WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultural revolution 1966-1976

  1. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  2. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  3. Skeleton graph expansion of critical exponents in "cultural revolution" years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bailin

    Kenneth Wilson's Nobel Prize winning breakthrough in the renormalization group theory of phase transition and critical phenomena almost overlapped with the violent "cultural revolution" years (1966-1976) in China. An unexpected chance in 1972 brought the author of these lines close to the Wilson-Fisher є-expansion of critical exponents and eventually led to a joint paper with Lu Yu published entirely in Chinese without any English title and abstract. Even the original acknowledgment was deleted because of mentioning foreign names like Kenneth Wilson and Kerson Huang. In this article I will tell the 40-year old story as a much belated tribute to Kenneth Wilson and to reproduce the essence of our work in English. At the end, I give an elementary derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation without referring to field theory.

  4. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The edge of expertise: Representing barefoot doctors in Cultural Revolution China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan Angela

    2015-01-01

    ‘Barefoot doctors’ were designed as an innovative task force during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) to provide health care to rural villages in China. Without formal training that would identify the group professionally, barefoot doctors were at once amateur medical practitioners and expert revolutionary actors in Communist Party propaganda. At stake in legitimating revolutionary medicine was allowing revolutionary spirit to supplement for minimal medical training. As a result, the symbolic power of representing barefoot doctors rested in showcasing their devotion to enhancing access to health care in rural China. These representations followed an intensifying militarization of civilians, embracing the barefoot doctor’s ability to survive any obstacle while also celebrating those who died in the process. This paper examines three public portrayals of barefoot doctors, arguing that conflicting idealizations of rural epistemology combined the opposing elements of self-cultivation and self-annihilation to unite the identity of an emerging group of amateur doctors and illustrate acceptable forms of medical and revolutionary expertise.

  6. Manufacturing in the Eye of the Storm:Shen Hong and the Nine Great Installations Project During China's Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lie; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    The construction of nine high-end technical installations (hereafter Project NGI, for Nine Great Installations or ) in the 1960s and 1970s was an indispensable part of the development of China's defense and heavy industries. The project put more than 1400 machines into operation or trial operation during the Culture Revolution (1966-1976), and they served essential technical functions in sectors such as aviation, aerospace, machinery, metallurgy, and electronics, and directly advancing the development of these fields. It took more than a decade for Project NGI to go from planning to completion-a surprisingly uninterrupted and steady development while China fell into unprecedented turmoil. One important reason for Project NGI's success was the vital leadership of Shen Hong (, 1906-1998), the technical director of the project and a high-ranking official. Supported by state leaders such as Zhou Enlai and Nie Rongzhen, Shen and his colleagues adopted a suitable roadmap for technological development, coordinated the best-performing manufacturing forces in the country, and successfully manufactured the NGI machines. Project NGI is significant for the history of Chinese science, technology, and medicine during the Cultural Revolution not because it was technologically original, but because it represents an extraordinary case, in which the project's technological development seemed to be largely exempted from the interference of the turbulent Cultural Revolution. The project's national defense orientation, its pragmatism, and the contemporary dogma of self-reliance (), in addition to Shen Hong's political maneuvering, all contributed to the creation of a relatively calm and favorable environment around Project NGI. Despite the widespread turmoil in the country, Shen managed to assemble a stable and continuously productive team, which executed experiments, absorbed previously introduced Soviet technologies, stayed informed about advanced European and American technologies

  7. Cultures in Conflict. The French Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chappey, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Professeur assistant à l’Université du Nevada (Las Vegas), spécialiste de l’histoire des hommes de lettres et du théâtre des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (voir son ouvrage A Field of Honour. Writers, Court Culture, and Public Theater in French Literary Life from Racine to the Revolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 2002), Gregory S. Brown propose ici un manuel original et stimulant sur l’histoire de la Révolution française. Soucieux de proposer une synthèse générale des différents phénomè...

  8. Education for Librarianship in China after the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sharon Chien

    1983-01-01

    Description of present status of library education in China emphasizes Chinese government mobilization of limited resources to cope with severe shortage of library personnel caused by destructiveness of cultural revolution. New trends in library modernization, expansion of library science education, and possible future developments are discussed.…

  9. Flourishing of Occidentalism in Iran After Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaleh ZABARDAST

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modernity changed the community interests; it idealized individuality and liberal democracy, and based its main aim on pushing religion to the outskirts of human life. Western Christianity adjusted to modernity to justify the developments while Islam accepted it only to the extent of its capacity to authenticate the realities stated by the Qur’an. Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Islamism play impressive role in a variety of contexts today. Occidentalism in its popular variety helps to reinforce the identities. This study considers the power relationship between people and cultures. The roles and the identities are changing throughout history. Nowadays Islamic culture is one of popular subjects to study on. So, the Muslim world and revival of Islamic culture are the beginning of Occidentalism. Occidentalism is developed in the Orient in order to study the West from a non-Western World point of view. It can be referred as revival of identity (for isteghrab in Arab world by Hasan Hanafi or Talibanian or ISIS Occidentalists movements which stand for empowering Arab culture, Wahhabism or Salafism. All are revivalist movements to rapture Islamism as an ideology. This article tries to focus on the concept of Occidentalism in Iran after Iran Cultural Revolution.

  10. The Effect of the Cultural Revolution on Educational Homogamy in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the Cultural Revolution led to a temporary decline in educational homogamy in urban China, which was reversed when the Cultural Revolution ended. Previous studies on educational homogamy in China have paid incomplete attention to China's shifting institutional structures. This research applies institutional theory to…

  11. 苦难时期的心灵慰藉——从《一只绣花鞋》看"文革"期间民间文学的审美取向%Spiritual Comfort in a Time of Great Misery—— Aesthetic Orientation of Folk Literature in the Period of the Great Cultural Revolution Viewed through An Embroidered Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布小继; 李钧

    2015-01-01

    张宝瑞的《一只绣花鞋》在很大程度上弥补了"文革"时期民间文学的空白,填补了苦难环境中迷茫、无奈的人们空虚的精神世界,表现为一种"不能忍受文化沙漠中长途跋涉的饥渴"之反抗意识的觉醒及人们不甘受禁锢的思想,以及对人性、个性、情感的渴求与反思.其所代表的民间文学也表现出特殊时代人民群众的审美取向,是对文化枯竭环境中心灵与精神的一种重构.%To some extent, An Embroidered Shoe by Zhang Baorui supplies the missing link of the folk literature in the period of the Great Cultural Revolution ( 1966-1976 ) , substantiates the vacant spiritual world of the lost people in misery, and expresses the senses of defy against"thirst after a long journey in a cultural desert" of the people already wakening up and their pursuit for humanity, personality and affec-tion. Moreover, the novel represents the aesthetic orientation of the broad mass during that special period of time and can thus be defined as a mental and spiritual restructure of our exhausted culture.

  12. The Long March: How the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s Changed America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Stanley K.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the modern academy's intellectual foundations, rooted in Marcuse's, Ginsburg's, Kerouac's, and Mailer's ideas. Highlights Kimball's new book on the 1960s cultural revolution. Questions the notion that the 1960s were about peace, love, compassion, and diversity, revealing deep connections between modern political correctness and Marcusian…

  13. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  14. When politics froze fashion: the effect of the Cultural Revolution on naming in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, Elena; Zuckerman, Ezra W; Zhang, Jiayin

    2014-09-01

    The authors examine the popularity of boys' given names in Beijing before and after the onset of the Cultural Revolution to clarify how exogenous and endogenous factors interact to shape fashion. Whereas recent work in the sociology of culture emphasizes the importance of endogenous processes in explaining fashion, their analysis demonstrates two ways in which politics shaped cultural expression during the Cultural Revolution: by promoting forms of expression reflecting prevailing political ideology and by limiting individuals' willingness to act differently. As argued by Lieberson and developed further in this article, the second condition is important because endogenous fashion cycles require a critical mass of individuals who seek to differentiate themselves from common practice. Exogenous factors can influence the operation of the endogenous factors. The authors discuss the implications of their study for understanding the nature of conformity under authoritarian regimes and social conditions supporting individual expression.

  15. Thinking about the Mexican Revolution: Philosophy, Culture and Politics in Mexico. 1910-1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Ortega Esquivel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The commemoration of the two hundredth anniversary of the War of Independence and thecentenary of the Mexican Revolution make this a good moment for some analysis andreflection on the influence that both events have had on the form and the meaning thatMexican intellectual production and cultural institutions have conserved throughout that time.The aim of this essay, is to examine in how, and by what cultural and institutional means, aprocess of historical transformation as violent, convulsive, complex and radical as theRevolution ended up producing a remarkably favourable set of conditions for literature, music,the visual arts, education and, in particular, philosophy, whose earliest developments andcontributions came between 1910 and 1934.

  16. Urban residentship and return migration to Shanghai in the aftermath of the cultural revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, P K; Liu, Q

    1998-01-01

    "Young people were sent to the countryside during the Cultural Revolution and were later allowed to return home in the 1970s. This paper examines the return migration of Chinese youth from the countryside based on officially sanctioned reasons and grounds. The most often used reasons or grounds were in fact claims to urban residentship arising from connections to the city by previous residence, by birth and by family. Claimants negotiated with the state in a cultural language which rationalizes the claimed needs in terms of traditional social codes. The study reveals that the passive and submissive image the Chinese civil society outwardly present is deceptive. Their claims, however, still fall short of modern social citizenship."

  17. The French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  18. The Development of Chinese Language and Social Change —Study on Catchwords during the Cultural Revolution%The Development of Chinese Language and Social Change—Study on Catchwords during the Cultural Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚玲

    2016-01-01

    Language is a mirror of society. It is one of the most important communication tools and social changes or potential social changes can often be reflected in it. We use language as a barometer of social changes and from the perspective of sociolinguistics. Social changes also determine the variations of Chinese language. Based on the former study about the relation between language and society, this paper mainly talks about the catchwords or popular language and social changes during the Cultural Revolution.

  19. Political System of the Great Cultural Revolution Reflected in Misty Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Oberstar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines Chinese literature following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in relation to Mao’s Communist policy. It presents the occurrence of Misty poetry as an opposition to the political ideology of the Great Cultural Revolution (1966–1976. Misty poetry is understood as a spontaneous illegal poetic movement of individuals who veiled their political demands directed against Mao’s ideology in metaphors. This oppositional stance resembled the movement of 4th May 1919 which took place after the collapse of the last Chinese dynasty and criticised the traditional dominant ideology of Confucianism and sought democratization of the Chinese society. The same desire was shared by the Misty poets but this time under the dominance of the political ideology of the Chinese Communist Party in the period following 1942 which was indicated by Mao Zedong in his speech in Yan’an. Mao’s policy was repressive in nature since the role of literature and art, and thereby also poetry, was seen only as being utilitarian and was thus sealed in the dictated reflection of the class struggle. Therefore, in essence, the communist period laid its path to capitalism.

  20. 新中国村落体育文化的历史变迁及定位%The History Change of New China Village Sports Culture and Positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海鸥

    2015-01-01

    The methods of literature and field study, by reviewing the history change of new China sports culture village, the village of the development of sports culture is divided into initial stage (1949-1965), the founding of the cultural revolution(1966-1976), the reform and opening period (1977 -) three historical process, and points out that village sports neglect organization, fitness culture, promote the national physical quality has not been formed, the sports new across, from carrying forward traditional sports culture, promote the village village sports culture innovation, enhance the vitality of cultural development, village specification the development direction of sports culture, realize the cultural transformation of village sports development path to the location.%采用文献与实地研究等方法,通过回顾新中国村落体育文化的历史变迁,把村落体育文化的发展历程分为建国初期(1949—1965年)、文革时期(1966—1976年)、改革开放时期(1977—)三个历史过程,并指出村落体育疏于组织,健身文化尚未形成、提升国民身体素质,实现体育新跨越,从弘扬村落传统体育文化、推进村落体育文化创新,增强村落文化发展活力,规范体育文化的发展方向,实现文化转型等方面对村落体育的发展路径做了定位.

  1. China: The Cultural Revolution: Its Aftermath and Effects on Education and Society: A Select and Partially Annotated Bibliography. Education Library Bulletin. Supplement Sixteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stewart E.; Kuang-liang, Hsu

    Citation of books, monographs, periodical articles, and unpublished materials dating from 1966 through 1971 are included in this annotated bibliography focusing on the effect that the Chinese Cultural Revolution had on education and society. The scope of the work is broad, covering political, economic, social, historical, and military aspects of…

  2. Los inicios de lo fantástico en la televisión española: historias para no dormir y su herencia audiovisual (1966-1976)

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Tienda, Ada

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta tesis es definir la poética de lo fantástico en la obra del guionista y realizador Narciso (Chicho) Ibáñez Serrador (Uruguay, 1935), partiendo de la hipótesis de que su serie de televisión Historias para no dormir (1966-1968) fue una de las primeras obras de consumo popular que apostó con éxito por los relatos fantásticos y terroríficos en la España de posguerra, tras un periodo cultural dominado por el realismo social. Asimismo, se pretende evidenciar la influen...

  3. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Mary Kay

    In the 1930s, Mexican rural schools became arenas for cultural politics--the process of articulating and disputing definitions of culture, from national identity to the broader sense of social behavior and meaning. Created in 1921, the Secretaria de Educacion Publica (SEP) set up federal rural schools to nationalize and modernize rural peasants.…

  4. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Mary Kay

    In the 1930s, Mexican rural schools became arenas for cultural politics--the process of articulating and disputing definitions of culture, from national identity to the broader sense of social behavior and meaning. Created in 1921, the Secretaria de Educacion Publica (SEP) set up federal rural schools to nationalize and modernize rural peasants.…

  5. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  6. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  7. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its cont

  8. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  9. A HOUSE FOR THE REVOLUTION: A PROJECT OF CULTURAL LEGITIMATION IN CUBA (1959-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREYSER COTO SARDINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the revolutionary triumph I Cuba, a deep transformation of all the socio-economic, political and cultural structures is started. As part of this dynamics a process of institutionalization which finds in the scope of culture one of its higher referents in the creation of Casa de las Americas in July 1959 starts. The needs of legitimation of the new system found in the institution a mechanism to encourage and stimulate the revolutionary ideas and its projections towards Latin-America. In the period from 1959 to 1965, through its main actions, understood as its magazine and contest, the intellectual compromise as principal foundation of its discourse was authenticated.

  10. War, Revolution, and the Butcher Shop Window in Parisian Visual Culture, 1871-1882

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on printed images that blurred the boundary between human and animal identities centralizing how these slippages signified in relation to established constructions of gender. Compounded by the massive scale of human butchery required to crush the revolutionary Paris Commune, the cultural construction of the virile Frenchman in his absolute difference from the "weaker sex" and the animal kingdom was challenged.

  11. Manifesto of Technological Culture: a Critically Annotated Defense of Technepolitanism and The Hollow Revolution: Alienation and Manipulation in the Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Dagenais, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Manifesto of Technological Culture: a Critically Annotated Defense of Technepolitanism- A critical analysis of our emerging technocracy unfolds through an annotated commentary on an imagined technocrat’s manifesto. The essay contrasts the romanticization of technology’s liberating qualities with a sober warning about its tendency towards oppression.The Hollow Revolution: Alienation and Manipulation in the Digital Age- Approximately one third of the world’s population uses the Internet. It is ...

  12. Changing Patterns of Limnology Literature, 1966-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, T. H.

    Literature citations were analyzed to identify periodical literature used in the field of limnology. Journals published in four different countries during 1976 were selected as source journals of cited literature. The results of this analysis were compared to those of a similar study conducted in 1968 using conference proceedings as source…

  13. Department of Operations Research Technical Report List 1966-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    D.: Optimal replacement an extension to consumer durables, NPS55TC74081, 197a. eneralized maximum entropy principle in rsis, NPS55T0761201, 1976...NPS55LW75Ü61, 1975. Lewis, P. A. W., and Lawrance, A. J.: Properties of the bivariate delayed Poisson process, NPS55LW74071, Lewis, P. A. W. , and

  14. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  15. Building A Spirit of Inclusion: Pan Am and The Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirembe B. Birigwa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The legendary Pan American World Airways remains a bastion of nostalgia and cultural significance and serves as a case study in how airlines adapted their hiring practices to reflect the social movements of the 1960’s and 70’s. To maintain a competitive advantage, top companies thriving today are tasked with conveying a message of inclusion that matches the expectations of the traveler. Mirembe Birigwa interviews her mother, Sheila Nutt, about what it was like to be one of the first African American flight attendants.

  16. Study on Chen Ruoxi’s Cultural Revolution Subject Novels%陈若曦文革题材小说研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤作勇

    2016-01-01

    陈若曦的文革题材小说取得了独特的成就。首先,表现在对文革生存经验的日常化呈现上,这样的叙述策略使得陈若曦的文革小说创作有效地摆脱了各式意识形态的形塑,取得了一种经验性叙述的特质;其次,表现在老人题材与传统道德主题的设定上。陈若曦文革小说中的老人形象所表现出的隐忍、宽容等传统道德规范成为在一个暴力充斥的年代里中华民族维系的最后希望所在;最后,表现在一种高度理性化的叙述模式上。陈若曦在其文革小说中坚持一种“知识分子反省”的写作立场,建构了一种高度理性化的叙述模式。%Chen Ruoxi’s Cultural Revolution subject novels made a unique achievement. First of all, it lies in daily presentation about the survival experience of the Cultural Revolution. This narrative strategy makes Chen Ruoxi’s Cultural Revolution novels effectively get rid of all kinds of ideology, and obtains the trait of experiential narration. Secondly, it lies in the setting of the old man subject and the traditional moral theme. The traditional moral norms such as tolerance and forbear the old man image of Chen Ruoxi’s Cultural Revolution subject novels showing become the last hope of the Chinese nation sustaining in a period of violence. Finally, it lies in a highly rational narrative mode. Chen Ruoxi insisted on a kind of “intellectual reflection”writing position in his cultural revolution novels, constructs a highly rational narrative model.

  17. Join the Revolution: How Montessori for Aging and Dementia can Change Long-Term Care Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Michelle S; Brush, Jennifer; Elliot, Gail; Kelly, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of life of persons with dementia in long-term care through the implementation of various approaches to person-centered care have been underway for the past two decades. Studies have yielded conflicting reports evaluating the evidence for these approaches. The purpose of this article is to outline the findings of several systematic reviews of this literature, highlighting the areas of improvement needs, and to describe a new person-centered care model, DementiAbility Methods: The Montessori Way. This model focuses on the abilities, needs, interests, and strengths of the person and creating worthwhile and meaningful roles, routines, and activities for the person within a supportive physical environment. This is accomplished through gaining the commitment of the facility's leaders, training staff, and monitoring program implementation. The potential for a culture change in long-term care environments is dependent on the development and rigorous evaluation of person-centered care approaches. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. From the end of a revolution to the beginning of an evolution: An interpretive investigation on the Mexican oil culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Perez, Pedro Gabriel

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is an interpretative investigation on the Mexican petroleum industry. It studies the social arrangement that allowed the development of Mexico's most important State-Owned Enterprise Petroleos Mexicanos and the current pressures to transform it. The need to modify its operations in Mexico is an issue of enormous significance for the current reforms undertaken by the Neo-liberal project initiated during the mid 1980's. It represents the abandonment of the development strategy that characterized the "Regime of the Revolution" and the establishment of a market-oriented economy in line with the development strategy selected by the President Fox for the period 2000--2006. Through an approximation of Habermas' ideal 'Public Sphere' this dissertation reveals relevant information about PEMEX's historical and present contexts, the basic elements that make up the Mexican petroleum culture, its major interest groups, their mutual perspectives and understandings, their interpretation of the present situation and their opinion as to the way PEMEX should be modified. The investigation into the ideas, beliefs and customs that justified PEMEX's hegemony over Mexico's petroleum resources followed the conceptual model provided by the Critical Theory Paradigm and an adaptation of a methodological approach previously employed for qualitative Critical Theory research. Throughout an ethnographic analysis of twenty-six representatives of PEMEX's major interest groups through in-depth, semi-structured interviews based on a combination of an interpretative research design and a case-study research method, the beliefs, ideals, mutual perceptions and future plans of these stakeholders were identified. This study advances the understanding of the symbols, beliefs and ideas that have framed Mexican petroleum culture, as well as describes how these beliefs and ideas have changed over time. Through an 'ethnography of rhetoric,' this project facilitated the absorption and

  19. On Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  20. Theory thinking and path choice of improving the soft power of red revolution culture%提升红土地文化软实力的理论思考与路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林妹珍; 邹冠秀

    2012-01-01

    红土地文化是最具闽西个性特色和品牌效益的地域文化,它是一种软实力,在促进闽西区域经济社会发展中的作用日益彰显。弘扬红土地文化,为闽西融入海西建设提供精神动力和营造健康有序的和谐社会环境,开发利用红土地文化资源又成为新时期闽西经济发展的助推剂。因此,要提升红土地文化软实力,必须增强文化自觉自信,树立红土地文化品牌意识;整合区域资源,做大做强红色旅游;创新体制机制,助推红色文化产业发展;强化人才培育,打造高素质的人才队伍,将红土地文化资源转化为推动闽西可持续发展的真正动力。%The red revolution culture is a regional culture that has the most distinctive characteristics and brand effect in the western Fujian, which is a soft power and plays a progressive role in the development of regional economy. Carrying forward the red revolution culture, providing spiritual power for building of the economic zone on the west coast of the Taiwan Straits, creating a healthy and harmonious social environment, and taking the full use of resources of red revolution culture become the roll booster for the economic development of the western Fujian in the new era. Therefore, to improve the soft power of red revolution culture, we must strengthen the culture consciousness and self-confidence, and establish the brand consciousness of red revolution culture, must integrate regional resources and prosper the red revolution tourism, must innovate the system and mechanism and booster the development of red revolution culture industry, must strengthen personnel training, and build a high-quality personnel team, thus to change the resources of red revolution culture as a real power to promote the sustainable development of the western Fujian.

