018-01-01

    This article expands a more inclusive parental engagement framework by broadening notions of educational leadership using an example of organizing actions of Latina parent leaders amid a hostile anti-immigrant climate within an urban elementary school. Researchers draw on Yosso's community cultural wealth framework to analyze how a Latinx parent…

  13. 75 FR 21113 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Community College...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... business management and tourism and hospitality management. Faculty participants will be required to have... involved in the social and cultural life of their local U.S. communities: For example, making presentations...; Allied Health Fields, including Nursing; Applied Engineering; Information Technology; and Media. In...

  14. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  16. Cultural practices and sexual risk behaviour among adolescent orphans and non-orphans: a qualitative study on perceptions from a community in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Milka; Askew, Ian; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart

    2014-01-27

    This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans.

  17. Cultural Capital: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of place-based science curriculum projects situated in Hawaiian and Western cultural institutions at an urban high school in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Jennifer Leslie Hoof

    Place-based education is a multidisciplinary and experiential approach to learning that utilizes a local environment or community. This study examined the influences of place attachment and cultural affiliation in the school on student experience and learning in a place-based science course, as well as the course's potential influence on environmentally responsible behaviors. The participants attended an urban high school on O'ahu, Hawai'i. By understanding student reaction to experience in both Western- and Hawaiian-centered classes, this study contributes to the literature on place-based education in relation to how differences in cultural affiliation in a school setting can have varying impacts on place attachment, science literacy, and environmental responsibility. A comparative case study was conducted with students enrolled in the Hawaiian Academy and non-academy students. Analysis of a pre- and post-survey and science content assessments, student documents, field notes, and interview transcripts suggested place-based science has both similar and different impacts on students depending on cultural affiliation within the school. Students in the Hawaiian Academy, as a whole, showed stronger science literacy and environmental responsibility than students in the non-Hawaiian Academy class. However, non-Hawaiian Academy students showed increased place attachment in a spiritual sense. Reactions from both groups suggest a need for smaller learning communities that promote a unity of knowledge rather than distinct courses and disciplines.

  19. The Indigenous Observation Network: Collaborative, Community-Based Monitoring in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mutter, E. A.; Wilson, N. J.; Toohey, R.; Schuster, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indigenous Observation Network (ION) is a collaborative Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) program with both permafrost and water-quality monitoring components operating in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) of Alaska and Canada. ION is jointly facilitated by the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC), an indigenous non-profit organization, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), a federal agency. The YRB is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America encompassing 855,000 square kilometers in northwestern Canada and central Alaska and is essential to the ecosystems of the Bering and Chuckchi Seas. Water is also fundamental to the subsistence and culture of the 76 Tribes and First Nations that live in the YRB providing sustenance in the form of drinking water, fish, wildlife, and vegetation. Despite the ecological and cultural significance of the YRB, the remote geography of sub-Arctic and Arctic Alaska and Canada make it difficult to collect scientific data in these locations and led to a lack of baseline data characterizing this system until recently. In response to community concerns about the quality of the YR and a desire by USGS scientists to create a long term water-quality database, the USGS and YRITWC collaborated to create ION in 2005. Surface water samples are collected by trained community technicians from Tribal Environmental Programs or First Nation Lands and Resources staff from over 35 Alaska Native Tribes and First Nations that reside along the YR and/or one of the major tributaries. Samples are analyzed at USGS laboratories in Boulder, CO and results are disseminated to participating YRB communities and the general public. This presentation will focus on the factors that have enabled the longevity and success of this program over the last decade, as well as the strategies ION uses to ensure the credibility of the data collected by community members and best practices that have facilitated the collection of surface water data in remote

  20. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Pereg, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS) is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG) technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006), suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies highlight the

  1. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  2. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

    2005-12-01

    Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community's concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members' health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to 'cervical health,' a concept that acknowledged the impact on women's bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be

  3. CULTURE DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD: REALITIES AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAMAN IURIE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents the result of a national sociological research conducted in the rural communities of the Republic of Moldova and it is based on the analysis of the statistical yearbooks data, which describe the situation of cultural consumption by the inhabitants of the local rural communities. The results obtained within the sociological research and the confrontation of the statistical data indicate that the changes that took place during the transition period have radically mo-diied the cultural palette in the Republic of Moldova, free time spending becoming much more individualized compared with the collectivist style offered by the Soviet empire. Cultural consumption is also influenced by the individual person and by the attention/care offered to culture both by the family and by the local public administration.

