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Sample records for cultural studies theory

  1. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  2. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  3. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  4. An Exchange on Theory and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The following exchange grew out of a series of posts to the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia discussion list.1 As a talking point leading into a regular meeting for early career cultural studies researchers in Brisbane, Melissa Gregg, Jean Burgess and Joshua Green quoted a passage from Simon During’s recent Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction (Routledge, 2005 in the hope of provoking a wider debate about the current state of Australian cultural studies. Various members of the list were duly provoked, and the ensuing discussion was later picked up in a paper by John Frow and continued in private correspondence and then in invited responses to the developing exchange.

  5. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  6. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  7. Using Game Theory to Study the Evolution of Cultural Norms

    CERN Document Server

    De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how to use evolutionary game theory (EGT) as a framework for studying how cultural dynamics and structural properties can influence the evolution of norms and behaviors within a society. We provide a brief tutorial on how EGT works, and discuss what kinds of insights it can provide. We then describe three published studies in which we have developed EGT models that help explain how structural and external conditions in a society affect the emergence of social norms.

  8. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...

  9. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative......This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...

  10. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...... hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...

  11. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative...

  12. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  13. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  14. Cultural Studies and the Subaltern: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Györke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available My article discusses the theoretical and practical implications of applying the methodology of cultural studies, as it is delineated by Stuart Hall, in the East-Central European context. Despite the celebrated “internationalization” of the discipline as well as “de-Eurocentrizing” initiatives, a number of scholars, such as G. C. Spivak and Hall himself, claim that research taking a cultural studies approach has offered little innovative intervention in recent years, and the discipline remains defined by a Western, (postmodern theoretical framework. I argue that scholars in Hungary (and Slovenia have an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to the field, yet in order to avoid falling into the trap of repeating obvious claims and conclusion, we need to take an approach that Spivak associates with the toleration of uncertainty and paradox, and Jessica Benjamin calls intersubjective interaction.

  15. IMPLICITE THEORIES OF CREATIVITY: CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kankaras

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons’ implicit theories of creativity in twodifferent national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America(N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed aquestionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personalcharacteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of theircreativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptionsof a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, giftedwith creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profoundemotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is thatrespondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceivecharacteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication tocreativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, althoughthere is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of theircreativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability aretwo distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon andcreative person as such.

  16. Implicit theories of creativity: Cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons' implicit theories of creativity in two different national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America (N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed a questionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personal characteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of their creativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptions of a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, gifted with creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profound emotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is that respondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceive characteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication to creativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, although there is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of their creativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability are two distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon and creative person as such.

  17. Cinema and Culture in Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4.......Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4....

  18. Theories of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2012-01-01

      “Culture” is such a broad concept which is understood and defined differently by different people and has been remaining a focus for research. Some view culture as skills, values, understandings, knowledge or ways of being achieved as members of society and it is acquired and transmitted over generations; some regard culture as meaning which is established and constructed in practice and it is the context of production of new meaning and constraint of action. In this article it will focus on two theories of culture, namely, Cultural Relativism and Cultural Structuralism, and will illustrate the general ideas, main representatives and their arguments of these two theories.

  19. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  20. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Stoeger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw an intelligent person and then to rate the typicality of the drawing with respect to a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable differences among the students’ implicit theories of intelligence. Implicit theories of an intelligent person correlated with the nationality and the gender of the students who made the drawings. German girls, in particular, frequently ascribed a gender to their prototypically intelligent person which differed from their own. Our data offer evidence that implicit theories of an intelligent person reflect a multifaceted picture. The most meaningful single attribute identified by participants for the figures they had drawn was that of being hardworking. We conclude that future studies should further examine the influence of implicit theories on the learning behavior of gifted students.

  2. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  3. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  4. Discoursive Practice and Cultural Position——A Study of Introduction of Western Literary Theories:1993-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Comparative Literature and World Literature Observing,examining and studying five theoretical periodicals of foreign literary theories in China,this dissertation aims at studying closely the introduction of western literary theories into China ever since the cultural transformation in 1990s.

  5. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinYoung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  6. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  7. Theory with a Capital T: Cultural Studies' Assault on Popular Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, James

    2010-01-01

    Mainstream cultural studies, it seems, is unwilling to take art of any kind seriously, whether popular or classic. Richard Posner is not far wrong in suggesting that the aim of cultural studies "is to knock literature off its pedestal and find vehicles easier than literary works for making political points." To respond fully to literature and art…

  8. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  9. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  10. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  11. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  12. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  13. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  14. A study on the Translation of Cultural Elements in TV Subtitles-A Case Study of The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚庆

    2014-01-01

    With the growing popularity of one country’s TV series in foreign countries, subtitle translation has attracted consider-able attention in recent years. The Big Bang Theory (TBBT) is a widespread American TV series whose subtitles have been trans-lated into many foreign languages, and it also boasts its richness in cultural elements, the most typical ones including science ele-ments and religious cultural elements.

  15. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  16. Politics and care: a study of Czech Americans within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    1997-01-01

    The domain of inquiry for this study was the influence of the American political environmental context on professional and generic care patterns, expressions, and meanings of Czech American immigrants. The purpose of the research was to document, describe, interpret, and analyze the diversities and universalities of professional and generic care for this cultural group, to provide culturally congruent care to Czech Americans, and to explicate the role of politics as an influence on care patterns, health, and well being. The researcher's former transcultural ethnonursing study in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1991 served as a stimulus for this in-depth study on politics and care. Twelve key and twenty general informants were interviewed. Five major themes were identified. The researcher discovered that the capitalist economic market structure of the United States influenced informant lifeways in all dimensions of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, as depicted in the Sunrise Model. Specific care patterns discovered included care as choice, care as responsibility, and care as helping each other. Findings related to professional and generic care supported researcher predictions that generic culture care patterns would be important to immigrants. Provisions for culturally congruent nursing care were articulated based on research findings.

  17. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE; María ROMERO-CALMACHE; Alejandro ÁLVAREZ-NOBELL; Paz ARAGÜÉS-DUFOL

    2012-01-01

    ... subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o...

  18. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  20. Is Consumer Culture Theory research or realpolitik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Per; Bode, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    When Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) was introduced by Arnould and Thompson (2005) it was part of a strategy to create legitimacy for interpretive research. It was argued that interpretive researchers needed to be more pragmatic in their attitude. This was a fundamental change in the scientific...... culture in this stream of research. This paper analyses these changes and studies how CCT represents a new and pragmatic attitude. It is shown how the changes intended by CCT can imply a shift from a focus on new groundbreaking research to an awareness of the consequences of realpolitik. This strategic...... move can be seen as an example of how scientific cultures try to move from a marginal position to the mainstream. The consequences of this attempt to manage science are analysed, and solutions to problems created by these changes are developed....

  1. Towards a Theory of Organisational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert G.; Steinhoff, Carl R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the paper-and-pencil instrument called the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory (OCAI) is based on the theory of organizational culture. Recent literature and organizational analysis are combined with Schein's model of organizational culture to provide the background for metaphorical analysis of organizational culture…

  2. Study on the Theory and Technology of High Yield Culture of Compact Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi; ZHANG Rong-da; WU Sheng-li; SONG Bi; ZHANG Bang-kun; JIANG Long; WANG Song; HU Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Using the split plot and multi-quadric regressive orthogonal cross-course rotary combination design, corn variety Denghai 6's yield and yield components, important colony quality and physiological index, microclimate index in field and technical planting for high yield were studied. Cultivation for high yield showed that Denghai 6 had the great potential of increase yield. The average yield of two years was 12510kg/ha for 13.85ha, the highest grain yield (754.7m2) was 15477kg/ha. The climatic conditions can meet the needs for high yield during the whole growth stage of corn in the mountain area of Northwest Guizhou.

  3. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  4. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  5. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  6. 孔子论“学”中的文化育人观念%Concept of Cultural Education in Confucian Theory of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2012-01-01

    孔子作为中国古代著名的教育家,在其思想中有许多发人深省的文化育人哲理。尤其是在教世人如何"学"中,对教育后人要以文化来熏陶自己、提高自己,从而更好地教育中国无数子孙,同时对于中华民族建立特有的文化体制有重要的借鉴意义。%Confucius was a famous ancient Chinese educator whose cultural education philosophy was thought-provoking.Among Confucius' philosophical theories were his theory of study which emphasized self-nuturing and self-promotion through culture.Confucian concept of cultural education has referential significance for educating Chinese descendants and building specific Chinese cultural system.

  7. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  8. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  9. CULTURAL GLOBALISATION AND CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Movius

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews existing traditional media theories, and analyses the challenges that the current developments of globalisation present to them. The article provides a short history of the concept of globalisation, and reviews the primary theoretical approaches to globalisation that are critical to communication scholars. The article also examines how globalisation challenges the ways in which media and communication have traditionally been theorised. Specifically, the cultural imperialism theory is discussed, as well as the main challenges to the theory. Audience reception studies, which focus on how audiences negotiate meaning differently in specific cultural contexts, are highlighted as the key critique of cultural imperialism

  10. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  11. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  12. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  13. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  14. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  15. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  16. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and proposition...... that, captured through the metaphor of 'flattening', invite a rethinking of how ontologies of consumption-its subjects, objects and devices, content and contexts, materiality and socioculturality-are enacted through precarious networks of heterogeneous relations. © The Author(s) 2013....

  17. Consumer Culture Theory: Ideology, Mythology and Meaning in Technology Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...... innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors...

  18. On Translation of Chinese Folk Culture Based on Skopos Theory-A Case Study of Commentary of Folk Custom Gallery in Ningbo Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tang

    2016-01-01

    Folk culture plays an indispensable role in the Chinese culture. Therefore, as cultural exchanges between countries be-come more and more frequent, promoting the folk culture has a profound effect on enhancement of cultural soft power. Further-more, this paper has explored translation of commentary of Folk Custom Gallery in Ningbo Museum and summarized six trans-lation methods based on Skopos theory.

  19. Mapping Cultural Frame Shifting in Interaction Design with Blending Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner's blending theory as a new conceptual framework for explaining ‘cultural frame shifting' in interaction design. Cultural frame shifting is when people, through their explorative use of technology, are required imaginatively to reorganize...... their cultural background knowledge and expectations. In current HCI research it has occasionally been pointed out that a proper understanding of this phenomenon hinges on addressing the relationship between embodied interaction and cultural meaning construction as part of a larger interactive system. However...... the network model of mental spaces from Fauconnier & Turner's blending theory onto video material and interviews from initial qualitative use studies of a design case. In so doing we explore and argue for how meaning formation and embodied cognition coalesce in cultural frame shifting and provide a tool...

  20. Working With Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of two researchers, Wolff-Michael ROTH and Luis RADFORD, using cultural-historical activity theory in mathematics education. The aim is to provide insights into the ways these researchers see and engage with activity theory, how they have come to adopt and expand it, and some of the challenges and concerns that they have had using it. These questions are not usually addressed within typical scientific papers. Yet, they are important for understanding both the dynamics of research and the practical use of cultural-historical activity theory. Since the format of research report papers is not necessarily well suited to convey personal experiences and thinking, the present article takes the form of a conversation, which provides an effective vehicle for exploring and articulating these matters. This provides a basis for understanding more deeply the underlying assumptions of this theory; its dynamics and how it is applied in research of mathematics practice, thinking, and learning; and insights into the manner in which experienced researchers grapple with the theoretical dimensions of their research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202232

  1. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  2. Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Hutchins, Brandi N.; Jenkins, Derrick J.; Mussman, Mark P.; Schneider, Carri A.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional culture theory is a widely accepted explanation for disparities in academic performance between middle class Whites and middle class African Americans. The authors make the case that oppositional culture theory has its roots in cultural deficit theory popularized in the early 1960s and present a significant body of evidence to refute…

  3. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  4. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  5. Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1994-01-01

    Responses from college students in differing cultural settings contradicted modernization theory (MT). Contrary to MT, education held less importance as a social institution. American society highly valued religion with the reverse holding true in the two Chinese societies. MT tests with cross-cultural data should always consider cultural…

  6. Micro-Cultural Influences on Theory of Mind Development: A Comparative Study of Middle-Class and "Pemulung" Children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Ike Anggraika; Saraswati, Liliek; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cultural influences on young children's acquisition of social-cognitive concepts. A theory of mind (ToM) scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004) was given to 129 children (71 boys, 58 girls) ranging in age from 3 years 0 months to 7 years 10 months. The children were from three distinct cultural groups: (a) trash pickers…

  7. Cultural Differences in Implicit Theories of Citizenship Performance: A Comparative Study of MBA Students from the Czech Republic, India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to (a) develop a culturally-universal measure of implicit citizenship performance theories and (b) examine cross-cultural differences in the construct. The final measure consisted of four factors--Discourtesy, Interpersonal Harmony, Conscientiousness, and Initiative. Cross-country comparisons using the new…

  8. CULTURAL HISTORICAL ACTIVITY THEORY: EXPLORING PRINCIPALS’ INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Damla Kentli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Instructional leadership activities are significant for school development. Although many researchers in this field consider leadership activities relating to the work of school principals, in effect, leadership is a network activity that includes all school staff. This study aims to show this interdependence network activity within Cultural Historical Activity Theory. The research question is “what are the activities of an instructional leader?” in order to understand instructional leadership activities in school from perspectives of Turkish graduate students and Cultural Historical Activity Theory. The answers are conceptualized within the framework of an Activity Theory. The students were asked to write about the activities of an instructional leader in the first and last course of the semester. Eighteen graduate students participated in this study.

  9. "This Is No Slum!": A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Community Cultural Wealth in Culture Clash's "Chavez Ravine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosso, Tara J.; Garcia, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a critical race theory framework, this article weaves together sociology, education, history, and performance studies to challenge deficit interpretations of Pierre Bourdieu's cultural capital theory and to analyze Culture Clash's play Chavez Ravine. The play recounts a decade of Los Angeles history through the perspectives of displaced…

  10. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  11. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  12. Escaping Education: Living as Learning within Grassroots Cultures. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Vol. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri; Esteva, Gustavo

    This book challenges the modern certainty that education is a universal good and a human right and celebrates the well-being still enjoyed in the commons and cultures of people living at the grassroots. The first section describes how education is an instrument of acculturation. Within two generations of formal schooling, people are separated from…

  13. Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...

  14. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  15. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  16. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  17. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  18. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  19. Moving from High Culture to Ordinary Culture-On Raymond Wil-liams’Culture Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆育红

    2015-01-01

    Culture study has become a new trend in the academic fields, while how to define the scope and object of the cultural study, different people have different opinions. Ranging from Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy to Raymond Williams’The Long Revolution, scholars have been constantly exploring the core of cultural study of different periods. Raymond Williams had committed himself to the field of the study, and his study also has pushed ahead the people’s understanding of the theory. His con⁃tribution to the study has been analyzed here and that has brought a great influence to the study of the field.

  20. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  1. Making Career Theories More Culturally Sensitive: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…

  2. Cultural care of older Greek Canadian widows within Leininger's theory of culture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J N

    1990-01-01

    Cultural care themes were abstracted from a large scale study of older Greek Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Ethnonursing, ethnographic, and life health-care history methods were used. Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants. Enabling tools used were interview inquiry guides, Leininger's Life History Health Care Protocol, Leininger's Acculturation Rating and Profile Scale of Traditional and Non-Traditional Lifeways, and field journal recordings. Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. The two major cultural care themes which were abstracted from the raw data and patterns were: (1) Cultural care for Greek Canadian widows meant responsibility for, reciprocation, concern, love, companionship, family protection, hospitality, and helping, primarily derived from their kinship, religious, and cultural beliefs, and values, and (2) Cultural care continuity diminished the spousal care void and contributed to the health of Greek Canadian widows. These findings will stimulate future nursing research related to cultural care of diverse populations and guide nursing practice to provide culturally congruent care which will assist widows to reduce their spousal care void. The author thanks Dr. Madeleine Leininger, Dr. Judith Floyd, Dr. Marjorie Isenberg, and Dr. Bernice Kaplan for their guidance in completing the large scale study on which this article is based.

  3. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  4. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  5. Whose Culture Has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosso, Tara J.

    2005-01-01

    This article conceptualizes community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital. CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge,…

  6. Trauma theory and postcolonial literary studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The plurality and growing number of responses to cultural trauma theory in postcolonial criticism demonstrate the ongoing appeal of trauma theory despite the fact that it is also increasingly critiqued as inadequate to the research agenda of postcolonial studies. In the dialogue between tra

  7. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-04-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological "hub," linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people's behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research.

  8. Queer Theory in Education. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses homophobia in the field of education and challenges established practices and theories. Chapters are: (1) "Constructing Knowledge: Educational Research and Gay and Lesbian Studies" (W. G. Tierney, P. Dilley); (2) "A Generational and Theoretical Analysis of Culture and Male (Homo)sexuality" (J. T. Sears); (3)…

  9. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  10. Cultural Organization: Fragments of a Theory,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    been trying for almost a century to nail down the notion of culture with little success ( Kroeber and Kluckholn, 1952). In fact, Williams (1976) claims...Network Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1982. Kroeber , A. L. and Kluckholn, C. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA

  11. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  12. Toward a General Theory of Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Fred O.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that (1) the cultural system of any society consists of diverse but interlocking equivalences of meaning transacted in the course of recurrent encounters of each group member with others; and (2) culture transmission consists of such transactions of equivalences in certain encounters, principally of nonadults with adults and with each…

  13. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusions find the sharing of criteria between schools of thought is judicious, Encoding/Decoding fits the established criteria, and Encoding/Decoding should be referred to as a theory.

  14. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental ri

  15. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  16. The Frankfurt School: Critical Theory as the Negation of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Beverly

    In examining the Frankfurt School's critical theory of society in an effort to discover the theoretical basis for the school's inability to merge theory with praxis, this paper points out that the school's analysis of culture in the 1930s and 1940s presents a radical, penetrating critique of the role of mass communication in advanced…

  17. After Progressivism: Modern Composition, Institutional Service, and Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of composition theory as autonomous field and its relation to surrounding academic and social situations, especially progressivism. Discusses composition as a "service" course. Critiques recent alliances between composition and cultural studies theory. (HB)

  18. Culturally Responsive Computing: A Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kimberly A.; Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts and considerable funding, historically marginalized groups (e.g., racial minorities and women) continue not to enter or persist in the most lucrative of fields--technology. Understanding the potency of culturally responsive teaching (CRT), some technology-enrichment programs modified CRP principles to establish a…

  19. Theory and Observation in Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey designed to evaluate the importance of some components of cultural transmission on a variety of traits showed that religion and politics are mostly determined in the family, a mode of transmission which guarantees high evolutionary stability and maintenance of high variation between and within groups. (Author/JN)

  20. US Cultural Studies: Oxymoron?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Breen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay began in 1999 as an attempt to update my perceptions and experiences as a resident alien in the USA. Written expressly for what was then The UTS Review, it was intended to follow up my earlier piece published in 1997, ‘The Cultural Studies Thing You Do: In the USA after Sokal’. Just as the challenges initiated by that ‘affair’ seem to have evaporated, or been absorbed into the apparatus of systemic reinvention in the US academy, I am reinventing my correspondence.

  1. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.

  2. Parental Acceptance-Rejection: Theory, Methods, Cross-Cultural Evidence, and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald P. Rohner; Abdul Khaleque; David E. Cournoyer

    2005-01-01

    ...). The theory focuses primarily on parental love-its expressions, impact, and origins. Nearly 2,000 studies in the United States and cross-culturally confirm the widely held belief that children everywhere need acceptance (love...

  3. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed.

  4. 现代文化地理学对旅游研究的隐喻作用%On the Theory Relationship between Modern Cultural Geography and Tourism Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱苏加; 李晓楠; 杜丽娟; 路紫

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this research is to try to recognize the relationship between the new theories of modern cultural geography and tourism studies.This paper focuses on the cultural interface between tourism study and modern cultural geography.And then the effect of tourism authentic and inauthentic experiences,industrial restructuring and postmodernism,private and public representations,producer and consumer,cultural circuits theory and communication(transmission,reception and response) is introduced and examined.There is an important inter-relationship between theory and methodology.The authors do not negate the necessity of spatial and economic approaches,but suggest that other analytical approaches should be explored further.It is believed that tourism research will be furthered if its theories and approaches are complemented by modern cultural geography analyses.%该文试图认知现代文化地理学新理论、新方法与旅游研究之间的联系.首先对旅游研究的文化地理趋向做了概括性刻画,而后就文化地理学的理论进展及其方法论问题做了旅游研究方面的评估.在整个分析过程中强调现代文化地理学在旅游研究中所发挥的隐喻作用.笔者认为,如果旅游研究在理论上能得到现代文化地理学方面的补充,则其研究也将得到极大的深入.