  1. 环境剧变、文化断裂与伊克化%Environmental Change, Cultural Break and National Iksization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦光

    2014-01-01

    A nation’ s iksization arises from radical change of geographical environments and break of traditional culture. If natural environments and social culture change drastically, a nation will become lonely, and the result is vi-ciousness of human behaviors. The process of iksization is often correlated with urbanization because that the transfer of population from rural regions to urban regions gives rise to abrupt changes of culture and environments. Unfortunately, the symptom of iksization has appeared among parts of Chinese people after a long latent period, which suggests the time lag between the cause and effect of geographical process. This is due to the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), which led to both environmental and cultural breakage. Since the introduction of the policies of reform and opening-up at the end of 1978 and with the gradual establishment of a socialist market economic system from 1992, China’ s national economy and cities developed rapidly. However, this development inflicted heavy losses of geograph-ical environments due to absence of a rule of law.%人类生存繁衍的过程,是一种环境适应和自身发展的过程。人与环境的相互作用产生了文化,文化是人地关系的一种结果和文明的最高表现形式。一个人群生存的地理环境剧变,传统文化骤断,可能导致该人群的心理孤独和精神蜕变,进而出现“伊克综合症”。快速城市化过程则会加重伊克效应。中国在文化大革命前后和改革开放之后,先后经历了文化突变和地理环境的剧烈变迁,如今又进入了快速城市化阶段。大量社会现象表明,中国部分人群出现了伊克化的不良征兆。如果不能及早认识伊克化的严重后果并考虑应对策略,则伊克化过程将与城市化过程一起,诱发中国社会的畸形成长以及地理空间上的病态格局。

  2. Quantum revolution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The turn of the XXth century witnessed a revolution in physics comparable to Isaac Newton’s discovery of the universal laws of mechanics and of gravitation three centuries earlier. The world required to be described in novel terms, as the immutable, deterministic view of our familiar universe had given way to a new world picture, one which featured chance, flux, and an incessant upsurge of waves of matter. Such a worldview was so radically new and counterintuitive that it gave rise to strong debates, to the effect that Albert Einstein himself tried to oppose it on the grounds that “God does not play dice”. In spite of the intense debates that accompanied its emergence, quantum mechanics quickly proved an incredibly efficacious new tool to understand and to predict a wide array of new phenomena. It was so successful that in no time it broke free from the environment of research labs to become part of daily life, making it possible, for example, to understand why some materials...

  3. Evolution of the Early Childhood Curriculum in China: The Impact of Social and Cultural Factors on Revolution and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    During the last century, early childhood curriculum (ECC) in China has undergone a series of monumental transformations, shaped by the interaction between local cultural and global forces. In this case study, we critically analyse three major waves of ECC reform in China, with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural forces that have…

  4. “文革”语言特征研究述评%A Review of the Studies on Perspectives in Cultural Revolution Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苹; 李松

    2013-01-01

      目前学界“文革”语言研究主要涉及其修辞特征、语言风格特征、语用特征以及性别语言特征等方面。这些特征是“文革”语言的区别性特征,其根源是当时特定的社会和政治环境以及群众的特定心理状况。“文革”语言镌刻着特殊的文化印记,具有格式化、刻板化、标准化、粗野化的特征,这种语言固然通俗易懂、平白上口,然而强烈的政治色彩遮蔽了语言使用者的个体情感,因而语言内涵日益苍白,表意功能日益弱化,语言活力日益萎缩。%Previous research on Cultural Reveloution language involoves its rhetoric , stylistics, pragmatics and gender language feac-tures which are its defining features rooted in the special social , political and mass-psychological environment of that time .The con-clusion of the research shows that as a social cultural phenomenon in a specific period of time .Cultural Revolution language is engraved with a special cultural mark of formatted , stereotyped, standardized and brutish characteristics .Such language is certainly easy to un-derstand, but strong political overtones, obscured language user's individual emotions, thus it had gradually made language connotions get pale, language expression function get powerless , and language vitality get shrinking .

  5. An Interview with Fan Wu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2006-01-01

    Fan Wu grew up on a farm in South China, in the community to where her parents were exiled during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Wu moved to the United States in 1997, to attend Stanford University, and she began writing in 2002. She now lives and works in northern California, the United State. February Flowers is her first novel. During her recent book tour in China, she took time to talk to Women of China. Women of China (WOC): What inspired

  6. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not repres

  7. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  8. Summary Science and the Revolution of 1911

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Science and democracy are two banners of the May Fourth New Culture Movement; and enlightenment and revolution are the dual variation in promoting and saving the nation since modern Chinese history. In this historical process of Chinese modernization, science dissemination and social revolution went hand in hand, intertwined and finally converged, underlining the interaction between science and the society, with significant historical events as their nodes.

  9. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  10. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  11. Values of The Cultural Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Examines Chinese press editorials and testimonials from members of the People's Liberation Army in an attempt to determine the meaning of Mao Tse Tung's vision of a new socialist man and the societal value transformation process. (MH)

  12. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  13. CRISES AND REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sotelo Valencia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the materialist theory of development and fall of Marxism based on the theory of value as originally considered and presented by Karl Marx in Grundrisse and in Crítica da Economia Política, claiming that the production of value depends on labor force. As it takes place today, capital displaces labor force in every industry, service and activity, country, territory and region all over the world; workers are dismissed and are transferred to speculative activities of the fictional capital. This lesser disposition of labor force eventually harms the mean profit rate and, as time goes by, it provokes a crisis. The present capitalist crisis is resultant from the insufficiency and, to certain extent, to the incapacity of mechanisms from the system to generate enough value production in the labor process, to provide value to the invested capital (in settings of production, raw matter, and in labor force or variable capital; to create more value and to regain increased profit rate. These restraints of the financial capital (fictional capital cause a deviation to the speculative plan and contribute for the formation of tragic speculative bubbles in sectors such as those of housing, energy and food. No matter how much productivity is increased, developing a technological revolution and “sparing labor force”, the reduction of time, socially required for the production of goods and labor force, becomes harder and more marginal. This is the way the capitalist system enters a civilian, structural and organic crisis, as it is now. To go beyond the capital means to construct structures and superstructures of a new non-capitalist society based on a new way to produce, to work and to keep harmonious and friendly human social relations. It is difficult to have a successful revolution if not with the education of its agents, that is, the organized front people, parties and syndicates that will raise the social, political and cultural

  14. Resistance and Rejection:Predicament of Model Operas Spreading in Cultural Revolution%抵制与厌弃“:文革”期间“样板戏”传播的困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松

    2012-01-01

    During the Cultural Revolution, the spreading of Model Operas was resisted because of the following three reasons: literature discourse diminished the political ideology; the CPC leadership was dissatisfied with the damage that Model Operas had done to other art forms; victims of Cultural Revolution resented Model Operas. The resistance and rejection proved that Model Operas'attempts to monopolize arts and integrate audience's acceptance psychology are absurd and fabricated.%"文革"期间,"样板戏"传播遭遇抵制的缘由主要表现在三个方面:文学话语对政治意识形态的消解;中共高层对"样板戏"独霸文艺舞台造成的百花凋零局面的不满;"文革"受难者对"样板戏"的憎恶。"样板戏"传播遭遇抵制与厌弃的现象,证明了样板戏企图独霸文艺舞台、统合观众接受心理的悖谬与虚妄。

  15. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  16. en uislamisk revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?......artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?...

  17. An Irish Revolution Without A Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Beatty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a conventional view among Irish historians that a revolution occurred in that country between the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill of 1912 and the end of the Civil War in 1923.  The violence of those years, the collapse in support for the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP, the meteoric rise to power of Sinn Féin, a new sense of meritocracy, a greater sense of democracy and a widespread radicalism; all are seen as elements of a major change in Irish politics and life, a ‘Revolution.’  Drawing on Gramsci's notion of a “revolution without a revolution”, this paper seeks to understand the events in Ireland of 1912-23, not as a sudden rupture with the past but as the culmination of a much longer period of (often British-backed capitalist development in post-Famine Ireland. This paper argues that Irish nationalist politics in the decades before 1912 is better understood via categories such as class, gender, capitalism and the pervasive power of the British state.  As such, as well as pursuing a reassessment of the project of Irish historical development and state-building, this paper also seeks a reassessment of the project of (an equally statist Irish historiography.

  18. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  19. The Unfinished Revolution: Einstein's revenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2007-04-01

    Thomas Kuhn defined the characteristics of scientific revolutions based upon his knowledge of the first and second Scientific Revolutions. He concluded that such revolutions are the result of crises in science. However, he missed some important clues of how revolutions develop. Instead of looking at crises, we should look at the major trends in scientific and human thought prior to the revolutions and then we could gain a better understanding of how scientific revolutions emerge from the normal course of scientific evolution. Instead of defining revolutions by the crises that precede them, revolutions actually emerge from the successes of previous science while each revolution contains the seeds for the next revolution that follows. These seeds eventually grow into the crises that trigger revolutions. Under these circumstances, it can be shown that the space-time revolution of relativity theory was never completed, thus laying the foundations for the next revolution in science. Knowing this, we can determine if we have we already entered the pre-revolutionary period of the Third Scientific Revolution.

  20. Beyond Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science: The introduction of Miss Moral and the trend of Moral Revolution in the New Culture Movement%"德先生"和"赛先生"之外的关怀——从"穆姑娘"的提出看新文化运动时期道德革命的走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁萍

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science are always invoked in the discussion of the May Fourth New Culture Movement. However, Miss Moral,who was also introduced in the later stages of the movement, is much less known.It would clearly be of interest to study the way in which "moral" became a catchword but then faded away and was forgotten. The emphasis on solidarity and patriotism, stimulated by foreign encroachment that had existed since the late Qing Dynasty, began to shift to an ethical revolution centering on individual liberation. However, after the rise of the May Fourth Movement, public attention was attracted by collectivism and nationalism again, while the appeal for individuality and ethical revolution was decayed gradually. The introduction of Miss Moral had a direct relationship with the trend of ethical revolution in the later stages of the New Culture Movement.

  1. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Military Revolution, Organisational Revolutions...and Other Revolutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      This paper is a continuation of Kantian peace and war analysis, but with other means. The paper is part of an effort to establish a systemic theory of state-formation based on the description of the emergence of a number of functional systems. In a historical perspective the military system...... was dominant in the establishment of the European State-model as well as it has a decisive role in the stabilisation of recent states. Using Niklas Luhmann's system theory that does not describes neither military systems nor the emergence of a organisational system, the present paper outlines a system...... theoretical perspective on the present and historical transformations of military systems. One the one hand the paper offers a systemic criticism of the recent so called revolution in military affairs (RMA), on the other hand the historical establishment of a self-referential form of the military system...

  4. Military Revolution, Organisational Revolutions...and Other Revolutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      This paper is a continuation of Kantian peace and war analysis, but with other means. The paper is part of an effort to establish a systemic theory of state-formation based on the description of the emergence of a number of functional systems. In a historical perspective the military system...... was dominant in the establishment of the European State-model as well as it has a decisive role in the stabilisation of recent states. Using Niklas Luhmann's system theory that does not describes neither military systems nor the emergence of a organisational system, the present paper outlines a system...... theoretical perspective on the present and historical transformations of military systems. One the one hand the paper offers a systemic criticism of the recent so called revolution in military affairs (RMA), on the other hand the historical establishment of a self-referential form of the military system...

  5. Solid Waste Management Available Information Materials. Total Listing 1966-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie L.

    This publication is a compiled and indexed bibliography of solid waste management documents produced in the last ten years. This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is compiled from the Office of Solid Waste Management Programs (OSWMP) publications and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) reports. Included are…

  6. A Century of Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    his year marks the centenary of the 1911 Revolution that ended 2,000 years of imperial rule in China.The 1911 Revolution,which began on October 10,1911,with an armed uprising in Wuchang,central China's Hubei Province,brought down the world's most long established monarchy and founded the first republican government in Asia.To commemorate the centennial anniversary of the epoch-making event,a series of activities have been or are being held across the country.

  7. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  8. 余华小说《河边的错误》中的文革叙述分析%Narrative of Cultural Revolution in Yu Hua’s MistakesbytheRiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴; 张岚

    2015-01-01

    余华早期的作品《河边的错误》是一部反映其文革体验的作品。在历史意蕴层面,《河边的错误》通过小孩和主人公马哲对河边世界的探索来建构文学世界中的文革社会,反映了文革社会的荒谬性。在哲学意识层面,河边世界的疯子被赋予了深刻的意义,暗示着人类永恒的原始生命力和性冲动,以及人类本性中永恒的“恶魔性”因素。作品通过“探索者”和具有历史普遍意义的疯子来反映世界的荒谬性。%Early works of Yu Hua, Mistakes by the River , is a reflection of his experience during the Cultural Revolution. In the implication level of history, through the river exploration of the child and Mazhe in Mistakes by the River, it constructs Cultural Revolution society in literature to reflect its absurdity. In the philosophy level of consciousness, the profound meaning is given to a madman in the river world, suggesting primitive, eternal vitality and sex drive of humans, as well as the eternal human nature:factors of demon. His works reflect the absurdity of the world through the"Explorer"and a madman with a history of general significance.

  9. Fictions by Contemporary Female Writers as Bildungsroman Against a Background of Cultural Revolution%创伤记忆与成长叙事--论当代女作家的“文革”题材小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 董晓

    2015-01-01

    T he Bildungsroman against a background of Cultural Revolution has been a literary genre explored by quite a number of contemporary female w riters ,such as Wang Anyi ,Tie Ning ,Yan Geling , and Hong Ying .All their novels ,w hatever a typical reflection of maturation ,or retrospection of the hard‐ship of growing up ,or the exposition of the twisted human nature experienced when growing up ,are all marked by these female writers'traumatic memory of their personal life .Thanks to their efforts in these three aspects ,the Bildungsroman against a background of Cultural Revolution has demonstrated a real val‐ue and added luster to contemporary literature .%“文革”视阈下的成长叙事是经由诸多当代女作家不断开掘的文学主题。在王安忆、铁凝、严歌苓、虹影等女作家的创作中,成长叙事呈现出不同层面的形态,无论是女作家对成长的追寻与反思、对苦难成长的追溯,还是对成长中人性扭曲的揭示,都融入了她们“创伤性”的个人成长记忆,共同构成了成长叙事在精神层面的深刻内涵。正是由于当代女作家们在这三个方面的努力,“文革”背景下的成长叙事才为当代文学增添了璀璨的色调。

  10. The phenomenon of transdisciplinary cognitive revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhanov V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of transdisciplinarity was put into the fore of analysis rather recently. In the article an attempt is made to find out whether it is possible to attribute this phenomenon not only to a science (or even non-classical post-non-classical of the 21st century, or we have here the case where some scientific realities come to the attention of researchers with certain delay and has its value for the culture in general? It is possible to judge even the emergence of a kind of cognitive revolution affecting both science culture. We need to find out what is meant by a transdisciplinarity, and how it differs from the inter- or multiransdisciplinarity. In the study the method of historical reconstruction, combining elements of presentism and antiqurism, was implemented. This method allows us to interpret historical events in the context of a specific level of knowledge, and at the same time to evaluate them in terms of modern ideas related to transdisciplinarity, inter- and multidisciplinarity. System-structural method , focused on an integrated analysis of the dynamics of development of cognitive processes in culture was implied as well, and the method of comparative analysis, which is aimed at comparing different but conceptually similar processes in various areas of conceptual art practice. It is in the framework of (disciplinary based paradigm adopted a tacit agreement among scientists about the validity and effectiveness of research methods and techniques of inquiry. Within the (disciplinary based paradigm, which presupposes certain fundamental principles, goals, and certain values shared by the scientific community, the novel sprouts of radical ideas once emerge. The scientific revolution here means a radical revision of the admissibility of accepted and proven methods, goals and values that are common to the members of the scientific community. Typically, new theories and concepts proposed and already mastered new scientific community

  11. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  12. The ebook revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sheehan, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The eBook Revolution: A Primer for Librarians on the Front Lines is exactly what its title promises: an essential resource for librarians facing the formidable task of coordinating the library-wide transition to eBooks and fielding questions from patrons

  13. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  14. Teaching the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  15. Die andere Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  16. Revolution in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  17. Tyngdekraft, naturhistorie, revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christoffer Basse

    2015-01-01

    Hvad har Newtons teori om tyngdekraften med politisk revolution at gøre? Samfundskritikken og idéen om oplysningstænkeren opstod ud af en naturfilosofisk tradition, der anså hele verden som levende og følsom. Christoffer Basse Eriksen rekapitulerer i dagens essay opkomsten af Oplysningstiden....

  18. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  19. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the potential to disrupt the traditional way of managing innovation, notably in terms of creativity, product development, and process change. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the second volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspective...

  20. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viardot, Eric

    management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...

  1. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  2. Challenges to cities following the information revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Petrešin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the predictions and guessing about the development of cities and the living culture at the beginning of the information revolution to the current trends. The information revolution being a fact nowadays, its consequences reflect in social and environmental phenomena, in changes in culture and aesthetics and remains of the past industrial era – the monuments of the future. The potential interest of neighbourhoods is related to agglomeration of central functions as a reflection of global economy that is parallel to a metamorphosis of production process, working schedule and new forms of jobs. There is a significant demand in flexible building types, temporary access to new media and the related services. With the augmented virtual capacity of a city, the e-neighbourhoods also grow. The city becoming a hybrid of the built and the digital offers new challenges to the architectural and urban planning profession.

  3. Representing revolution: icons of industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Appreciating pictures entails a consideration not only of the people, objects and landscape that their artists have chosen to portray, but also an imagining of what has been excluded. The term 'Industrial Revolution' has been given multiple meanings, and this article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) explores some of these by exposing the messages concealed inside some of the most enduring images of the Revolution.

  4. Reconsidering the Grenada revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Revolutions and Revolutionary Theory: An Assessment of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada. BRIAN MEEKS. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1993. ix + 210 pp. (Paper n.p. The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. ROBERT J. BECK. Boulder: Westview, 1993. xiv + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 The Gorrión Tree: Cuba and the Grenada Revolution. JOHN WALTON COTMAN. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. xvi + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 48.95 These three books might be thought of as a second generation of studies concerned with the rise, rule, and destruction of the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG in Grenada. The circumstances surrounding the accession to power in 1979 of the government led by Maurice Bishop, the nature of its rule, and its violent demise in 1983 resulted in the appearance during the mid-1980s of an extensive literature on the Grenada Revolution. Some of these works were scholarly, others polemical. But what they all had in common was the desire to examine, either critically or otherwise, something which was unique in the historical experience of the English-speaking Caribbean. Never, before the rule of the New JEWEL Movement (NJM in Grenada, had a Leninist party come to power; never had a violent coup initiated a new political regime; never had a Caribbean government so explicitly rejected U.S. hegemony in the area; and never, before October 1983, had a government experienced quite so dramatic a crisis as that in Grenada, one which resulted in the killing of the Prime Minister and numerous others of his supporters.

  5. "Color Revolutions" and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Xu Tao; Jiang Li; Da Wei; Chen Xiangyang; Ding Xiaoxing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Astring of media-coined "color revolutions" broke out in Georgia, Ukraine and Kirgyzstan one after another inside the Commonwealth of Independent States since October 2003,reminiscent of the drama of collapse of the former Soviet bloc at the turn of the 1990s. Why those upheavals came hot on the heels of the Soviet disintegration merely a dozen or so years ago? Are we expecting more Domino effects down the road? What geographical repercussions will they spark? We have invited some experts over from the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations to air their views on these interesting issues.

  6. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viardot, Eric

    This edited collection explores how digitalization is changing the management of innovation, and the subsequent implications for the next phases in its development. The authors identify and examine relevant phenomena which are related to the ongoing digital breakthrough in the context of innovation...... management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...

  7. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  8. Language Shattered : Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Duoduo

    OpenAIRE

    Crevel, Maghiel van

    1996-01-01

    Language Shattered is both a history of poetry from the People's Republic of China and a case study of the oeuvre of a leading Chinese poet. After the stifling orthodoxy of the 1950s and early 1960s, the terror of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) brought official Chinese literature to a total standstill. At the same time, disillusioned youths were more or less accidentally exposed to a varied body of foreign literature and began writing underground poetry. In the 1980s this poetry scene, n...