  4. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  5. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  6. Rapid Cultural Change: A Case Study of Polyandry Marriage System among the Gurung Community from Upper Mustang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juddha Bahadur Gurung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is multi ethnic, multi lingual and multi cultural country. In Upper Mustang polyandry is practiced by Loba communities. However, the condition of polyandry is dying out at present. The young are not in favor of this system. Socio-economic, political, seasonal migration, tourism and developmental factors have played crucial role in this regards. From conservation perspective polyandry played crucial role to manage local resources and in population dynamics in the past. This paper is based on field survey carried out in two different time periods (1998 and 2008 in order to compare or understand changing pattern of polyandry. In last couple of years, polyandry system has changed very rapidly in Loba communities of Upper Mustang. Rising community awareness, multiple economic opportunities, improve communication, foreign employment, modern education, open tourism, road access and other visual and in visual forces has lead society from close to open and more wider side or increase the horizon of young generation. Polyandry system is directly affected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8480 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 75-106

  7. Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches provide insights into diversity of jakobids, an extremely plesiomorphic eukaryotic lineage

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    Tomáš ePánek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida, an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids - 60 % or 80 %, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists – Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  8. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  9. Getting better at chronic care in remote communities: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled of community based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Wenitong, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Hoy, Wendy; Segal, Leonie; Taylor, Sean; Preece, Cilla; Sticpewich, Alex; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-11-21

    Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and other common comorbid conditions (hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal disease and chronic lung disease) are extremely high among Indigenous Australians. Recent measures to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous community settings, while apparently successful at increasing screening and routine check-up rates, have shown only modest or little improvements in appropriate care such as the introduction of insulin and other scaled-up drug regimens in line with evidence-based guidelines, together with support for risk factor reduction. A new strategy is required to ensure high quality integrated family-centred care is available locally, with continuity and cultural safety, by community-based care coordinators with appropriate system supports. The trial design is open parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. The objective of this pragmatic trial is to test the effectiveness of a model of health service delivery that facilitates integrated community-based, intensive chronic condition management, compared with usual care, in rural and remote Indigenous primary health care services in north Queensland. Participants are Indigenous adults (aged 18-65 years) with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>=8.5) and at least one other chronic condition. The intervention is to employ an Indigenous Health Worker to case manage the care of a maximum caseload of 30 participants. The Indigenous Health Workers receive intensive clinical training initially, and throughout the study, to ensure they are competent to coordinate care for people with chronic conditions. The Indigenous Health Workers, supported by the local primary health care (PHC) team and an Indigenous Clinical Support Team, will manage care, including coordinating access to multidisciplinary team care based on best practice standards. Allocation by cluster to the intervention and control groups is by simple randomisation after participant enrolment. Participants in

  10. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College. Institutes & Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    Community-based programming (CBP) is a cooperative process in which a community college serves as the leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among the people, leaders and community organizations in its service area. This report discusses the changing role of the community college, the nature of CBP, and expected outcomes of the process,…

  11. Reflective learning in community-based dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Naitam, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Community-based dental education (CBDE) is the implementation of dental education in a specific social context, which shifts a substantial part of dental clinical education from dental teaching institutional clinics to mainly public health settings. Dental students gain additional value from CBDE when they are guided through a reflective process of learning. We propose some key elements to the existing CBDE program that support meaningful personal learning experiences. Dental rotations of 'externships' in community-based clinical settings (CBCS) are year-long community-based placements and have proven to be strong learning environments where students develop good communication skills and better clinical reasoning and management skills. We look at the characteristics of CBDE and how the social and personal context provided in communities enhances dental education. Meaningfulness is created by the authentic context, which develops over a period of time. Structured reflection assignments and methods are suggested as key elements in the existing CBDE program. Strategies to enrich community-based learning experiences for dental students include: Photographic documentation; written narratives; critical incident reports; and mentored post-experiential small group discussions. A directed process of reflection is suggested as a way to increase the impact of the community learning experiences. We suggest key elements to the existing CBDE module so that the context-rich environment of CBDE allows for meaningful relations and experiences for dental students and enhanced learning.