  5. Sexuality and psychoanalytic aggrandisement: Freud's 1908 theory of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    In 1908, in his article "'Civilized" sexual morality and modern nervous illness', Freud presented neuroses as the consequence of a restrictive state of cultural development and its 'civilized morality'. He found the inspiration for this idea by expanding upon previous formulations in this area by his predecessors (notably Christian von Ehrenfels) that focused on a cultural process earlier introduced by Kant, while also integrating in his analysis the principles of Haeckel's evolutionism (history of development, recapitulation) which eventually re-defined the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses. These new theoretical elements became the basis of psychoanalytic theory and thereby influenced subsequent thinking in the cultural process itself and in human sciences. This transformation of underlying theory provided a unique historical and analytical framework for psychoanalysis which allowed Freud to claim for it a pre-eminent position among the human sciences.

  6. Studying Popular Culture in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    This working paper – written for inclusion as a chapter on Japanese society, to be published in Chinese by the Beijing University of Foreign Studies later in 2011 – looks at popular culture as a form of cultural production. It argues for the need to study popular cultural forms like advertisement...

  7. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  8. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  9. Penerapan Cultural Studies dan Aliran Filsafat dalam Desain Komunikasi Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christina Luzar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultural studies is a diversity knowledge from different variety of perspectives, through the production of theory trying to intervene in political culture. Cultural studies explores culture as a practice purport in the context of social force. In this case, cultural studies is not only based on one point only, but also cultural studies tries to compose a variety of theoretical studies of other disciplines developed wider, so that covers a wide range of academic theories that already existed, including Marxism, Structuralism, Post-structuralism, and feminism. By eclectic method, cultural studies puts the positioning to all knowledges, including on its knowledge which integrates with culture, practice of signification, representation, discourse, authority, articulation, text, read, and consumption. Cultural studies could be described as a language game or formation of discourse associated with relation to power in signification practice of human life. In addition to cultural studies, there is also feminism theory participated in the concept of feminist cultural studies that reconstructs and transforms view of misperception between feminism and cultural studies. Feminism affects cultural studies, but not all feminism can be viewed as cultural studies, and not all cultural studies talks about gender. Both of cultural studies and feminism have substantive importance in relation to power, representation, pop-culture, subjectivity, identity and consumption. The theory of social construction is also has connectivity with cultural studies. Construction of reality is inseparable from mark, symbol, and language. Media are full of reality constructed for people to affect people as ethics persuasion in media do. 

  10. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    to the past - unpack the key concepts of contemporary culture, such as mobility and materiality - look with fresh eyes at today's media world and the cultural practices it gives rise to - practice their critical skills with up-to-date exercises and activities This book remains the perfect 'how to...

  11. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches st...

  12. Anticapitalism and culture: radical theory and popular politics

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert , Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    What does 'anticapitalism' really mean for the politics and culture of the twenty-first century? Anticapitalism is an idea which, despite going global, remains rooted in the local, persisting as a loose collection of grassroots movements and actions. Anticapitalism needs to develop a coherent and cohering philosophy, something which cultural theory and the intellectual legacy of the New Left can help to provide, notably through the work of key radical thinkers, such as Ernesto Laclau, Stua...

  13. Militarist, Marxian, and Non-Marxian Materialist Theories of Gender Inequality: A Cross-Cultural Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen K.; Heckert, D. Alex; Dubrow, Joshua K.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested three types of theories of gender inequality in preindustrial societies by using half the societies in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: militarist, Marxian, and non-Marxian materialist theories. The first phase of the research used simple cross-tabulations with chi-square as a test of significance and gamma as a measure of…

  14. Understanding Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion through Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yangjoo

    2015-01-01

    This study is about graduate students' discourse practices in classroom text-based synchronous computer mediated discussions (SCMD). Cultural historical activity theory (in short, Activity Theory) is the primary theoretical lens through which the data are analyzed. Engeström's (1987) Activity System model among the various theoretical positions or…

  15. Cultural Consumption Patterns in South Africa: An Investigation of the Theory of Cultural Omnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowball, J. D.; Jamal, M.; Willis, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to Bourdieu's theory ("Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1984)) that cultural consumption of so-called "high" versus popular culture is determined by socio-economic class, Peterson ("Poetics" 21:243-258, 1992; "Poetics"…

  16. Theory in social simulation: Status-Power theory, national culture and emergence of the glass ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
    eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
    modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
    Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
    theories. The article reviews empirical work on

  17. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  18. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  19. Between Faith and Science: World Culture Theory and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations of world-level tendencies, such critique is…

  20. New Institutional Theory and a Culture of Safety in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Brandi; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    Health and safety professionals often call for an improved safety culture in agriculture. Such a shift would result in agricultural practices that prioritize safe work habits and see safety as both an effective means to improve production and a goal worth pursuing in its own right. This article takes an anthropological approach and demonstrates the potential for new institutional theory to conceptualize broader cultural change in agriculture. New institutional theory examines the roles of organizations and the ways that they inform and support broad social institutions. Using preliminary data from the agricultural lending industry in Iowa and integrated poultry production in Texas, this article considers the ability of these organizations to contribute to systemic change and an improved culture of safety in agriculture.

  1. Social Capital, culture and theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De la Peña García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.

  2. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  3. Educational Technology Acceptance across Cultures: A Validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in the Context of Turkish National Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…

  4. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  5. The role of culture in contemporary theories of sustainable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    climate change and energy shortages, but it also has the ability to mediate between the existing cultural heritage and the future built environment. Ensuring that the architecture of tomorrow represents the culture embodied in our cities. Sustainable architecture can contribute to solving these issues......As the world becomes more globalized, modern cities are becoming more and more indistinguishable. All too often the identity of the modern city turns its back on the cultural built environment of the past. Sustainable architecture and design are rapidly addressing many of the key issues around...... as it has the potential to bridge between the practical and the symbolic elements of the city. It negotiates the relationships between humans and the physical world both manmade and natural. The role of culture is established in many theories of sustainable architecture and is significant in ensuring...

  6. Summary of Studies on Gramsci’ s Theory of Cultural Leadership in Recent Thirty Years%近三十年国内葛兰西文化领导权理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓军; 张思军

    2015-01-01

    The studies of Gramsci’ s cultural leadership theory among domestic academic circles in the past 30 years are mainly focused on its thought origin, main content and theoretical and realistic significance. The studies have succeeded in clarifying the context framework of cultural leadership theory and revealing its value in modern times.At the same time, there are still vacancies left:such as the lack of publication of the original literature, blank of theory relation research and empirical research.Correspondingly, the future re-search should focus on the more detailed collection and translation of original data, the inner link research and empirical research on the basis of investigation to deepen the contemporary exploration of the theoretical and practical value of cultural leadership theory.%国内学界近三十年来对葛兰西文化领导权理论的研究,主要集中在其思想渊源、主要内容和现实意义三个专题,理清了文化领导权理论的脉络框架,揭示了其时代价值;同时也存在着原著文献资料出版、理论内在联系研究和实证研究三个方面的缺失。葛兰西文化领导权理论研究应重点着力于更多详实的原著资料的搜集翻译、整体上的内在联系研究和调研基础上的实证研究,以深化对该理论的当代理论意义和实践价值的探究。

  7. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  8. Creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship across cultures theory and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures.   Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards.  Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses.   Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...

  9. 费孝通文化论初探%Tentative Discussion towards the Theory of Culture of Fei Xiaotong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延中

    2003-01-01

    Professor Fei Xiao-tong is one of the world famous Chinese sociologists due to his socio-anthropology community studies on civilized nation. Culture theory is one major part of his communitystudies. This article draws the theoretically origins of his culture theory which was based on Malinovski'sfunctionalism and dynamics culture theory. His "diversified origins with one core" theory is not onlyidentified significantly in Chinese nation history, but also useful to explain the trend of the world's culturephenomena in the process of globalization. The Chinese culture and all other nations' cultures need to bere-identified through cross-culture communication and self-consciousness to learn to tolerate and admireeach other in order to create general common consensus of the world. All nations holding their own culturecharacteristics can exist peacefully with the general common consensus as the global culture roots.

  10. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  11. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  12. An Interpretation of Stuart Hall’s Cultural Identity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan’e

    2016-01-01

    Stuart Hall is a leading figure in the development of contemporary cultural studies. In his celebrated“CulturalIdentity and Diaspora”, he mainly discusses the relationship between cultural identity and representation. According to him, there are two kinds of identity, identity as being and identity as becoming. Hall sees the formation of identity as a process of temporary po-sitioning and reposition. He then borrows the metaphor of presence to illustrate the idea of“traces”in our identity.

  13. Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C Y; Morris, M W; Hong, Y Y; Menon, T

    2000-02-01

    The authors propose that need for closure (NFC) leads attributors to respond to an ambiguous social event by increasing reliance on implicit theories received from acculturation. Hence, the influence of NFC should be shaped by chronically accessible knowledge structures in a culture, and, likewise, the influence of culture should be moderated by epistemic motives such as NFC. The specific hypotheses drew on past findings that North American and Chinese attributors possess differing implicit social theories, North Americans conceiving of individuals as autonomous agents and Chinese conceiving of groups as autonomous. The present studies found the predicted pattern that among North American participants, NFC increased attributions to personal but not group dispositions. Among Chinese participants, NFC increased attributions to group but not personal dispositions. The findings are discussed in light of an emerging dynamic account of culture and cognition.

  14. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  15. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  16. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  17. Comparison between American and Chinese Cultures Based on Theories of Cultural Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying the cultural differences between China and America on the basis of the cultural dimen-sions presented by Hofstede, Hall, Trompenaars and Tunner, in order to raise the cultural awareness when people are interacting in these two super countries of the world. A new scale of cultural dimensions include individualism/collectivism, power distance, low/high context, and diffuse/specific.

  18. Objectification Theory and Deaf Cultural Identity Attitudes: Roles in Deaf Women's Eating Disorder Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Rottenstein, Adena

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generalizability of direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of Deaf women. The study also examined the role of marginal Deaf cultural identity attitudes within this…

  19. Gender, home and family in cultural capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabeth B

    2005-03-01

    The paper argues that Bourdieu's stress on early familiarization for the highest value of cultural capital is closely linked to his idea, strongly emphasized in Distinction, about the role of family and domestic life for individual development and social positions. The role of women, as mothers and homemakers, is crucial in this process. Yet, Bourdieu defines social origin as deriving from the father. The centrality to Bourdieu's thinking of a resilient traditional pattern of masculine domination and feminine submission constitutive of the Western gender habitus explains both his stress on 'normalcy' for the production of legitimate dispositions, and his resistance to incorporating into his thinking the implications of recent transformations in home family living, which have destabilized the gender order. It is thus important to consider contemporary feminist analyses of the family and home life and their significance for a renewed theory of cultural capital. The paper considers two sets of literature. Firstly, it addresses the manners in which home and family are conceptualized in Bourdieu's key texts where these issues were prominent in the development of his thinking on cultural capital. The second set of literature includes texts by feminist academics in the fields of family, gender and the body, which analyse the destabilizing of the gender order and everyday family living in contemporary society. Two questions are addressed on the basis of these reflections: (1) Is cultural capital an individual or a household resource? (2) How does cultural capital relate to personal interdependencies at the level of family and households?

  20. Metacognitive Ability from a Theory-of-Mind Perspective: A Cross-Cultural Study of Students with and without Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Third-graders with and without hearing loss in the United States and the United Arab Emirates (n=72) were compared on their perspectives on specific life situations. Students did not differ in their metacognitive interpretations of the experiences when they were from the same culture, but students from separate cultures differed. (Contains…

  1. From Cultural Studies to Cultural Research: Engaged Scholarship in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ien Ang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Is, or should cultural studies be, a discipline or not? What exactly is its object? Should cultural studies be focused on influencing policy or be an agent of critique? What is the role of theory? What kind of theory? Should textual analysis or ethnography predominate? The regular reiteration of such questions reveals an ongoing sense of crisis, a general apprehensiveness over the question whether cultural studies is able to live up to its own self-declared aspirations, both intellectually and politically.

  2. From Cultural Studies to Cultural Research: Engaged Scholarship in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ien Ang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Is, or should cultural studies be, a discipline or not? What exactly is its object? Should cultural studies be focused on influencing policy or be an agent of critique? What is the role of theory? What kind of theory? Should textual analysis or ethnography predominate? The regular reiteration of such questions reveals an ongoing sense of crisis, a general apprehensiveness over the question whether cultural studies is able to live up to its own self-declared aspirations, both intellectually and politically.

  3. Vigilance as a caring expression and Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J M

    1998-01-01

    Vigilance, or the close, protective involvement of families caring for hospitalized relatives, was explored in this study using holistic ethnography. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality provided direction for the researcher to generate substantive data about the meanings, patterns, and day-to-day experience of vigilance. Five categories of meaning were derived from the data: commitment to care, emotional upheaval, dynamic nexus, transition, and resilience. The research findings expand understanding of vigilance as a caring expression, suggest direction for nursing practice, and contribute to Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality and the development of nursing science.

  4. Another Route to a General Theory of Cultural Transmission: A Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbert, Marion L.

    1975-01-01

    A cultural transmission theory is presented. The model has two uses: to provide a guide for gathering cultural transmission data; and to set up a computerized cultural transmission simulation. Availability information is given in SO 504 073. (Author/RM)

  5. Genre theory in information studies

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights the important role genre theory plays within information studies. It illustrates how modern genre studies inform and enrich the study of information, and conversely how the study of information makes its own independent contributions to the study of genre.

  6. A Cultural Interpretation of a Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.

    Social studies documents were collected from teachers in the Tucson, Arizona area and examined using three theories of culture as a way to explore the interrelationships between social studies curriculum and United States society. Malinowski's functionalist position suggests that culture is composed of traits each of which provide a specific…

  7. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成珍

    2014-01-01

    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  8. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  9. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  10. Theory of mind and executive function during middle childhood across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Devine, Rory T; Wong, Keri K; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies with preschoolers have reported "East-West" contrasts in children's executive function (East>West) and theory of mind (Eastchildren from the United Kingdom and Hong Kong aimed to test competing accounts of these contrasts that focus on either global effects of culture or more specific effects of pedagogical experience. Both groups of children in Hong Kong outperformed the British children on executive function tasks. That is, with respect to executive function, general cultural influences appear to be salient. In contrast, compared with their U.K. counterparts, children attending local schools in Hong Kong (but not those attending British-based international schools in Hong Kong) performed poorly on age-appropriate tests of theory of mind. With respect to theory of mind, therefore, pedagogical experiences appear to be more salient than factors related to the broad contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures. Our findings also contribute to the debate surrounding the relationship between theory of mind and executive function; although scores on these two sets of tasks were robustly correlated within each country, the double dissociation between delayed theory of mind but superior executive function for children in local schools in Hong Kong compared with their U.K. peers suggests that variation in executive function may be necessary but is not sufficient to explain variation in theory of mind.

  11. Cultural Studies Methodologies and Narrative Family Therapy: Therapeutic Conversations About Pop Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Julie; Nylund, David

    2016-06-01

    Therapists recognize that popular media culture is an influential force that shapes identities and relationships in contemporary society. Indeed, people have serious relationships with the commodities and practices that emerge from pop culture. However, they often lack the conceptual and conversational resources to engage meaningfully with clients about pop culture's influence in their lives. Cultural studies is introduced as an interdisciplinary approach that provides frameworks for both theory and practice that position therapists and clients to critically examine the role of pop culture in their lives. Cultural studies and narrative therapy are discussed as praxis allies that share a populist political intention and counter-hegemonic discursive practices. The integration of cultural studies methodologies into narrative therapy practice with a parent and her teenage daughter is illustrated through a case vignette.

  12. A cross-cultural test of the cognitive theory of obsessions and compulsions : A comparison of Greek, Italian, and American individuals - a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Claudio; Taylor, Steven; Arrindell, Willem A.; Sanavio, Ezio

    2006-01-01

    A widely-held theory is that obsessions arise from the misinterpretation of normal intrusive thoughts (e.g., misinterpreting unwanted harm-related thoughts as a sign that one is going to act on them). This leads the person to perform compulsions such as repeated checking. Misinterpretations are said

  13. A cross-cultural test of the cognitive theory of obsessions and compulsions : A comparison of Greek, Italian, and American individuals - a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Claudio; Taylor, Steven; Arrindell, Willem A.; Sanavio, Ezio

    2006-01-01

    A widely-held theory is that obsessions arise from the misinterpretation of normal intrusive thoughts (e.g., misinterpreting unwanted harm-related thoughts as a sign that one is going to act on them). This leads the person to perform compulsions such as repeated checking. Misinterpretations are said

  14. Cultural Language Study: Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Betty L.; Tappenden, Jacqueline W.

    This course guide, the first in a two-year sequence, is designed to give students an overview of Greek and Roman culture and language from the era of the early Aegean civilizations in Greece and Asia Minor to the Augustan Age in Rome. Six units of study are concerned with the growth and development of Greece and with the metamorphosis of Rome from…

  15. Anthropological Studies of Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions raised at the symposium "Our World, Other Worlds. Anthropology, Science Fiction and Cultural Identity", held in Belgrade in December 2009, is how anthropology is to study contemporary art forms: how research issues are to be defined and approached; how research is to be organized in a specific semantic area, which cannot always and with absolute certainty be said not to be an anthropological construction; whether the subject of research can be said to have the shared nature of cultural communication; whether the anthropologist is to interpret the author/artist’s intention, or that which is produced as a result of that intention, etc. The aim of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions, from the point of view of a researcher focused on cultural communication.

  16. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: The Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBruder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  18. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  19. 从文化图式理论视角探析大学英语词汇教学%Study on College English Vocabulary Teaching from Perspective of Cultural Schema Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑侠

    2016-01-01

    词汇是构成语言的基本要素之一,词汇教学作为词汇的主要输入来源,在英语教学中占有十分重要的地位。探讨文化图式理论指导下的英语词汇教学以及如何帮助学生构建合理的文化图式,以期进一步提高大学英语词汇教学的质量和学生的跨文化意识。%Vocabulary is one of the elements composed of language .As the main input source of vocabulary , vocabulary teaching plays a significant role in university English teaching .The purpose of the study is to explore English vocabulary teaching under the guidance of cultural schema theory and to help students build logical cultural schema in order to promote the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and students'aware‐ness of intercultural communication .

  20. Importance of Hofstede's study of cultural dimensions to the field of cross-cultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌

    2008-01-01

    In 1980, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values showed Geert Hofstede' s study of five cuhural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and long-term versus short-term orientation to life. This essay discusses this theory' s weakness and usefulness as well as its importance to the cross-cultural communication that will give readers a better understanding about this cultural dimension. It concludes that Geert Hofstede's study of these five cultural dimensions is a starting point to the beginners to know about this field and the government offices even can establish economic policies according to the specific culture. It is really a useful research to the field of cross-cultural communication.

  1. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  2. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  3. Uncovering the unknown: A grounded theory study exploring the impact of self-awareness on the culture of feedback in residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Könings, Karen; Mann, Karen V; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-07-25

    Self-assessment and reflection are essential for meaningful feedback. We aimed to explore whether the well-known Johari window model of self-awareness could guide feedback conversations between faculty and residents and enhance the institutional feedback culture. We had previously explored perceptions of residents and faculty regarding sociocultural factors impacting feedback. We re-analyzed data targeting themes related to self-assessment, reflection, feedback seeking and acceptance, aiming to generate individual and institutional feedback strategies applicable to each quadrant of the window. We identified the following themes for each quadrant: (1) Behaviors known to self and others - Validating the known; (2) Behaviors unknown to self but known to others - Accepting the blind; (3) Behaviors known to self and unknown to others - Disclosure of hidden; and (4) Behaviors unknown to self and others - Uncovering the unknown. Normalizing self-disclosure of limitations, encouraging feedback seeking, training in nonjudgmental feedback and providing opportunities for longitudinal relationships could promote self-awareness, ultimately expanding the "open" quadrant of the Johari window. The Johari window, a model of self-awareness in interpersonal communications, could provide a robust framework for individuals to improve their feedback conversations and institutions to design feedback initiatives that enhance its quality and impact.