  9. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  10. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  11. Transformation - Revolution in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    adopted by the logistics community as part of the Army’s Revolution in Military Logistics ....operations." To support this vision, Army logistics requires a quantum leap in strategic responsiveness. This change is called "Revolution in Military ... Logistics ," to know what the customer, the Warfighter, needs before he requests it. This study examines proposed improvements in automation

  12. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  13. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  14. The influence of the"Cultural Revolution"to the development process from the perspective of social psychology%从社会心理看其对“文化大革命”发展进程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫广琴

    2014-01-01

    The development of"Cultural Revolution"mainly from the central level authority control, on the other hand, it is closely related to social psychology. The cult of the individual and blindly social psychology helped launch, the development of Cultural Revolution;causes the movement suffered questioned gradually calm psychological experience reality after baptism;and the disgust, psychological resistance of"Cultural Revolution"is a strong impetus to the movement.%“文化大革命”的发展进程主要由中央一级机关所掌控,另一方面,也与社会心理的走向密切相关。个人崇拜及盲从的社会心理直接助推了文化大革命的发动、发展;经历现实洗礼后渐趋冷静的心理导致运动遭遇被质疑;而对“文化大革命”的厌恶、抵制心理则有力地推动了运动最终走向谢幕。

  15. The social media revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  16. 熊熊革命炉火中的乡土文化精神寂灭——贾平凹小说《古炉》中的符号象征系统%Disillusion of Homeland Culture in the Cultural Revolution Movement——Symbols System in Jia Pingwa's Novel The Ancient Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚斌; 韩瑞婷

    2012-01-01

    Jia Pingwa in his novel The Ancient Stove employs three symbols——the symbol of regional culture,the symbol of organization culture,the symbol of life culture——to describe the Cultural Revolution Movement occurred in the last half of the 20th century vividly and authentically.Actually,the movement has changed the Chinese social progress totally.The author reveals that the movement is like the flame of stove to make Chinese homeland culture disillusioned,which includes homeland culture,clan culture and family culture.It is the movement that makes Chinese people form a brand-new view about value of life and death.%贾平凹的小说《古炉》从地域文化符号、组织文化符号、生活文化符号三个符号象征系统,通过对20世纪下半叶彻底改变中国社会发展进程的无产阶级"文化大革命"运动的历史还原,向人们揭示出,这场运动就像点燃了熊熊不息的社会炉火,对中国人造成了乡土文化精神的寂灭,主要包括家园乡土文化、家族乡土文化和家庭乡土文化精神的寂灭。可以说,正是这场运动,使得中国人形成了一种全新的生死价值观。

  17. Using Josiah Wedgwood to Teach the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phyllis A.; Sprinkle, John H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Uses Josiah Wedgwood and the pottery industry in England to illustrate the theme of technological development in a unit on the Industrial Revolution. States that infusing the biography of a specific individual can enliven history instruction. Presents two lessons on Josiah Wedgwood and shows how historians use the material culture to understand…

  18. Historical Experience and the Haitian Revolution in the History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozono, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The article examines a mainstream curricular unit on the Haitian Revolution, centered on a culminating role-play activity. Cultural studies, subaltern studies, and hermeneutics are applied as theoretical frameworks to read the curriculum unit and its activities. These theoretical lenses sharpen an understanding of what it means to experience…

  19. China's Wellness Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    SEVERAL years after its publication, the Wellness Revolution remains a cult best-selling book. Its writer, businessman and motivational speaker Paul Zane Pilzer, advised investors and ama-teur stock market players that "wellness" would be the next tril-

  20. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  1. The non-Euclidean revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1986-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

  2. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  3. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  4. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBickle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this paper is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past sixty years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of higher cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics (and DREADDs. The two key metascientific concepts I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of Tool Development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions.

  5. Spirit of Advocating Etiquette:Relationship with Modern Chinese Revolution and the Communist Party of China:Introduction to Chinese and Western Cultural Spirit(Part Four)%“尚礼”精神与中国现代革命和中国共产党——中西文化精神论纲之四

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 李克臣

    2011-01-01

    Members of Communist Party of China are deeply influenced by the spirit of advocating etiquette when they choose their way of revolution.The victory of Chinese new democratic revolution is in deed the victory of the traditional spirit of advocating Tao or etiquette.After the victory of the new democratic revolution,the Communist Party of China changes its policies on itself,farmers and intellectuals.While the culture all over the world is transforming and violently changing,it is imperative for China to maintain its cultural self-consciousness and persist in its traditional cultural spirit.At present,to renew the spirit of advocating etiquette is a pressing matter for developing Chinese culture.%中国共产党人对革命道路的选择深受"尚礼"精神的影响。中国新民主主义革命的胜利在实质上是中国传统的"尚道"——"尚礼"精神的胜利。新民主革命胜利后,中国共产党在党的自身、对农民的态度、对知识分子的政策三个方面都发生了变化。在整个世界文化处在文化转型、文化激变之际,中国保持文化自觉,坚持民族传统文化精神显得尤为迫切。恢复"尚礼"精神是中国文化发展的当务之急。

  6. Research on Xinhai Revolution and Social Change of Shandong Province: for the 100th Anniversary of Xinhai Revolution%Research on Xinhai Revolution and Social Change of Shandong Province: for the 100th Anniversary of Xinhai Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xinhai Revolution, breaking out in the year of 1911, overthrew the tyranny of Qing Dynasty, set up Republic of China and meanwhile it enhanced the consciousness of democracy and the concept of republic and democratic. Since then China has transit preliminarily from traditional society to modern one, which was led to a modern-society-developing orbit and was proved to be a great era-significant national democratic revolution. Xinhai Revolution strengthened the social change of China and greatly influenced politics, economy, culture, education, media, regional cities, civil life and social space in Shandong to pave for modernization. Although met with many difficulties, the society in Shandong was filled with many turning points and headed for the way of developing Shandong during the period of Republic of China.

  7. 成长小说何以成为近20年文革记忆生产的显要形式%On Reasons for Bildungsroman to Be the Prominent Form in the Production of Memory of the Cultural Revolution in Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俏梅

    2012-01-01

    八九十年代之交开始,以“文革”为背景的成长小说频频获得文坛以及社会的关注,至今方兴未艾,可以说成长小说是继伤痕、反恩之后“文革”记忆生产的极有影响的形式。论文认为,促成这一文学现象的原因,一是当今的主流作家基本上是在“文革”中度过童年少年时期的,成长与“文革”的相遇促成了这一热潮;二是与90年代以来新语境和新的问题意识下“文革”记忆需要重启与更新相关,而成长小说的形式由于其童年与成人的双重视角,其细小与宏大之间的张力,其灵活性与开放性,是延续、更新、丰富、补充和改写“文革”记忆的非常有效的形式,因此成了极受作家青睐的形式。%Starting from the turn of the 1980s and the 1990s, bildungsroman "Cultural Revolution" and having repeatedly drawn the attention of society and of , written in the dropback of the the literary circles, has been in the ascendant up till now, thus bildungsroman is, as it were, an extremely influential form in the production of memory of the "Cultural Revolution" following novels on trauma and reflections. As is opined in this paper, the causes for this literary phenomenon are as follows: for one thing, current mainstream writers have experienced the "Cultural Revolution" in their childhood and adolescence, hence the upsurge by virtue of the encounter of their growth with the "Cultural Revolution"; for another, there is a need to restart and update the memory of the "Cultural Revolution" against the background of a new context and new approaches to relevant issues in the 1990s. Therefore, thanks to its dual vision of both children and adults, to its elasticity between minute and grand narration, and to its flexibility and openness, the form of bildungsroman is qualified as the highly effective one to continue, update, enrich , replenish and rewrite the memory of the "Cultural Revolution", hence

  8. [Autism: toward a necessary cultural revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamak, Brigitte; Cohen, David

    2003-11-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood characterised by disturbances in both social interactions and communication as well as stereotyped patterns of activities and behaviour. The increase in estimates of the prevalence of autism has raised the question of an "epidemic" of autism. More active case assessment and changes in diagnostic criteria probably account in large part for such increase. Investigators have attempted to define the neural pathophysiology of autism ever since the hypothesis of "refrigerator mother" as its cause was replaced by the view that it is a developmental disorder of the immature brain. However consensus is yet to be reached concerning the brain regions implicated. Psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and genetics propose restricted view of the major issues leaving extensive areas unexplored. Therapeutic approaches induce only partial and uncertain results. There is no cure for autism but substantial evidence indicates that early, intensive, individualised education is beneficial for children. All modern intervention programs for autism affected children share a high degree of environmental structuring and predictability and an extensive individual approach. Autism being a behaviourally defined syndrome, it gave rise to a number of controversies concerning definition, classification, etiopathogenesis and therapeutics. In the 1990s a crisis has occurred in France with a loss of confidence between parents and psychiatrists with a problem concerning the means and ways of care of the autistic individual. The aim of this paper is to point out the different questions raised by autism in order to better understand this syndrome which touches upon essential behaviour-related aspects such as self consciousness, reality perception, the functioning of the thought and communication, as well as the role of hereditary and acquired influences in normal and pathological development.

  9. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  10. The Language of Revolution and the Power of Storytelling in The Pregnant Widow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Martin Amis uses the language of revolution to describe the newly altered social circumstances at the height of the sexual revolution in his semi-autobiographical novel The Pregnant Widow. The concept of a ‘language of revolution’ as well as second- and third-wave feminist scholarship is applied to a textual analysis of the novel. Amis’s brand of satire creates a sense of displacement and challenges existing perceptions about gender, culture and sexuality, exposing them as constructed and changeable norms. Moreover, it becomes clear that the author is skeptical about the benefits of the sexual revolution for either gender, and that he views its liberating aspects as unfulfilled, particularly for women. Given that Amis names one of his characters Scheherazade, evoking the legendary heroine of The Arabian Nights, the importance of storytelling in the novel is also examined and found to be a potentially redeeming force. Keywords: Martin Amis, sexual revolution, feminism, satire, gender, revolution

  11. A Revolution that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism."

  12. On the origin of the two cultures in 19th-century Europe (Cultural impact of a new view of the relation between man and nature resulting from the "Darwinian revolution")

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berkel, K

    2000-01-01

    The separation between nature, as the domain of scientific laws, and culture, as the domain of human values, is potentially already present in the seventeenth century. The idea of a benevolent purpose in nature, the so-called physico-theology, for a long time helped to accommodate the findings of sc

  13. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  14. Magic and reality in the literature of the Cuban revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Martín Sastre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no innocent literature. Literature is made by love, by hate, by a woman, by an idea, by an injustice, by a hope, to praise or to criticize, but I think literature has never been isolated, pure, detached. [...] Literature cannot escape life and history (Manuel Cofiño Lopez, 1985: 9697. Cofiño Lopezs own literature is no exception. The clear contrast that he presents in The Last Woman and the upcoming battle between magic and reality, ignorance and culture, past and present has a purpose. The author raises the need to end with the old beliefs in order to progress.This inextricable link between magic and reality of the Revolution is present in several novels of the Cuban Revolution. It shows how the two interact, as well as how past and present intermingle. Moreover, we find that magic is present throughout, and is fully compatible with the Revolution. This does not make it erroneous to believe in the stories of Magic Realism. It is a mistake on the part of the revolution and those who write about it for attempting to deny people the magic of their superstitions and beliefs, since magic is not the enemy of progress. They are part of their lives and their culture, and are something that should be respected.

  15. The Meanings of 'Bourgeois Revolution': Conceptualizing the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class consciou......Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class...... consciousness and revolutionary intentions in the French Revolution of 1789. On the basis of a methodologically ambitious view of concepts in general, Marx starts from a general conception of the state as alienated human potentials and proceeds through a methodological framework of multiple periodizations......-reductive concept of ‘bourgeois revolution’, describing an important aspect of the French Revolution rather than the particulars of this historic event, seems to contain a challenge unmet by most contemporary historiography....

  16. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  17. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  18. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  19. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  20. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  1. Extreme Programming: A Kuhnian Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Mandy; Northover, Alan; Gruner, Stefan; Kourie, Gerrick G.; Boake, Andrew

    This paper critically assesses the extent to which the Agile Software community's use of Thomas Kuhn's theory of revolutionary scientific change is justified. It will be argued that Kuhn's concepts of "scientific revolution" and "paradigm shift" cannot adequately explain the change from one type of software methodology to another.

  2. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  3. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  4. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  5. Review Essay: The Making of a Subcultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Clark. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 368 pp. $88 (cloth, $26 (paper.Paul Clark. Youth Culture in China: From Red Guards to Netizens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 294 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper, $24 (ebook.To read the two most recent books by Paul Clark, renowned for his earlier contributions to the study of Chinese cinema, is to marvel both at his vast and enviable knowledge of the subject matter and at the vast and fast-changing landscape of modern and contemporary Chinese cultural experiences and expressions. It is to be constantly amazed by the dots that the cultural historian connects, by the different terrains that he leads us through, and by the expansive vistas that he brings into focus. Students interested in almost any aspect of modern and contemporary Chinese culture (from film to fiction to music to dance to bodybuilding will appreciate the wealth of materials and references contained in these two volumes. Similarly, scholars of the Cultural Revolution and the developments since will have much to think about and to address, because what Clark presents here is a richer and more complex narrative of recent Chinese cultural history than has heretofore been packaged or popularized. It is a narrative that underscores the continuing evolution of modern Chinese culture in the twentieth century and beyond.

  6. A new sexual revolution? Critical theory, pornography, and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, Steve

    2011-08-01

    The "sexual revolution" was a central element of North American culture in the 1960s. Today, sex is increasingly central to mainstream culture, in large part due to the Internet, and we might wonder whether we are living through a comparable period of sexual history. In this article, I revisit the work of Herbert Marcuse-the original theorist of the sexual revolution-to ask whether it can contribute to a critical theory of sexuality in the era of digital technology. After outlining Marcuse's theory of the role of Eros in social life, I discuss two pornographic Web sites that combine eroticism and social critique. I argue that Marcuse's work is valuable for its emphasis on the intersection of sex, technology, and capitalist economy, but that it needs to be supplemented by a focus on masculinity and the male body in Internet pornography.

  7. Correlates of Marital Duration among Those Who File for Divorce: Selected Characteristics in California, 1966-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneker, Jerry S.; Rankin, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Delineates some characteristics of persons filing for divorce in California between 1966 and 1976. Findings showed that marriages endured separation longer when children were present. Duration of marriage appeared to decrease slightly over time, remaining much the same for couples regardless of age at marriage or of education. (Author/NB)

  8. Retrospective on community dentistry and public health at the University of Southern California (1966-1976), Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, C O

    1998-05-01

    The authorization of departments of community dentistry and public health in the nation's dental schools is a relatively recent innovation in dental education. Such a department was established at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry in 1966, as part of the School of Medicine's effort to share responsibility in providing both access and availability of health services in inner-city Los Angeles, California. Dentistry was included in the protocol submitted to the US Office of Economic Opportunity to build a neighborhood health center in Watts, operated under the joint jurisdiction of the medical and dental schools. The dental division of the health center was designated a satellite of the community dentistry department. The department envisioned future changes during the revolutionary 1960s when all aspects of the nation were experiencing upheaval as traditional concepts were challenged by new attitudes. The nation's leaders in government and education as well as in the health professions were stimulated by scientific and technologic discoveries. Dentistry had come of age, having gained the respect of other health-care disciplines. It was a time of expanded exploration of means toward a healthier populace and a more sensitive ethical provider of health care. In one decade, the USC community dentistry department accomplished a major shift in attitude about the specialty from one of pervasive opposition and antipathy to that of acceptance and even enthusiasm. The department became competitive with similar units nationwide in educating dental students and practitioners to fulfill their responsibilities at the highest level of proficiency and to be true to the trust bestowed on them by the public. In pursuit of these goals, the department reflected credit on dentistry and the University of Southern California.

  9. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  10. My Daughter’s Homeland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Millions of urban educated youths were assigned to bordering regions, pastoral areas, as well as agricultural areas, during China’s chaotic "cultural revolution" (1966-1976), to take part in Iocal production. Known as "urban educated youths settling down in the mountain and rural areas to join in labor," the movement was rigorously carried out all over the country during that time. Settling down in remote, poverty stricken villages and pastoral lands, these young people spent their youth in hardships. They shared the hard lives of local peasants and herdsman, and were tempered by the most rigorous challenges. Many of them returned to cities when the "cultural revolution" was over. However, their lives in the countryside have been ingrained deeply in their memories. This has become the most unforgettable part of their life. Here are the memories of Zhang Yaping, one of the young urban women who once stayed in Inner Mongolia.

  11. The RNA interference revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lenz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing has rapidly led to its use as a method of choice for blocking a gene, and has turned it into one of the most discussed topics in cell biology. Although still in its infancy, the field of RNA interference has already produced a vast array of results, mainly in Caenorhabditis elegans, but recently also in mammalian systems. Micro-RNAs are short hairpins of RNA capable of blocking translation, which are transcribed from genomic DNA and are implicated in several aspects from development to cell signaling. The present review discusses the main methods used for gene silencing in cell culture and animal models, including the selection of target sequences, delivery methods and strategies for a successful silencing. Expected developments are briefly discussed, ranging from reverse genetics to therapeutics. Thus, the development of the new paradigm of RNA-mediated gene silencing has produced two important advances: knowledge of a basic cellular mechanism present in the majority of eukaryotic cells and access to a potent and specific new method for gene silencing.

  12. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  13. Quantum Hadrodynamics Evolution and Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J; Serot, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    The underlying philosophy and motivation for quantum hadrodynamics (QHD), namely, relativistic field theories of nuclear phenomena featuring manifest covariance, have evolved over the last quarter century in response to successes, failures, and sharp criticisms. A recent revolution in QHD, based on modern effective field theory and density functional theory perspectives, explains the successes, provides antidotes to the failures, rebuts the criticisms, and focuses the arguments in favor of a covariant representation.

  14. 从“震动”到“安然受之”--“文革”爆发前夜的顾颉刚%From “Shocking”to “Accepting”-Gu Jiegang Psychological State On Eve of the Cultural Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振兴

    2016-01-01

    In the Cultural Revolution,the ideological transformation like a dragnet,no one can escape. How to reflect and criticize oneself is a major problem that people have to face in the period.The promi-nent historian of old society with “deep poisoning ”Gu Jiegang naturally could stand such test,his per-formance on the eve of the Cultural Revolution outbreak (The paper examines the period of the October 1, 1 965 -August 31,1 966)is very representative.The initial feeling of Gu Jiegang was quite “shock”,but af-ter some intense struggle,when the storm comes true,he “accepted it”unexpectedly.%“文化大革命”中的思想改造犹如天罗地网,无人能够逃脱。如何反思和批判自身,求得过关,是这一时期人们必须面对的一大难题。“中毒极深”的“旧社会”史学大家顾颉刚自然也要经受此等考验,他在这次运动爆发前夕(本文考察时段为1965年10月1日———1966年8月31日)的表现很有代表性。概言之,顾颉刚最初的感受是颇为“震动”,但经过一番强烈的挣扎,待到风暴真正降临之时,他反而“安然受之”了。

  15. Warm Retrospect at a Controlled Distance---On the Writing Strategy of Love at the Time of the Cultural Revolution in The Love of the Hawthorn Tree%距离控制下的温情回望*--论《山楂树之恋》关于文革时期的爱情书写策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪丽霁

    2015-01-01

    The Love of the Hawthorn Tree differw itwelf from other“wcar”novelw wet in the Cultural Rev-olution by expertly controlling the aewthetic diwtance of both time and wpace. Inwtead of purpowely depicting perwonal wuffering in political turmoil ,thiw novel centerw around love in a tender-mood manner in a writ-ing wtrategy deliberately adopted by the noveliwt. Another point to ponder iw the feminiwt perwpective which, when applied to miwery and grievance in the Cultural Revolution,helpw the narration to go wmoothly. For the above reawonw,the novel haw rouwed great interewt,both individual and wocial.%与不少深烙“伤痕”印记的文革小说不同,《山楂树之恋》将涉及时间和空间的审美距离作了较为巧妙的控制和处理,有意淡化灾难及其背后的政治对个人生活的影响力。作品主要以爱情作为小说叙事的中心线索,对一段已逝的往事作出了富有温情的回望与书写,突显出创作者的良苦用心和颇具特点的写作策略:运用浪漫的女性创作视角来叙述文革故事,通过叙述实现与苦难和创伤的告别,使因阅读而产生的审美活动得以顺利、有效地进行,小说因此也引起了人们的普遍关注,产生了强烈的社会反响。

  16. 75 FR 38385 - Unleashing the Wireless Broadband Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorandum of June 28, 2010--Unleashing the Wireless Broadband Revolution #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... Revolution Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies America's future competitiveness... beginning the next transformation in information technology: the wireless broadband revolution. Few...

  17. Recuerdos de una revolucion cultural (Memories of a Cultural Revolution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de

    1973-01-01

    Describes elements of the modernism movement in Brazil; paper read at a symposium commemorating the fiftieth anniversay of the Week of Modern Art of Sao Paulo'' held February 11-12, 1972, at the University of California, Los Angeles, California. (DS)

  18. Economic Motives Behind the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    pdf. 119 Ibid. 120 Andrey V. Korotayev and Julia V. Zinkina, “Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista ...Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13 (2011). Lesch, Ann M. “Egypt’s Spring: Causes of the Revolution.” Middle East Policy

  19. Solar solution: the next industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A. Sandén

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution 200 years ago freed society from the limitations of bioenergy and brought tremendous growth but also huge environmental problems. Now, a new generation of modular technologies based on advanced materials enables efficient conversion of solar energy and carries the seeds of a new industrial revolution.