  12. Research culture and capacity in community health services: results of a structured survey of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J

    2017-05-01

    Developing research capacity is recognised as an important endeavour. However, little is known about the current research culture, capacity and supports for staff working in community-based health settings. A structured survey of Division of Community Health staff was conducted using the research capacity tool. The survey was disseminated by email and in paper format. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. In total, 109 usable responses were received, giving a response rate of 26%. Respondents were predominately nurses (n=71, 65.7%), with ~50% reporting post-graduate vocational qualifications. The highest levels of skills or organisational success were in using evidence to plan, promote and guide clinical practice. Most participants were unsure of organisational and team level skills and success at generating research. Few reported recent experience in research-generating activities. Barriers to undertaking research included lack of skills, time and access to external support and funding. Lack of skills and success in accessing external funding and resources to protect research time or to 'buy-in' technical expertise appeared to exacerbate these barriers. Community health staff have limited capacity to generate research with current levels of skill, funding and time. Strategies to increase research capacity should be informed by knowledge of clinicians' research experience and interests, and target development of skills to generate research. Resources and funding are needed at the organisational and team levels to overcome the significant barriers to research generation reported.

  13. FoodMicrobionet: A database for the visualisation and exploration of food bacterial communities based on network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Cocolin, Luca; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Ferrocino, Ilario; O'Sullivan, Orla; Neviani, Erasmo; De Angelis, Maria; Cotter, Paul D; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-02-16

    Amplicon targeted high-throughput sequencing has become a popular tool for the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. Although the data obtained with this approach are portable and the number of sequences available in public databases is increasing, no tool has been developed yet for the analysis and presentation of data obtained in different studies. This work describes an approach for the development of a database for the rapid exploration and analysis of data on food microbial communities. Data from seventeen studies investigating the structure of bacterial communities in dairy, meat, sourdough and fermented vegetable products, obtained by 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing, were collated and analysed using Gephi, a network analysis software. The resulting database, which we named FoodMicrobionet, was used to analyse nodes and network properties and to build an interactive web-based visualisation. The latter allows the visual exploration of the relationships between Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and samples and the identification of core- and sample-specific bacterial communities. It also provides additional search tools and hyperlinks for the rapid selection of food groups and OTUs and for rapid access to external resources (NCBI taxonomy, digital versions of the original articles). Microbial interaction network analysis was carried out using CoNet on datasets extracted from FoodMicrobionet: the complexity of interaction networks was much lower than that found for other bacterial communities (human microbiome, soil and other environments). This may reflect both a bias in the dataset (which was dominated by fermented foods and starter cultures) and the lower complexity of food bacterial communities. Although some technical challenges exist, and are discussed here, the net result is a valuable tool for the exploration of food bacterial communities by the scientific community and food industry. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  14. Microbial diversity in an Armenian geothermal spring assessed by molecular and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phyla, and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the dominant group, representing 52% of the bacterial clones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments also indicated the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria populations. Most of the sequences were most closely related to uncultivated microorganisms and shared less than 96% similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, indicating that this spring harbors a unique community of novel microbial species or genera. The majority of the sequences of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene library, generated from a methanogenic enrichment, were close relatives of members of the genus Methanoculleus. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria mainly belonging to Bacillus and Geobacillus were detected only by culture-dependent methods. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 99, 96, and 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Arcobacter sp., Methylocaldum sp., and Methanoculleus sp., respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  16. Community-based naming agreement, familiarity, image agreement and visual complexity ratings among adult Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Annamma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The validity of Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures and their norms derived on a western population on naming, familiarity, imageability and visual-complexity, is not established on a population with cultural background different from the west. We developed, therefore, a set of culturally appropriate pictures for and derived norms on Indians. Line-drawings of 103 concepts (67 from Snodgrass and Vanderwart, 36 new from 10 semantic-categories were normed on 200 community-based older subjects. Only 31% of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart items showed a concept-agreement on the Indians comparable to western norms. Naming, familiarity and image-agreement mutually correlated but not with visual-complexity. Low-education and rural-residence tended to reduced concept-agreement. The output of this study will be of use in national and cross-national studies.