  4. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  5. Studies in quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    potential for use as generic quantum systems over which the experimenter has exquisite control and which can be used to simulate other quantum systems and also study generic quantum phenomena. This is followed by a proposal for using a trapped ion as a time-dependent harmonic oscillator---a quantum system that is common in theoretical literature but of which few laboratory examples are known. A second project studies the way that quantum fluctuations in the vibrational state of a chain of ions influence correlations in optical measurements made on the ions. The final part looks at quantum information theory in a relativistic setting. An introduction discusses the interface between quantum information theory and relativity in general, including the nonclassical notion of entanglement and the peculiar features of curved-space quantum field theory. An original gedankenexperiment combines these ideas and examines whether entanglement---a quantum information-theoretic concept and physical resource---can be used to distinguish universes of different curvature in a situation where local measurements would show no difference. These three parts are followed by a personal (and possibly controversial) conclusion, which describes my fascination with---and ultimately my reason for pursuing---studies in quantum information theory.

  6. Construct comparisons of IT adoption theories across cultures and innovativeness of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Hye-Sook; Park, Young-Taek; Speedie, Stuart M

    2008-11-06

    This investigation verified the study model derived from TAM and tested path significance across moderating variables such as cultures, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and two different health care professionals. The findings demonstrated that the theory can apply to other settings and to different work professionals as well as across PIIT. There were different aspects on path significance, which have managerial implications on how an organization can successfully use their IT resources without resistance.

  7. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  8. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  9. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  10. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  11. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  12. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  13. More than a Footnote to History in Cultural-Historical Theory: The Zalkind Summary, Experimental Study of Higher Behavioural Processes, and "Vygotsky's Blocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towsey, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents what is possibly the first English translation of a 1930 manuscript related to Vygotsky's work (probably written by Vygotsky himself). This manuscript, the Zalkind Summary, is a five-point summary of his presentation to the First All-Union Congress on the Study of Human Behaviour in Leningrad in January 1930. This article…

  14. More than a Footnote to History in Cultural-Historical Theory: The Zalkind Summary, Experimental Study of Higher Behavioural Processes, and "Vygotsky's Blocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towsey, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents what is possibly the first English translation of a 1930 manuscript related to Vygotsky's work (probably written by Vygotsky himself). This manuscript, the Zalkind Summary, is a five-point summary of his presentation to the First All-Union Congress on the Study of Human Behaviour in Leningrad in January 1930. This article…

  15. The Anthropology of Clifford Geertz. Cultural Theory and the Interpretative Analysis of Cultures by Gordana Gorunović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gordana Gorunović. Antropologija Kliforda Gerca. Kulturna teorija i interpretativna analiza kultura. 2010. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta. str. 286. [The Anthropology of Clifford Geertz. Cultural Theory and the Interpretative Analysis of Cultures

  16. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  17. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  18. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  20. We Need to Talk about Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin O'Connor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Graeme Turner, What’s Become of Cultural Studies (Sage, London, 2012 and Lawrence Grossberg, Cultural Studies in the Future Tense (Duke University Press, Durham, 2010.

  1. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and identity it has often been hindered by conceptual limitations when faced with the ambiguities, variety, conflict and change within societies. This paper queries a communitarian belief that morality c...

  2. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kate; John, William

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups.

  3. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  4. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Design and Evaluate an Educational Game in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…

  5. Corporate Culture in a University Setting: An Analysis of Theory "X," Theory "Y" and Theory "Z" Cultures within University Academic Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlak, William D.; And Others

    A study used M. Cuffe and J. F. Cragan's three-dimensional model for understanding corporate culture within an organization to describe the managerial styles of chairpersons at Illinois State University. Case studies were completed for 18 chairpersons, who then sorted 60 statements on leadership style on a forced choice continuum from most…

  6. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  7. Contributions of Habermas and Bakhtin to the Assimilation of Modernity and Postmodernity within Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eung-Jun

    While not attempting to unify the various theories in cultural studies, this paper proposes pointers or directions to further transformations of cultural studies. The paper identifies and analyzes the works of two theorists, who have largely been ignored in cultural studies, to suggest a resolution of the theoretical conflicts surrounding cultural…

  8. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  9. Performance studies – the theory of catastrophes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wojnowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of Performatyka – teoria katastrof? [“Performance studies – the theory of catastrophes?”], which is a cross-sectional investigation into performance studies, tracks the trains of thought about catastrophes in different theories of performativity, ranging from J. L. Austin’s to Jon McKenzie’s ideas. Of particular interest is how particular theoreticians integrate the term ‘catastrophe’ into their conceptual frameworks and how they evaluate it. By criticizing the approach taken by Judith Butler, who postulates “melancholic performance studies”, which brings to mind Adorno’s idea that is explicated in Minima Moralia (traurige Wissenschaft, the author tries to show how we can productively use Austin’s theses that are presented in the first chapters of his famous How to Do Things with Words. In the author’s opinion, Austin allows us to approach communicational catastrophes from a different perspective, which is often forgotten, i.e. of the functioning of contextual systems. It is shown that the tension between felicity and infelicity may be at the core of the popularity of performativity which is understood as a tool for researching contemporary cultural phenomena.

  10. Culture and global thought: Chinese international theory in the making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yaqing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author examines the study of international relations in China, a discipline that has proliferated as the country has opened up to the rest of the world. He examines the three main trends of international thought that have become most widespread: the first, which the author calls the obverse approach, situates Chinese thought as the theoretical basis for considering a genuine worldism, thanks to traditional concepts such as Tianxia and Confucian family bonds. Secondly, there is the reverse approach, which applies Western theoretical paradigms to the concept of power in ancient Chinese thinkers; this is a theory that emphasises the hierarchy of the international system and seeks international Chinese dominance. Finally, the third is more interactive, and which constructs an intercultural, thoughtful and critical dialogue, at the same time as applying autochthonous conceptual frameworks such as Confucian relationism, and foreign ones, such as rationalism.

  11. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  12. Study of Politeness in Cross Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂仁娜; 姜艳

    2012-01-01

      Politeness is a universal linguistic phenomenon but also relative by nature and subject to culture. The politeness in pragmatic study and its cultural specificity in cross cultural communication are explained. Some tactics in cross communication are also suggested.

  13. An Analysis on Cultural Values of Companies from China and the United States-Based on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占小海; 张若晨

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, commercial competition is becoming fiercer and fiercer, and with the globalization proceeding, when a company tries to expand, promote and develop, it needs to adapt itself to the open business society while not losing its own cul-ture. Since English has been widely used in the world, an effective and suitable English website is essential for a company to use as a kind of advertisement and publicity, where its cultural values are presented.With companies’websites as subjects and Hofst-ede’s cultural dimension theory as the theoretical basis, this study, through text content and data analysis of company profiles, strategies and cultures, tries to find out the tendency of Chinese and American companies on the five cultural value dimensions, which is power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and long-term orientation. Accordingly, constructive suggestions are put forward to help appease and avoid misunderstandings, and promote business communication and collabora-tion.

  14. Advancing institutional anomie theory: a microlevel examination connecting culture, institutions, and deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R

    2006-12-01

    Institutional anomie theory (IAT) contends that crime can be explained by an examination of American society, particularly the exaggerated emphasis on economic success inherent in American culture, which has created a "cheating orientation" that permeates structural institutions, including academia. Consistent with its macrosocial perspective, previous tests of IAT have examined IAT variables at the structural level only. The current study tests the robustness of IAT by operationalizing IAT variables at the individual level and looking at a minor form of deviance, student cheating. The author also examines the role statistical modeling has in testing the theory at the microlevel. Undergraduates, 122 American born and 48 international, were surveyed about their cheating behaviors and adherence to economic goal orientations. Results related to the hypothesis that American students, relative to foreign-born students, will have an increased adherence to economic goal orientations that increase cheating behaviors are presented, as are suggestions for future studies.

  15. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  16. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  17. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  18. Two Cultures, Two Dialogists and Two Intersecting Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some possibilities for applying the linguistic and psychological theories of two dialogists, Mikhail Bakhtin and Jacques Lacan, to the classroom. There is a short summary of how the two theories may interact with each other and then a discussion of their two opposing views of identity formation. Bakhtin was a Russian, coming…

  19. Cultural theories of postpartum bleeding in Matlab, Bangladesh: implications for community health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Lynn M; Hruschka, Daniel; Kalim, Nahid; Khan, Jasmin; Paul, Moni; Edmonds, Joyce K; Koblinsky, Marjorie A

    2009-06-01

    Early recognition can reduce maternal disability and deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage. This study identified cultural theories of postpartum bleeding that may lead to inappropriate recognition and delayed care-seeking. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained through structured interviews with 149 participants living in Matlab, Bangladesh, including women aged 18-49 years, women aged 50+ years, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and skilled birth attendants (SBAs), were subjected to cultural domain. General consensus existed among the TBAs and lay women regarding signs, causes, and treatments of postpartum bleeding (eigenvalue ratio 5.9, mean competence 0.59, and standard deviation 0.15). Excessive bleeding appeared to be distinguished by flow characteristics, not colour or quantity. Yet, the TBAs and lay women differed significantly from the SBAs in beliefs about normalcy of blood loss, causal role of the retained placenta and malevolent spirits, and care practices critical to survival. Cultural domain analysis captures variation in theories with specificity and representativeness necessary to inform community health intervention.

  20. Out of Context: Thinking Cultural Studies Diasporically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Farred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.

  1. A Tentative Study of Cultural Translation from the Perspective of Memetic-adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-jin

    2013-01-01

    Memetics is the study about cultural evolution, meme is the basic unit of culture, with language as its main medium, when meme was transmitted across language and culture obstacles, the adaptation theory from pragmatics provides the mechanism and selection criteria for the successfully transmitted meme via the means of translation, thus a memetic-adaptation paradigm for translation studies will be proposed based on memetics and adaptation theory.

  2. Adopting a Grounded Theory Approach to Cultural-Historical Research: Conflicting Methodologies or Complementary Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Seaman PhD

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.

  3. A Density Functional Theory Study

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, XiaoZhi

    2011-12-11

    Complexes with pincer ligand moieties have garnered much attention in the past few decades. They have been shown to be highly active catalysts in several known transition metal-catalyzed organic reactions as well as some unprecedented organic transformations. At the same time, the use of computational organometallic chemistry to aid in the understanding of the mechanisms in organometallic catalysis for the development of improved catalysts is on the rise. While it was common in earlier studies to reduce computational cost by truncating donor group substituents on complexes such as tertbutyl or isopropyl groups to hydrogen or methyl groups, recent advancements in the processing capabilities of computer clusters and codes have streamlined the time required for calculations. As the full modeling of complexes become increasingly popular, a commonly overlooked aspect, especially in the case of complexes bearing isopropyl substituents, is the conformational analysis of complexes. Isopropyl groups generate a different conformer with each 120 ° rotation (rotamer), and it has been found that each rotamer typically resides in its own potential energy well in density functional theory studies. As a result, it can be challenging to select the most appropriate structure for a theoretical study, as the adjustment of isopropyl substituents from a higher-energy rotamer to the lowest-energy rotamer usually does not occur during structure optimization. In this report, the influence of the arrangement of isopropyl substituents in pincer complexes on calculated complex structure energies as well as a case study on the mechanism of the isomerization of an iPrPCP-Fe complex is covered. It was found that as many as 324 rotamers can be generated for a single complex, as in the case of an iPrPCP-Ni formato complex, with the energy difference between the global minimum and the highest local minimum being as large as 16.5 kcalmol-1. In the isomerization of a iPrPCP-Fe complex, it was found

  4. Theory of Mind Development in Chinese Children: A Meta-Analysis of False-Belief Understanding across Cultures and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M.; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo-European children. The current meta-analysis…

  5. Working with Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Critical Realism to Investigate and Expand Farmer Learning in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukute, Mutizwa; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical and methodological tools of cultural historical activity theory and critical realism to examine three case studies of the introduction and expansion of sustainable agricultural practices in southern Africa. The article addresses relevant issues in the field of agricultural extension, which lacks a theoretical…

  6. Literary Theory as Socio-Historical Convention and Cultural Transfer in the Classroom: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Brown, Malcolm; Innes-Brown, Angela

    1992-01-01

    Examines the implications of literary theory in light of social patterns defining the parameters of culture in the classroom. Considers literature a means of giving expression to the social forces at work in schools, providing a frame of reference for the transfer of culture. (DMM)

  7. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  8. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  9. Grid, Group, and Grade : Challenges in Operationalizing Cultural Theory for Cross-National Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, A.; Hendriks, F.

    2015-01-01

    Grid–Group Cultural Theory (CT), developed by Mary Douglas and followers, is a well-known and often-used framework for the analysis of culture in the political–administrative world. Although Douglas herself was rather wary of detailed operationalization of CT, many scholars have tried to measure Gri

  10. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  11. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  12. Provincialising the World Culture Theory Debate: Critical Insights from a Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Neo-institutionalist theory of global "isomorphism", or so-called World Culture Theory (WCT), has been much debated in comparative education. One notable feature of the debate is that the vast majority of its participants belong to a handful of closely knit comparative education communities. Ironically enough then, a debate that…

  13. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  14. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  15. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  16. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  17. Application of Information Processing Theory on the inter-relationship of organizational culture and organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Li, YIH; Fellows, RF; Liu, AMM

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model of the inter-relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure has been formulated. However, it is still unable to explain the direction of interaction of organizational culture and organizational structure in real day-to-day operation. This paper explains this relationship through the application of Information-Processing Theory. It has been established that, on one hand, organizational structure modifies organizational culture and, on the other hand...

  18. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    of teaching, supervising, mentoring and studying. We hereby took on the challenge of suggesting a ‘theory and practice didactics’ by turning to creativity research and social learning theory in order to transgress the observed routinized theory and practice relations embedded in the topos practices (Haastrup....... Eikeland, O. (2008). The Ways of Aristotle: Aristotelian Phrónêsis, Aristotelian Philosophy of Dialogue, and Action Research. Bern, Peter Lang. Højrup, T. (2003). State, Culture and Life-Modes. The Foundations of Life-Mode Analysis. Hants, Ashgate Publishing Limited Haastrup, L & Knudsen, L. E. D. (2014...

  19. Hermeneutics and inter-cultural dialog: linking theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmayr, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Inter-cultural dialog is frequently treated as either unnecessary or else impossible. It is said to be unnecessary, because we all are the same or share the same ‘human nature'; it is claimed to be impossible because cultures seen as language games or forms or life are so different as to be radically incommensurable. The paper steers a course between absolute universalism and particularism by following the path of dialog and interrogation - where dialog does not mean empty chatter but the exp...

  20. Culture, needs and nursing: a critical theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C A; Warelow, P J

    1997-03-01

    This paper will bring the critique of culture, notably that undertaken by the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Science, to bear on the problem of needs, and expose its significance for the practice and discipline of nursing. The paper begins by reviewing ways in which the idea of 'needs' has been depicted in nursing literature, and it is suggested that this depiction is inadequate in fundamental ways. The critique of existing culture is then outlined and the implications for nursing are suggested in terms of the dissolution of hegemonic practices and the development of a concept of need built around the notion of 'praxis'.

  1. The Language-Culture Connection in ELT : Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul; Paul, ROSS

    2004-01-01

    Defining the nature of the language-culture connection and proposing how that connection should be addressed in the language classroom have long been major issues in the ELT field, and these issues remain contested and largely unresolved to this day. This paper attempts to clarify some of the major ways that the language-culture connection is conceived of in the field, and it will also outline the influences that those conceptions may be having on both course content and language pedagogy. Th...

  2. Cultural Studies of Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hani, Charbel Niño; Muñoz, Yupanqui J.

    2012-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 909-943 Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of v...

  3. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  4. Applications of Cognitive Flexibility Theory in Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of American efforts to influence global peace and security through development assistance to foreign police and other security forces reveals that they have a record of mixed results. The pitfalls arising from cultural dissonance in international training programs is a significant factor in why some police reform initiatives fail.…

  5. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  6. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.

  7. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  8. Voices Off: Reconstructing Career Theory and Practice for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    The most fundamental challenge that career psychology faces is the construction of a new identity that will challenge the career theories and counselling practices that have occupied centre stage in evolving forms for over a century. As part of that challenge, career practitioners and career educators need to address the critical question of what…

  9. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  10. Literary study and evolutionary theory : A review essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J

    1998-09-01

    Several recent books have claimed to integrate literary study with evolutionary biology. All of the books here considered, except Robert Storey's, adopt conceptions of evolutionary theory that are in some way marginal to the Darwinian adaptationist program. All the works attempt to connect evolutionary study with various other disciplines or methodologies: for example, with cultural anthropology, cognitive psychology, the psychology of emotion, neurobiology, chaos theory, or structuralist linguistics. No empirical paradigm has yet been established for this field, but important steps have been taken, especially by Storey, in formulating basic principles, identifying appropriate disciplinary connections, and marking out lines of inquiry. Reciprocal efforts are needed from biologists and social scientists.

  11. Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.

  12. A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: comparison with the psychometric paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I H; O'Riordan, T

    1998-10-01

    This paper seeks to compare two frameworks which have been proposed to explain risk perceptions, namely, cultural theory and the psychometric paradigm. A structured questionnaire which incorporated elements from both approaches was administered to 129 residents of Norwich, England. The qualitative risk characteristics generated by the psychometric paradigm explained a far greater proportion of the variance in risk perceptions than cultural biases, though it should be borne in mind that the qualitative characteristics refer directly to risks whereas cultural biases are much more distant variables. Correlations between cultural biases and risk perceptions were very low, but the key point was that each cultural bias was associated with concern about distinct types of risks and that the pattern of responses was compatible with that predicted by cultural theory. The cultural approach also provided indicators for underlying beliefs regarding trust and the environment; beliefs which were consistent within each world view but divergent between them. An important drawback, however, was that the psychometric questionnaire could only allocate 32% of the respondents unequivocally to one of the four cultural types. The rest of the sample expressed several cultural biases simultaneously, or none at all. Cultural biases are therefore probably best interpreted as four extreme world views, and a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies would generate better insights into who might defend these views in what circumstances, whether there are only four mutually exclusive world views or not, and how these views are related to patterns of social solidarity, and judgments on institutional trust.

  13. Traditional Music in Igbo Culture: A Case Study of Idu Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Music in Igbo Culture: A Case Study of Idu Cultural Dance of ... It further investigates among other things the history and performance of Idu cultural dance. ... remained the climax of every cultural and social event in Akpo community.

  14. Urban vs. Rural Lifestyles in terms of Theories of Cultural Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najjarzadeh

    2013-02-01

    in center of Iran.     Material & Methods   As Jan Nederveen Pieterse (2004 demonstrates on his book Globalization and culture, there are three different perspectives on cultural differentialism. In this paper these theories are examined and will find out which one can illustrate the study region, also other theories such as culture industry from Horkheimer and Adorno is used when it is necessary and combine them with this theoretical framework to get better results for the explanation of case study region and its current situation. The combination of these theories is used to reach to the final point of the paper.     Cultural differentialism or lasting difference   In 1993 Samuel Huntington, as director of the institute for strategic studies at Harvard University, published a controversial article in which he argued that “a crucial, indeed a central, aspect of what global politics is likely to be in the coming years…will be the clash of civilizations…With the end of cold war, international politics moves out of its Western phase, and its centerpiece becomes the interaction between the West and none-Western civilization and among none-Western civilization.” (Nederveen Pieterse, 2004, 44.   Later on Huntington (1996 expanded his thesis that the central theme of his thesis is that culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest level are civilization identities, are shaping the patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post-Cold War world (Huntington, 1996, 20.     Cultural convergence or growing sameness   The thesis is a version of the recent idea of the world wide homogenization of societies through the influence of multinational corporations. According to the sociologist George Ritzer, McDonaldization is “the process whereby the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more of American society as well as the rest of the world”.   Ritzer discusses how McDonaldization and the broader

  15. Statistical Development and Application of Cultural Consensus Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-31

    1988), the full GCM was developed that allowed heterogeneity in informants, guessing bias as well as heterogeneity in item difficulty (cultural...Research Associates ( ARA ) and includes faculty researchers from several universities. Batchelder is a researcher on this grant, and Mark Steyvers is...using that software. First, as mentioned, it only applies to a special case of the GCM for T/F items, where there is no informant heterogeneity in

  16. Study on culturing Trichodema mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ai; WANG Wei-ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichodema mutants strains T5, T0803, T1010, T1003were cultured in different conditions and media, also in the presence of fungicides at 40 mg/kg (CK or procymidone + chlorothalonil, or maneb or phosethyl-Al) . The pH values of media were 5, 6, 7 and 8 and hyphae were grown at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃. After being cultured for 3, 4, 5, or 6 days, the strains were transferred at a lower temperature to sporulate (20℃) Obtained data were analyzed statistically, with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) differing dependes on the treatments (R = 40.0,42.4, 48.0, 62.8,107.0). The results indicated that the most important factor was the nature of the strain (R =107.0), while the change in temperature and time of cultivation produced the lowest effect (R =40.0). Each factor variance was significant and A3B4C2D1E3 was the optimum combined condition, in which strain T1010 grew more quickly and sporulated most.