  20. Re-Appraising Revolution and Change in International Politics: A Case Study of America Revolution 1776, French Revolution 1789 and Russian Revolution 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Babatunde Njoaguani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Change and continuity are characteristics of human history. Strategic change in any society has significant impacts that becomes reference points for similar transformation in the near future. Fundamentally, the numerous internal upheavals that characterized North Africa and Middle East that culminated in a change of government in these countries has raised fundamental question about subject of change and revolution. Such questions include: is every change a revolution and does every revolution culminate in a change? What are the distinguishing features of change and the significance of such change for contemporary international politics? Using secondary data derived from books, and journals, the paper therefore examines the revolution and change in international politics drawing from historical examples of America and France Revolution. Also, noting the causes and implications of these of revolution on International Relations. It also seeks to distinguish between socio-political upheaval and internal disruptions that may culminate in change from revolution, that is, a vital change that affects institution, structure and value system of a society. The paper recommends a cautious use of the term revolution from change of government.

  1. THE REVOLUTION AND THE MILITARY. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EGYPTIAN AND IRAQI REVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Alexandru CUCUT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to assess the role the military plays in revolutions. The first part of the study focuses on the manner in which the competing theories of revolutions try to explain and accommodate the military’s participation in revolutions, attempting to show that the limits of these theoretical enterprises call for a renewed research into the subject at hand. The second part of the paper tries to build a conceptual model, starting from the hypotheses of Charles Tilly, Samuel Huntington and Mehran Kamrava, tested on two particular cases – that of the 1958 Egyptian Revolution and that of the 1958 Iraqi Revolution that can better account for the military’s participation in revolutions and explain when does the military become a revolutionary force and what are the characteristics of revolutions in which the military plays a key-role.

  2. Revolution, modernity, and the potential of narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the impact of the French Revolution on Goethe’s narrative works in the mid-1790s. I argue that the reductive interpretation of Goethe’s attitude to the Revolution as distant and reluctant ignores the formal and thematic impact of the Revolution on his prose works. Similarly......, we lose important perspectives when reducing German intellectual life of the late eighteenth century to apolitical inwardness. The Revolution had an impact, also in the German context, and Goethe’s literary works were significantly affected by it. Working in various literary genres, he investigated...... and experimented with some of the fundamental challenges of the Revolution and the modern era, especially those regarding self-determination, community, and the nexus between individual and shared history. Following a brief sketch of how these issues looked from a German perspective, I will focus on Goethe’s...

  3. Bourgeois Revolution: The Genesis of a Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2006-01-01

    -appropriations of enlightenment theses in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Finally, the development of modern socialist critiques of capitalism contributed an orientation towards a future socialist revolution necessary to construct ‘bourgeois revolution' as a specific category of historical analysis. This paper proposes......The concept ‘bourgeois revolution' developed through a particular synthesis of three world views, each with its own period of dominance in Western thought. In the enlightenment views of civilization history developing in Scotland and France from the 1740's till about 1800, materialist notions...... of historical progress were developed focussing on social structure and the main conditions of social development. Important notions of agency, including social classes as historical agents, and of revolutions as specific leaps in the developmental process, were developed with the onset of romantic re...

  4. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    , homosexuality, pornography, adultery and divorce were challenged and reformed, in many cases in the context of intensive social movement activism. This research explores immigrants' perceptions of the dramatic changes in sexual and gender relations transforming Europe in the 1960s-80s, and the instances...... of immigrant solidarity with, and participation in, networks for social justice, women's equality, and sexual liberation. Part I of this dissertation focuses on foreign workers' early impressions of gender equality and sexual liberality from 1965-1974. Part II centers on immigrant activism from 1975......This is an historical study of first-generation immigrants in Denmark and the Netherlands in the 1960s-80s and their perceptions of the 'Sexual Revolution.' Foreign workers and post-colonial immigrants arrived during the same decades when laws regarding women's equality, contraception and abortion...

  5. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  6. Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution as Seen through Foreign Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Parker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available – The Enduring Legacy. Oil, Culture and Society in Venezuela, by Miguel Tinker Salas. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2009. – Rethinking Venezuelan Politics. Class, Conflict and the Chávez Phenomenon, by Steve Ellner. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008. – Changing Venezuela by Taking Power. The History and Policies of the Chávez Government, by Gregory Wilpert. London/New York: Verso, 2007. – The Real Venezuela. Making Socialism in the 21st Century, by Iain Bruce. London: Pluto Press, 2008. – Democracy and Revolution. Latin America and Socialism Today, by D.L. Raby. London/Ann Arbor: Pluto Press, 2006.

  7. Arthur Lourié and his conception of revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Lourié’s conception of revolution (political as well as cultural is explored through his writings, with particular emphasis on its evolution from his Russian period to his Parisian and American exiles. Analyzing Lourié’s Eurasianist views specifically I argue that through his association with Eurasianism and his engagement with Neoclassicism Lourié did not abandon his revolutionary disposition; the means through which his revolutionism was pursued as well as the ideals that shaped it were merely redefined, while remaining firmly grounded in the Silver Age.

  8. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  9. Was there an ‘Industrious Revolution' before the Industrial Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Robert C.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    It is conventionally assumed that the pre-modern working year was fixed and that consumption varied with changes in wages and prices. This is challenged by the twin theories of the ‘industrious' revolution and the consumer revolution, positing a longer working year as people earned surplus money...... estimates of the actual working year, we find two ‘industrious' revolutions among rural workers; both, however, are attributable to economic hardship, and we detect no signs of a consumer revolution. For urban labourers, by contrast, a growing gap between their actual working year and the work  required...

  10. Un Libro de Pinturas de la Revolucion de Mexico (A Book of Drawings of Mexico's Revolution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Theresa

    Scenes from the Mexican Revolution are featured in this short booklet for Spanish speaking children in the elementary grades. These supplementary reading materials were developed by a student in the Mesa Community College Bilingual Teacher Aide Program. Both the language and content are intended to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive…

  11. Un Libro de Pinturas de la Revolucion de Mexico (A Book of Drawings of Mexico's Revolution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Theresa

    Scenes from the Mexican Revolution are featured in this short booklet for Spanish speaking children in the elementary grades. These supplementary reading materials were developed by a student in the Mesa Community College Bilingual Teacher Aide Program. Both the language and content are intended to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive…

  12. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  13. Helical Two-Revolutional Cyclical Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olejníková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a family of helical two-revolutional cyclical surfaces, which arecreated by movement of the circle alongside the helical cycloidal curve, where circle islocated in the curve normal plane and its centre is on this curve. Helical cycloidal curvecan be created by simultaneous revolution of a point about two different axes 3o, 2o and byscrewing about axis 1o in the space. Form of the helical cycloidal curve and also of thehelical two-revolutional cyclical surface is dependent on the relative position of the threeaxes of revolutions, on multiples of angular velocities and orientations of separaterevolutions. Analytic representation, classification of surfaces and some of their geometricproperties are derived.

  14. Book Review: Haberkorn, Tyrell, Revolution Interrupted: ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Drahmoune

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the monograph: Haberkorn, Tyrell (2011, Revolution Interrupted: Farmers, Students, Law and Violence in Northern Thailand Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN: 978 0 299 28184 7, 256 pages

  15. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  16. APPROXIMATE DEVELOPMENTS FOR SURFACES OF REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Roxana Buneci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere

  17. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  18. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  19. On the revolution of heavenly spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Copernicus, Nicolaus

    1995-01-01

    The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.

  20. Interaction between mao and the red guards during the Cultural Revolution - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.135 Interações entre Mao e os guardas vermelhos na Revolução Cultural - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang-Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cultural Revolution was the most spectacular event in the history of contemporary China. The Red Commander, president Mao, was in the center of the dramatic events and the Red Guards, young revolutionary fighters, were secondary and tertiary students during the 1966-1968 period. They were born before or after 1949 and since their younger years they had been instructed to hate the old society and love the Party and President Mao. Under his presidency the young people organized themselves in small groups of red guards and the movement turned out to be a political hurricane that swept around China and the Chinese nation. The extension of such violent eruption of the Red Guards against “class enemies” and against the “followers of the capitalist alternative” suggests the depth of frustration that inhabited the core of Chinese society. The young people needed only a slight stimulus from Mao to rebel against those who were restricting their lives. As from January 1967 when the Xangai workers took over the city’s administration, the Red Guards’ movement decreased. Through their own free will or through political pressure the young people went out of the city to the rural area so that they could be reeducated by the farmers. They became political exiles.A Revolução Cultural foi o episodio mais espetacular na historia da China contemporânea. No centro desse drama estavam o Comandante vermelho- o presidente Mao, e os guardas vermelhos- jovens lutadores da revolução. Os guardas vermelhos eram, majoritariamente, alunos do ensino médio e superior dos anos de 1966-1968. Nasceram pouco antes ou depois de 1949, desde a infância, foram instruídos para odiar a velha sociedade e adorar o partido e o presidente Mao. Sob estimulo de Mao, os jovens se organizaram em pequenos grupos dos guardas vermelhos, e o movimento logo se transformou num furacão político que arrastou toda a China e colocou a nação chinesa de ponta cabeça. A extens

  1. The Conflict of Political Culture between Loyalists and Patriots at the Beginning of the American Revolution (1763 -1775 )%美国革命初期(1763—1775)效忠派与爱国者的政治文化之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓春

    2012-01-01

    1763—1783年的美国革命,实际上是基于相对英国而言的外来加尔文主义思想的革命爱国者与基于传统英国本土保守主义的改革效忠派之间的政治文化交锋。早在1775—1783年战争之前,双方就已经通过教堂布道、报刊和出版物等宣传以及爱国者对效忠派的暴力进攻和公共集会与游行示威,就美利坚的未来政治体制、与英帝国的关系等事关其命运和前途的问题进行激烈的论争。爱国者立足于其加尔文教的政治文化传统,运用各种手段赢得了胜利,达到控制整个美利坚社会及人民、压制反对派效忠派,促使革命走向战争,最后获得独立的目的。%The 1763 - 1783 American Revolution is in fact a confrontation of political culture between the revolutionary Patriots with Calvinism relatively alien to Britain and the evolutionary Loyalists with traditional conservatism domestic to Britain. Even before the Independence War from 1775 to 1783, both sides had had violent disputes about the future political system of American and relationship between America and British Empire through churches, newspapers, publications, the violent attack on Loyalists, public assembly and demonstration by Patriots. Based on the political culture tradition of Calvinism, Patriots, with various ways, attained their aims of controlling the whole American society and people, suppressing Loyalists, leading the American Revolution to the Independence War, and gaining the final independence.

  2. The Demographic Revolution: Reconceptualizing Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orio Giarini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reconsider the measurements which refer to the “Wealth of Nations” and from which the most appropriate references for better welfare policies are derived. In the present Service Economy, not all the “value added” measures indicate an increase in the level of wealth (the costs to cope with pollution for instance, whereas many developments in service functions and performances (in the case of many communication systems for instance add to real wealth much more than the usual value added references indicate. In particular, the notion of productivity in a Service economy is much more relevant with reference to performance in time (hence in a probabilistic system than to the production factor costs (in an equilibrium-based system. But all this is linked to progress in economics as a discipline, and to its integration with environmental issues (which also pretend to solve the problems of the “Wealth of Nations” on the basis of their “sustainability”. This will be a new era in economic development which will be beyond current extrapolations and will hope for “growth” in the traditional Industrial Revolution perspective.

  3. The Science of Structural Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Graf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on the very human process by which scientific paradigms change can help point the path forward in any science, or in an applied science, such as Structural Engineering. Understanding this process of change, we can examine earthquake engineering, seismic building codes and theories of structural engineering for earthquake loads. When we take this perspective, we recognize that Structural Engineering for earthquake resistance is in the midst of a number of revolutions, from paradigms embodied in current building codes in which earthquake demands are associated with forces, to a new paradigm in which earthquake demands are re-envisioned as resulting from structural displacements or drift. The new paradigm is embodied in the current national standard for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures, ASCE 41 [2] and the emerging standards for performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE. Associated with this is the shift from design oriented towards life-safety to design for a range of performance objectives, such as life-safety, damage reduction, or immediate occupancy. With this perspective, we further recognize deficiencies in research and development. We have failed to systematically use the experimental and computational tools we possess to fill in the gaps of scientific knowledge. We have not developed and deployed appropriate frameworks to collect and share ideas and results. As one example, the formulation of performance-based codes now outstrips the knowledge-base needed to ensure that structures designed by the new tools will meet their performance objectives.

  4. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  5. Epilepsy genetics: the ongoing revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesca, G; Depienne, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsies have long remained refractory to gene identification due to several obstacles, including a highly variable inter- and intrafamilial expressivity of the phenotypes, a high frequency of phenocopies, and a huge genetic heterogeneity. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as array comparative genomic hybridization and next generation sequencing, have been leading, in the past few years, to the identification of an increasing number of genomic regions and genes in which mutations or copy-number variations cause various epileptic disorders, revealing an enormous diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms. The field that has undergone the most striking revolution is that of epileptic encephalopathies, for which most of causing genes have been discovered since the year 2012. Some examples are the continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep and Landau-Kleffner syndromes for which the recent discovery of the role of GRIN2A mutations has finally confirmed the genetic bases. These new technologies begin to be used for diagnostic applications, and the main challenge now resides in the interpretation of the huge mass of variants detected by these methods. The identification of causative mutations in epilepsies provides definitive confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, allows accurate genetic counselling, and sometimes permits the development of new appropriate and specific antiepileptic therapies. Future challenges include the identification of the genetic or environmental factors that modify the epileptic phenotypes caused by mutations in a given gene and the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in sporadic epilepsies.

  6. The digital revolution in phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N.; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support ‘bench to bedside’ efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. PMID:26420780

  7. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtman, Mara A

    2009-07-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a 'national' Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement.

  8. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  9. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  10. For fun and profit a history of the free and open source software revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In the 1980s, there was a revolution with far-reaching consequences -- a revolution to restore software freedom. In the early 1980s, after decades of making source code available with programs, most programmers ceased sharing code freely. A band of revolutionaries, self-described "hackers," challenged this new norm by building operating systems with source code that could be freely shared. In For Fun and Profit, Christopher Tozzi offers an account of the free and open source software (FOSS) revolution, from its origins as an obscure, marginal effort by a small group of programmers to the widespread commercial use of open source software today. Tozzi explains FOSS's historical trajectory, shaped by eccentric personalities -- including Richard Stallman and Linus Torvalds -- and driven both by ideology and pragmatism, by fun and profit. Tozzi examines hacker culture and its influence on the Unix operating system, the reaction to Unix's commercialization, and the history of early Linux development. He describes ...

  11. Barefoot Doctors and the "Health Care Revolution" in Rural China: A Study Centered on Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sanchun; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    Barefoot doctors were rural medical personnel trained en masse, whose emergence and development had a particular political, economic, social, and cultural background. Like the rural cooperative medical care system, the barefoot doctor was a well-known phenomenon in the Cultural Revolution. Complicated regional differences and a lack of reliable sources create much difficulty for the study of barefoot doctors and result in differing opinions of their status and importance. Some scholars greatly admire barefoot doctors, whereas others harshly criticize them. This paper explores the rise and development of barefoot doctors based on a case study of Shandong province. I argue that the promotion of barefoot doctors was a consequence of the medical education revolution and an implementation of the Cultural Revolution in rural public health care, which significantly influenced medical services and development in rural areas. First, barefoot doctors played a significant role in accomplishing the first rural health care revolution by providing primary health care to peasants and eliminating endemic and infectious illnesses. Second, barefoot doctors were the agents who integrated Western and Chinese medicines under the direction of the state. As an essential part of the rural cooperative medical system, barefoot doctor personnel grew in number with the system's implementation. After the Cultural Revolution ended, the cooperative medical system began to disintegrate-a process that accelerated in the 1980s until the system's collapse in the wake of the de-collectivization. As a result, the number of barefoot doctors also ran down steadily. In 1985, "barefoot doctor" as a job title was officially removed from Chinese medical profession, demonstrating that its practice was non-universal and unsustainable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Sustainability Revolution: A Societal Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a question relevant to those interested in the achievement of greater sustainability: What are some of the ways that major societal transformations come about? Firstly, four key mechanisms are identified in the article. Then, I go on to focus on one of these, which has a prominent place in the sustainability revolution that it is argued is now taking place. The question of what are characteristic features of the sustainability revolution is addressed. The ongoing transformations are largely piecemeal, incremental, diffuse—in earlier writings referred to as “organic”. Organic is a more encompassing notion than “grassroots”, since the innovation and transformation processes may be launched and developed at multiple levels by collective agents that in some cases are very large and would not be understood as “grassroots” actors. The article argues that the sustainability revolution shares some features, in particular its organic character, with the early industrial revolution. It concludes by addressing the question of what are the similarities and differences between the sustainability and industrial revolutions.

  13. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  14. THE DYNAMICS OF REVOLUTION IN 1989: CONCEPTUAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana MARIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The events during the “Autumn of People” have created sideration and stupor in the eyes and minds of the Western observers – who least expected the communist breakdown –, and consequently significant problems of interpretation and in deciphering the regime change in East-Central Europe. Clearly, with the “transition to democracy” process, the same observers have expressed disappointment and skepticism regarding the prospects of the countries of ECE unrestrainedly and uncritically embracing the model of Western-type consolidated liberal democracy: many have assessed that the exit from communism was not necessarily synonymous with the “return to Europe” tout court, for the very historical background, socio-economic and cultural preconditions and political conditions were not met so as to generate the complete and definitive triumph of liberal democracy in Europe. The present paper is an attempt at critically examining the regime change in 1988-1989 in East-Central Europe as an exponential case of “postmodern revolution”, following the analysis drawn by S.N. Eisenstadt in late ‘90. Breaking with the paradigm of the “Great Revolutions” (G. Pettee, 1989 lacked the characteristic features of a “classical revolution” (in the French or Russian sense, hence imposing a new species of revolution which was dominantly non-ideological, non-class-based, and non-violent, though achieving its central purpose, i.e. that of effectuating regime change. Concretely, this paper tries to introduce the 1988-1989 regime change in ECE in the general discussion of the defining and the characteristic features of a revolution, drawing extensively on the literature that preceded and followed the anus mirabilis, dedicated to the analysis of revolutions.

  15. Urbanism Faced with the New Urban Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascher, François

    2002-01-01

    tilsvarende ved at blive afløst af en "meta-urbanisme", som adskiller sig fra den foregående med hensyn til målsætninger, kundskabsmæssige redskaber og handlingsinstrumenter. I artiklen redegøres for sammenhænge mellem disse teknologiske, samfundsmæssige, bymæssige og urbanistiske forandringer.......Med den industrielle revolution fulgte den urbane revolution og urbanismen som bymæssig videns- og planlægningsdisciplin. Med de nye informations- og kommunikationsteknologier står vi i dag over for samfundsmæssige forandringer, som sætter en ny urban revolution på dagsordenen. Urbanismen er...

  16. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  17. Science Education and the Scientific Revolution: a way to learn about Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAEL R. MATTHEWS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the international curriculum documents that require that science students learn about science – its methodology, relations with wider culture, technology and worldviews – as well as learning the content and process skills of science. This wider, or cultural, goal for science courses amounts to students learning something about the history and philosophy of their subject. It is argued that some study of the Scientific Revolution is a very appropriate and rich way to forward this cultural goal. The example of the seventeenth-century debate about the shape of the earth is used to illustrate significant features of the scientific revolution, and consequently enduring features of modern science.

  18. Translating National Ideology in China English -A Diachronic Investigation of Beijing Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming YUAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an expanding circle variety, the distinctive features of China English have been identified as: idiom transfers, loan translations of political terms, connotation changes, semantic shifts, and the orientalized style of discourse. While its characteristics are agreed upon by most researchers, China English does not always display these characteristics to the same extent. A Comparison of articles in Beijing Review (the first English weekly news magazine in the PRC for international consumption over the years of 1958-2015 shows both endonormative (towards the “Chinese” characteristics and exonormative (towards “international English” movements. In general, earlier issues, especially those during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976 are more “marked” than recent ones. It is argued that the shaping and re-shaping of China English is a reflection of the changing political, ideological and economic priorities of the nation. Keywords: China English, ideology, Beijing Review

  19. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  20. Revolution with and without the mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanko Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to provide a certain “second reading” of those commonplaces which imply that a particular, personal interest always lies behind the mask of objectivity, necessity and truth. As a paradigmatic example of this kind of structure that implies “hidden truths”, here will be taken that of a revolution, whether it is a fascist, a liberal-democratic or a communist revolution. By reexamining how this motif of “truth-behind-the-mask” figures in those regimes, we will try to say something about each of them, and also about the specific kind of subject that is produced under them.

  1. The astronomical revolution Copernicus, Kepler, Borelli

    CERN Document Server

    Koyre, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in English in 1973. This volume traces the development of the revolution which so drastically altered man's view of the universe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The ""astronomical revolution"" was accomplished in three stages, each linked with the work of one man. With Copernicus, the sun became the centre of the universe. With Kepler, celestial dynamics replaced the kinematics of circles and spheres used by Copernicus. With Borelli the unification of celestial and terrestrial physics was completed by abandonment of the circle in favour the straight line to inf

  2. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  3. The dark side of the Scientific Revolution. The Biblical interpretation in Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.