  17. Connecting to Communities: Powerful Pedagogies for Leading for Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wendy; Mathison, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of powerful pedagogies such as service-learning, cultural immersion, and community-based research to enhance leadership development. Four key principles are presented that describe how leadership educators can facilitate community-based learning in a way that creates an optimal learning environment for students, while also engaging ethically with individuals and organizations in the community. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in Mixtec and Chontal indigenous communities in Mexico: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; García-Olivera, Imelda; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Chontal and Mixtec indigenous communities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, using the Community-Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. After cross-culturally validating the COPCORD questionnaire for these communities, we conducted a cross-sectional, analytical, community-based census study using a house-to-house method. Positive cases of MSK disorders were assessed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. The study population included participants aged ≥18 years from the indigenous communities of San Antonio Huitepec and San Carlos Yautepec. A total of 1061 persons participated in the study. Mean age was 46.9 years (standard deviation 19.9; age range 18-97 years); 642 (60.5 %) were women; 483 participants (45.5; 42.4-48.5 %) had MSK pain in the previous 7 days. Diagnoses were back pain 170 (16.0 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 13.8-18.3); osteoarthritis 157 (14.7 %; 95 % CI 12.7-17.0); rheumatic regional pain syndrome 53 (4.9 %; 95 % CI 3.7-6.4); rheumatoid arthritis 4 (0.3 %; 95 % CI 0.1-0.9); dermatomyositis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); ankylosing spondylitis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); systemic lupus erythematosus 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.02-0.5); and gout 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5). 53.2 % had not received medical treatment for their disease. The prevalence of MSK disorders in indigenous communities in the Mixtec and Chontal regions is very high. The most common rheumatic diseases found were back pain and osteoarthritis. A high percentage of participants had not received medical care.

  19. Yéego Gardening! A Community Garden Intervention to Promote Health on the Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J; Deschenie, Desiree; Jim, Jesse; Bishop, Sonia; Lombard, Kevin; Beresford, Shirley A

    2017-01-01

    Yéego Gardening! is a community garden intervention to increase gardening behavior, increase access to low-cost fruit and vegetables, and ultimately increase consumption in Navajo communities. To design a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention with three components: a community garden, monthly workshops on gardening and healthy eating, and community outreach. Gardens were constructed and maintained in collaboration with community-based organizations in two Navajo communities. Monthly workshops were held throughout the growing season and incorporated aspects of Navajo culture and opportunities to build confidence and skills in gardening and healthy eating behaviors. In addition, program staff attended community events to promote gardening and healthy eating. Community input was essential throughout the planning and implementation of the intervention. If effective, community gardens may be a way to increase fruit and vegetable availability and intake, and ultimately reduce risk of obesity and diabetes.

  20. Evaluation of mangrove reforestation and the impact to socioeconomic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, MA; Wati, R.; Slmaet, B.; Thoha, AS; Nuryawan, A.; Putri, LAP; Yusriani, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and are rapidly threatened due to anthropogenic activities such as conversion for aquaculture, oil palm plantation, filling and use of mangrove for urban development. The present study describes the current and first-year evaluation on mangrove restoration and its impact to socio economic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The rehabilitation was carried on December 2015 using direct planting of 6,000 Rhizophora apiculata propagules and May 2016 using 5,000 R. apiculata seedlings. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaf thickness and number, and seedling growth rate. Ninety-two of 1,124 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-economic-cultural impact of reforestation. Results show that the growth rate for current and first-year evaluation was 93 and 86 %, respectively. By contrast, the height, diameter, and some leaves seedlings planting were shown better than the performance of propagules planting. No change in the green foliage plant thickness between both farming methods. The reforestation affected 71.74, 55.43 and 39.13% of economic, social, and cultural of Lubuk Kertang community, respectively. The data is likely t