  17. Re-imagining South African Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies as, amongst other things, the study of areas of culture largely ignored ... the canon, its boundaries and functions ~ particularly in a context where the cul- .... the complicated relationship between subjects and their symbolic structures.

  18. Civilization, culture and neurotic depression: in view of the Freudian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K

    1995-12-01

    Our discussion is based on the psychoanalytic theory of Freud. We, however, discuss a case of neurotic depression which is not considered a subtype in Freud's concept of neurosis. We discuss the difference between culture and civilization, referring to what Freud discussed in Totem and Taboo and Moses and Monotheism. We then discuss two matters specific to Japanese culture; the assimilation of foreign cultures, and the sexual differences found in Japanese culture. On the basis of these discussions, we attempt to link these with the problem of structure of the neurotic depression. We conclude with Confucianism which we can consider as relative to the East-Asian world.

  19. Study of Cultural Negative Transfer in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国玲

    2015-01-01

    Different nations in the world have their own cultures, and these cultures are characterized by both universality and particularity. The former provides a foundation and guarantee for intercultural communication, while the latter often leads to neg⁃ative cultural transfer in communication if the speakers are unconscious of cultural differences. This paper makes a general analysis of the negative transfer of surface-structure culture in language forms and that of deep-structure culture in values, thought pat⁃terns, religious beliefs and ethics. It holds that failure in intercultural communication will occur if inadequate attention is paid to cultural differences in the process of language and culture learning.

  20. The Dialogue and Theory Innovation between Chinese and Western Literary Theories---Studies on Liu Qingzhang's “Cultural Poetics”Idea%中西文论对话与理论创新--论刘庆璋的“文化诗学”构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李圣传

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary Chinese literature theory has always been finding new problems,putting forward new topics,and then completing the self -renewal through interactive dialogue with the Western literature theory.For the introduction of the new historicism “cultural poetics”,it is also a process of absorption,renovation and sublimation of the Western literature theory in the local context of the mode change of the literary theory of the “linguistic theory”and “cultural studies”.“Cultural poetics”as a “typical”intercultural dialogue between Chinese and Western literary theories at the turn of the century,is not only a theo-retical breakthrough of the Chinese contemporary literary theory in the cultural dilemma,but also an era choice of Liu Qingzhang and other literary theorists who attempt to change and update the current literature theoretical paradigm through interactive dia-logue between the two theories.%当代中国文艺理论始终是在与西方文论前沿的互动对话中发现新问题、提出新话题,进而完成自我理论更新。对西方新历史主义“文化诗学”的引入,便同样是本土语境中“语言论转向”与“文化转向”这一文论模式“内—外”更迭后对西方前沿思潮的吸纳、改造与升华。“文化诗学”作为世纪之交中西文论的一次“典型性”异质文论间的跨文化对话,不仅是中国当代文艺理论于现实文化困境中的理论突围,还是刘庆璋等文论家试图于中西文论互动对话中变革更新当下文艺理论范式的时代选择。

  1. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Leadership for School-Community Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraise, Nicole Jaenee; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore concepts related to culturally relevant pedagogy and connect them to nascent theoretical work in the field of educational leadership. The article begins with a review of literature on educational leadership and culture and then suggests shortcomings in the way these concepts are currently conceptualized.…

  2. NOTES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE THEORY AND PRAXIS TRAINING CURRICULUM FOR COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE OF PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Belandria Cerdeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to present theoretical considerations on the application of the Theory and Praxis Training Curriculum for Communication and Culture of Peace. The theoretical study is descriptive and documentary. In the first stage were analyzed and discussed theoretical material related to the category of analysis. In a second stage developed a series of notes and reflective-critical comments, which point to consider hybrid forms of theories when designing curricular training in Communication and Culture of Peace. In conclusion, we feel the need to open the Multidisciplinary discussion on the subject, where the curriculum, the humanistic, existential communicational and bring new ways of learning, being, doing, living together, but above all to communicate, in order to take a step to build a communicative culture.

  3. Review of Studies on Just Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung; Jung, Su Jin [Safety Policy Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Safety culture represents patterns of behavior and ways of thinking on safety for both individuals and organizations. Besides nuclear industry, many fields such as transport and health care have focused on the value and effectiveness of safety culture. In this paper, the definition and characteristics of just culture, which is one component of safety culture, and related studies reported by other researchers are described. We hope this review will serve to understand the current condition and underlying problems of the just culture of nuclear industry in Korea. This paper describes the definition and basic principle of just culture in nuclear industry based on the review of researches on safety and just culture in various fields. To establish just culture solidly in organization, each individual needs to understand the nature of the just culture first. And it is necessary to create an atmosphere encouraging to report and suggest safety-related issues. Most of all, to draw clear lines of blame and punishment for human error is essential.

  4. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  5. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  6. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J., E-mail: jodie.west@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bailey, I., E-mail: ian.bailey@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M., E-mail: d.m.winter@exeter.ac.u [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics.

  7. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  8. McLuhan and the Cultural Theory of Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Poster

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Media are surely central to Western societies of the past several centuries and to the emerging global societies of the contemporary era and the future. There is a thickening, an intensification and an increasing complexity to the use of information machines, technologies that are necessary in the production, reproduction, storing and distribution of texts, images and sounds, the constituent elements of culture. The phenomenon has been termed a “media ecology,” adding a new layer to the ecologies of animal, vegetable and mineral. It behooves anyone engaged in critical discourse to take serious account of media. I argue they offer a key to understanding the process of globalization in relation to a new configuration of interaction between humans and machines.

  9. High theory/mass markets: Newsweek magazine and the circuits of medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Medicine is driven by much more than science and reason (ethics); it is also driven by the circuits of culture within which it operates. This article examines how postmodern theory deconstructs standard ideals of science and reason and allows medical humanities scholars to better contextualize the world of medicine. As such, postmodern theory provides an invaluable tool for understanding the circuits of popular culture and medicine's place within these circuits. Using a recent issue of Newsweek magazine devoted to health and technology to illustrate the main points, this essay argues that contemporary popular influences on medicine are deeply problematic, and that through an appreciation of the dynamics of culture, medical humanities scholars can join the struggle over medical culture. This perspective allows medical humanities to make important contributions toward alternative circuits of medical representation, consumption, and identification.

  10. Children and media: a cultural studies approach

    OpenAIRE

    D av i d B u c k i n g h a m

    2012-01-01

    Defying the traditional psychology understanding on what are the effects of the media and also the researches made on the subject, the present article offers an approach to the study of the relationship between children and the media, focusing mainly on television. We retrace the Cultural Studies perspective, although the researches from the Birmingham Centre have not worked over such age group.The work includes the model of the cultural circuit, it refuses to understand meaning as something ...

  11. On the Cultural Conflicts in The Wedding Banquet Based on Hall's High-Low Context Culture Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红; 王慧烨

    2016-01-01

    The Wedding Banquet is a movie about a gay Taiwanese immigrant man who marries a mainland Chinese woman to pla?cate his parents and get her a green card. His plan backfires and things get out of hand when his parents arrive in the United States to plan his wedding banquet. Based on Hall's theory of high-context and low-context culture, this paper analyzes the cul?tural conflicts in the movie from six perspectives, and offers suggestions to the harmonious development of China and America. It is hoped that the paper can help readers get an in-depth comprehension of Hall's theory of high-context and low-context cul?ture and discover some invisible conflicts between China and the West and finally raise people 's consciousness of cultural con?flicts and ways of handling the conflicts. With the advancement of globalization, intercultural communicative competence is be?coming more and more important, and social communication between China and the West will become more relaxed and fruit?ful if people acquire more knowledge in intercultural communication.

  12. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...

  13. Culture and the Sequence of Steps in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    To examine cultural contrasts in the ordered sequence of conceptual developments leading to theory of mind (ToM), we compared 135 3- to 6-year-olds (77 Australians; 58 Iranians) on an established 5-step ToM scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004). There was a cross-cultural difference in the sequencing of ToM steps but not in overall rates of ToM mastery.…

  14. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  15. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity. PMID:21199844

  16. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  17. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  18. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  19. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  20. Cultural Transduction and Adaptation Studies: The Concept of Cultural Proximity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Cattrysse

    2017-01-01

    ...). [...]it expands the analytical scope. The author bases his claims on the observation that, in spite of cultural imperialist trends, audiences may prefer audiovisual programs from or about their own or a nearby culture...

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives: implications for attachment theory and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Cross-cultural perspectives have always been useful for understanding behavior. They clarify the distinction between aspects that are essentially part of the human condition and those that are the most responsive to variation. The interesting article by Rothbaum and his colleagues is in that tradition, contrasting the cultural values and family patterns in Japanese society with those of Western cultures, including our own, and suggesting that these differences shape the nature and course of attachment. It stimulates questions about what we have taken for granted in our theories and in our evaluations of dysfunctional behavior.

  2. The Cooperative Principle: Is Grices Theory Suitable to Indonesian Language Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Herawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article discussed how native speakers of Indonesian observed Grices maxims. One hundred conversations contributed in live talk show from varied Indonesia television channels were analysed. The results show that Grices maxims are fulfilled in many conversations. Nevertheless, in other situations, two kinds of non-fulfilment of the maxims are observed. First, the speaker deliberately exploits a maxim, which is suitable to Grices theory. Second, the speaker fails to observe but does not exploit a maxim, which leads to some interpretations of the cultural patterns of the Indonesian language: communicative politeness, high context culture and the needs of harmony in communication that are considered as the manifesting of Indonesian culture.

  3. A Study on the Diagnosis and Evolution of Organization Culture Based on Structure of Organization Culture and Personification Representative Theory%基于组织文化结构和人格化代表理论的文化诊断及流变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊耘; 邵芳; 纪晓鹏

    2013-01-01

    Organizational innovation and change are becoming more important for a company to stay competitive in knowledge economy. Literature review shows that organizational culture is regarded as a strategic resource for competitiveness. Organizational culture changes throughout the corporate lifecycle. Some studies show that organizational culture is difficult to understand because it is dynamic. Therefore, it is important to understand how organizational culture changes in a dynamic environment. From theviewpoint of diagnosing and developing organizational culture, this paper proposes a theoretical model and basic hypotheses on the relationship between three-layer culture and six main characteristics including flexibility, rigidity, sociability, solidarity, impartiality, and prompting based on the framework of four-layer organizational culture, organizational culture changes, and people of different levels in an organization representing various layers organizational culture. According to in-depth interviews and a pretest with 289 middle and senior managers, an organization culture questionnaire is developed. Data were collected from 527 persons in 5 companies. The study uses SPSS and LISREL to analyze and ensure that the measurement scale of our developed questionnaire has met the reliability and validity requirements. To prove the validity of the proposed theoretical model, LISREL was used to optimize and modify the model. Our analysis results show that various characteristics of organizational culture emerge from different layers of organizational culture. Rigidity, solidarity and prompting emerge from the perspective layer of organizational culture. Impartiality, Solidarity and Flexibility emerge from the system layer of organizational culture. Sociability, Flexibility and Prompting emerge from the personality layer of organizational culture. The result also shows that characters emerge from the same layer of organizational culture. For instance, rigidity mainly

  4. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a “culture-inclusive theory.” However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, “one mind, many mentalities”), this paper took the “cultural system approach” (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the “Face and Favor model” (Hwang, 1987) and the “Mandala Model of Self” (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894

  5. From activity to learning: using cultural historical activity theory to model school library programmes and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meyers

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses on the activity theoretic concepts of 'contradictions' and 'expansive learning' as they relate to the development of best practices. Method. Developmental Work Research was applied as a guiding methodology in an intervention study of six high school libraries in Washington State, USA. Library activity is illustrated from multiple perspectives using a triangulated, qualitative approach. Analysis. contradictions and tensions in the general school library activity system are identified, and an intervention was designed to facilitiate the development of expansive instruments. A case example illustrates a second level of analysis and specific points of intervention. Results. analysis reveals that the tensions and contradictions provide opportunities for expansive learning on the part of the teacher-Librarians. The research team can use practitioners' zones of proximal development to guide the alignment of library programme goals and practices. Conclusion. : some limitations and future promise of the framework and its application are discussed. The proposed activity theory toolkit suggest a new way of exploring the practices of teacher-librarians, incorporating research evidence, professional expertise, and reflective decision making.

  6. Unknown Vygotsky: Cultural-Historical Theory in the Context of Pavlov’s Theory of Higher Nervous Activity and H. Werner’s Differential Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuprikova N.I.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The position about the internal connection between the cultural-historical theory of development of higher mental functions of L.S. Vygotsky and two prominent theories of the 20th century is substatianted. Firstly, this is the theory of conditioned reflex of I.P. Pavlov, including the idea of significant qualitative difference between human higher nervous activity and human behaviour and those of animals, due to the presence of the second signal system as a “grand speech signal” in humans. Second, this is the differential theory of development by H. Werner, which fits a number of key ideas of L.S. Vygotsky about the development of speech function and the role of the word in the psychological development of a child.

  7. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory logic...... of the theory, the relation of the concept in the theory of activity. The main section of the chapter provides a methodological discussion of ways to research the motive concept. The chapter concludes with three open research problems in relation to the motive concept....

  8. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  9. A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J; Burke, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the contribution and potential of widely used health behavior theories in research designed to understand and redress the disproportionate burden of breast cancer borne by diverse race/ethnic, immigrant, and low-income groups associated with unequal use of mammography. We review the strengths and limitations of widely used theories and the extent to which theory contributes to the understanding of screening disparities and informs effective intervention. The dominant focus of most theories on individual cognition is critically assessed as the abstraction of behavior from its social context. Proposed alternatives emphasize multilevel ecological approaches and the use of anthropologic theory and methods for more culturally grounded understandings of screening behavior. Common and alternative treatments of fatalism exemplify this approach, and descriptive and intervention research exemplars further highlight the integration of screening behavior and sociocultural context.

  10. Pragmatics Study of Politeness and Cultural Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岩

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at study the politeness in the pragmatic framework and reviews the main studies of politeness by western and Chinese scholars.Meanwhile,the writer tries to reveal the cultural difference existing in politeness by comparative study of western and Chinese language.

  11. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. The

  12. Self-Determination Theory: The Importance of Autonomy to Well-Being across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Sonia Secher

    2011-01-01

    According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.

  13. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  14. The Transformation of Learning: Advances in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Bert, Ed.; Wardekker, Wim, Ed.; Elbers, Ed, Ed.; van der Veer, Rene, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Learning is a changing phenomenon, depending on the advances in theory and research. This book presents a relatively new approach to learning, based on meaningful human activities in cultural practices and in collaboration with others. It draws extensively from the ideas of Lev Vygotsky and his recent followers. The book presents ideas that…

  15. Understanding and Dismantling Barriers for Partnerships for Inclusive Education: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, universities and school districts share responsibility for teacher and student learning. Sharing responsibility demands that both institutions work to develop closer relationships through ongoing engagement, dialogue and negotiation. Drawing from Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we examined one school/university…

  16. Methodologies in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: The Example of School-Based Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postholm, May Britt

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relatively little research has been conducted on methodology within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is mainly used as a framework for developmental processes. The purpose of this article is to discuss both focuses for research and research questions within CHAT and to outline methodologies that can be used…

  17. Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenborg, Nancy A.; Boisen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States remains highly segregated, and social work students are likely to live and work in segregated contexts. What implications does this have for their cultural competence? Does segregation affect social workers' ability to serve diverse clients without bias? This article reviews two social psychology theories, aversive racism…

  18. Translating Culture-Specific Items: From the Perspective of Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施蒙

    2012-01-01

      This paper offers an exploratory analysis of translating culture-specific items from the angle of relevance theory in terms of semantic level, syntactic level and contextual level. It was revealed that due to the translation dilemma in the translation process, seman-tic meaning and syntactic structure are usually sacrificed for optimal relevance in contextual level.

  19. Self-Determination Theory: The Importance of Autonomy to Well-Being across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Sonia Secher

    2011-01-01

    According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.

  20. From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Lauren

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes critical attacks on Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems approach to history and offers new critical evaluations. Wallerstein argued that an emerging capitalist world economy dominated politics and history from the 16th century to the present. Defines two new approaches, institutional analysis and post colonial cultural theory, that…

  1. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  2. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  3. Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Jones; W.A. Felps (William); G. Bigley

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe use convergent elements of major ethical theories to create a typology of corporate stakeholder cultures—the aspects of organizational culture consisting of the beliefs, values, and practices that have evolved for solving problems and otherwise managing stakeholder relationships. We d

  4. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  5. Educating Students to Cross Boundaries between Disciplines and Cultures and between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Ir. Karen P. J.; Bush, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. These boundary crossing skills are needed to develop…

  6. 博弈论视角下藏族工布响箭文化遗产保护研究%An Game Theory-based Study of the Protection of Kongpo Whistling Arrow Cultural Heritage in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴怀; 杨建军

    2014-01-01

    通过文献资料和逻辑分析等研究方法,从博弈论的视角对藏族工布响箭文化遗产的保护主体和传承主体之间的博弈及其保护现状进行分析,为更好地保护体育非物质文化遗产提供思路。结果显示,工布响箭文化在林芝地区具有深厚的群众基础,得到了较好的传承保护,但随着西藏社会的变迁,工布响箭文化遗产的传统器材逐步被现代新型合成材料所替代;生计方式和教育方式的改变使工布响箭文化遗产生存的土壤不复存在,传承面临前所未有的困境,后备人才的匮乏是最主要的表现形式。保护主体和传承主体均对工布响箭文化遗产进行积极的传承保护是此博弈的最严格优策略均衡解。文章提出保护主体和传承主体应该充分利用学校教育的资源作为中介,使学校成为工布响箭文化遗产传承和保护的主阵地,使学校教育发挥重要的作用。%Through literature search, logic analysis and some other methods, an analysis has been done on the protection and inheritance of Kongpo whistling arrow in Tibet from the perspective of game theory so as to pro-vide some ideas for better protection of the intangible cultural heritages of sports. The results show that Kongpo whistling arrow has a sound mass base and so far has been well-protected, however, with the social change and development, the traditional sports equipment are gradually being replaced by modern synthetics, moreover, be-cause of the changes of life style and education mode, the basis for the survival of Kongpo whistling arrow cultur-al heritage is lessening, and the most serious problem is that the inheritance people of the heritage is few. In the article it is proposed that the protection and inheritance of the heritage should depend upon school education, to have schools as the main field and school education as the main channel to protect and inherit Kongpo whistling arrow

  7. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  8. 后现代语境下的传媒研究--论戴维·莫利媒介理论对中国媒介与文化研究的启发%Media Studies In Context of Postmodernity---The Inspiration of David Morley’s Media Theory on China’s Media and Cultural Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑜

    2013-01-01

    David Morley is one of the representatives of the British Cultural Studies .He inherited the aca-demic tradition of the Birmingham School , insisted on interdisciplinary theoretical path , stressed that the media should be studies In the social and physical context and the communication and culture should be examined from a multidisciplinary perspective of sociology , anthropology and semiotics .In the context of postmodern caused by globalized media , Morley tried to to study the dynamic process of globalization and localization of media consumption in the contemporary culture by ethnography , Exploring issues about cross-cultural communi-cation and national identity .Morley's media theory is great inspiration to open up new perspectives and ideas important for China's media and cultural studies , not only help us to understand our current age of media and social context better , but also provide interpretive framework and methodology to understand a serious of media phenomenon and solve problems occurred in media development in the process of China 's modernization .So Morley’s theory is of great significance for both China's media theory studies and media practice .%戴维·莫利是英国文化研究的代表人物之一。他继承了伯明翰学派的学术传统,坚持跨学科的理论路径,强调将媒介研究置于社会和物质的背景下,从社会学、人类学、符号学等多学科视角来审视传播和文化;在全球化媒介构建的后现代语境下,他尝试运用人种志方法研究当代文化中媒介消费的全球化与本土化同时发生的动态过程,探讨有关跨文化传播与民族认同等问题。莫利的媒介理论对中国媒介与文化研究开辟新的视角与思路具有重要的启发,能帮助我们更好地理解当前所处的媒介时代与社会语境,为中国现代化进程中出现的媒介现象与传媒发展等问题提供可借鉴的阐释框架与方法论,对我国媒介理

  9. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    productive relations between elements in a system while respecting and ... Grow as many diverse species as possible and use as many diverse ... This programme was considered as an appropriate case study of workplace learning ... a guiding principle for empirical research. ... summarising the causes, effects and model.