  4. A Research into the Revolution of Suzhou’s Tourism Culture According to the New Forms of Tourism%基于新型旅游方式的苏州旅游文化变革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国

    2015-01-01

    苏州旅游文化有遗产丰富、管理完善、目标单一、短线为主等特点。随着新型旅游方式的不断涌现,苏州旅游业需要转变观念,努力开发新型旅游产品,打造“江南水乡”和“苏州雨巷”等新型景观概念,出版分类旅游地图册,建设苏州旅游文化书店和苏州(江南)土特产工艺品大卖场,研发更先进的智能“旅游通”,全方位提升苏州旅游文化形象。%The tourist culture of Suzhou boasts of the features of the rich heritage resources, complete management, single destinations and short-distance itineraraies. Suzhou tourism needs to change concept, and make efforts to develop new tourism products and create the new concept of landscape such as“Jiangnan Water Township”and“Suzhou Rain Lane”and so on, to publish classiifed tourist maps, to establish Suzhou tourist culture bookstores and Suzhou (Jiangnan) native craf ts mall, to research and develop a new generation of intelligent“travel pass”, so as to improve the general tourist image of Suzhou.

  5. Hu Shi and the Continuation of the Revolution of1911——Discussing Intellectuals and Social Revolution%Hu Shi and the Continuation of the Revolution of 1911——Discussing Intellectuals and Social Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Hu Shi is regarded as one of the most important intellectuals after the Revolution of 1911,and he has a far- reaching influence in 20th century.In the perspective of Hu Shi,the contribution and continuation of the Revolution of 1911 has some inspiration for us to analyze the relationship between Chinese intellectuals and social revolution.

  6. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  7. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  8. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  9. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  10. Was there an ‘Industrious Revolution' before the Industrial Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Robert C.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    estimates of the actual working year, we find two ‘industrious' revolutions among rural workers; both, however, are attributable to economic hardship, and we detect no signs of a consumer revolution. For urban labourers, by contrast, a growing gap between their actual working year and the work  required......It is conventionally assumed that the pre-modern working year was fixed and that consumption varied with changes in wages and prices. This is challenged by the twin theories of the ‘industrious' revolution and the consumer revolution, positing a longer working year as people earned surplus money...... to buy novel goods. In this study, we turn the conventional view on its head, fixing consumption rather than labour input. Specifically, we use a basket of basic consumption goods and compute the working year of rural and urban day labourers required to achieve that. By comparing with independent...

  11. Colour Revolutions Revisited: Relative Deprivation – the Reason for the Rose Revolution in Georgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nino Machurishvili

    2017-01-01

    ... – revolution period in Georgia, within the framework of Relative Deprivation theory. The linkage between relative deprivation and the Gini coefficient, as well type of existing political regime and Soviet past is considered...

  12. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  13. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  14. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there have been two monopolistic competition revolutions. The first was started by Joan Robinson and Edward Chamberlin in the 1930s but failed to have much impact on economic theory. The second was initiated by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz in the early 1970s. Their r

  15. Dissent, revolution and liberty beyond Earth

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an in-depth discussion on the central question – how can people express and survive dissent and disagreement in confined habitats in space? The discussion is an important one because it could be that the systems of inter-dependence required to survive in space are so strong that dissent becomes impossible. John Locke originally said that people have a right to use revolution to overthrow a despotic regime. But if revolution causes violence and damage that causes depressurisation with the risk of killing many people, is it even permissible to have a revolution? How then are people to express their liberty or dissatisfaction with their rulers? The emergence of structures of dissent and disagreement is an essential part of the construction of a framework of liberty in space (revolution is just the extreme example) and thus the topic deserves in-depth and immediate attention. Even today, the way in which we assemble organisations and corporations for the government and private exploration o...

  16. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  17. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  18. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there have been two monopolistic competition revolutions. The first was started by Joan Robinson and Edward Chamberlin in the 1930s but failed to have much impact on economic theory. The second was initiated by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz in the early 1970s. Their

  19. Nascent Revolution in Post USSR Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. 23 Op Cit. (Goldstone) p. 3 24 Ibid. p. 56 25 Ibid. p. 56 26 Ibid. p. 81 27 Ibid. p. 4 28 Ritzer , George . Sociological Theory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1988. p. 118. 29

  20. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  1. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  2. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  3. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  4. A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture Since 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay traces the thought processes behind the composition of artists for the exhibition A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture since 1965 (1987-88. The exhibition introduced American museum audiences to the burgeoning activity in London in the 1980s and which foreshadowed even greater intensity in the following decade.

  5. En revolutionær matros' eventyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelsen omhandler dels Knüfkens liv og levned, dels drøftelser af forholdet mellem revolutionære og Komintern, herunder Knüfkens og andres erfaringer med de russiske partiledere, disses interne magtkampe og magtkampenes afsmitning på den kommunistiske bevægelse. Udgivelsesdato: 25.09.08...

  6. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  7. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  8. The Intelligence Revolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    noting that "the general unreliability of all information" ensured that military action occurred "in a kind of twilight , which, like fog or moonlight...all fronts the continuing saga of Glasnost and Perestroika, the Gorbachev revolution. Developments in this area can have fundamental, global

  9. Mexico´s long revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available México celebraba en el año 2010 el Bicentenario del empiezo de sus luchas de independencia y el Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana de 1910. Lo que no se celebra oficialmente es el proceso revolucionario contemporáneo, aunque sus ciertas fases han incluido entusiasmo por parte de diferentes actores sociales. En este artículo les ofrezco un análisis histórico de estos procesos revolucionarios como tres largas revoluciones de México. Además de eso, las explicaré dentro de un contexto histórico más amplio la transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio no-eurocéntrico, que podemos entender también como la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVRM. Empiezo con la explicación de este contexto histórico amplio. Continúo con el análisis del proceso de independencia desde 1810 así como la Revolución Mexicana desde 1910. Adelanto con la explicación de la tercera larga revolución mexicana, para la cual he seleccionado como el año del empiezo el 1988 y las elecciones presidenciales. Otros posibles años del empiezo podrían ser la represión del movimiento estudiantil en 1968 y la rebelión neozapatista desde 1994. En manera de conclusión se analiza como las largas revoluciones mexicanas están conectadas a las transiciones en la esfera del contexto histórico amplio.Palabras clave: México, revolución, largas revoluciones, Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVEM___________________________Abstract:Mexico celebrated in 2010 the Bicentenary of the beginning of its struggles of independence and the Centenary of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. What is not celebrated officially is the contemporary revolutionary process though some of its phases have included enthusiasm for the part of different social actors. In this article I offer you a historical analysis of these revolutionary processes as Mexico’s three long revolutions. Besides that I will explain them within the

  10. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  11. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    This book focuses on the latter half of the twentieth century, when much of northwest Europe grew increasingly multicultural with the arrival of foreign workers and (post-)colonial migrants, whilst simultaneously experiencing a boom in feminist and sexual liberation activism. Using multilingual...... newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  12. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    , race, and cultural difference in the women's movement. Part III focuses on immigrants and ethnic minorities in gay and lesbian 'scenes' (e.g. bars, social circles) and formal organizations in the 1960s-80s. During these decades, contact advertisements in gay and lesbian journals facilitated new......, homosexuality, pornography, adultery and divorce were challenged and reformed, in many cases in the context of intensive social movement activism. This research explores immigrants' perceptions of the dramatic changes in sexual and gender relations transforming Europe in the 1960s-80s, and the instances...... friendships, romances, housing connections, employment, and travel opportunities across both internal and external borders (e.g. inter-ethnic and international correspondence). Interviewees recount their experiences 'coming out,' moving to cities, and being 'one of the first' people of color in various gay...

  13. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  14. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  15. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views.

  16. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  17. Health and the urban environment: revolutions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGranahan, Gordan

    2009-05-15

    From cholera pandemics to smog episodes, urban development driven by narrow economic interests has shown itself to be a serious threat to human health and wellbeing. Past revolutions in sanitation and pollution control demonstrate that social movements and governance reforms can transform an urban health penalty into a health advantage. But many environmental problems have been displaced over time and space, and never truly resolved. Health concerns need once again to drive an environmental agenda – but this time it must be sustainable over the long haul, and globally equitable. With the global economic crisis raising the ante, what's needed is no less than a revolution in environmental justice that puts health, not economics, at the core of its values.

  18. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  19. Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, David S

    2016-03-29

    The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended

  20. Dictionary users in the digital revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; De Schryver, Gilles-Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the digital revolution in lexicography from the perspective of the dictionary user. We begin with an observation that in the information age the status of the dictionary is changing, and so are patterns of user behaviour, with general internet search engines encroaching on the grounds traditionally reserved for lexicographic queries. Clearly, we need to know more about user behaviour in the digital environment, and for this we need to harness user research, to find ...

  1. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  2. Dumitru Popescu and the Romanian Revolution of 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Ronald Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1980s, Ceaușescu had transformed Romania into a police state. The uprising from december 1989 that led to Ceaușescu’s downfall began with some incidents in Timisoara on 16 of December. The demonstrations spread to Bucharest, and further to others cities of Romania. We aimed to treat in this paper the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a mixture of spontaneous general uprising and conspiracy against Ceaușescu organized by reform communists and disaffected elements of the Securitate and army. The perspective from which we have chosen to look at the event (and also to the road to the shock of december 1989 is through Dumitru Popescu’s memoirs. Dumitru Popescu, ex- vice president of the State Committee for Culture and Art and President of the Council of Socialist Culture and Education, was one of the creators of the Ceausescu’s ideology. He graduate the Party School of Social Sciences „A.A. Jdanov“ in 1957- an ideological training institute where besides the unconditional commitment to the party some cultural training was required as well.

  3. Was there a Darwinian Revolution? Yes, no, and maybe!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Was there a Darwinian Revolution and was it but part of the Scientific Revolution? Before Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, most people thought that there was a Darwinian Revolution, that it was in some sense connected to the Scientific Revolution, but that neither question nor answer was terribly interesting. Then revolutions in science became a matter of intense debate, not so much about their very existence but about their nature. Was there a switch in world-views? Did the facts change? What was the importance of social groups? And so forth. Recently however some students of the history of science have started to argue that the very questions are misconceived and that there cannot have been a Darwinian Revolution and its relationship to the Scientific Revolution is imaginary because there are no such revolutions in science! This paper takes a sympathetic look at these issues, concluding that there is still life in the revolution-in-science issue, that Kuhn's book was seminal and still has things of importance to say, but that matters are more complex and more interesting than we thought back then.

  4. The Scientific & Democratic Revolution in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Flecha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.

  5. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  6. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  7. Velocity Management and the Revolution in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    affairs unless there is a revolution in military logistics ." When General Reimer identified the Revolution in Military Logistics (RML) as a necessary...Forces" (Parameters, Winter 1997-98), Lieutenant Colonel Yves J. Fontaine counters the Chief with another precondition: "The revolution [in military ... logistics ] will occur only after our research community provides us with combat equipment that minimizes the logistical tail needed to sustain it

  8. GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVENESS: FROM INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marginean

    2009-01-01

    The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...

  9. Interpretación agambeniana de la represión estatal a la niñez. Argentina, 1966-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Masciadri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los paradigmas referidos por Giorgio Agamben, se analiza el significado de lo que se conoce como la espiral de violencia que expuso a los niños y adolescentes a la violencia divina o pura que ofrecía como parte del sacrificio la sangre subversiva. Modelo en miniatura que se propuso, además de aplicar la prueba piloto para eliminar al elemento subversivo, desvirtuar el papel de la política mediante el uso de recursos legales combinados con el uso ilegal de la violencia y de sus herramientas, que no excluyeron la misiva psicológica.

  10. Interpretación agambeniana de la represión estatal a la niñez. Argentina, 1966-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Masciadri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los paradigmas referidos por Giorgio Agamben, se analiza el significado de lo que se conoce como la espiral de violencia que expuso a los niños y adolescentes a la violencia divina o pura que ofrecía como parte del sacrificio la sangre subversiva. Modelo en miniatura que se propuso, además de aplicar la prueba piloto para eliminar al elemento subversivo, desvirtuar el papel de la política mediante el uso de recursos legales combinados con el uso ilegal de la violencia y de sus herramientas, que no excluyeron la misiva psicológica.

  11. REPRESENTATION OF INDONESIAN REVOLUTION IN POEM “RAPAT MENGGANYANG 7 SETAN” BY H.R. BANDAHARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Artika

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This present study explores the representation of Indonesian Revolution in the poem “Rapat Mengganyang 7 Setan” written by H.R. Bandaharo. The meaning of the poem was revealed through the exploration of the reciprocal relationship between the speech delivered by President Soekarno and what was written by D.N. Aidit. The approach used was the qualitative one. The data were analyzed through parallel reading. The result of the study showed that the representation of the Indonesian Revolution through the themes and diction adopted from the expressions/slogans used during the revolution era. The reciprocal relationship between the poem “Rapat Mengganyang 7 Setan” and the speech delivered by President Soekarno and what was written by D.N. Aidit was based what is referred to as “Mukadimah Lekra” (Introduction to Lekra, “Konsepsi Kebudayaan Rakyat” (Conception of the People’s Culture, and “metode asas kombinasi 1-5-1” (Method of Combined Principle 1-5-1. Representation of the Indonesian Revolution in this literary work showed that literature was part of the political movement used to achieve what the Indonesian Revolution aimed at, namely, a community with justice and prosperity.      

  12. INVENTION, INNOVATION SYSTEMS, AND THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Daemmrich

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the interplay of major inventions and changes to innovation systems during three historical industrial revolutions as the basis for understanding whether a new revolutionary era...

  13. Constructing Marxism: Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2009-01-01

    Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...

  14. British national identity and the French Revolution : E. Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France and its impact

    OpenAIRE

    田原, 光広

    2003-01-01

    Although he had pursued a liberalist career as a Whig politician, Edmund Burke became the first modern conservative when he published Reflections on the Revolution in France to argue against the French Revolution and defend the British constitution. In this work, Burke significantly tried to seek British national identity in order to refute the political theory behind the French Revolution. The purpose of this paper is to examine Burke's political arguments and elucidate concretely the charac...

  15. Cooperation, norms, and revolutions: a unified game-theoretical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Helbing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is of utmost importance to society as a whole, but is often challenged by individual self-interests. While game theory has studied this problem extensively, there is little work on interactions within and across groups with different preferences or beliefs. Yet, people from different social or cultural backgrounds often meet and interact. This can yield conflict, since behavior that is considered cooperative by one population might be perceived as non-cooperative from the viewpoint of another. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the dynamics and outcome of the competitive interactions within and between groups, we study game-dynamical replicator equations for multiple populations with incompatible interests and different power (be this due to different population sizes, material resources, social capital, or other factors. These equations allow us to address various important questions: For example, can cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma be promoted, when two interacting groups have different preferences? Under what conditions can costly punishment, or other mechanisms, foster the evolution of norms? When does cooperation fail, leading to antagonistic behavior, conflict, or even revolutions? And what incentives are needed to reach peaceful agreements between groups with conflicting interests? CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our detailed quantitative analysis reveals a large variety of interesting results, which are relevant for society, law and economics, and have implications for the evolution of language and culture as well.

  16. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  17. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  18. Representing space in the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The novel understanding of the physical world that characterized the Scientific Revolution depended on a fundamental shift in the way its protagonists understood and described space. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, spatial phenomena were described in relation to a presupposed central point; by its end, space had become a centerless void in which phenomena could only be described by reference to arbitrary orientations. David Marshall Miller examines both the historical and philosophical aspects of this far-reaching development, including the rejection of the idea of heavenly sphere

  19. LCAC - A R-evolution at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, U. H.; Hale, Lynn W.

    The USN's Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) vehicle's operational capabilities represent not only a revolution in amphibious warfare, but may also prove to bear an evolutionary relationship to other naval mission requirements. After a brief development history of LCAC is presented, attention is given to anticipated uses of this vehicle beyond that of its landing-craft design mission. These missions encompass ASW, antiaircraft, antisurface shipping, and electronic warfare, as well as mine warfare and mine countermeasures. In virtually all such scenarios, the LCAC will retain its current configuration; where modifications must be made, they may be accomplished with easily removed retrofit 'kits'.

  20. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  1. Introducing bioinformatics, the biosciences' genomic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    The general audience for these lectures is mainly physicists, computer scientists, engineers or the general public wanting to know more about what’s going on in the biosciences. What’s bioinformatics and why is all this fuss being made about it ? What’s this revolution triggered by the human genome project ? Are there any results yet ? What are the problems ? What new avenues of research have been opened up ? What about the technology ? These new developments will be compared with what happened at CERN earlier in its evolution, and it is hoped that the similiraties and contrasts will stimulate new curiosity and provoke new thoughts.

  2. Revolution in Military Logistics: No More Mountains to Move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-08

    REVOLUTION IN MILITARY LOGISTICS : NO MORE MOUNTAINS TO MOVE? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL SCOTT M. BERGERON United States Army !DT tA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...17013-5050 c3, Revolution in Military Logistics : No More Mountains to Move? The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not

  3. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to reduc

  4. Energy [r]evolution - a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.; Ackermann, T.; Ruwahata, R.; Martense, N.

    2012-01-01

    Energy [R]evolution 2012 provides a consistent fundamental pathway for how to protect our climate: getting the world from where we are now to where we need to be by phasing out fossil fuels and cutting CO2 emissions while ensuring energy security.The Energy [R]evolution Scenario has become a well kn

  5. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  6. Agrarian revolution and the land question in Buganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mafeje

    1973-01-01

    textabstractIt is the irony of history that, despite the spectacular accomplishments of the Western European industrial revolution and the agricultural revolution before it, most of mankind is still faced with the more pr'imitive problem of how to eke out a living from the soil. From the amount of k

  7. The Cut Locus of a Torus of Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Markvorsen, Steen; Sinclair, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We determine the structure of the cut locus of a class of tori of revolution, which includes the standard tori in 3-dimensional Euclidean space.......We determine the structure of the cut locus of a class of tori of revolution, which includes the standard tori in 3-dimensional Euclidean space....

  8. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  9. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  10. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to

  11. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  12. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  13. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  14. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  15. Nostalgia--Scheutists design referring to Belgium%莼鲈之思--在华圣母圣心会士以比利时教堂为参考的建筑设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      比利时圣母圣心会(C.I.C.M.),也称司各特修会,自1865年进入中国,在中国长城以北进行传教活动,时间长达90年之久(1865-1955)。1900年义和团运动结束之后,活动最为频繁,他们展开了大规模的建设活动,但是,只有为数不多的几座教堂在中国内战(1947-1949)和文化大革命(1966-1976)中幸免于难。通过大量的档案收集和实地考察,将比利时传教士在华建造的教堂与他们的祖国——比利时的教堂进行比较,看传教士们如何弥补他们的思乡之情。%Belgian Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.I.C.M. or Scheut Fathers) entered China in 1865, and they were very active beyond the Great Wal , had stayed in China for ninety years (1865-1955). After the Boxer Uprising, they built a lot of churches in the apostolic vicariates, only a few of them survived the Chinese Civil War (1947-1949) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). According to the archive survey and field work, I col ected sufficient material, in order to compare the Scheutist churches and their home-country churches, and to see how they could mimesis those design.

  16. Educators must take the electronic revolution seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorow, S

    1996-03-01

    The advanced fields in the physical sciences and quantitative social sciences began using computers years ago. But only recently has the electronic revolution reached the point where educators in both medicine and the humanities must take it seriously. This is because (1) computers have finally become powerful enough to permit the creation of teaching machines (called multimedia packages) that can manipulate the massive amounts of information involved in medicine and the humanities; and (2) the Internet is now fast enough and widely distributed enough to change teaching practices. Multimedia packages will drastically change traditional teaching and learning; the author reviews these and other likely impacts of these packages. For example, faculty members' effective contact with students will not be bound by time and place; students can learn at their own paces in their preferred modes; and the distinction between elementary and advanced learning will be virtually impossible to maintain. The Internet makes it possible to offer classes to students no matter where they or the teacher are located, to ignore strict constraints of time (a class discussion can go on for days), and to create "electronic communities" of students and faculty. The author reviews the great advantages of these capabilities, but states that this development of the virtual university could seriously undermine actual universities (e.g., difficulties of maintaining faculty competence in their disciplines; impossibility of deciding issues of department size and diversity; questions of the effectiveness of learning that does not take place face-to-face; problems of students' and teachers' time management, on which the traditional structures of curricula and teaching methods are built). Despite the fundamental adjustments that will be necessary, the author sees the electronic revolution in education as a necessary consequence of what is already taking place in research, where multimedia packages and

  17. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  18. Tunisia in the Aftermath of the Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Moalla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, humor and the confused feelings of overwhelming happiness, fear, and uncertainty intertwine to reflect Tunisians’ attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and experiences in the aftermath of the revolution. The study adopts a blended netnography/ethnography approach to data collection and analysis. My original data consist of 2 hrs of recorded discussions of 60 Tunisian students and a total of 300 online humorous posts collected from the social network Facebook (FB. The data revealed that Tunisians interacting via FB used two main types of situational humor: Third party insult and Alternate reality. These two types of humor were found to be associated with a variety of psychological and social functions and to serve as effective interpersonal strategies to construct group cohesion, strengthen shared attitudes and beliefs, and develop relational identity.

  19. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  20. A quiet revolution in organ transplant ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur; Purves, Duncan

    2017-04-19

    A quiet revolution is occurring in the field of transplantation. Traditionally, transplants have involved solid organs such as the kidney, heart and liver which are transplanted to prevent recipients from dying. Now transplants are being done of the face, hand, uterus, penis and larynx that aim at improving a recipient's quality of life. The shift away from saving lives to seeking to make them better requires a shift in the ethical thinking that has long formed the foundation of organ transplantation. The addition of new forms of transplants requires doctors, patients, regulators and the public to rethink the risk and benefit ratio represented by trade-offs between saving life, extending life and risking the loss of life to achieve improvements in the quality of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Many see modern science as having serious defects, intellectual, social, moral. Few see this as having anything to do with the philosophy of science. I argue that many diverse ills of modern science are a consequence of the fact that the scientific community has long accepted, and sought to implement, a bad philosophy of science, which I call standard empiricism. This holds that the basic intellectual aim is truth, the basic method being impartial assessment of claims to knowledge with respect to evidence. Standard empiricism is, however, untenable. Furthermore, the attempt to put it into scientific practice has many damaging consequences for science. The scientific community urgently needs to bring about a revolution in both the conception of science, and science itself. It needs to be acknowledged that the actual aims of science make metaphysical, value and political assumptions and are, as a result, deeply problematic. Science needs to try to improve its aims and methods as it proceeds. Standard empiricism...

  2. Who lost the health care revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W

    1990-01-01

    Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.

  3. Owning the Revolution: Race, Revolution, and Politics from Havana to Miami, 1959–1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn Spence Benson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available “Owning the Revolution” explores the role that conversations about race and racism played in defining the 1959 Cuban Revolution both on the island and in South Florida, where over half of the exiles fled. It highlights how revolutionary leaders challenged internal and external opposition movements by publicly labeling dissenters “counterrevolutionaries” and “racists.” Using the label “racist” to attack an opponent was not altogether new in the 1960s, but by linking the term to counterrevolution, national discussions occurring in newspapers, magazines, and on television defined public racism as existing outside of the norms of a new Cuba. Exiles disagreed with this identification and accused the revolution of betraying the nineteenth-century colorblind goals of Jose Martí. Exile leaders in Miami argued that Castro invented racial tensions and claimed that their fight was not with blacks or mulatos but with “red” or communist Cubans. The politics expressed by white exile newspapers, however, did not always fit with the concerns of Afro-Cubans in the United States. Miami Cubans failed to acknowledge the persistence of racism in new exile communities in the same way that the revolutionary government dismissed racism on the island. These parallel silences exemplify the dangers of polarized narratives that imagine the revolution as antiracist and the exile community as racist.

  4. The Darwinian revolution: rethinking its meaning and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-06-16

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved.

  5. Dance Dance Revolution: Usapin ng Laro at Sayaw sa Panahon ng Globalisasyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jema M. Pamintuan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dance Dance Revolution (DDR Machine is becoming a favorite game among the youth and even the not-so-young. While much has been written on the mechanics and popularity of the game, this essay aims to probe into the DDR phenomenon as a parallel tool and response to the changes brought about by technology and the age of globalization. The individual's relationship with the machine, with his audience, and with the larger society will be documented and juxtaposed with the activities of a global village. The cultural implications of the DDR will also be discussed, especially how the game itself revolutionized our traditional concept of game and dance.

  6. Burning the page the ebook revolution and the future of reading

    CERN Document Server

    Merkoski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    From one of the founders of Amazon Kindle comes the definitive book about ebooks and a revolutionary vision for the future of reading. We're witnessing a major revolution in books that's transforming the future of reading and our culture. For many readers, books are beloved objects, and ebooks signal a momentous change. What will happen to long-familiar friends from the print world, like bookshelves, autographs, covers, and even bookworms? Will they die out, or transform into something new? Is digital the death knell of print, or will it breathe new life into books? Will books evolve so much

  7. Dynamics of alliance formation and the egalitarian revolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gavrilets

    transition from a hierarchical society of great apes to an egalitarian society of hunter-gatherers (often referred to as "egalitarian revolution" could indeed follow an increase in human cognitive abilities. The establishment of stable group-wide egalitarian alliances creates conditions promoting the origin of cultural norms favoring the group interests over those of individuals.

  8. The 'Anglo' Revolution in New Mexico Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1978-01-01

    First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)

  9. Prelude to, and Nature of the Space Photometry Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now less than a decade since CoRoT initiated the space photometry revolution with breakthrough discoveries, and five years since Kepler started a series of similar advances. I’ll set the context for this revolution noting the status of asteroseismology and exoplanet discovery as it was 15–25 years ago in order to give perspective on why it is not mere hyperbole to claim CoRoT and Kepler fostered a revolution in our sciences. Primary events setting up the revolution will be recounted. I’ll continue with noting the major discoveries in hand, and how asteroseismology and exoplanet studies, and indeed our approach to doing science, have been forever changed thanks to these spectacular missions.

  10. The "Revolution in Military Logistics": Is It Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    it concludes that based on the seven focus areas determined by the author for a Revolution in Military Logistics , the Army has achieved two and is on the path to achieving the other five, however, with no concrete timeline.

  11. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  12. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  13. Goblins, Morlocks, and Weasels: Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Jules

    1977-01-01

    Examines three fantasy classics written at the time of the Industrial Revolution to illustrate the effects of drastic social change on fantasy writing; suggests the possible impact of these fantasies on their readers. (GT)

  14. Much Ado about Something: Naturalistic Inquiry and the Paradigm Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Two recent books that confront the questions and assumptions of traditional and new paradigms for studying education are discussed: "Organizational Theory and Inquiry: The Paradigm Revolution" (Yvonna Lincoln, editor) and "Naturalistic Inquiry" (Y. Lincoln and Egon Guba). (MSE)

  15. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space: the US ... 1991 Gulf War that captured the imagination of military planners and policy makers, ... Firstly, very few countries have the financial and technological capability to ...

  16. Strategic Insights: The Landpower Robot Revolution Is Coming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    to the upcoming Landpower robot revolution. There are likely to be other tactical, operational, strategic, organization, psychological, and ethical ...technological innovation came first, and revolution followed. Now this is happening again with military robots . Their potential is clear and stunning...particularly for America’s ground forces. Robots may help the Army resolve its most pressing strategic dilemmas: first, finding a way to have wide

  17. The English Revolution and a Representative and Constitutional Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the English Revolution and describes a detailed study of influence, as well as the explanation of a representative and constitutional government. The English Revolution which happened in Britain is a histori-cal event of great influence. It abolished the autarchic system of king and began to rule the society by law. We can conclude that it created good political conditions for Britain to become a kingdom of modern civilization.

  18. A strategy for obtaining social benefits from the gene revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.B. de Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy described in the present paper offers details about the possibility for Brazil to play a more substantial role in the gene revolution. If successfully applied, the powerful science-based technology currently available in Brazil can contribute to extend the benefits of the gene revolution to the poorest countries, very much like the Green Revolution did in the past, thereby reducing the hunger syndrome which claimed the lives of millions of people in some Asian countries, particularly Pakistan and India, decades ago. In his visit to Brazil in February 2004, Norman Borlaug had the opportunity to witness the success of Brazilian agriculture. At a Conference held at ESALQ - Superior School of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, he stated that the 21st century revolution will come from Brazil in the area of agriculture. He also said that reducing hunger is essential for the world to achieve socioeconomic stability. A central question remains unanswered: who will fund this revolution? The FAO 2003-2004 Annual Report listed the barriers preventing the gene revolution from reaching the poorest countries: inadequate regulatory procedures - Intellectual Property Rights and Biosafety, poorly functioning seed delivering systems and weak domestic plant breeding capacity; all are discussed in this paper.

  19. Systems biology: leading the revolution in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    The rapid development of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omics) are changing the way ecotoxicology is practiced. The data deluge has begun with genomes of over 65 different aquatic species that are currently being sequenced, and many times that number with at least some level of transcriptome sequencing. Integrating these top-down methodologies is an essential task in the field of systems biology. Systems biology is a biology-based interdisciplinary field that focuses on complex interactions in biological systems, with the intent to model and discover emergent properties of the system. Recent studies demonstrate that Omics technologies provide valuable insight into ecotoxicity, both in laboratory exposures with model organisms and with animals exposed in the field. However, these approaches require a context of the whole animal and population to be relevant. Powerful approaches using reverse engineering to determine interacting networks of genes, proteins, or biochemical reactions are uncovering unique responses to toxicants. Modeling efforts in aquatic animals are evolving to interrelate the interacting networks of a system and the flow of information linking these elements. Just as is happening in medicine, systems biology approaches that allow the integration of many different scales of interaction and information are already driving a revolution in understanding the impacts of pollutants on aquatic systems. © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Modern museum exhibition technology revolution for audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Today's digital revolution leads to the increasing mobile device usage, which has changed people's life and work. However, the traditional static display and graphic version is unable to meet the requirements of the modern audience, which makes museums face the challenge in the distribution of knowledge. Meanwhile, the information storm produced by big data emerged a variety of new media, such as social media, Natural User Interface, Augmented Reality, and electronic publishing. This dizzying array of tools offered opportunities for museums all over the world to become more vibrant and accessible. Museums around the world have been constant changed and improved its presentation, which provides a valuable experience for us. The new Shanghai Natural History Museum has also applied information technology on exhibition, education, research and collection. But the change does not mean a complete subversion. Because the museum audience are di- verse, such as born in a different era, have different learning habits, museums need to control the change magnitude of display technology to meet the requirements of different audience.

  1. Online Community Interaction - Revolution or Revulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Thorne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing writers' assertion that online communities are the future for organisations may be misguided, although peer-to-peer networks are certainly the future for consumers. Brands have experienced 'consumer revulsion' at their poorly-planned attempts to enter online communities to interact with customers. The Internet has facilitated a revolution amongst consumers, providing a medium for online communities to thrive. Source credibility is paramount and Internet users are being selective with exactly whose message they are willing to accept, absorb and ultimately, allow to influence their buying decisions. The primary objective of this research is to undertake an exploratory investigation into the dynamics of online communities and how membership influences the buying decision for consumers of genre novels. Through the process of online focus groups and the completion of online questionnaires, data on the dynamics of online relationships between consumers and authors, the buying habits of consumers and the acceptance of online word-of-mouth (WOM were extracted and analysed. This research demonstrates that the dynamics of online communities are highly complex and in no way inferior or less fulfilling than real-life relationships and that the influence of online relationships on our buying decisions have no less impact than real-life encounters.

  2. Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L E

    1998-01-01

    The influence of history on an organization is a powerful but often overlooked force. Managers, in their haste to build companies, frequently fail to ask such critical developmental questions as, Where has our organization been? Where is it now? and What do the answers to these questions mean for where it is going? Instead, when confronted with problems, managers fix their gaze outward on the environment and toward the future, as if more precise market projections will provide the organization with a new identity. In this HBR Classic, Larry Greiner identifies a series of developmental phases that companies tend to pass through as they grow. He distinguishes the phases by their dominant themes: creativity, direction, delegation, coordination, and collaboration. Each phase begins with a period of evolution, steady growth, and stability, and ends with a revolutionary period of organizational turmoil and change. The critical task for management in each revolutionary period is to find a new set of organizational practices that will become the basis for managing the next period of evolutionary growth. Those new practices eventually outlast their usefulness and lead to another period of revolution. Managers therefore experience the irony of seeing a major solution in one period become a major problem in a later period. Originally published in 1972, the article's argument and insights remain relevant to managers today. Accompanying the original article is a commentary by the author updating his earlier observations.

  3. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  4. ENERGY REVOLUTION UNDER THE BRICS NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BRICS countries are of critical importance to both supply and demand fundamentals of energy markets globally. Today BRICS plays a very important role in the system of international energy security. BRICS energy diversification is driven by concerns for energy security. The potential for a BRIC energy partnership is thus enormous. The development of the BRIC countries in the next coming decades will include demographic changes with a growing middle class population which will demand more energy and resources that our world has the potential to supply.A Green Energy Revolution is the panacea to solve major social, economic and envi­ronmental effects of their growing populations. This paper is an attempt to highlight the cooperation among the BRICS Nations for the development of Energy Sector and at the same time the concerning issue of climate change etc. It further discusses about the contribution of BRICS countries in the global economy. This paper also discusses about the role of the BRICS Nations in collaboration with the International Energy Agency.

  5. Kuhn's "The structure of scientific revolutions" revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Up until recently, the book's philosophical reception has been shaped, for the most part, by the debates and the climate in philosophy of science in the 1960s and 1970s; this new collection of essays takes a renewed look at this work. This volume concentrates on particular issues addressed or raised in light of recent scholarship and without the pressure of the immediate concerns scholars had at the time of the Structure's publication. There has been extensive research on all of the major issues concerning the development of science which are discussed in Structure, work in which the scholars contributing to this volume have all been actively involved. In recent years they have pursued novel research on a number of topics relevant to Structure's concerns, such as the nature and function of concepts, the complexity of logical positivism and its legacy, the relation of history to philosophy o...

  6. The Iranian Revolution: Revalidating Crane Brinton’s Model of Revolutions for the Operational and Strategic Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-26

    shock the American public, warns historian Daniel Boorstin in a February 1 1990 article about the Eastern Bloc revolts. Boorstin’s analysis is based...Free Press 1971, p. 135.) 51 Endnotes 1. Daniel J. Boorstin , "A Timetable for Revolution Watching," U.S. News and World Report, (5 Feb 1990), p. 47. 2...New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. Boorstin , Daniel J. "A Timccable for Revolution- Watching," U.S. News and World Report, 5 February 1990

  7. Industrious Selection: Explaining Five Revolutions and Two Divergences in Eurasian Economic History within a Unified Growth Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    We develop a unified growth theory with Industrious Selection to explain the Five Revolutions in the development process (Agricultural Revolution, Structural Transformation, Industrial Revolution, Industrious Revolution, Demographic Revolution) and the Two Divergences in Eurasia (Little Divergence, Great Divergence) in AD0-AD2000. Industrious Selection refers to industrious (hardworking and cooperative) individuals gradually dominating the population composition through labor-leisure optimiza...

  8. The Fastskin Revolution From Human Fish to Swimming Androids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Craik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The story of fastskin swimsuits reflects some of the challenges facing the impact of technology in postmodern culture. Introduced in 1999 and ratified for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, fastskin swimsuits were touted as revolutionising competitive swimming. Ten years later, they were banned by the world’s swimming regulatory body FINA (the Fédération Internationale de Natation, with the ban taking effect from January 2010 (Shipley 2009. The reason was the controversy caused by the large number of world records that were broken by competitors wearing polyurethane swimsuits, the next generation of the original fast skin suits. These suits were deemed to be providing an artificial advantage by increasing buoyancy and reducing drag. This had been an issue ever since they were introduced, yet FINA had approved the suits and, thereby, unleashed an unstoppable technological revolution of the sport of competitive swimming. Underlying this was the issue about its implications of the transformation of a sport based on the movement of the human body through water without the aid of artificial devices or apparatus. This article argues that the advent of the fastskin has not only transformed the art of swimming but has created a new image of the swimmer as a virtual android rather than a human fish. In turn, the image of the sport of swimming has been re-mapped as a technical artefact and sci-fi spectacle based on a radically transformed concept of the swimming body as a material object that has implications for the ideal of the fashionable body.

  9. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  10. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  11. Silent Revolution in Research for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Is research ‘fit-for-purpose’ for realizing sustainable development? More than two decades after the Brundtland report and UNCED Earth summit, the world has now adopted Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs. Rather than a cause for celebration, this delay should encourage reflection on the role of research in society. Why is it so difficult to realize sustainability in practice? The answer lies in the fact that universities and research centres persist with 19th century methods of data gathering, scholarly analysis, and journal articles. Today’s world needs science in real-time, whether to detect drought, confront Ebola, or assist refugees. Research needs to work faster and embrace 21st century practices including data science, open access, and infographics.A silent revolution is occurring in the ways of organizing and conducting research, enabled by new technology and encouraging work that tackles the key challenges facing society. A variety of new arrangements have come into existence that promote international collaboration, including Horizon 2020 with its emphasis on societal challenges, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation which has inspired a family of grand challenges funds on health and development, and the Future Earth joint program of research for global sustainability. These arrangements not only control billions of dollars in research funding, they also influence the strategies of national research councils and international organizations. The result is no less than a transformation in the incentives that reward how researchers invest their time and effort.Why is a revolution needed? Within research, substantial growth in knowledge production coincided with fragmentation among disciplines. One can easily find expertise and publications in soil science or agronomy, yet integrated efforts on food security and climate adaptation remain scarce. Beyond research, society remains largely uninformed, as academics avoid engaging in public

  12. 革命馈赠:当代中国政治发展的潜在动力--基于大众政治文化的视角%A Gift from Revolution:Impetus of Political Development in Contemporary China:Based on the View of Mass Polltical Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志

    2015-01-01

    Revolution consists of two phases:liberation and establishment. From the Perspective of libera-tion,thanks to social mobilization launched by revolutionists,mass political awareness starts to revive,accordingly inducing mass to relocate their own function and reconstruct relationship with others in the process of politics. In the sight of establishment,modern national identity is constructed or introduced initially by revolutionists for na-tional construction,and consistently popularized to social masses,owning to the impetus of social mobilization and stimulation of external invasion. Specific to Chinese context,the revolution of the first half of the 20th century in system,process and policy provides a potential impetus for China’s curent political development.%革命分为两个阶段:解放与立国。从解放的角度,革命者通过社会动员使得大众的政治意识开始觉醒,对于自身的政治地位、与他人之间的关系重新理解;从立国的角度来讲,革命者为了国家建构,创立或引入了现代国家认同,由于社会动员的推动和外部入侵的刺激,这种政治认同逐步推广到社会大众层面。具体到中国的语境,20世纪上半期的革命在体系、过程和政策三个层次为当代中国的政治发展提供了潜在的动力。

  13. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  14. Moving from High Culture to Ordinary Culture-On Raymond Wil-liams’Culture Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆育红

    2015-01-01

    Culture study has become a new trend in the academic fields, while how to define the scope and object of the cultural study, different people have different opinions. Ranging from Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy to Raymond Williams’The Long Revolution, scholars have been constantly exploring the core of cultural study of different periods. Raymond Williams had committed himself to the field of the study, and his study also has pushed ahead the people’s understanding of the theory. His con⁃tribution to the study has been analyzed here and that has brought a great influence to the study of the field.

  15. Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions between sociology and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to clarify Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. We propose to discriminate between a scientific revolution, which is a sociological event of a change of attitude of the scientific community with respect to a particular theory, and an epistemic rupture, which is a linguistic fact consisting of a discontinuity in the linguistic framework in which this theory is formulated. We propose a classification of epistemic ruptures into four types. In the paper, each of these types of epistemic ruptures is illustrated by examples from physics. The classification of epistemic ruptures can be used as a basis for a classification of scientific revolutions and thus for a refinement of our view of the progress of science.

  16. Speculations on a Marxist theory of the Virtual Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Hodge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary discourses of business, it is often claimed that the post-Fordist global economy is revolutionary, radically transforming forms of social organisation and consciousness, and "virtuality" has come to signify the driver of this revolution. But how new is this development? Is it useful to call it a "revolution", using the term in the sense it had for Marx? Are there traces of a Marxist theory of virtuality, and how relevant is it today? We draw on chaos theory to identify important but shifting meanings for "virtuality" and "revolution" in Marx, to create a new terrain on which to better explore issues facing "digital labour" in the new environment.

  17. Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen Einsteins unvollendete Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...

  18. Analysis of the Rotopod: An all revolute parallel manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Benavides, G.L.; Bieg, L.F.; Kozlowski, D.M.

    1998-05-16

    This paper introduces a new configuration of parallel manipulator call the Rotopod which is constructed from all revolute type joints. The Rotopod consists of two platforms connected by six legs and exhibits six Cartesian degrees of freedom. The Rotopod is initially compared with other all revolute joint parallel manipulators to show its similarities and differences. The inverse kinematics for this mechanism are developed and used to analyze the accessible workspace of the mechanism. Optimization is performed to determine the Rotopod design configurations which maximum the accessible workspace based on desirable functional constraints.

  19. Mobilizing private finance to drive an energy industrial revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Eni Chair in Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania, 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Kidney, Sean [ClimateRisk Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Mallon, Karl; Hughes, Mark [ClimateRisk Ltd, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed. (author)

  20. At the dawn of a new revolution in life sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frantiek; Baluka; Guenther; Witzany

    2013-01-01

    In a recently published article Sydney Brenner argued that the most relevant scientific revolution in biology at his time was the breakthrough of the role of "information" in biology.The fundamental concept that integrates this new biological "information" with matter and energy is the universal Turing machine and von Neumann’s self-reproducing machines.In this article we demonstrate that in contrast to Turing/von Neumann machines living cells can really reproduce themselves.Additionally current knowledge on the roles of noncoding RNAs indicates a radical violation of the central dogma of molecular biology and opens the way to a new revolution in life sciences.

  1. Traditional perceptions and treatment of mental disorders in western Ethiopia before the 1974 revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, L; Merdasa, F

    1991-11-01

    This article describes the traditional concepts and treatment of mental disorders in the Oromo areas in western Ethiopia before the revolution in 1974. There are three traditional cultural influences operating: traditional Oromo thinking, the Coptic church and the Islamic culture. One important element in traditional Oromo thinking is that each person is believed to possess an ayana, which is a special divine agent that can descend upon people, but also means a person's character and personality. In the traditional Oromo society, the Kallu is the religious leader who, through an ecstatic ritual technique, can investigate the causes of the disorder and advise what to do. Mental disorders are generally explained as resulting from disturbances in the relationship between people and divinity. The second important cultural element in western Ethiopia is the orthodox Coptic church, which usually looks upon mental disorders as possession by evil spirits, which are thus treated by specially gifted priests and monks by praying and giving holy water or eventually exhortation. According to Islamic teaching in the area, mental disorders are caused by evil spirits sent by God to punish the unfaithful people. Some Muslim sheiks treat mental cases with prayers, but herbal remedies are also used. There is a great intermingling of these different cultural and religious elements and people attend different healers and religious leaders more depending on the reputation of the person than on cultural and religious affiliation.