  10. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  11. A Cosmological Study in Massive Gravity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the various cosmological aspects in massive gravity theory has been presented in the present work. For the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW model, the deceleration parameter has been evaluated, and, it has been examined whether there is any transition from deceleration to acceleration in recent past, or not. With the proper choice of the free parameters, it has been shown that the massive gravity theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity with a modified Newtonian gravitational constant together with a negative cosmological constant. Also, in this context, it has been examined whether the emergent scenario is possible, or not, in massive gravity theory. Finally, we have done a cosmographic analysis in massive gravity theory.

  12. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, 3rd, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated...

  13. Culture and IS: A criticism of predefined cultural archetypes studies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although there are many different models of national culture, most IS research has tended to rely almost solely on Hofstede’s cultural model (Keil et al., 2000; Straub, 1994; Tan et al., 1995; Watson et al., 1994; Myers and Tan, 2002; Kirkman et al. 2006).). This is perhaps not surprising, given that Hofstede’s typology of culture has been one of the most popular in many different fields of management (Myers and Tan, 2002). Although, this paper focuses on Hofstede’s model of national culture,...

  14. Civilisation/Cultural Studies in Grenoble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revauger, Jean-Paul

    1993-01-01

    The professional core of civilization/cultural studies (CCS) lies in the study of the relationship between context and discourse. Here, the necessity for the perspective of the outsider, combined with linguistic competence, creates the possibility of a distinctive disciplinary basis for CCS. (Author)

  15. A cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory to envisage culturally inclusive science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer; Luitel, Bal Chandra; Afonso, Emilia; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2008-12-01

    This forum constitutes a cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory drawn from the review paper by Zembylas and Avraamidou. Three teacher educators from African, Asian and Caribbean countries reflect on problems confronting their professional practices and consider the prospects of creating culturally inclusive science education. We learn that in Mozambique, Nepal and the Caribbean scientism patrols the borders of science education serving to exclude local epistemological beliefs and discourses and negating culturally contextualized teaching and learning. Despite the diverse cultural hybridities of these countries, science education is disconnected from the daily lives of the majority of their populations, serving inequitably the academic Western-oriented aspirations of an elite group who are "living hybridity but talking scientism." The discussants explore their autobiographies to reveal core cultural values and beliefs grounded in their non-Western traditions and worldviews but which are in conflict with the Western Modern Worldview (WMW) and thus have no legitimate role in the standard school/college science classroom. They reflect on their hybrid cultural identities and reveal the interplay of multiple selves grounded in both the WMW and non-WMWs and existing in a dialectical tension of managed contradiction in a Third Space. They argue for dialectical logic to illuminate a Third Space wherein students of science education may be empowered to challenge hegemonies of cultural reproduction and examine reflexively their own identities, coming to recognize and reconcile their core cultural beliefs with those of Western modern science, thereby dissipating otherwise strongly delineated cultural borders.

  16. Cultural Studies and Sociology of Culture in Germany: Relations and Interrelations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Göttlich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, attitudes towards cultural studies in Germany have developed within contexts of contact and conflict with a variety of disciplines, e.g. ethnology, anthropology, sociology, as well as the sociology of culture, liter-ary studies and Kulturwissenschaft(en. On the one hand there is a strong academ-ic interest in how cultural studies perceives and analyzes media culture, popular culture and everyday life. On the other hand boundaries with humanities and so-cial science remain, which leads to criticism and conflicts with cultural studies and its achievements.I will discuss some of the problems concerning the perception and reception of cultural studies among representatives of Kulturwissenschaft(en and sociology of culture. Furthermore I will draw on the role of cultural studies in thematizing cul-tural change and conflicts, and its ability to do so in a way that shows the im-portance of culture and politics.

  17. Cultural planning and Chaos Theory in Cyberspace: some notes on a Digital Cultural Atlas Project for Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lally

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.

  18. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen

    2006-04-01

    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  19. The parasite-stress theory may be a general theory of culture and sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2012-04-01

    In the target article, we presented the hypothesis that parasite-stress variation was a causal factor in the variation of in-group assortative sociality, cross-nationally and across the United States, which we indexed with variables that measured different aspects of the strength of family ties and religiosity. We presented evidence supportive of our hypothesis in the form of analyses that controlled for variation in freedom, wealth resources, and wealth inequality across nations and the states of the USA. Here, we respond to criticisms from commentators and attempt to clarify and expand the parasite-stress theory of sociality used to fuel our research presented in the target article.

  20. Study of Perceptions on Cultural Events’ Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural events and festivals can have a significant and important influence on the development of local communities. Their utilization of the endogenous resources of an area means that these events, most often, have a positive impact on the local economy. Quite consequentially, they may also extend the socio-cultural opportunities of local citizens. However, their utilization of time and space does raise concerns regarding environmental impact. Therefore, it is imperative that stakeholders study their net impact on a region. This present paper examines the economic, socio-cultural, and environmental impact of the Transilvania International Film Festival (TIFF. With a history of 15 editions, the festival gathers, year by year, an increasing number of people in Cluj-Napoca. The growth of the event has had unmistakable and important effects on the city. The purpose of the paper is to analyze resident participants’ perceptions on economic, socio-cultural, and environmental effects. To reach this goal, an exploratory and descriptive research was conducted. Both primary and secondary data were used in the analysis, the questionnaire being the main tool used for collecting data about participants’ perceptions. The results emphasize the positive effects at the socio-cultural level. The festival provides multiple possibilities to spend free time in a pleasant way, it sustains the development of cultural life, and it improves the educational and the cultural level of community. Moreover, the festival does not influence, in a negative manner, the moral principles of the society and it does not generate an increase in crime rate. From the economic point of view, the festival has the capacity to attract investments and additional revenues for the local government, it sustains the development of the city infrastructure, and it creates opportunities for residents to develop new economic activities. Lastly, from the environmental point of view, the

  1. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  2. Development of secondary school student’s cultural competence during studies of History of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Development of secondary school student’s cultural competence during studies of History of Culture The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the impact of the subject History of Culture on the development of secondary school students’ cultural competence. In addition the thesis analyzes the implemented methodology of the subject History of Culture and defines research results as suggestions for the improvement of the cultural competence. The thesis consists of three parts, where the...

  3. World Languages and Cultures Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarz, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a comprehensive review of the research and best practices of exemplary elementary school World Language and Culture Programs. Specifically, (1) to assess the degree to which various program designs had most closely met the measurable goals of the American Council of Teachers of a Foreign Language, commonly…

  4. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Sherri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…

  5. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  6. Cultural Change and Social Development of Ethnic Groups with Small Populations Based on the Theory of Acculturation-Taking the Bulang People in Yunnan Province as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Chunai

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are always in a process of dynamic development , and the social process in dynamic development is a process of so-cial change .The process of social change is actu-ally a process of cultural adaptation . In this process, various cultural phenomena change , sep-arate, aggregate, and regenerate; social relations are reorganized , social groups evolve , social life turns directions , and the structure and function of social institutions are changed , etc.This process of change is the process of acculturation . The process of the formation and development of the Bulang is a process of adaptation and search for survival opportunities in the process of natural and social changes .In order to survive , they have formed their own means of livelihood which can a-dapt to the natural environment;in order to devel-op, they assimilated compatible the cultural traits from the Dai, Han and Yi.They have shifted from a hunting and gathering society to a farming socie-ty, from a mountainous region to urban areas .In this process , they constantly adjust their own cul-ture so that it could develop in the course of con-stant adaptation . The acculturation of the Bulang is being nego-tiated in the process of adjustment to nature , as well as to the process of mutual interaction , learn-ing, influence and adoption with other surrounding ethnic groups .Following social change and adjust-ment, the local culture of Bulang will lose some of its original features , and get some new traits . And, it is just in the cycle of “change -adjust-ment-change” that the Bulang community gradu-ally changes its local culture and moves forward . Following the high-speed development of the human society , the speed of cultural change has also become faster and faster .Under such a back-ground, the developing countries , especially those minority nationalities in the developing countries , are facing a much more serious challenge .Accul-turation is the only way that can handle the chal

  7. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

  8. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

  9. Studies on the Translation Theory and Translation Practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚驰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes studies on the translation theory and translation practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking. First the paper describes Lin’s achievements and translation theories mainly from his work on translation and then associates them with his world-renowned novel Moment in Peking to testify those effective theories, indicating that translators should take on the responsibility of introducing Chinese culture and promoting the communication between countries.

  10. Studies on the Translation Theory and Translation Practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚驰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes studies on the translation theory and translation practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking.First the paper describes Lin’s achievements and translation theories mainly from his work on translation and then associates them with his world-renowned novel Moment in Peking to testify those effective theories, indicating that translators should take on the responsibility of introducing Chinese culture and promoting the communication between countries.

  11. A Brief Study on the Grammar Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱华

    2013-01-01

    Grammar has been an important part of school teaching, language study and applying, and the word grammar has vari-ous definitions. During the development of linguistics, lots of grammatical schools emerge, and different schools have different opinions on grammar. This article first of all presents some different definitions and theories of different grammatical schools. It then analyses some main grammatical theories of those schools. Finally, it airs the present writer ’s view about the nature of gram-mar by analyzing specifically the opinions of those different grammatical schools.

  12. Buddhism, Poststructuralist Thought, Cultural Studies: A Profession of Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a result of the author's research into Buddhism and poststructuralist theories on knowledge, self and ethics and attempts to articulate the ethico-political implications of his own practice of Vipassana (a form of Buddhist meditation and interrogate what is called the politics of spirituality. He explores the role of faith within cultural studies by first contextualising the relevant discursive fields, then  analysing Vipassana with a ‘religious’ Foucauldian approach oriented around the critico-political aims of Foucault's late work. This elucidates how Buddhist and poststructuralist thought share certain concerns, and identifies trajectories for further inquiry.

  13. An examination of cue redundancy theory in cross-cultural decoding of emotions in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Soo-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of structural features of music (i.e., variations in tempo, loudness, or articulation, etc.) and cultural and learning factors in the assignments of emotional meaning in music. Four participant groups, young Koreans, young Americans, older Koreans, and older Americans, rated emotional expressions of Korean folksongs with three adjective scales: happiness, sadness and anger. The results of the study are in accordance with the Cue Redundancy model of emotional perception in music, indicating that expressive music embodies both universal auditory cues that communicate the emotional meanings of music across cultures and cultural specific cues that result from cultural convention.

  14. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  15. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  16. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy. A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.; Bailey, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M. [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics. (author)

  17. (Emerging Discourses: Architecture and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McGaughey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works, Rosalind Galt’s Pretty, Anne Cheng’s Second Skin, and Daniel Purdy’s On the Ruins of Babel incorporate architectural history and architectural discourse into their analyses in ways that are new to their respective fields ranging from studies of film, gender, and race to intellectual history. Placing these three works in one essay allows for a detailed review of the ways in which each author employs architecture, at the same time as it reveals the benefits and challenges of incorporating architecture into cultural studies. The essay discusses the contributions of each work to their fields and also takes advantage of the different approaches to culture and architecture to explore the ways in which this relationship might continue to inform and generate productive studies.

  18. General systems theory, cultural change, and a human science foundation for planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, J.L.; Woodfin, T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper integrates the knowledge-base concerning systems, their behavior and structure, and the management of complex systems - to provide insight to physical planning and design in equilibrium and rapidly-changing conditions. It contributes to the redefinition of the professions of physical planning and design; and the establishment of their human science foundations. This paper begins with a description of general systems theory, and the types of organizational structures that emerge in systems that are either in a state of equilibrium, controlled change, or chaos. It addresses the changes in system dynamics that occur as a culture moves from a condition of equilibrium or slow evolutionary change, to one of profound, rapid change. Conceptual approaches to decision-making to address these changing conditions are explored, with a focus on strategies to manage change and retard its rate, or conversely to maximize rate of change with reduced ability to manage that change. The paper presents the recent history of South Africa, Value Systems Theory and the differential manner in which people image the world - in an effort to establish intergroup harmony. It introduces problems that are emerging due to different value systems and need satisfaction; and on-going efforts to facilitate rapid paradigmatic change through equilibrium processes. The paper addresses recent efforts at the national level, roadblocks to change, and {open_quotes}change triggers{close_quotes} that can facilitate that change. It addresses case-study research to identify urbanization {open_quotes}delivery models{close_quotes} that can facilitate change at the local community-planning level. This paper develops the scientific basis within which to address urban planning and design as community facilitation, and as the management of ecological and human health. It establishes the need for a human science foundation for physical planning and design. 116 refs.

  19. Studies on suspension culture of virginia mallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is a very important industrial and energetic crop (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. In our studies, we used plant cell suspension cultures due to the fact that it is a useful tool to investigate biochemical, molecular and physiological aspects of many cellular functions (Dong et al. 2010. Virginia mallow seeds, obtained from Prof. Borkowska (University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland, were used in this investigation to obtain plants which were grown in sterile conditions in the Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland. The seeds were surface sterilized and washed three times in sterile, distilled water. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, young seedlings were used as a source of explants (to callus induction. Two types of explants were used to form callus culture: leaf and petiole. Callus tissues were then aseptically transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask with liquid medium and placed on an orbital shaker moving at 120 rpm. The observations of this suspense culture were conducted under light and confocal LSM microscopes. The authors observed that depending on the type of explants and composition of medium, callus tissue has varied in color and character of growth.

  20. A Review Study of Interlanguage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamad Al-khresheh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of first language (L1 hereinafter  in the learning of second language  (L2 hereinafter has witnessed an intense debate during the past years, resulting in the prevalence of Error Analysis (EA hereinafter over Contrastive Analysis (CA hereinafter.  A great number of empirical studies indicated that neither L1 nor L2 was always responsible for learners' errors (Bailey et al. 1974; Krashen et al. 1978, 2003; Larsen-Freeman, 2002; 2003. CA and EA paved the way for Interlanguage theory (IL hereinafter in describing L2 learners' errors in the acquisition process of L2. IL, which has been in vogue for the last years, has witnessed huge criticism by different researchers and linguists from various L1 backgrounds. They all came to state that there are many points in this theory which are not clear. In light of this, this study aims at reviewing and discussing the role of  IL in describing and explaining learners' errors in the process of acquisition of L2. Therefore, theoretical foundations, theoretical assumptions, limitations and significance of this theory are discussed in detail. This review reveals that IL theory is almost no longer valid in the field of second language acquisition (SLA hereinafter for numerous reasons. Keywords: Interlanguage, First language, Second/foreign language, L2 errors

  1. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  2. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  4. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  5. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  6. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  7. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students' experiences of a study abroad programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Heidi C; Turner, de Sales

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students. background: Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity and incorporate this into caregiving. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students' experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock, and making a decision to take on the ways of the host culture. These actions led to an understanding that being sensitive to another culture required being open to its dynamics, acknowledging social and political structures, and incorporating other people's beliefs about health and illness. The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory-practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes on the deliver of culturally sensitive care.

  8. A Review on the Study of Ethnic Minorities’ Cultural Identity Influenced by Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dan; Liu Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rich content of cultural iden ̄tity, the research related to this aspect involves many disciplines, including anthropology, sociolo ̄gy, psychology, philosophy, literature, religion and education,etc. Based on their own academic back ̄ground,scholars have done a lot of research on va ̄rious aspects of the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities. This article classifies cultural identity in ̄fluenced by different cultures, and focuses on a study of the impact and role of different cultural forms on the ethnic minorities’ cultural identity. The influences on the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities include the following.

  9. A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective to Understand Preservice Science Teachers' Reflections on and Tensions during a Microteaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher…

  10. Density functional theory studies of etoricoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ritika; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, V. P.; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Etoricoxib is a COX-2 selective inhibitor drug with molecular formula C18H15ClN2O2S. It is primarily used for the treatment of arthritis(rheumatoid, psoriatic, osteoarthritis), ankylosing spondylitis, gout and chronic low back pain. Theoretical studies of the molecule including geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations were carried out with the help of density functional theory calculations using 6-311++ g (d, p) basis set and B3LYP functional.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  12. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  13. Study Circles and Socio-cultural Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Malečkar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal learning and participating in study circles is a way of applying the ideas of socio-cultural animation. It is based on the assumption that within a society there are mechanisms that institutions don't comprise and therefore don't fulfil various, often urgent needs deriving from everyday life and the community. What is going on here is identifying and solving burning problems; some of them have already become an integral part of the way of living in a community. Study circles as an informal phenomenon in Slovenia create new possibilities of social activities based on common learning and participating in a community.

  14. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  15. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  16. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  17. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  18. Immigrants Between two Cultures: Social Representations Theory and Images of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Experiencing nature, landscape and heritage, third chapter. Buijs presents a conceptual and epirical study of how different ethnic groups perceive nature, thereby touching on the problems of a multicultural society and hybrid cultural backgrounds.

  19. A Cultural Theory of Development: What Does It Imply about the Application of Scientific Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A critical approach to the application of research by developmental psychologists is proposed, using a concept of culture derived from agricultural metaphors in the English language. The approach is illustrated in a study of afterschool activities for California children. (SLD)

  20. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment-that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

  1. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  2. The Virginian's Cultural Clashes: A Study of Cultural Representation in Owen Wister's novel The Virginian

    OpenAIRE

    Aksnes, Karoline

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a cultural study of Owen Wister's novel The Virginian. Its main focus is on the ways in which cultural differences between East and West are staged and acted out in the novel's depiction of a culturally diverse frontier environment in nineteenth century Wyoming, USA. Central in this study are the story's three main characters as they represent different cultural backgrounds, and, by their personal experiences with the Western environment as well as wi...

  3. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  4. The paradoxes of gerotranscendence: The theory of gerotranscendence in a cultural gerontological and post-modernist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Thorsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThis article presents a theoretical analysis and discussion of the theory of gerotranscendence, formulatedby Lars Tornstam (University of Uppsala, Sweden. The theory is presented as a meta-theory ofageing, as a theory of universal and general ageing processes. Ageing is seen as an urge (a drivetowards a less engaged posititon in the wordly life, moving towards a higher degree of transcendence,with a more cosmic outlook and another definition of reality. In this article the theory is discussed fromanother theoretical position; Ageing seen in a cultural gerontological perspective, as a varied culturallyand historically situated phenomenon – differing in different times and different cultures. The theoreticalperspective underlines that ageing is complex dialectical processes, an intertwined interplay betweenindividual development and cultural change. The varied individual ageing processes are not seenas the result of «drives». In Western post-modern cultures the ageing processes are becoming manifold,often contradictory. Elderly present versions of the selves that are becoming complex, multiplied (multipleselves, acting at different scenes, stamped by varied cultural values, presenting mixed versions ofactivity and passivity, engagement and retractment, wordliness and transcendence.Key words:  Ageing theories; gerotranscendence; cultural gerontology; postmodernism

  5. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on w...

  6. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  7. Social and Cultural Identity Pendekatan Face Negotation Theory dan Public Relations Multikulturalism Negara Jerman-China dan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasrun Hidayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity

  8. Re-Shaping the Faculty: Emergence and Development of "Permanent-Contingent" Roles through the Lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Oleksandr; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively examines the emergence and development of a new class of full-time non-tenure track employees in a large land grant research university in the U.S., which created the employment category in 1980. We employ cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to explore how this class of employees became institutionalized within…

  9. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  10. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  11. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  12. Cultural Studies und kritische Pädagogik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Winter

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor stellt die Cultural Studies als transdisziplinäre Forschungsrichtung vor, die in den 50er Jahren in Großbritannien begründet wurde. Diese orientieren sich an alltäglichen Lebenswelten, "Kultur" bezeichnet ein Netzwerk von gesellschaftlichen Strukturen, die durch Herrschaftsverhältnisse determiniert sind. Ziel ist es, diese Strukturen transparent und transformierbar zu machen. Hier nähert sich der Ansatz der kritischen Pädagogik, die davon ausgeht, dass die Bildungssysteme die bestehenden Herrschaftsverhältnisse nicht einfach hinnehmen, sondern als veränderbar determinieren müssen. Übertragen auf mediale Texte werden die RezipientInnen als Subjekte wahrgenommen, die die Bedeutung der Texte vor dem Hintergrund ihrer sozialen Bedingungen produzieren. Der Autor beleuchtet Ansätze der Cultural Studies und der kritischen Pädagogik und stellt fest, dass beide Forschungsrichtungen einander implizieren. Im Zeitalter des Neoliberalismus und der interaktiven Medien sei es erforderlich, Jugendliche zu handlungsfähigen Subjekten zu erziehen, damit eine gerechtere und demokratischere Gesellschaft möglich sei. Dies erfordere die Erkenntnis, dass gesellschaftliche Strukturen in Medien sichtbar werden, aber auch veränderbar sind.