  2. Stripping the boss: the powerful role of humor in the Egyptian Revolution 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Mohamed M; Frerichs, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has shaken the Arab world and stirred up Middle-East politics. Moreover, it caused a rush in political science and the neighboring disciplines, which had not predicted an event like this and now have troubles explaining it. While many things can be learned from the popular uprising, and from the limitations of previous scholarship, our focus will be on a moral resource, which has occasionally been noticed, but not sufficiently explored: the role of humor in keeping up the spirit of the Revolution. For 18 days, protestors persevered at Liberation Square in Central Cairo, the epicenter of resistance; at times a few dozens, at times hundreds of thousands. What they did was to fight the terror of the regime, which reached absurd peaks during those days, with humor-successfully. We offer a social-functionalist account of the uprising, which includes behavioral as well as cultural levels of analysis, and illuminates how humorous means helped to achieve deadly serious goals. By reconstructing how Egyptians laughed themselves into democracy, we outline a social psychology of resistance, which uses humor both as a sword and a shield.

  3. The two great revolutions in the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba: examples or lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PANTOJAS GARCÍA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Why did the two great revolutions of the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba, were condemned to ostracism by its contemporaries and are presented as bad examples rather than exemplary events? These and other related questions are answered examining three arguments: revolution as a critical transition event, economic sustainability as a central challenge for revolutions, and revolution versus the ontology of the Caribbean as a subordinate region.

  4. Leap- Ahead Logistics Management Technology: Turning the Evolution in Military Logistics into a True Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-27

    A Revolution in Military Logistics is a necessary precursor to the Revolution in Military Affairs. Army and the Department of Defense senior leaders...have affirmed and reinforced this idea in logistics literature throughout the past two years. What, however, is a Revolution in Military Logistics and...established criteria for a revolution in military logistics , but the system that it is currently developing, Global Combat Service Support - Army (GCSS-A

  5. Completing the Revolution? The United States and Bolivia’s Long Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Lehman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available James Malloy’s 1970 study, still one of the most systematic analytical attempts in English to understand Bolivia’s 1952 National Revolution, argued that the revolution remained “uncompleted.”  However, the election and subsequent policies of the Morales government after 2005 moved Bolivia much closer to completing two important stated objectives of the revolution, as yet unfulfilled when Malloy wrote: inclusion of all Bolivians in the political system and increased national autonomy.  While it is premature to call Bolivia’s revolution “completed,” the shift in the locus of power from Europeanized elites to more broadly popular forces and the growing independence of Bolivia from outside influence and direction under Morales are key achievements of what might be called Bolivia’s “Long Revolution.”   Giving close attention to these two fundamental achievements—inclusion and autonomy—this paper provides a preliminary examination of the complicated and often paradoxical role the United States has played in Bolivia’s long historical trajectory since April 1952.  Directly and indirectly, through imposition and suggestion, purposefully and unintentionally, by providing assistance and at the same time stimulating fierce nationalist resistance, through design and through the twists and turns of historical contingency—the United States has contributed to Bolivia’s slow revolutionary transformation.  But patterns of imposition and resistance continue and this paper argues that it is time for the United States to examine its assumptions so that the two nations can escape the cyclical patterns of the past. El trabajo que James Malloy publicó en 1970 (hasta hoy día uno de los esfuerzos analíticos más sistemáticos que se han hecho en inglés para entender la Revolución Nacional de 1952, argumentaba que la revolución permanecía "incompleta". Las elecciones y subsiguientes políticas del gobierno de Morales después de

  6. Historical change of mercury pollution in remote Yongle archipelago, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xu, Liqiang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Jing

    2012-04-01

    We collected three ornithogenic coral sand sedimentary profiles from Jinyin Island, Jinqing Island and Guangjin Island of Yongle archipelago, South China Sea and reconstructed the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg over the past 700 years in the study area. On the whole, the anthropogenic Hg flux is relatively low; it remained at a low level before the Industrial Revolution with a small peak at about 1450-1550 AD, which may record the enhanced metallurgy activity in Ming Dynasty of China. During the 20th century, the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg increased rapidly, but two troughs occurred during the periods around 1940s and 1970s, corresponding to the economic depression caused by World War II, Civil War in China (1945-1949), and the Culture Revolution (1966-1976) in China. Since the 1970s the deposition flux of anthropogenic Hg has been persistently increasing, apparently the result of fast economic development in East and Southeast Asia countries around South China Sea.

  7. Some Economic Effects of Revolution: Models, Measurement, and the Cuban Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Beck, Michael S.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates various theories of causes of revolution (particularly, the Conservative, the Marxist, and Thermidorian) and concludes that existing theories generally avoid systematic study of revolution's consequences. Advances a theory that maintains that the economic effects of revolution are neither as pervasive nor as disruptive as commonly…

  8. The United States’ Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror: A Military Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Revolution of the Industrial Revolution. In general, this proposition makes sense since “ militarizing ” the Industrial Revolution “made it possible to arm...graduating cadets that warfare does not cease when the wars end in Iraq and Afghanistan, but rather that they–the leaders of tomorrow’s army–must be ready to

  9. A Reassessment of R. R. Palmer's "The Age of Democratic Revolution."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    Compares Robert Palmer's interpretation of the French Revolution with the Marxist and revisionist views. Stresses Palmer's theory that the French Revolution belongs to the same spiritual family as the American. Reports that Palmer saw the French Revolution as the climactic event in a series of similar upheavals that integrated liberal democracy…

  10. The "Philosophes" and the French Revolution: Reflections on Some Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines the role of ideas as a factor in the French Revolution. Discusses recent research concerning the influence of philosophy upon this Revolution. Looks at research dealing with the Enlightenment thinkers and the "Cercle Social" Girondists among other philosophies. Views the French Revolution as a means of understanding the modern…

  11. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs at Cedar Point near Sandusky, OH....

  12. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH... later notice in the Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon...

  13. Basic Literacy or New Literacies? Examining the Contradictions of Australia's Education Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel; Holmes, Kathryn; Preston, Gregory; Shaw, Kylie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Labor Government came to power with the promise to bring to Australia an "Education Revolution". More than four years later we are still waiting for the full impact of this series of policy initiatives. Among the various facets of the Education Revolution was the assurance that the Education Revolution would focus on the most…

  14. 自由革命的专制命运:托克维尔的未完成革命著述%The Despotic Destiny of a Revolution of Liberty:Tocqueville ’s Unfinished Writings on the French Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇明

    2014-01-01

    In his unfinished writings about the French Revolution and Napoleon, Tocqueville analyzed the tension between liberty and equality and the political dynamics of the Revolution.During the liberal revolution from 1787 to 1789 which was the first period of the French Revolution, the class struggle provoked by the radical idea of democratic liberty gradually defeated the ideas of the aristocratic and elitist liberty.The weakening of the royal power and its wrong decisions aggravated the class struggle and strengthened the revolutionary ideology.The popular violence which pushed the radicalization of the Revolution created divisions in the camp of revolution which with the struggle for power brought the reign of Terror.During the late period of the French Revolution,the French people grew disgusted by the instability caused by revolution while enjoying the equality and advantages brought about by the Revolution.As a result,Napoleon Bonaparte who had assumed the equality of the Revolution and abandoned its pursuit of liberty was supported by the French people.Besides the analysis of the revolutionary process and dynamics, Tocqueville’s writings on the French Revolution confirmed his thesis in The Old Regime and the Revolution about the continuity between the Old Regime, the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule.French revolutionaries unwittingly inherited the political culture of Statism and the administrative centralization which dominated the Old Regime,while at the same time they destroyed aristocratic and feudal elements that could resist the absolute power.The French people accomplished the Revolution with the aid of the Old Regime and constructed a state and a centralization that was much more powerful than those autocrats during pre-1789 French history.%托克维尔在关于法国大革命与拿破仑的未完成著述中讨论了大革命中自由和平等的张力以及革命的政治动力。在作为大革命第一阶段的1787-1789年的自由革命中,

  15. Achieving Accountability in Cyberspace: Revolution or Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and maturing the culture of accountability that is based on education and training (and begins the moment one enters the military); establishment...themselves. To receive such ac- cess requires undergoing a psychological and medical vetting process known as the Personnel Reliability Program ( PRP ...which remains in place as long as an individual maintains access to the nuclear enterprise. PRP involves multiple levels and layers of

  16. Modern Social Media and Social Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    measuring the new era and defining its rhythm” (Papp, Albert, and Tuyahov 1997, 20). Marshall McLuhan (1967), professor of communications and culture...Mobiledia.com. Youth values mobile media, social media. http://www.mobiledia.com/ news/115297.html (accessed 4 November 2011). 114 McLuhan , Marshall ...true with technological advances as with print media on civilization. McLuhan asserts, “Printing was the first mechanization of an ancient handicraft

  17. Stiffness and Angular Deflection analysis of Revolute Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pundru Srinivasa Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed to determine the Cartesian stiffness matrix and angular deflection analysis of revolute manipulator. The selected manipulator has rigid fixed link, two movable links and two rotary joints with joint stiffness coefficients are taken into account. The kinematic model of revolute joint manipulator has considered as a planar kinematic chain, which is composed by rigid fixed link and two revolute joints with clearance and deformable elements. The calculation of stiffness matrix depends on Jacobian matrix and change of configuration. The rotational joints are modeled as torsion springs with the same stiffness constant. The relative angular deflections are proportional to the actuated torques taken into account. The subject of this paper has to describe a method for stiffness analysis of serial manipulator. In the present work is to derive the stiffness matrix and angular deflection equations in the Robotic manipulator under the consideration of two-link optimum geometry model for rotary joint manipulator. The stiffness values are measured by displacements of its revolute links loaded by force.

  18. Exploring the Literature-Based Reading Revolution (Focus on Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lea M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on (1) reader response theories; (2) innovative approaches to literature-based reading instruction; and (3) literary experiences and literary analysis presentations. Discusses teachers' concerns and success as they implement literature-based programs. Discusses challenges facing the literature-based reading revolution. (RS)

  19. Energy demand projections for energy [r]evolution 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study energy demand scenarios are developed for the 2012 update of the Greenpeace/EREC Energy [R]evolution scenario. These scenarios cover energy demand in the period 2009-2050 for ten world regions (OECD Europe, OECD Americas, OECD Asia Oceania, Eastern Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Other non-OECD Asia, Latin America, Africa and Middle East).

  20. Energy demand projections for energy [r]evolution 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study energy demand scenarios are developed for the 2012 update of the Greenpeace/EREC Energy [R]evolution scenario. These scenarios cover energy demand in the period 2009-2050 for ten world regions (OECD Europe, OECD Americas, OECD Asia Oceania, Eastern Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Other n

  1. Higher Education in the Israeli Kibbutz: Revolution and Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Uri

    1982-01-01

    Increase in the number of individuals pursuing postsecondary schooling involves economic and social costs to the kibbutz. "Educational revolution" in the kibbutz refers to growing aspirations of the kibbutzim toward higher education. Measures taken by the kibbutz movement and individual kibbutzim to counteract the problems created by the…

  2. Writing and Thinking about the English Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Jacqueline H.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that writing can be a more effective tool for social studies learning if assignments require students to generate their own thoughts rather than restate someone else's ideas. Offers a two-day lesson on the reform of child labor practices during the English Industrial Revolution. A wide variety of writing activities are featured. (JDH)

  3. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  4. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  5. Rosalind Franklin: Unsung Hero of the DNA Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    On April 25, 1953, three papers were published in "Nature," the prestigious scientific journal, which exposed the "fundamentally beautiful" structure of DNA to the public, and sounded the starting gun of the DNA Revolution. The authors of these papers revealed the now-famous double-helix structure of DNA, thereby unlocking the…

  6. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  7. The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events of the Haitian Revolution, including the slave rebellion which began on August 22, 1791. Focuses on the efforts of Napoleon to overtake Haiti and the effects of the the slave revolt on the Louisiana Purchase and the U.S. Civil War. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  8. Politics and the life sciences: an unfinished revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Politics and the life sciences--also referred to as biopolitics--is a field of study that seeks to advance knowledge of politics and promote better policymaking through multidisciplinary analysis that draws on the life sciences. While the intellectual origins of the field may be traced at least into the 1960s, a broadly organized movement appeared only with the founding of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) in 1980 and the establishment of its journal, Politics and the Life Sciences ( PLS ), in 1982. This essay--contributed by a past journal editor and association executive director--concludes a celebration of the association's thirtieth anniversary. It reviews the founding of the field and the association, as well as the contributions of the founders. It also discusses the nature of the empirical work that will advance the field, makes recommendations regarding the identity and future of the association, and assesses the status of the revolution of which the association is a part. It argues that there is progress to celebrate, but that this revolution--the last of three great scientific revolutions--is still in its early stages. The revolution is well-started, but remains unfinished.

  9. "Ed Tech in Reverse": Information Technologies and the Cognitive Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Feenberg, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    As we rapidly approach the 50th year of the much-celebrated "cognitive revolution", it is worth reflecting on its widespread impact on individual disciplines and areas of multidisciplinary endeavour. Of specific concern in this paper is the example of the influence of cognitivism's equation of mind and computer in education. Within education, this…

  10. The E-business Revolution and Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the electronic business (e-business) revolution and suggests ways it will affect human performance improvement professionals. Highlights include customer reliance on the Web; use of the Internet and associated software to link employees, applications, and companies; information access and sharing; business-to-consumer and…

  11. Playing the American Revolution: A Historical Microcomputer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James E.; Hueston, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    Explanation of the purpose of microcomputer simulations in history classes at the college or secondary school level focuses on the development of one simulation, The American Revolution. Highlights include effects on learning processes of using simulations in a microcomputer laboratory; student evaluations of the simulation; and creation of the…

  12. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  13. Teaching about the French Revolution--A Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)

  14. The Batavian Revolution: typical French, typical Dutch or typical Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdan, A.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of Simon Schama's monograph on Dutch Patriots and French 'Liberators', the Batavian Revolution (1795-1806) has usually been interpreted as French-inspired and thus as 'alien' to the Netherlands. The original Dutch revolutionary achievements are underestimated as are those in the P

  15. Higher Education in the Israeli Kibbutz: Revolution and Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Uri

    1982-01-01

    Increase in the number of individuals pursuing postsecondary schooling involves economic and social costs to the kibbutz. "Educational revolution" in the kibbutz refers to growing aspirations of the kibbutzim toward higher education. Measures taken by the kibbutz movement and individual kibbutzim to counteract the problems created by the…

  16. The Iranian Revolution, 1977–79: Interaction and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    a radical break from the past, the development of new constructs, and unintended consequences. The execution of a revolution resulting in a clerical dictatorship was made possible by the dialectical and creative interaction between the groups involved, an interaction that took place over the two years...

  17. "Ed Tech in Reverse": Information Technologies and the Cognitive Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Feenberg, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    As we rapidly approach the 50th year of the much-celebrated "cognitive revolution", it is worth reflecting on its widespread impact on individual disciplines and areas of multidisciplinary endeavour. Of specific concern in this paper is the example of the influence of cognitivism's equation of mind and computer in education. Within education, this…

  18. The Dutch Republic. Laboratory of the Scientific Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, Klaas

    2010-01-01

    Historians agree about the significance of the Scientific Revolution for the development of modern society; there is little agreement, however, as to the nature and the causes of this major shift in our perception of the natural world. In this article, it is argued that we may profit from studying t

  19. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  20. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  1. Thematic cartography, cartography and the impact of the quantitative revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.

  2. New HEPAP report outlines revolution in particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The most compelling questions facing contemporary particle physics research and a program to address them have been distilled into a new report “Quantum Universe: The Revolution in 21st-Century Particle Physics,” adopted today by the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP)" (1 page)

  3. Biological Nanomotors with a Revolution, Linear, or Rotation Motion Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peixuan; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yengo, Christopher M; Zhao, Zhengyi; Grainge, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories in the past: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, a third type of biomotor, revolution without rotation (http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html), was discovered and found to be widespread among bacteria, eukaryotic viruses, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages. This review focuses on recent findings about various aspects of motors, including chirality, stoichiometry, channel size, entropy, conformational change, and energy usage rate, in a variety of well-studied motors, including FoF1 ATPase, helicases, viral dsDNA-packaging motors, bacterial chromosome translocases, myosin, kinesin, and dynein. In particular, dsDNA translocases are used to illustrate how these features relate to the motion mechanism and how nature elegantly evolved a revolution mechanism to avoid coiling and tangling during lengthy dsDNA genome transportation in cell division. Motor chirality and channel size are two factors that distinguish rotation motors from revolution motors. Rotation motors use right-handed channels to drive the right-handed dsDNA, similar to the way a nut drives the bolt with threads in same orientation; revolution motors use left-handed motor channels to revolve the right-handed dsDNA. Rotation motors use small channels (revolution motors use larger channels (>3 nm) with room for the bolt to revolve. Binding and hydrolysis of ATP are linked to different conformational entropy changes in the motor that lead to altered affinity for the substrate and allow work to be done, for example, helicase unwinding of DNA or translocase directional movement of DNA. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Industrial revolution - industry 4.0: Are German manufacturing SMEs the first victims of this revolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sommer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Industry 4.0 represents a special challenge for businesses in general and for SMEs in particular. The study at hand will examine companies´ awareness, readiness and capability to meet this challenge taking into account the special role of SMEs. Methodology: The results of nine studies dealing with this range of topics are examined in the framework of a systematic review and compared with regard to the objective of the study at hand. Findings: The review showed that, as a rule, there is an awareness concerning the relevance of the topic. The readiness and the capability to meet this challenge exist in parts; however, they strongly depend on the enterprise size. The smaller SMEs are, the higher the risk that they will become victims instead of beneficiaries of this revolution.Originality/value: Considering different studies concerning Industry 4.0 the article gives an insight into the dependence of the Industry 4.0 readiness in reference to the company size. This deepens the knowledge in adaption deficits German SME still have and opens different approaches for further research and action plans.

  5. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells; Leise Revolution: Dezentralisierung und Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, N

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'.

  6. Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by "Race", 1998-2012: From "Skewed Revolution" to "Stalled Revolution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…

  7. Continental Contemporary Readings of the English Revolution. The Cases of Italy and Spain as Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel ALLOZA APARICIO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiated at the very beginning of the movements, discussions about the origin and causes of the English revolution have become one of the most valuable themes within the Anglo-Saxon historiography. On the contrary, continental contemporary readings of those events remain to be decoded and fully comprehended. This article reveals and examines some of those readings, notably those registered in Italian republics and in Spain, including some of them which have remained so far out of the scope of the historian. Despite the common features apprehended among the cases studied, all of them show a wide range of interpretations; variety which derives from the different forms of approaching to the past, from the degree of pragmatism of the reports analysed, and from the ideological and cultural positioning of their authors.

  8. By Dynamite, Sabotage, Revolution, and the Pen: Violence in Caribbean Anarchist Fiction, 1890s-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwin R. Shaffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From the 1890s to the 1920s, anarchist groups and movements emerged in Puerto Rico and Cuba. They promoted the traditional anarchist agenda against governments, militarism, capitalism, and organized religion. While research on anarchists has often focused on their activities in strikes, uprisings, educational experiments, and other counter-cultural activities, this article illustrates how Caribbean-based anarchists used their fiction to promote the anarchist agenda. A central theme in much of the fiction (plays, poetry, novels, and short stories revolved around violence leveled against society especially by governments. Just as interesting is how this fiction described—even praised—anarchist violence against authority. Thus, even while Caribbean anarchists only rarely resorted to physical violence, anarchist fiction often condemned authoritarian violence while celebrating the violence of revolution, the strike, bombings, and assassination to promote the anarchist cause of universal freedom.

  9. Odilon Redon and the Pasteurian revolution: health, illness, and le monde invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    Odilon Redon's dark-spirited charcoals and lithographs of the last quarter of the nineteenth century responded to developments in science, including the Pasteurian revolution. Rather than celebrating the progressive potential of science, Redon's noirs engaged national anxieties that attended scientific advances. His position was close to the Decadents of the 1880s who dwelled on themes of illness and decay. While the artist's original biographer André Mellerio referred to the artist's fascination with Pasteur and his microbial world, where in a single drop of water "there arises the spectacle of giants of a gripping horror and a frightful, predatory nature," the topic has virtually disappeared from Redon literature. By recovering the scientific/medical issues that stimulated Redon's creation, this article restores the subjects of pathogenic organisms and contagious illness to their rightful place in Redon's oeuvre. Further, it provides the reader with a discussion of the cultural context in which Redon's interest was generated.