  13. A study of theory of mind in paranoid schizophrenia: A theory or many theories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Scherzer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive psychologists (Frith, 1992; Hardy-Baylé et al, 2003 sought to explain the social problems and clarify the clinical picture of schizophrenia by proposing a model that relates many of the symptoms to a problem of metarepresentation i.e. theory of mind (ToM. Given the differences in clinical samples and results between studies, and considering the wide range of what is considered to constitute ToM, the question is, is there a core function, or is ToM multifaceted with dissociable facets? If there are dissociable dimensions or facets which are affected in patients with paranoid schizophrenia? To answer these questions, a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and 29 non-clinical control subjects, were tested on a battery of five different measures of theory of mind. The results confirmed that there was little difference in specificity of three of the tests in distinguishing between the clinical and non-clinical group, but there were important differences in the shared variance between the tests. Further analyses hint at two dimensions although a single factor with the same variance and the same contributing weights in both groups could explain the results. The deficits related to the attribution of cognitive and affective states to others inferred from available verbal and non-verbal information. Further analyses revealed incorrect attributions of mental states including the attribution of threatening intentions to others non-interpretative responses and incomplete answers, depending on the test of theory of mind.

  14. Measuring innovation culture: Application at four case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramón Tejeiro Koller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present article proposes a tool for the measurement of a corporate culture that makes companies more innovative. In a fast changing environment, such as the current one, the capacity to innovate has become very important. It allows companies to adapt better and faster or even leapfrog competition by creating the change themselves. Organizational Theory has come to understand corporate culture –a group of shared values and philosophies– as a powerful management tool and it is due to this that me intent to measure it. Design/methodology: After extracting the characteristics of an innovation culture from the literature review, a group of indicators relating to these cultural traits was selected. The further revision of prior measurement tools allowed us to compare the findings and summarize our selection in a set of 67 questions. In order to contrast he validity of these, we applied the questionnaire at four innovative firms. During this process we tried to confirm our indicators and add new ones, resulting from the conducted interviews, introducing an inductive perspective to our study. Findings: We conclude with a revised and expanded version of the questionnaire, which includes a revision of the indicators and the contributions of the interviewees. Through this process we believe to have contributed to elaborating a measurement tool for innovation culture, since we were able to apply the majority of questions selected in the first place, eliminating and redefining the others. A revised version of the questionnaire is offered for further research. Practical implications: The measurement tool developed in this article allows those managers interested in benchmarking their company’s corporate culture against one that promotes innovation. We increased the capability of expressing one of the most significant intangibles of the company, thus increasing its visibility and value recognition. Originality/value: The contributes in the

  15. 运动文化论的源流%The Origin and Development of the Sports Culture Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水泉

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the one‐sided understanding of sports culture ,and took the con‐notation and the significance of clear sports culture as research purposes ,and selected sports culture theory advocated by Japanese school sports studies comrade as research object ,the ori‐gin and development of the sports culture theory has been analyzed .It is well accepted that the ideological origin of sports culture is the Marx ’s human overall development theory ,and is the sublation on the popular Japaese school life sports theory in the last fifty century .The develop‐ment of sports culture can be divided into three stages .The initial step development focused on exploration of “the theory of middle clause” which drew the blueprint and laid the cornerstone for being in full development of sprots culture theory ;The second step focused on probing the sports technology transfer system and the group learning theory ,criticizing the sports technique concept of “essentialism” ,at that basic ,the theory of sports culture conceived a sports technol‐ogy transfer system which made up of sports culture ,and adapted to the sports ability and knowledge level of learners .Meanwhile ,a group learning theory proposed in the meaning of curriculum which contained the learning of sports technique ,the organization mode of “hetero‐geneous group” and the principle of “common progress” ;The third step focused on elucidating the proper mode of physical education curriculum (“what’ s the real meaning of it”) ,and clearing the difference between the curriculum of physical education (“what’s the content does it teach”) and the physical education material (“what’s the tools been used to transfer”) ,that is ,conceiving a curriculum system of physical education for all students .%针对片面理解“运动文化”的状况,对“运动文化”的内涵及意义进行研究,选取日本学校体育研究同志会倡导的运动文化论为研究

  16. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  17. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  18. Autonomous versus Heteronomous Moral Judgment Types: A Longitudinal Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Regina; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a study of moral types (autonomous vs. heteronomous) based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development in order to establish cross-cultural validity. The sample included kibbutz-educated Israeli adolescents. Compares results to studies of adolescents in the United States, Turkey, Taiwan, and the Bahamas. Israeli subject were most likely to…

  19. Social Studies--The Next Generation: Re-Searching in the Postmodern. Counterpoints, Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education Volume 272

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner, Ed.; Heilman, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Cherryholmes, Cleo H., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book broadens the imagination within social studies education by highlighting current, cutting-edge scholarship incorporating critical discourses. Drawing on postmodern, poststructural, postcolonial, and feminist theories often borrowed from cultural studies, curriculum theory, critical geography, women's studies, and queer studies, the…

  20. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  1. Flocculation control study based on fractal theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A study on flocculation control based on fractal theory was carried out. Optimization test of chemical coagulant dosage confirmed that the fractal dimension could reflect the flocculation degree and settling characteristics of aggregates and the good correlation with the turbidity of settled effluent. So that the fractal dimension can be used as the major parameter for flocculation system control and achieve self-acting adjustment of chemical coagulant dosage. The fractal dimension flocculation control system was used for further study carried out on the effects of various flocculation parameters, among which are the dependency relationship among aggregates fractal dimension, chemical coagulant dosage, and turbidity of settled effluent under the conditions of variable water quality and quantity. And basic experimental data were obtained for establishing the chemical coagulant dosage control model mainly based on aggregates fractal dimension.

  2. Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Junior, Paulo; Ostermann, Fernanda; Rezende, Flavia

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we initially address the main categories of Marxism, illustrating how Vygotsky has appropriated them as mediational meta-theoretical tools for building concepts for his psychological approach. In order to investigate the influence of Marxism in cultural studies of science education, we make an account of how current research, sustained by Vygotsky's original and successor theories, has been appropriating meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism. Once we identified Cultural Studies of Science Education as a journal that would probably concentrate papers that follow these perspectives, we decided to take it as the context of this study. In the process of selecting the corpus to be reviewed from the editions published from 2006 to 2011, we have found that 16 % of the articles that matched keywords denoting frameworks related to the Vygotskian tradition developed and appropriated the categories of dialectical materialism. The quality and originality of contemporary development of CHAT denote that this framework has been playing a very important role in recent expansion of Vygotskian approaches to research in science education. Among the papers that we considered to develop and appropriate Vygotskian frameworks, incompletion in the appropriation of meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism and the misusage of dialectics intertwined with dialogism were highlighted. Our findings suggest that overcoming these limitations can enhance political analysis of sociocultural phenomena in the context of science education. It also represents a strengthening of the role of dialectical materialism in expanding sociocultural perspectives toward a better articulation between individual and institutional-centered analyses.

  3. A Model for Translating Ethnography and Theory into Culturally Constructed Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J.; Schensul, Stephen L.; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J.; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts. PMID:25292448

  4. A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Schensul, Jean J; Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts.

  5. Geertz versus Levi-Strauss: latent structural dispositions in Geertz "theory of culture"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available These are two authors, in Foucauldian terms that certainly belong to the most influential individuals in socio-cultural anthropology, as well as in the social sciences and interdisciplinary research more broadly. Claude Levi- Strauss became some kind of an "intellectual hero" during the domination of structuralism in the mid-twentieth century and during the 1960s, while Clifford Geertz was an ‘icon and ambassador’ of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. They are both one of the founders of the discourse theory. They not only established a distinct theoretical approaches and methods – structural (Levi-Strauss and interpretative anthropology (Clifford Geertz, but through their intellectual authority they also inspired paradigms and intellectual movements making structuralism and "interpretation of culture" more than some passing episodes in the history of social though (in terms of "trendy ideas". My aim is to make some parallels between these two authors, who despite all the differences that are evident in their epistemological discourses, theoretical approaches and methods (as well as in their ethnographic and anthropological writings itself still have some similarities in their theorisation and interpretation of culture, which I would like to stress in this paper.

  6. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  7. Cultural Studies in Turkey: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Pultar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent socio-political developments have rendered cultural studies of the Repub-lic of Turkey an ever-widening field of study, as they lead apparently to a proba-ble paradigm shift in a society that was once thought to be purely Western-oriented. The analysis of this transformation is before all else a cultural studies task. Accordingly, this paper has two aims: one, to make a a brief survey of cultur-al studies work that has been done so far in Turkey; and two, draw attention to the various problems encountered by the instruction and practice of cultural stud-ies in the country.

  8. In-Depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina-Jasjukevica, Gunta; Briška, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. "The aim" of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in…

  9. Promoting Teacher Growth through Lesson Study: A Culturally Embedded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Lesson Study has captured the attention of many international educators with its promise of improved student learning and sustained teacher growth. Lesson Study, however, has cultural underpinnings that a simple transference model overlooks. A culturally embedded approach attends to the existing cultural orientations and values of host schools.…

  10. Dilemmas of Cultural Mediation: A Case Study of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajtony Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Travelling implies the encounter and, in certain cases, the clash of cultures. By interpreting translation as a means of transfer between languages and cultures, the present study looks into the different views on translating culture-specific realia. Through a close analysis of texts with the purpose of informing foreign tourists it offers ways of how to carry out this mediation. The study calls for further research into closely related issues, such as the translator’s cultural awareness of a...

  11. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory for the use of action research as a tool of evidence based practice for information literacy instruction in school libraries. The emerging theory is intended to capture the complex phenomenon of information skills teaching as it is embedded in school curricula. Such a theory is needed to support research on the integrated approach to teaching information skills and knowledge construction within the framework of inquiry learning. Part 1 of this paper, in the previous issue, built a foundation for emerging theory, which established user‐centric information behavior and constructivist learning theory as the substantive theory behind evidence based library instruction in schools. Part 2 continues to build on the Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry as foundational to studying the information‐to‐knowledge connection and the concepts of help and intervention characteristic of 21st century school library instruction.Methods – This paper examines the purpose and methodology of action research as a tool of evidence based instruction. This is accomplished through the explication of three components of theory‐building: paradigm, substantive research, and metatheory. Evidence based practice is identified as the paradigm that contributes values and assumptions about school library instruction. It establishes the role of evidence in teaching and learning, linking theory and practice. Action research, as a tool of evidence based practice is defined as the synthesis of authentic learning, or performance‐based assessment practices that continuously generate evidence throughout the inquiry unit of instruction and traditional data collection methods typically used in formal research. This paper adds social psychology theory from Lewin’s work, which contributes methodology from Gestalt psychology, field theory, group dynamics, and change theory. For Lewin the purpose of action

  12. Motivational theories in the study of entrepreneurship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia; Iván Alonso Montoya Restrepo; Juan Manuel Vélez Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    .... Based on motivational theories from Psychology, entrepreneurship researchers have done adaptations seeking major understanding of reasons that lead individuals to start and manage his own enterprises...

  13. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  14. The Controversy Around Tomboy: the Aversion to Gender Theory in French Education and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vilchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the controversy around Céline Sciamma’s Tomboy (2011 and the concept of gender theory, this paper discusses a demonstration of various levels of aversion to gender theory in current French political discourses as represented in the media in relation to same-sex marriage, the family and state education. The social institution of the family—whose functions encompass marriage and the rearing of children—is often considered a foundational unit of the state and civil society. After the family, the institution of education continues lessons of belonging, history, culture and nationality. In France, Sciamma’s Tomboy repeatedly appeared in public debates related to gender theory, primary education and the family. In early 2014, parents received mobile text messages to participate in a collective action to keep their children out of school to protest curriculum which would allegedly teach gender theory and include Tomboy as part of the Ecole et Cinéma educational program. Former Minister of Education Vincent Peillon responded to this campaign by stating that the national school system is in no way teaching “gender theory”. This film is approached as a polemical and subversive work in which gender is represented and perceived as a construct and performative identity, challenging traditional institutions of gender logics and the institution of the family, and as a learning tool to discuss gender differences and questions of equality in school. Both Tomboy and gender theory are represented in manners that do not engage with either topics directly but instead push forward specific agendas of various political groups such as protection of family and programs of equality. This sense of aversion towards gender theory and works like Tomboy are a reaction to anxieties towards changing French national identity. Tomboy finds itself within these tensions in current French national identity through its representation of children, gender and

  15. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labour Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, M.

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  16. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labor Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, Merijn

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  17. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labor Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, Merijn

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  18. Teacher Images in Spain and Turkey: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphorical images of "teacher" produced by 55 Spanish and 72 Turkish preservice teachers at Universitat de Barcelona, in Barcelona, Spain, and at Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. It is based on a theory of teacher socialization which affirms that cultural values have an impact on the…

  19. Teacher Images in Spain and Turkey: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphorical images of "teacher" produced by 55 Spanish and 72 Turkish preservice teachers at Universitat de Barcelona, in Barcelona, Spain, and at Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. It is based on a theory of teacher socialization which affirms that cultural values have an impact on the…

  20. Multiple Intelligence Theory and English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiao ping

    2012-01-01

      The theory of multiple inteligences was developed by Dr. Howard Gardner, proposing eight differentinteligences. These theory had alreadywon the attention to oureducated and produced increasinglyextensive and profound effect. This paper has proved the importanceof multiple intel igencetheory in Englishstudy .

  1. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  2. Concepts of Culture in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hecker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the seventh issue of META, this editorial discusses prevalent concepts of culture in Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. Different conceptualizations of culture that explicitly or implicitly contain qualitative differentiations between cultures are revisited and discussed. Bearing considerable weight in the respective disciplines, the Islam-andthe-West paradigm, the delineation of diverging cultures along ethnic lines, the equation of culture with art or religion, and the culture-as-civilization paradigm are being scrutinized. Serving as an example for the confusion and lack of clarity regarding the concept of "culture", the book The Culture of Ambiguity by the German scholar of Islamic Studies Thomas Bauer is analyzed regarding its use of the term.

  3. Really Useful Knowledge: A Cultural Studies Agenda for Writing Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marilyn M.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that writing centers have the essential function of critiquing institutions and creating knowledge about writing. Explains how this function has clear implications for what tutors should know and how they should be trained. Enlists Antonio Gramsci's theory of culture to analyze traditional composition teaching and research. (HB)

  4. Improving patient safety culture in general practice: An interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verbakel (Natasha J.); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); T.J. Verheij; C. Wagner (Cordula); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien Lyd Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground When improving patient safety a positive safety culture is key. As little is known about improving patient safety culture in primary care, this study examined whether administering a culture questionnaire with or without a complementary workshop could be used as an interventio

  5. Do organizations reflect national cultures? A 10-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to cross-validate Hofstede's classification of national cultures. An additional aim was to investigate the relationship between culture as perceived and culture as desired. Over 800 advanced students of economics, business administration and management from 10 coun

  6. Japanese Culture: A Study of Origins and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Eiichiro

    The culture and people of Japan are described from an ethnological/cultural anthropology viewpoint. The author begins his description with an introduction to the study of cultures and peoples. He then discusses the Japanese as a racial, ethnic, and language group. He later presents a historical/anthropological discussion of the formation of the…

  7. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Chun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.

  8. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  9. Formative Assessment in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms: Activity Theory Analysis of Tensions, Contradictions and Hybrid Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong; Renshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has recently become a preferred assessment strategy in educational institutions worldwide. However, it is not easy to implement in Asian classrooms, because local cultures and institutional constraints potentially hinder the practice. This one-semester study aimed to use the "third space", as the core of the third…

  10. 中日文化的跨文化比较与研究--基于霍夫斯泰德的文化维度理论%A Comparative Study of Chinese and Japanese Culture---Based on Hofstede -Bond’s Value Dimensions Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2014-01-01

    中日两国是一衣带水的邻邦,在古代、近代都有着十分友好的交往,虽然二战期间发生过惨痛的战争,但是改革开放以来经济贸易往来仍十分密切。追溯中日文化交流的历史,对中日文化异同进行比较,可以发现它们之间既有联系,又有着不同的历史与文化背景。在研究日本文化时既要注意两者间的相似之处,更不能忽视两者之间的差异。纵观欧美文化研究的历史,我们可以发现霍夫斯泰德文化维度理论有其特殊的历史地位和现实意义,尤其是霍氏理论在学术研究和跨文化企业实践中有着广泛的应用。本研究基于成熟的霍夫斯泰德理论模型,研究得到的结果将会更加可靠,也更加深刻,使中日文化比较研究更符合国际学术界的规范。%China and Japan are close neighbors separated by only a narrow strip of water .They have very friendly exchanges in both ancient and modern times .Although during World War II ,China and Japan had a bitter war ,their economic and trade exchanges are still very close since the reform and open-ing up .T racing the history of Sino -Japanese cultural exchanges and comparing the differences of Sino-Japanese culture ,we can find the connection between them ,and meanwhile their different historical and cultural backgrounds .In the studying of Japanese culture ,notice should be paid to the similarities between the two as well as their differences .Through a general survey of European culture researching history ,we can find its special historical status and realistic significance of Hofstede's value dimensions theory ,especially the widely usage of it in cross -cultural research and enterprise practice .As this re-search is based on the mature Hofstede (Hofstede ,1980) model ,its results will be more reliable and profound ,so as to make the Sino -Japanese cultural comparative study closer to the international aca-demic norms .

  11. 双边市场理论与电视媒体规制%Bilateral Market Theory and Cultural Market Regulation:A Case Study of Television Media Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂黎; 赵阳

    2016-01-01

    Against commercialization such as advertising in media and television, the relevant governmental departments issued a series of control measures,but the effectiveness is not as good as expected.Based on the analytical framework of bilateral market theory,we explain the issue and find that television is essentially a bilateral market as defined in the platform.It is the pursuit of economic interests that caused the current situation of entertainment and advertising. Future television media regulation should focus on two things:reduce the economic incentives,strengthen the external management.The media should take into account the social and economic benefits.%针对电视媒体泛娱乐化和广告繁多等商业化现象严重等问题,相关部门出台了一系列的规制措施,但结果均不达预期。是政府不该管还是规制不当?基于双边市场理论的分析框架,发现电视媒体本质上是在运营双边市场定义的平台。对经济利益的追逐造成了当前“娱乐火、广告多”的局面。未来电视媒体的规制应从降低经济激励、加强外部性管理两个层面推进,推动媒体兼顾社会效益和经济效益。通过借鉴国外媒体的管理经验,结合规制经济学理论,提出经济性规制、评价指标体系构建、多媒体平台建立、分类管理以及媒体社会责任培育等建议。

  12. A study of theory of mind in paranoid schizophrenia: a theory or many theories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Peter; Leveillé, Edith; Achim, André; Boisseau, Emilie; Stip, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive psychologists (Frith, 1992; Hardy-Baylé et al., 2003) sought to explain the social problems and clarify the clinical picture of schizophrenia by proposing a model that relates many of the symptoms to a problem of metarepresentation, i.e., theory of mind (ToM). Given the differences in clinical samples and results between studies, and considering the wide range of what is considered to constitute ToM, one must ask if there a core function, or is ToM multifaceted with dissociable facets? If, there are dissociable dimensions or facets, which are affected in patients with paranoid schizophrenia? To answer these questions, a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and 29 non-clinical control subjects, were tested on a battery of five different measures of ToM. The results confirmed that there was little difference in specificity of three of the tests in distinguishing between the clinical and non-clinical group, but there were important differences in the shared variance between the tests. Further analyses hint at two dimensions although a single factor with the same variance and the same contributing weights in both groups could explain the results. The deficits related to the attribution of cognitive and affective states to others inferred from available verbal and non-verbal information. Further analyses revealed that incorrect attributions of mental states including the attribution of threatening intentions to others, non-interpretative responses and incomplete answers, depending on the test of ToM.

  13. Gender Literacy in the Cultural Studies Composition Classroom: "Fashioning" the "Self" through an Analysis of Popular Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Lisa

    In the writing classroom, students and instructors alike must not only theorize experience but must also experience theory. This is no easy task, for despite cultural studies' emphasis on the "subjective side of social relations," contemporary theory is heavily directed toward signifying practices, and, as Lawrence Grossberg argues,…

  14. A Thorough Study between Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莹

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, language skill has already become an essential skill for modern people in this increasingly competitive en-vironment. Some of those training institutions and schools may only focus on teaching the language without introduction of the culture behind it. So such language education is a long-term and profitable teaching process for the students? This essay will ex-plore the relationship between language and culture and gives advice on how to learn the language.

  15. The Problems of Socio-Cultural Community in Patani and Penang: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehwae Aminoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different socio-cultural in a society. Socio-cultural is a lifestyle and civilization for some society, born from the grip and tendency of community member in various fields of life, to give satisfaction and stimulate the development of community life. Diversity of perception and socio-cultural is one of the stem that led to the conflict. This is one convention that is already known to the public equally there is a conflict with humans or nature. Everything is becoming common place of human life. But what is true in a society has received attention by the authors in exposing matters of human problems or crisis faced by the community. In this paper we will discuss the problem of socio-cultural force in Patani and Penang society in Montri Sriyong’s novel and Azmi Iskandar Merican’s novel. To discuss this problem, two novels from Thailand and Malaysia was chosen as the corpus of analysis, namely Rusni (2012 and Aci Patmabi (2012 by Azmi Iskandar Merican. Montri Sriyong is the winner of SEA WRITE AWARD in 2007 and Azmi Iskandar Merican is a new comer writer who has colored the world of creative writing in Malaysia. Both novels express Malay socio- cultural community. Various problems and chaos that has prevailed in the society so as to bring the various conflicts faced by people who are forced together in Patani and Penang. Scope of this paper will examine whether the causes that give rise to stem the outbreak of Malay socio-cultural communities in Patani and Penang. Cultural studies theory used as a platform to study these novels. The theory of cultural studies that serve as the foundation lead to cultural element in the form of literary works, as there are cultural objects, ways of life and beliefs. Acquired discussion will serve as a reference to show the reality of life truth Patani and Penang society as proposed by both the author.

  16. The Relationship Between National Culture and E-Adoption: A Case Study of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hadizadeh Moghadam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available National Culture, in the sense of the shared traditions and representations of a society, has a profound effect on the design, adoption and the use of Information Technologies in each society. E-Adoption refers to the adoption of Information Technology and internet. Using Hofstede theory as the primary theoretical framework, through a review of existing studies, the current study attempted to explore the potential impact of differences in national culture on IT implementation and adoption. Based on these studies, national culture has a major effect on e-adoption; it could be as a restraining or driving force. Given the fact that the concept of culture is not static and will change over the time, this study illustrated that by renewing Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, a newer attitude towards Iranian culture and its relevance with e-adoption could be achieved. In addition, the findings show that Iranian society is clustered in sense of some cultural indexes and concerning merely the average of every index, is not sufficient. Rather, it is necessary for an IT planner to provide a thorough plan which could cover each cluster of the society. To achieve this fact, we provide some propositions for e-adoption based on previous studies in other countries, to cover all of various clusters in each cultural index.

  17. Relevance Theory: A Guide to Culture-loaded Words in News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛

    2015-01-01

    1.Intorduction Ernst-August Gutt studies translation with relevance theory.He finds connection between translation and relevance,"…relevance is dependent on the interplay of two factors:contextual effects and processing effort…the notion of‘relevance’itself is context-dependent…"(Gutt,2004:31).We can see that relevance theory and translation are intertwined.As context and cognition are the focus of both.We could say that for most translations,translators are trying to build the

  18. Dilemmas of Cultural Mediation: A Case Study of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajtony Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Travelling implies the encounter and, in certain cases, the clash of cultures. By interpreting translation as a means of transfer between languages and cultures, the present study looks into the different views on translating culture-specific realia. Through a close analysis of texts with the purpose of informing foreign tourists it offers ways of how to carry out this mediation. The study calls for further research into closely related issues, such as the translator’s cultural awareness of and sensitivity to similarity and difference, identity and alterity in culture.

  19. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  20. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  1. A cultural historical activity theory perspective to understand preservice science teachers' reflections on and tensions during a microteaching experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher education program. During this secondary science teaching methods course, every pair of preservice teachers engaged in 20 minute microteaching activity with 3-5 middle school students. The microteaching was videotaped, and the teachers subsequently provided voice-over reflections on a second audio track. Transcriptions of the microteaching events were analyzed through the formation of event maps showing the phases of activity and the organizational sequence of actions. Event maps were used to investigate the focus of preservice teachers' reflections. The results showed that while learning from their microteaching, preservice teachers focused primarily on the mediating artifacts and gave least attention to the larger teaching community surrounding these activities. Use of CHAT helped to identify challenges in different elements of the microteaching activity. The study contributes to how reflective practice can be enhanced through attention to the social and cultural dimensions of the teaching.

  2. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  3. Semantic contrastive linguistics theory and dialectological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic contrastive linguistics theory and dialectological studies Theoretical contrastive studies (hereinafter referred to as TCS emerged with a view to compare and contrast natural languages on the basis of a logical interlanguage. The idea of making the TCS guidelines available to science resulted in discontinuing the division into the original language and the target language when comparing and contrasting two (or more languages, and at the same time, terminating the dependence of the resulting material (i.e. form indexes in the target language on the formal structures in the original language. The TCS essence is included in the interlanguage, which is used as tertium comparationis in the studies. To get more on this topic see Koseska, Korytkowska, R. Roszko (2007. Till now, TCS have not been applied in dialectal studies. There are a lot of reasons for this conjuncture. First of all, dialectal studies usually concentrate on one code (i.e. only a single local dialect is being specified, whilst in TCS, a comparison and contrast between (at least two languages is provided. Moreover, research on the dialectal differentiation of a specific language (i.e. at least two dialects (/ local dialects are being specified together is based on demonstrating the features shared and differentiated on the level of (a lexis, (b morphology (most often narrowed to demonstrate differential morphological features and (c syntactic (relatively most rarely. Thus, dialectal studies are essentially a description of the formal conjuncture, whereas semantic aspects are out of the area of researchers interest. With this article, I am going to break the current patterns and prove that dialectal studies can be conducted in accordance with the TCS guidelines. The advantage of such dialectal studies is not only a different/new look at a specific local dialect, but also a possibility of an instant comparison and contrast between the local dialect and the standardized language

  4. Evoked Culture and Evoked Nature: The Promise of Gene-Culture Co-Evolution Theory for Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Anthony; Yun, Ilhong

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sociological view of culture has been almost exclusively that of transmitted culture decoupled from biology. The concept of evoked culture brings biology “back in” since it identifies ecological challenges that evoked certain practices based on evolutionary imperatives. The practices are then passed on to subsequent generations as normative, and individuals best suited to these normative practices will enjoy greater fitness benefits than those less suited. In other words, prac...

  5. A Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory belongs to the field of pragmatics. Translation is a kind of communicative activity in nature. In the frame of relevance theory, translation is the process of cognition and inference. This paper focuses on the study of trans-lation process on the basis of relevance theory in order to improve the practice of translation.

  6. From Mental Game to Cultural Praxis: A Cultural Studies Model's Implications for the Future of Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Wright, Handel Kashope

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a cultural studies as praxis heuristic "model: for transforming sport psychology". It provides a brief introduction to both cultural studies and sport psychology and discusses a cultural studies intersection with sport studies and sport psychology. Cultural studies, it asserts, provides one of several…

  7. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  8. Rereading of the Design of New College English at Culture Level and Culture Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛维莉

    2012-01-01

    In order to know the whole procedures of a thesis and improve my own ability of writing a thesis, the thesis of The Design of New College English at Culture Level and Culture Studies which is a graduation thesis of master degree will be reread.

  9. Growth theory after Keynes, part II: 75 years of obstruction by the mainstream economics culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Part I of this essay explained the sequence of events that enabled the neoclassical paradigm to regain its dominant position in mainstream economics following serious challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists. This second essay seeks to answer the question of why the economics profession was so willing to sustain the neoclassical paradigm in the face of the reality-based challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists like Harrod and Domar. The answer is sought in the culture of economics, the history of science in general, and the study of power in the field of political economy. This article draws heavily on the work of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who divides culture into habitus (procedures and dispositions and doxa (more abstract beliefs and philosophies, in order to provide insight into how culture affects economic thinking. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence helps to explain how a narrower neoclassical growth model was enthusiastically accepted as a replacement for the ‘Keynesian’ Harrod-Domar growth model. Financial and business interests clearly understood the power of culture and they used their accumulated wealth to support the neoliberal doxa and neoclassical habitus that would induce economists to willingly provide intellectual cover for policies that benefitted those financial and business interests. We conclude with a discussion on how the history of thought on economic development might have evolved if the Keynesian paradigm, and its dynamic Harrod-Domar model, had prevailed

  10. Data handling in cross-cultural studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sound marketing research can significantly reduce the risk associated with new product decisions. In a globalised economy, this often requires the collection of market and consumer data across different countries, cultures, and language communities. However, are such data actually comparable? Thi......, model specification, estimation, testing, and interpretation. The chapter includes a worked example, complete with command syntax for three different software packages.......? This chapter will familiarise the reader with a set of statistical techniques by which the cross-cultural comparability of data - their measurement invariance - can explicitly be assessed. The statistical framework (multi-group confirmatory factor analysis) is described in detail, including data requirements...

  11. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Santti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business model development project and organizational culture changes, we used CIMO logic (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcome to bridge practice and theory by explanatory, backward-looking research. Our case studies of companies in relatively short-duration business model development projects indicate that organizational culture may have some dynamic characteristics, for example, an increase of the adhocracy organizational type in all case companies or an increase in the hierarchical leadership type in one case company. Thus, the development of an organizational culture type can be partly controlled. Our results also indicated business model development projects do have a minor effect on organizational culture, even when development activities have not been put fully into practice. However, the more comprehensively business model development project activities have been put into practice, the larger the effect on organizational culture.

  12. A Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance TheoryA Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory belongs to the field of pragmatics. Translation is a kind of communicative activity in nature. In the frame of relevance theory, translation is the process of cognition and inference. This paper focuses on the study of translation process on the basis of relevance theory in order to improve the practice of translation.

  13. Final Summary: Genre Theory in Information Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter offers a re-description of knowledge organization in light of genre and activity theory. Knowledge organization needs a new description in order to account for those activities and practices constituting and causing concrete knowledge organization activity. Genre and activity...... theory is put forward as a framework for situating such a re-description. Findings By means of genre and activity theory, the chapters argues that understanding the genre and activity systems, in which every form of knowledge organization is embedded, makes us capable of seeing how knowledge organization...... informing and shaping concrete forms of knowledge organization activity. With this, we are able to understand how knowledge organization activity also contributes to construct genre and activity systems and not only aid them....

  14. Final Summary: Genre Theory in Information Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter offers a re-description of knowledge organization in light of genre and activity theory. Knowledge organization needs a new description in order to account for those activities and practices constituting and causing concrete knowledge organization activity. Genre and activity...... theory is put forward as a framework for situating such a re-description. Findings By means of genre and activity theory, the chapters argues that understanding the genre and activity systems, in which every form of knowledge organization is embedded, makes us capable of seeing how knowledge organization...... informing and shaping concrete forms of knowledge organization activity. With this, we are able to understand how knowledge organization activity also contributes to construct genre and activity systems and not only aid them....

  15. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  16. Qualitative study of three cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Ran, Peng; Chen, Xuemin; Nuessler, Andreas K

    2002-01-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using different in vitro models and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH was decreased over time in culture. However, on day 5, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after day 8 no LDH was detectable in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT did not change significantly over the investigated time. The CYP 1A activity was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A was faster in MC than in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer such as Omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than in SC. In bioreactor basic CYP 1A activity was preserved over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor followed by SC and MC. Taken together, it was indicated each investigated model had its advantages and disadvantages. It was also underlined that various in vitro models may address different questions.

  17. Amnesiology: Towards the study of cultural oblivion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plate, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that memory is a dialectic involving both remembering and forgetting. Also, there is agreement among cultural memory scholars that acts of memory seek to counter the effects of forgetting: they serve the imperative to remember and impede the work of forgetting. This article

  18. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  19. Data handling in cross-cultural studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sound marketing research can significantly reduce the risk associated with new product decisions. In a globalised economy, this often requires the collection of market and consumer data across different countries, cultures, and language communities. However, are such data actually comparable? Thi...

  20. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  1. Studies in the theory of random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Skhorokhod, A V

    1982-01-01

    This text is devoted to the development of certain probabilistic methods in the specific field of stochastic differential equations and limit theorems for Markov processes. Specialists, researchers, and students in the field of probability will find it a source of important theorems as well as a remarkable amount of advanced material in compact form.The treatment begins by introducing the basic facts of the theory of random processes and constructing the auxiliary apparatus of stochastic integrals. All proofs are presented in full. Succeeding chapters explore the theory of stochastic different

  2. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Olejniczak; Kishi Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain ...

  3. STUDY OF CULTURING CARDIOVASCULAR TISSUE IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成少飞; 叶清

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vascular cells combined with folded and framed culture model to develop completely autologous human tissue without using any scaffold material under the principles of Tissue Engineering. Methods Human vascular cells cultured from ascending aorta (group A) and saphenous vein (group B) were seeded into 15cm-dishes (each n =12 ) and cultured to form cell sheets over a period of four weeks with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with lmmol/L L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Thereafter, cell sheets (6 samples of each group) were four-layer folded and cultured in a newly developed frame device for additional four weeks. Controls remained under standard culture conditions. Tissue development was evaluated by light and electron microscopy, biochemical assays. Results The formation of multi-layered cell sheets and production of extracellular matrix were observed in each group after the initial four weeks. Analysis of the folded and framed neo-tissue revealed a solid structure with increased matrix formation and tissue organization compared to the control groups after additional four weeks. DNA assay indicated significantly lower cell proliferation in folded and framed cell sheets than in that of unframed counterparts. Yet hydroxyproline assay demonstrated significant increase of collagen content in the framed aortic and venous derived tissues, which contained 82 % and 42 % that of human pericardium. Conclusion It is feasible to obtain completely autologous human cardiovascular tissue with the alternative new approach. Numerous issues including improvement of mechanical strength of neo-tissue remain to be investingated.

  4. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  5. Putting Leininger's nursing theory "culture care diversity and universality" into operation in the curriculum--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, L; van der Wal, D

    1995-12-01

    The culturally diverse South African society necessitates inclusion of transcultural nursing in the curriculum. This article focuses on research regarding the putting of Leininger's nursing theory into operation in the curriculum to provide a scientific base for the inclusion of such nursing. The research process and results are discussed.

  6. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  7. Cross-Culture Adaptation in Business Context:the Implication of Adap-tation Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 石美

    2014-01-01

    Translating in business context involves considerable factors like culture, idioms besides language itself. This paper em-ploys adaptation theory and posed several examples commonly-seen in product, trademark and advertisement translating to show the essentials of translating in business context.

  8. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  9. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  10. Cultural Studies and Matters of Faith: The Case of DhammaWheel.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the premise that cultural studies has neglected questions about religion and faith. Through an analysis of a discussion in an online Buddhist forum whereby the participants debate the issue of faith vis-a-vis knowledge, the paper explicates how Buddhism negotiates dominant cultural formations and evolves against various contexts of social struggles. The analysis also reveals how the participants articulate a vernacular theory of faith to rethink the relationships between reason, religion, faith, knowledge, and ethics. The article demonstrates how an engagement with a religious discourse elucidates themes that are of interest to cultural studies’ critical project, and argues that cultural studies has an ethical responsibility to engage with religion and address matters of faith.

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives After Participation in the YES Program: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa E. Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Guided by empowerment and ecological theories, the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES program facilitates character development through activities based in cultural differences, team building, and social change. This pilot study consisted of two focus groups (n = 13 of middle school youth conducted after their participation in an abbreviated version of the YES program. Specifically, the present study examined youth’s cross-cultural perspectives after participation. The focus groups were transcribed and coded for emergent themes using Heaton’s (2005 supplementary data analysis framework. Qualitative analysis resulted in two emergent themes: 1 enhanced appreciation for similarities and differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and 2 the role of respect in understanding differences and confronting stereotypes. Specifically, youth reported that engagement in this program fostered positive awareness of cultural differences and respect for inter-ethnic relationships. The findings provide support for the benefits of the YES program on moral development and promotion of healthy peer relationships.

  12. Theoretical Studies in Percolation and Polymer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang

    We study the theta points for the self-avoiding walk (SAW) and the self-avoiding trail (SAT). In a small cell real space renormalization group study on a model that includes self-attracting SAW's (SASAW) and self-attracting SAT's (SASAT) as special cases, we find distinct fixed points for the SASAW and SASAT collapse transitions, and so conclude that these transitions are in different universality classes. A percolation model, which we call bond percolation on antipercolation clusters (BPAPC), is introduced. A mapping between BPAPC and the diluted alternating Potts model (DAPM) is established. We solve the DAPM in the Bethe cluster approximation and obtain the static critical exponents beta = 1 and gamma = 1. The approximate phase diagram for arbitrary coordination number z is also constructed. In our Monte Carlo simulations of kinetic antipercolation, we observe growth oscillations that have no analog in regular percolation. A mean field theory that explains the existence of these oscillations is presented. The result of our simulations suggests that kinetic antipercolation may be in the same universality class as kinetic percolation. We introduce a dynamic fuse model for the damage done to a current-carrying polycrystalline metal thin film by electromigration. We determine the exact scaling behavior of the crack tip velocity for a single crack oriented perpendicularly to the direction of the ambient current. For any value of the initial density of defects, the mean failure time is to an excellent approximation proportional to the average length of the shortest path across the film in a certain metric. This conclusion is supported by our simulations and by analytical work based on a variational formulation of our problem. The Green's function formulation (GFF) is obtained for a random resistor network. The GFF yields a linear system equivalent to Kirchhoff's laws but with a smaller number of variables. We present the technical details of solving the GFF linear

  13. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  14. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...

  15. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. CULTURAL STUDIES: INSTITUTIONAL CRISIS OR THE TIME OF STRATEGIC DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ya. Murzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to signify of the problems of cultural studies as a science and educational practice in a situation of modernization of education. The publication continues the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Heads of Cultural Studies Departments in Russia – «The science of culture and cultural education: time for strategic decisions». Methods. The author has applied the following methods: analysis of existing points of view; reflection of the essence of the cultural knowledge and perspectives of cultural development of cultural studies science in Russia. Results. The research outcomes show that cultural studies in modern Russia are experiencing institutional crisis: insufficient definiteness and awareness by experts and publicity due to places and roles of culturological disciplines in educational process, but also the methodological bases of activity of culturologists. Aspects of culturological formation are considered and prospects of its development are specified. It was proposed to continue the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, and it will give an option to discuss the solution ways of current recessionary situation more fundamentally and subjectively on territory-regional level. Scientific novelty. The approaches to understanding the culture as areas of scientific knowledge are methodized; the areas of cultural education in the conditions of modernization are summarized. Practical significance. The research implementations can be used while improving the theoretical-methodological component of cultural education, and extending the horizons for topical current research works in the field of cultural studies

  17. Third Culture Kids and College Support: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, Sarah Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This single site case study applies the "Transition Cycle" framework (Pollock & Van Reken, 2009) to an institutionally-based, student-run support program for Third Culture Kids. The purpose of this study was to examine how Lewis and Clark College responded to the presence of Third Culture Kid, or Global Nomad, students on campus by…

  18. Communicating Investment: Cultural Studies, Affect and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, publishers' catalogues have showcased a continuing supply of introductory readers, taxonomies and evaluations of cultural studies, largely for teaching purposes. In this article, the author suggests that the current climate of academic publishing has allowed cultural studies' particular investment and commitment to scholarly…

  19. Cultural Awareness of Chinese English Teacher:a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; LUO Liu-ping

    2014-01-01

    As English is becoming an international Language, English teaching in China, especially at tertiary level, is transform-ing from linguistic study to interpersonal communication and cross-cultural communication. The case study of this article reaches a conclusion that English teachers should make every effort to cultivate cultural awareness.

  20. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  1. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  2. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  3. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  4. Virtualizing the Word: Expanding Walter Ong's Theory of Orality and Literacy through a Culture of Virtuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jennifer Camille

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to create a vision for virtuality culture through a theoretical expansion of Walter Ong's literacy and orality culture model. It investigates the ubiquitous and multimodal nature of the virtuality cultural phenomenon that is mediated by contemporary technology and not explained by pre-existing cultural conventions. Through…

  5. A case study of organisational Cultural Competence in mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Jean; Warfa, Nasir; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2011-09-15

    Ensuring Cultural Competence (CC) in health care is a mechanism to deliver culturally appropriate care and optimise recovery. In policies that promote cultural competence, the training of mental health practitioners is a key component of a culturally competent organisation. This study examines staff perceptions of CC and the integration of CC principles in a mental healthcare organisation. The purpose is to show interactions between organisational and individual processes that help or hinder recovery orientated services. We carried out a case study of a large mental health provider using a cultural competence needs analysis. We used structured and semi-structured questionnaires to explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals located in one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse areas of England, its capital city London. There was some evidence that clinical staff were engaged in culturally competent activities. We found a growing awareness of cultural competence amongst staff in general, and many had attended training. However, strategic plans and procedures that promote cultural competence tended to not be well communicated to all frontline staff; whilst there was little understanding at corporate level of culturally competent clinical practices. The provider organisation had commenced a targeted recruitment campaign to recruit staff from under-represented ethnic groups and it developed collaborative working patterns with service users. There is evidence to show tentative steps towards building cultural competence in the organisation. However, further work is needed to embed cultural competence principles and practices at all levels of the organisation, for example, by introducing monitoring systems that enable organisations to benchmark their performance as a culturally capable organisation.

  6. A case study of organisational cultural competence in mental healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhui Kamaldeep

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring Cultural Competence (CC in health care is a mechanism to deliver culturally appropriate care and optimise recovery. In policies that promote cultural competence, the training of mental health practitioners is a key component of a culturally competent organisation. This study examines staff perceptions of CC and the integration of CC principles in a mental healthcare organisation. The purpose is to show interactions between organisational and individual processes that help or hinder recovery orientated services. Methods We carried out a case study of a large mental health provider using a cultural competence needs analysis. We used structured and semi-structured questionnaires to explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals located in one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse areas of England, its capital city London. Results There was some evidence that clinical staff were engaged in culturally competent activities. We found a growing awareness of cultural competence amongst staff in general, and many had attended training. However, strategic plans and procedures that promote cultural competence tended to not be well communicated to all frontline staff; whilst there was little understanding at corporate level of culturally competent clinical practices. The provider organisation had commenced a targeted recruitment campaign to recruit staff from under-represented ethnic groups and it developed collaborative working patterns with service users. Conclusion There is evidence to show tentative steps towards building cultural competence in the organisation. However, further work is needed to embed cultural competence principles and practices at all levels of the organisation, for example, by introducing monitoring systems that enable organisations to benchmark their performance as a culturally capable organisation.

  7. Studies in Statistical Optics - Theory & Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    page 9. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Coherence and statistical optics; scattering; propagation; reflection and refraction . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Scattering from Quasi-Homogeneous Media”, Opt. Commun., 294, 43-48 (2013). 7. M. Lahiri and E. Wolf, “Theory of Refraction and Reflection with Partially... Refraction and on Reflection ”, JOSA A, 30, 1107-1112 (2013). 9. S. B. Raghunathan, T. D. Visser, and E. Wolf, “Far-zone Properties of Electromagnetic

  8. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  9. Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up

  10. Territorial Cohesion through Spatial Policies: An Analysis with Cultural Theory and Clumsy Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Territorial Cohesion Policy has been the subject of numerous debates in recent years. Most contributions focus on understanding the term itself and figuring out what is behind it, or arguing for or against a stronger formal competence of the European Union in this field. This article will leave out these aspects and pay attention to (undefined and legally non-binding conceptual elements of territorial cohesion, focusing on the challenge of linking it within spatial policies and organising the relations. Therefore, the theoretical approach of Cultural Theory and its concept of clumsy solution are applied to overcome the dilemma of typical dichotomies by adding a third and a fourth (but not a fifth perspective. In doing so, normative contradictions between different rational approaches can be revealed, explained and approached with the concept of ‘clumsy solutions’. This contribution aims at discussing how this theoretical approach helps us explain and frame a coalition between the Territorial Cohesion Policy and spatial policies. This approach contributes to finding the best way of linking and organising policies, although the solution might be clumsy according to the different rationalities involved.

  11. Military Cultural Theory Innovation in The Art of War%《孙子兵法》军事文化理论体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新

    2012-01-01

    The Art of War appeared more than 2500 years ago,which is the representative works of Chinese traditional military theory, the essence of Chinese traditional military culture and even the important cultural gene of the development of contemporary Chinese military thoughts and the construction of advanced military culture. This paper preliminarily discussed the significance of scientifically designing the military cultural theory system of The Art of War ,the construction of theory system and the measures to be taken to strengthen the study,so that the re- search in military culture of The Art of War can be promoted, new research field will be developed for the prosperi- ty and development of the study on Sun Tzu's military science,and that the breadth and depth of the application of The Art of War can be broadened.%诞生于2500多年前的《孙子兵法》,既是中国传统军事理论的代表性著作,也是中国传统军事文化的精华,更是当代中国军事思想发展和先进军事文化建设的重要文化基因。对科学设计《孙子兵法》军事文化理论体系的意义、理论体系构建与加强研究的措施进行了初步的探讨,以期推动《孙子兵法》军事文化研究,并为孙子兵学理论研究的繁荣与发展开辟新的研究领域,为拓展《孙子兵法》应用的广度与深度廓清基本途径。

  12. Palmer's Cultural Linguistics and Its Implications for Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤

    2008-01-01

    As an English learner and educator,I am devoting myself to translating works in clear and exact way.But in practice,I find it very difficult to translate works from one language to another,especially some Chinese ancient poets,which embodies the essence of Chinese culture.And what makes me obsessed with is the imageries conveyed in the two cultures.One word in Chinese ancient poets is not only interpreted literally but also explained between the lines,because it will contain a lot of images,which are most difficult to be translated.Therefore,I have to understand the basic meaning,besides it is necessary for me to understand the images and transform them into another language so that the translation can drive home to the natives.Here I borrow the theories from the cultural linguistics to translate Chinese poets.I will try best to apply the theories to translation from Chinese to English and compare some works including various versions.Finally I will draw a conclusion that for translation,the cultural linguistics is essential.

  13. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Olejniczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain unanswered. As a result of case study analysis we put forward an original model illustrating the relationship between bureaucratic and cultural modes of control over stages of the organization life cycle. Research implications and limitations: Implications of the study consist of prescriptions on how to successfully exert control by combining formal and informal measures. Main limitations of the study are related to its generalizability. Originality: Originality of the study results both from putting forward a new theoretical models and using original historical case of Panasonic Corporation.

  14. Ethnonursing: A Qualitative Research Method for Studying Culturally Competent Care across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn R. McFarland PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CTN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse anthropologist, Madeleine Leininger, developed the culture care theory and ethnonursing research method to help researchers study transcultural human care phenomena and discover the knowledge nurses need to provide care in an increasingly multicultural world. The authors propose that the ethnonursing method can be useful for research that addresses providing care in other disciplines, including education, administration, physical, occupational, and speech therapy, social work, pharmacy, medicine, and other disciplines in which research findings have implications for human care and health. The authors discuss the culture care theory and describe the ethnonursing research method's enablers, data analysis phases, and qualitative evaluation criteria. The theory is presented as a guide for using research findings to design culturally competent and congruent care to promote well-being among diverse people, groups, communities, and institutions. Resources include a reference list of key source publications, a discussion of exemplar studies, and samples of a theory-based, open-ended interview guide and data coding system.

  15. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  16. Stuttering in Lima, Peru: a qualitative case study of current concepts, theories, and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, L C

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate within an ethnographic framework, certain cultural variables which may be factors in the etiology and presentation of stuttering as well as in the care provided for those who stutter. An assessment was made of the cultural influences upon the following variables of the transcultural investigation of stuttering: 1) epidemiological characteristics of stuttering; 2) attitudes of the stutterer and the stutterer's family, friends, therapists towards the defect; 3) cultural expectations which may be part of the etiology/perpetuation of the problem of stuttering, including an examination of these cultural expectations within the context of the stutterer's past and present home, work, and recreational lifestyles: 4) current theories and therapies.

  17. Critical Theory and Information Studies: A Marcusean Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Ajit K.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline's theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse's…

  18. Critical Theory and Information Studies: A Marcusean Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Ajit K.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline's theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse's…

  19. Assessing migration and adaptation from two or more points of view: Cultural-historical theory and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Portes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study validates a new tool for assessing differences in cultural adaptation for both majority and less dominant minority/immigrant adults in college in general. The Cultural Adaptation and Development Inventory (CADI is a self-report measure validated across multi-ethnic groups. The reliability and validity of a four factor model are adequate based several replication studies. Overall, the CADI provided evidence for a culturally valid measurement that shows both convergent and discriminant validity. Predicted ethnic group and gender differences were replicated with new groups of respondents for factors measuring Inter-Cultural Stress, Helplessness/Optimism, Positive Inter-cultural Adaptation and Inter-cultural Insensitivity. The study’s socio-cultural and usual types of validity is discussed in relation Berry’s (2003, Portes (1999 and Vygotski’s (1978 views regarding sociogenesis.

  20. Modeling safety culture as a socially emergent phenomenon: a case study in aircraft maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, D.F.; Mols, C.; Bím, J.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture is often understood as encompassing organizational members’ shared attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values associated with safety. Safety culture theory development is fraught with inconsistencies and superficiality of measurement methods, because the dynamic and political nature

  1. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

    El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

  2. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  3. Studies in the theory of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    The surface arrangement of atoms in a solid controls the energetically slowly varying features of a LEED spectrum. Because of inelastic collisions within the solid, the LEED electrons mainly sample a surface sandwich of atoms. Thus, the surface sandwich reflectivity, computed by using a method which considers only single reflections of the electron by sheets of atoms in the solid, can be directly compared with the slowly varying, surface dependent features in the data. The method was used to determine that the surface of TiS/sub 2/ is ideal whereas the surface sandwich of TiSe/sub 2/ expands outward slightly. For the final determinations, the smoothing method was used on both the data and a theory which includes multiple scattering to confine the comparison to just the slowly varying surface dependent features. Energies of deep traps associated with impurities in semiconductors are shown to be controlled by the S and P orbital energies of the impurity atoms. First, the qualitative physics of a deep trap is worked out using a defect molecule model. The quantitative theory is worked out using a tight binding Koster-Slater calculation. Predictions of energies of deep traps caused by impurities are made for fourteen different semiconductors. The theory is compared with the data for GaP and the alloy GaAs/sub 1-x/P/sub x/ before developing a phenomenological model which depends mainly on the energy centers of the valence and conduction band density of states as well as atomic energies of impurities. This phenomenological model is used to make predictions of deep trap energies in Si.

  4. Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Karshenboim, Savely G.

    2003-01-01

    As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...

  5. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  6. The Cultivation Theory: AResearch Towards to the Ideological Cultural Results of Living with Television

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Ozer

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we try find out if there is a role of television on the people’s per- ception of the world and their characterization of the social reality. In other words, we investigate the television’s cultivation role. To investigate the television’s cultivation role, we use the components of Cultural Indicators Project of George Gerbner such as Cultivation Analysis and Message System. Analysis To investigate the television’s cultiva- tion role, first of all, we analyze the prime t...

  7. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  9. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  10. Rapid Rural Appraisal: A Study of Gullah Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Charles W.; Lucas, David M.

    Principles of rural sociology and interpersonal communication provide the foundation for a study of "Gullah" culture. The Gullahs are a group of African Americans living along the southwestern U.S. coastal territory. Gullah culture began to evolve with the enslavement of African people in the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia,…

  11. The Limits of Cultural Competence: An Indigenous Studies Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Taking the Universities Australia report, "National best practice framework for Indigenous cultural competency in Australian universities" (2011) as the starting point for its discussion, this paper examines the applicability of cultural competence in the design and delivery of Australian Indigenous Studies. It argues that both the…

  12. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  13. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  14. The Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the competencies of culturally responsive teaching and construct a Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale (CRTPS) for the use of teacher preparation programs and preservice teachers. Competencies listed in the scale were identified through literature reviews and input from experts. The…

  15. The transmission and stability of cultural life scripts: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Steve M J; Haque, Shamsul

    2017-06-06

    Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture. Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends. They also reported the use of comments of relatives and friends and the use of newspapers, books, movies and television programmes. Furthermore, we examined the stability of life scripts and similarities and differences across cultures. We found that life scripts are stable cognitive structures and that there are, besides cross-cultural differences in the content, small cross-cultural differences in the valence and distribution of life script events, with the Australian life script containing more positive events and more events expected to occur before the age of 16.

  16. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  17. 周谷城“文化综合说”的形成%The Formation Of Zhou Gucheng’ s Cultures Synthesis Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢战国

    2014-01-01

    《生活系统》奠定周谷城文化观的基础,大革命失败后的中国社会研究使周谷城意识到产业革命对于中国现代化的重要性,周著《中国通史》的“中外文化汇合演进”说是其后“文化综合说”的源头和雏形,周著《世界通史》的编撰使周谷城意识到了欧洲中心论问题。1978年后,周谷城在上述文化思想的基础上提出了精辟独到的“文化综合说”。%Zhou Gucheng laid the foundation for his theory by System of Life , realized the importance of industrial revolution to China’ s modernization by the study of Chinese society after the the Great Revolution, the evolution of cultures both from China and foreign in Zhou’ s General History of China was the origin and rudiment of the Cultures Synthesis Theory, and noticed the problem of Eurocentrism by the written of General History of the World. After 1978, Zhou finally put forward the penetrating original cultural theory.

  18. Depicting favorite organizational culture: An empirical case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Ranaei kordshouli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a model to depict favorite organizational culture. The research population consists of all Mapna’s executive managers and the research sample includes 19 managers. In order to depict favorite organizational culture, in the first step, three approaches are applied and then the results of these three approaches are compared. In the first approach, Cameron and Quinn (1999 framework [Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011. Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. John Wiley & Sons] and success indexes are used to determine favorite organizational culture. In the second approach, benchmarking technique is applied by implementing the Denison organizational culture database. In the third approach, based on competitive value framework (CVF, a questionnaire is developed and distributed among managers and the result is applied to depict favorite organizational culture. In order to analyze data, descriptive statistics are applied and the results indicate that all of these three approaches maintain the same results. Regarding to these approaches, one or all of these approaches are applicable for depicting favorite culture. Finally, the rate of gap between status quo and favorite organizational culture can be assessed and we can develop and implement plans for improving organizational culture.

  19. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  20. The importance of theory of regional culture in city image shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷

    2015-01-01

    In this paper:Regional culture in a certain region within the scope and the integration of the environment, as a regional brand, unique. The development of regional culture and heritage have important influence on city image.

  1. To what extent has “cultural Turn” influenced Translation Studies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卉妍

    2011-01-01

    The growth of translation studies as a separate discipline is a success story of the 1980s.Translation studies have developed in many parts of the world.Over the last two decades,translation has become more prolific.It is widely agreed that translation and translation studies have obtained huge development and flourished.In contrast with the past,translation and translation studies has become more visible and more respectable activity.Alongside with translation itself,a new field of academic study has come into existence which initially called ‘translatology’.It has gathered remarkable academic momentum and now was called Translation Studies.Before the ‘cultural turn' emerged in translation studies,Itamar Even-Zohar,developed a Polysystem Hypothesis in 1970s which was originally designed as a theoretical framework for the study of literature and language in their cultures context.His theory has made a great impact and influenced on the translation studies.Hence,this has in turn hampered the development of the theory.Because of this,a number of Translation Studies scholars have taken a ‘cultural turn' in the subject of translation studies.Into this transformation movement,Andr é Lefevere and Susan Bassnett were two outstanding translation studies scholars.They focused on the ‘external politics' of translated literature by avoiding Polysystem terminology.

  2. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  3. Using institutional theory with sensemaking theory: a case study of information system implementation in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per

    2009-01-01

    Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of social and historical structures of information systems (IS) implementation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organisational actors make sense of and enact technologies in their local...... context. We address this limitation by exploring the potential of using institutional theory with sensemaking theory to study IS implementation in organisations. We argue that each theoretical perspective has its own explanatory power and that a combination of the two facilitates a much richer...... interpretation of IS implementation by linking macro- and micro-levels of analysis. To illustrate this, we report from an empirical study of the implementation of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system in a clinical setting. Using key constructs from the two theories, our findings address the phenomenon...

  4. Using institutional theory with sensemaking theory: a case study of information system implementation in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per

    2009-01-01

    Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of social and historical structures of information systems (IS) implementation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organisational actors make sense of and enact technologies in their local...... context. We address this limitation by exploring the potential of using institutional theory with sensemaking theory to study IS implementation in organisations. We argue that each theoretical perspective has its own explanatory power and that a combination of the two facilitates a much richer...... interpretation of IS implementation by linking macro- and micro-levels of analysis. To illustrate this, we report from an empirical study of the implementation of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system in a clinical setting. Using key constructs from the two theories, our findings address the phenomenon...

  5. Critical Race Theory and the Cultural Competence Dilemma in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…

  6. Revisiting a Theory-Supported Approach to Teaching Cross-Cultural Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Steve; Serrie, Hendrick; Shapero, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural skills are a major criterion for success in the global business environment. For American managers in multinational organizations, this means learning to manage cultural difference at three levels: self, interpersonal, and organizational. Since literature indicates that training programs based on cross-cultural and learning theories…

  7. Critical Race Theory and the Cultural Competence Dilemma in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…

  8. Indigenous Cultural Self-Representation and Its Internal Critiques: A Case Study of the Woodland Cultural Centre, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    This research report discusses Indigenous cultural representation and its internal critiques, based on the case study of an Indigenous-run museum, the Woodland Cultural Centre, in Canada. Since its establishment in 1972, the Woodland Cultural Centre has strived to promote Indigenous culture, especially First Nations art, and has challenged the…

  9. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  10. Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ke-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…

  11. Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ke-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…

  12. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  13. New frontiers in the study of human cultural and genetic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T; Richerson, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the dynamic linkages between culture and the genetic evolution of the human species. We begin by briefly describing the framework of gene-culture coevolutionary (or dual-inheritance) models for human evolutionary change. Until recently, the literature on gene-culture coevolution was composed primarily of mathematical models and formalized theory describing the complex dynamics underlying human behavior, adaptation, and technological evolution, but had little empirical support concerning genetics. The rapid progress in the fields of molecular genetics and genomics, however, is now providing the kinds of data needed to produce rich empirical support for gene-culture coevolutionary models. We briefly outline how theoretical and methodological progress in genome sciences has provided ways for the strength of selection on genes to be evaluated, and then outline how evidence of selection on several key genes can be directly linked to human cultural practices. We then describe some exciting new directions in the empirical study of gene-culture coevolution, and conclude with a discussion of the role of gene-culture evolutionary models in the future integration of medical, biological, and social sciences.

  14. A Study on Brand Name Translation from the Perspective of Cultural Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The brand name which represents the image of a company needs to be effective in the market if the merchandisers attempt to harvest competitive advantages. With the development of modern cognitive psychology, the theory of schema has been widely applied to linguistics. The author attempts to study brand name translation from the perspective of cultural schema and expects to arouse certain enlightenment on the brand name translation.

  15. Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and the Ethics of Educational Technology as Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of this special issue that addresses the ethical position of educational technology in a society. Topics discussed include critical theory; an invisible college, i.e., a scholarly communication network; the humanistic approach to developing an ethical conscience; feminist theory; and postmodern and poststructural theory.…

  16. Thoughts toward a Theory on the Effect of the Common Individual on Socio-Cultural Change: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joy

    Studies show that culture change initiated by the common individual is slow, but like the geologic forces shaping our earth, it is persistent and inevitable. Anthropology's response to Freud began the culture-and-personality school that stressed psychological rather than biological foundations of behavior. Recent studies perceive individuals as…

  17. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  18. Cultural Studies og kritisk diskursanalyse i 8. klasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarstad, Lone

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an exploration of a Cultural Studies and Critical Cultural Pedagogy approach to intercultural competence in lower secondary English classes in Denmark. The presentation is based on the second intervention in a participatory action research project in connection with my doctoral...... thesis in the school year 2013-2014.The approach is based on Cultural Studies and knowledge of social categories and representation, and how these can be taught and discussed in class through an intersectional lens. An intersectional lens allows for the conceptualization of categories...

  19. [Validation study of the implicit theories of intelligence scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Schiano-Lomoriello, S; Cury, F; Poinso, F; Rufo, M; Therme, P

    2007-09-01

    According to several authors, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior in learning situations. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individuals interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. This paper presents the development and the validation of the Implicit Theories Of Intelligence scale (TIDI) for French teenagers. Most of the studies attest the validity of the scales measuring the implicit theories of the intelligence. The instrument used by the authors include 3 items assessing the entity theory. Recently, theoretical debates suggested to measure within a single questionnaire both theories at the same time. Moreover, there is no instrument in French language which measures the implicit theories of the intelligence. Two studies have been conducted. The purpose of the first study was to test the factorial validity and the internal consistency of the scale. The goal of the second study was to test the temporal stability of the instrument. STUDY 1: This study describes the procedures used to create the TIDI, the internal consistency and the factorial validity. This instrument was composed of two subscales of three items assessing incremental theory of the intelligence and entity theory of the intelligence. French teenagers (n=453) aged 11 to 16 years completed the questionnaire during a lecture. Cronbach's alpha was 0.81 for the scale assessing incremental theory and 0.78 for the scale assessing entity theory. Confirmatory factor analysis was

  20. Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Belinda; Lewis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    "This book is about communicating for health and social change. With a clear focus on public health and health promotion practice, it provides a unique introduction to media and cultural studies perspectives on health communication...