  10. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  11. It’s never too late to join the revolution!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Danish food system has undergone a transition in the past 10– 20 years, in which new quality conventions have evolved. Examples include increasing organic production and consumption, and increasing interest in local food, experience, community, taste and gastronomy. This article...... explores what influences if and how these new food trends are expressed in the food system. We conduct a comparative case study involving three product categories: craft beer, specialty flour and organic broilers. Craft beer and specialty flour have undergone a revolution, in which new flavours, products......, practices and social relations are generated; by contrast, organic broilers have remained a relatively stable product category. The case studies demonstrate that the revolution is not just taking place in one domain, but it implies a multidimensional reconfiguration of the food system where an emphasis...

  12. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  13. Data Revolution. Path From Big Data to Clean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Bartle, A.; Lukashin, C.; Vakhnin, A.; Mancilla, S.; Oyarzun, R.

    2015-12-01

    We live in the era of Data Revolution, yet we produce data lot faster than we can process them. If not addressed this discrepancy in a timely manner Data Revolution will result in data pollution rather than in economic and intellectual progress.The majority of currently developed and used data processing applications are Von Neumann model based: single, sequential processes that start at a point in time, and advance one step at a time until they are finished. In the current age of cloud computing and multi-core hardware architectures this approach has noticeable limitations in processing large, distributed data. In this paper we describe the CLARA framework that is used to developing Big-data processing applications. We demonstrate the programming methodology and discuss some of the issues for data processing application elasticity, agility and maintenance.

  14. The strange little animals of Antony van Leeuwenhoek surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) created a surgical revolution by demonstrating, through a series of extraordinary discoveries, the presence of "strange little animals" under the microscope. His outstanding advances were directly related to his ability to grind better glasses, which enhanced magnification many times over previously manufactured glasses. His meticulous and dedicated observational skills were unmatched by anyone dealing with magnification at the time. The surgical revolution did not occur during Leeuwenhoek's time but more than a century later when the value of his findings was evidently recognized. Today Leeuwenhoek is considered the father of microscopy as well. It is particularly enlightening that for not being a scientist himself, he demonstrated all the good virtues of method and technique for which professional scientists are admired.

  15. Urban Revolt, Nationalist Revolutions: Puebla and Valencia, 1808-1814

    OpenAIRE

    Eastman, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Between 1808 and 1814, the cities of Puebla and Valencia resisted invasion, established and participated in constitutional government and negotiated new forms of local and national identity forged during the wars. Clerics played central roles in both the warfare and political revolutions of the epoch, as priests spearheaded armed resistance and participated in the formation of new governments. Across the Spanish Monarchy, patriotic rhetoric and liberal notions of the sovereignty of the people...

  16. Feminist revolution in literacy women's bookstores in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Onosaka, Junko

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the history of women's bookstores in the US from the 1970s to the 1990s. It establishes that women's bookstores played an important role in feminism by enabling the dissemination of women's voices and thereby helping to sustain and enrich the women's movement. They improved women's literacy - their abilities to read, write, publish, and distribute women's voices and visions - and helped women to instigate a feminist revolution in literacy.

  17. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  18. Horticulture Revolution for the Poor : Nature, Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Growth in the horticulture sector, after taking off in the mid-1990s, has encouraged growth in horticultural trade, per capita availability and share in farming systems. Developing countries, especially China, have benefited from the horticulture sector expansion. The Horticultural Revolution (HR) benefited the poor by generating employment and income opportunities; improving resource use efficiency; encouraging commercialization in agriculture; and enhancing the availability of health-promot...

  19. Globalization and post-Islamic revolution: a changing Iranian woman

    OpenAIRE

    KHAKI G.N.; MIR GOUSIA

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and its core components like modernization, secularization, democracy etc. have become most debatable issues in the post-Revolution Iran. There has been a significant impact of globalization over the changing socio-religious milieu of contemporary Iranian society. Iranian women''s position has also come under its profound influence. In the last three decades, the position of Iranian women has come through different development perspectives. While resisting the Islamization polic...

  20. Volumes of Solids of Revolution. A Unified Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Morales, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to compute the volume of a solid of revolution as a double integral in a very simple way. Then, we see that the classical methods (disks and shells) are recovered if this double integral is computed by each of the two possible applications of Fubini's theorem. As a further application we also show how Pappus' theorem is obtained from our formula.

  1. Essential Shift: Scientific Revolution in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-17

    Structure of Scientific Theories (Urbana: The University of Chicago Press, 1977), 461. "Iimre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, eds., Criticism and the Growth of...The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 150. 2Lakatos, 234. " Lakatos ; Suppe; Cohen. ’G. Holton, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought (Cambridge...Chicago Press, 1977. Lakatos , lmre and Alan Musgrave, eds. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. (Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the

  2. On the"May Fourth"Literary Revolution%论“五四”文学革命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟娟

    2014-01-01

    文学革命开始于1917年。它是晚清文学改良运动在新的历史条件下的发展,是适应以思想革命为主要内容的新文化运动而发生的。是新文化运动的一个组成部分,对封建思想的批判必然地转向对封建主义文学的攻击,反对文言,提倡白话,反对旧文学,提倡新文学成了一场文学革命运动。在中国文学史上竖起一个鲜明的界碑,标示着古典文学的结束,现代文学的起始。%Literary revolution began in 1917. It was developed in the late Qing literary reform movement under the new historical conditions, is to adapt to the ideological revolution as the main content of the New Culture Movement occurred. It's an integral part of the New Culture Movement;the inevitable criticism of feudal feudalism steering literary attacks on opposition to classical, pro-moting vernacular, against the old literature, to promote a new literary movement became a literary revolution. In the history of Chinese literature pillar erected a stark, marked the end of the classical literature, and started modern literature.

  3. [Contributions of the medical community to the Mexican revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    2000-01-01

    Mexican physicians, faithful to their tradition of honor and patriotism, were present in the military and political events of the great Revolution, the began in 1910 and ended triumphantly in 1917. In the first phase, a Madero supporter and opposed to presidential reelection was doctor Francisco Vázquez Gómez, a specialist in otorhinolaryngology, Professor at the National Medical School and past President of our Academy of Medicine. The second phase of this Revolution, characterized by the struggle against the Huerta dictatorship and then by combats among revolutionary factions, also saw the intervention of many physicians and surgeons, such as senator Belisario Domínguez of Chiapas, a victim of dictatorial oppression. Among them were distinguished academicians such as doctors Rafael Silva of Mexico and Francisco Castillo Nájera of Durango. Likewise devoted nurses were in Carranza's group, while medical students enlisted in Zapata's forces. The last phase of the Revolution was dominated by the activities of the Constituent Congress in Querétaro, which promulgated the New Mexican Constitution. Among 223 elected representatives, 20 were physicians and two pharmacists (10%), who had an excellent participation in the different sessions. The new Constitution, sworn and signed on February 5, 1917, added social guarantees to individual guarantees already established by the Constitution of 1857.

  4. The Media and the Making of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Osman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While views may differ on the factors that made the 2011 Egyptian revolution possible, the role of mass media will remain undisputable. The Internet-based social networks caught the Mubarak regime by surprise, and the popular disillusionment with the ‘national’ media led the public to turn to private newspapers and satellite channels for keeping pace with the events. This paper examines the role of specific media during the 18 days of the 2011 Egyptian revolution – from 25 January to 11 February, 2011 – which we have divided into four parts. It discusses how these media contributed to the unfolding of events, conceptualized the protests and the demands of the public, and presented the actors that participated in or opposed the revolution. These points are addressed by discussing the content of the Facebook pages of the Sixth of April Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, as well as that of a private Egyptian newspaper, al-Shuruq, and the state-run newspaper al-Ahram.

  5. Public outreach: (R)evolution by the lakeside

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Why do the planets revolve around the Sun? Has genetic science shaken Darwin's theories to their foundations? Are viruses the champions of evolution? Is progress a form of tradition? On 8 and 9 July, Geneva's Science History Museum is inviting you to a Science Night on the theme of 'Evolution, revolution'. The Sixth Science Night will host some 60 stands and offer workshops for children, guided tours, exhibitions and shows. Anticipating the (r)evolutions from the LHC, CERN will also be taking part in the event. The future accelerator promises to deliver scientific advances and may even turn our understanding of the infinitesimally small on its head. However, the LHC has already led to technological breakthroughs. The Laboratory's stand will put a special emphasis on the part played by CERN in the computing revolution, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Computer animations will be used to explain these technologies which have spin-offs well beyond the field of particle physics that are of benefit to the whol...

  6. Visions of Revolutions: Microphysics and Cosmophysics in the 1930s

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    By 1930, at a time when the new physics based on relativity and quantum theory had reached a state of consolidation, problems of a foundational kind began to abound. Physicists began to speak of a new "crisis" and envisage a forthcoming "revolution" of a scale similar to the one in the mid-1920s. The perceived crisis was an issue not only in microphysics but also in cosmology, where it resulted in ambitious cosmophysical theories that transcended the ordinary methods of physics. The uncertain cognitive situation was, in some circles, associated to the uncertain political and moral situation. Did the problems of foundational physics demand a revolution in thinking that somehow paralleled the political revolutions of the time? I argue that although such ideas were indeed discussed in the 1930s, they were more rhetoric than reality. With the benefit of hindsight one can see that the perceived crisis was only temporary and not significantly related to social or ideological developments in the decade.

  7. Walking Through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Queiroz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called Walk through the Revolution. The trail aims to reinforce collective memory about the major events that occurred in the early moments leading to the coup. The trail is made up by nine places of rememberance, for which literary excerpts are suggested and which are supported by a digital research procedure. A set of seven fixed and observer-independent categories are used to analyse the literary contents of 23 literary works published up to 2013. These literary works refer to events that happened between the eve of April 25 and May 1, 1974. At the same time, literary descriptions are explored using a spatial approach in order to define the literary geography of the most iconic military actions and popular demonstrations that occurred in Lisbon and the surroundings. The literary geography and the cartography of the historical events are then compared. Data analysis and visualization benefit from the use of standardised and quantitative methods, including basic statistics and geographic information systems.

  8. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  9. Culture of Reading in Everyday Life of South-Russian Peasantry in 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna D. Bagdasaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the aspects of state Soviet policy of new peasant everyday culture, based on the development of book culture in terms of war against illiteracy of rural population of the south of Russia, analyses the means and ways of cultural revolution events execution in rural society, results of state policy of new Soviet society development.

  10. Culture of Reading in Everyday Life of South-Russian Peasantry in 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the aspects of state Soviet policy of new peasant everyday culture, based on the development of book culture in terms of war against illiteracy of rural population of the south of Russia, analyses the means and ways of cultural revolution events execution in rural society, results of state policy of new Soviet society development.

  11. The two revolutions in bio-medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern medical science, we can identify certain epochs. Some of these will be our concern here, for they offer important insights into the development of modern medicine and offer equally important predictors of where it is heading in the future. In fact they are so important that they qualify to be called nothing less than revolutions.Till the early twentieth century, medicine was an activity dependent on a small privileged elite. This changed by the mid-twentieth century into a vast publicly owned enterprise with enlightened governmental approach, support and funding. One example of this was in the 1940s, sixty five years ago, when Vannever Bush in the US, for example, persuaded the government there to divert resources allocated for the then war effort (World War II to fund basic research in academic institutions. Similarly, in India, what was earlier dependent on the benevolence of zamindars/philanthropists and some missionaries who set up charitable dispensaries/hospitals to serve certain sections of the population was supplemented, and then overtaken, by governmental funding after independence in 1947.This major governmental support to medical science was an important development that led to great advances in medical research and facilities all over. Such funding and consequent blossoming of medical science was nothing less than a revolution, which we can legitimately consider the first revolution in modern medicine.A second revolution was soon to follow four decades later. It was fuelled by a vast upsurge in medical research, training and therapy, with capital pouring in from private enterprise and philanthropy. This revolution is still on. It is aided by efforts like the Bayh-Dole Amendments of 1980 in the US, for example. This epoch making amendment conferred intellectual property rights to institutions and connected scientists even if they had developed their products/inventions with government funding. It was followed

  12. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  13. Picturing Soldaderas: Agency, Allegory, and Memory in Images of the 1910 Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Orzulak, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The violent phase of the 1910 Mexican Revolution figured prominently in the media and fine arts of Mexico during the war and in its aftermath. Documentary photography from the violent phase of the Revolution and revolutionary themed Mexican art in the first half of the twentieth century articulated revolutionary women, or `soldaderas,' as figures divorced from their subjectivity and fashioned them into allegorical characters of the Revolution. Portraits in the archive of photographs documen...

  14. The Two Nursing Disciplinary Scientific Revolutions: Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Kan; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this essay is to share Kan Koffi's ideas about scientific revolutions in the discipline of nursing. Koffi has proposed that the works of Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers represent two scientific revolutions in nursing as a learned discipline. The outcome of these two scientific revolutions is a catalyst for critical disciplinary and paradigmatic debate about the universal conceptualization of nursing's distinctive professional and scientific knowledge.

  15. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther

    2015-03-30

    This paper places America's "war on drugs" in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  16. Peer-to-Peer and Mass Communication Effect on Revolution Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kindler, Alex; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Revolution dynamics is studied through a minimal Ising model with three main influences (fields): personal conservatism (power-law distributed), inter-personal and group pressure, and a global field incorporating peer-to-peer and mass communications, which is generated bottom-up from the revolutionary faction. A rich phase diagram appears separating possible terminal stages of the revolution, characterizing failure phases by the features of the individuals who had joined the revolution. An exhaustive solution of the model is produced, allowing predictions to be made on the revolution's outcome.

  17. Vanguards and revolution: the concrete poetry Vanguardas e revolução: a poesia concreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Manuel Ávila

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available With no regards to the provincialism ant the resentment present in its attitude, the Brazilian Concrete Poetry movement had the intention, in the mid 50s, to haven taken a major qualitative-revolutionary step towards the evolution of the west world poetry forms, surpassing insofar, at least in technical terms, the great cultural and economic power centers of Europe and North America. Harshe/l8d by the leftist cultural movements of the sixties, the concrete poetry saw its form as the only efficient way to render social revolution through the arts. But in the eighties, it has integrated itself in the post-modem atmosphere of disenchantment in relation to the esthetic and social revolutions, that is to say, it recognized the feebleness of its formal innovations and lack of sincerity of its social-criticism. The good of what is left has undoubtedly a progressive intent and deserves now a place along with the generous utopist dream und8rlying the seemingly anti-artistic vanguards like the Centro Popular de Cultura (CPC. Sem se dar conta do quanto de provinciano e de ressentido havia na sua atitude, o movimento brasileiro da poesia concreta pretendeu, nos anos cinqüenta, ter dado um salto qualitativo-revolucionário na evolução das formas da poesia ocidental, adiantando-se assim, em termos técnicos, aos grandes centros do poder cultural e econômico na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. Atacada pelos movimentos culturais de esquerda nos anos sessenta, a poesia concreta quis ainda impor a sua forma como o único modo eficiente de fazer revolução social através da arte. Mas, já nos anos oitenta, acabou por integrar-se na atmosfera pós-moderna de desencanto em relação as revoluções sociais e estéticas, o que equivale a reconhecer a debilidade das suas inovações formais e a insinceridade dos seus episódicos prop6sitos critico - sociais. O pouco que ficou de bom da poesia concreta tem sentido inegavelmente progressivo e convém agora uni-lo ao

  18. From Salvation to Revelry——The Conversion of Violence Depiction about the Cultural Revolution from 1986 and Brothers Written by Yu Hua%由救赎到狂欢——从《一九八六》、《兄弟》看余华关于“文革”暴力叙事的转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓长亮

    2011-01-01

    The violence of the "Cultural Revolution" was the theme that YuHua presented and pondered with strong desire in his novels,and some of them that mattered the violence showed us the Aesthetics of Violence.The exaggeration about the violence essentially reflects the tense relations between the author and the reality.The novels in different times of YuHua showed the way to deal with the tensity.1986,an early works of YuHua and his latest novel Brothers,that showed different opinions about the violence of the "Cultural Revolution".Through the text perusing of the two representative works of YuHua,the article showed us the conversion of violence depiction about the" Cultural Revolution".%"文革"暴力是余华在小说中极力呈现和思考的主题,一些涉及暴力题材的小说显现了"暴力美学"。这种对暴力的极端渲染,其本质原因是作家和现实存在的紧张关系。余华不同时期的小说体现了处理这种紧张的方式,在早期的《一九八六》和近期的《兄弟》中,余华表达了对"文革"暴力不同的看法。这两个具有代表性的文本,反映了余华关于"文革"暴力叙事的变化。

  19. Growth in an English population from the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, S; Brickley, M; Ives, R

    2008-05-01

    The rapid urbanization of the Industrial Revolution in 18th-19th century England presented new health challenges. Our aim is to investigate using English skeletal remains whether the living conditions for an urban working class group in the Industrial Revolution negatively impacted upon their skeletal growth compared with a population from a rural agrarian parish. The Industrial Revolution skeletal material is from St Martin's Churchyard, Birmingham (SMB), West Midlands. It dates primarily from the first half of the nineteenth century when Birmingham was a major manufacturing center. The rural group is from Wharram Percy (WP), North Yorkshire, and dates from 10th-19th century AD. The methodology involves plotting diaphyseal bone lengths versus dental age for subadults. No overall difference was found between the two populations in bone length-for-age among the 2- to 18-year cohort. However the younger parts of the SMB cohort were smaller than at WP; the opposite was true of the older parts of the cohort. Growth rate, as inferred from crosssectional data, appeared greater at SMB than at WP. The only result consistent with expectations is the larger bone dimensions in young children from WP, but this likely reflects prolonged breastfeeding at WP not differences in urban and rural environments. That the deleterious health effects that we know accompanied the major transition in human society from a rural agrarian to an urban industrialized living environment should be little manifest in skeletal endochondral growth data is discouraging for those who would use such methodology to monitor health in earlier populations.

  20. Biomedical publishing and the internet: evolution or revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M W

    2000-01-01

    The Internet is challenging traditional publishing patterns. In the biomedical domain, medical journals are providing more and more content online, both free and for a fee. Beyond this, however, a number of commentators believe that traditional notions of copyright and intellectual property ownership are no longer suited to the information age and that ownership of copyright to research reports should be and will be wrested from publishers and returned to authors. In this paper, it is argued that, although the Internet will indeed profoundly affect the distribution of biomedical research results, the biomedical publishing industry is too intertwined with the research establishment and too powerful to fall prey to such a copyright revolution.

  1. Energy [r]evolution - a sustainable world energy outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S; T. Pregger; Simon, S; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.

    2012-01-01

    Der Bericht stellt die Neuauflage der Weltenergie-Szenarien dar, die das Institut für Technische Thermodynamik des Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) zusammen mit über 30 weiteren Experten im Auftrag von Greenpeace International und dem European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) erarbeitet haben. Die Weltenergie-Szenarien „Energy [R]evolution 2010“ zeigen, wie die globalen CO2-Emissionen von heute 30 Milliarden Tonnen pro Jahr bis zur Mitte des Jahrhunderts auf rund zehn Millia...

  2. Unpacking Pat Parker: Intersections and Revolutions in "Movement in Black".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores Pat Parker's poem "Movement in Black." It examines the ways in which she emblematizes intersectionality and simultaneity as forms of revolution in struggles of self and society. It begins with a theoretical and historical apparatus to contextualize Parker as an artist and activist. Then it offers a literary analysis of the poem, focusing on themes of time and space, marginalization and movement, difference and power, visibility and invisibility, and history and memory. It argues that Parker uses autobiographical writing to fuse personal and political sites of resistance.

  3. Analysis of shells of revolution under earthquake motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinman, I.

    1986-02-01

    A generalization of the solution of any shell of revolution under earthquake motion and dynamic loading is presented. The equations of motion are derived with the aid of Hamilton's variational principle. A numerical solution is obtained by expending the variables in a Fourier series in the circumferential and in finite elements in the meridional direction. For earthquake analysis an exact method based on step-by-step direct integration and an approximate one involving the spectral velocity, are compared. A case of a nuclear containment under a horizontal earthquake is considered by both methods as an example. (orig.).

  4. Hackers Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This 25th anniversary edition of Steven Levy's classic book traces the exploits of the computer revolution's original hackers -- those brilliant and eccentric nerds from the late 1950s through the early '80s who took risks, bent the rules, and pushed the world in a radical new direction. With updated material from noteworthy hackers such as Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Stallman, and Steve Wozniak, Hackers is a fascinating story that begins in early computer research labs and leads to the first home computers. Levy profiles the imaginative brainiacs who found clever and unorthodox sol

  5. The tourism revolution in the Mediterranean, 1950-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carles Manera Erbina; Jaume Garau Taberner; Ramon Molina de Dios

    2010-01-01

    The explosion of mass tourism since the end of the Second World War has had a tangible effect on crucial flows of manpower, investment and production strategy towards the leisure economy in a large part of the world, with changes that take us back to what occurred two hundred years earlier in the heat of the Industrial Revolution. However, perhaps it is in particular areas (as was the case with the thrust of industrialisation) such as the Mediterranean basin, where this view can be identified...

  6. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  7. Revolution in Form in the Episode Seven of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2015-01-01

    James Joyce(1882-1941) is one of the most important writers in the western literary history in the 20 th century.His well-known masterpiece Ulysses is the model of novels of the stream of consciousness,the form,language and content of which run counter to traditional novels.As one of important elements in the novel,the form could show whole effects of the novel.Based on the discussion of revolution in form in the episode seven of Ulysses,the author hopes that it will help to improve people’ s understanding of Ulysses and James Joyce’ s brilliant writing techniques.

  8. [A spectacular revolution: evolution of French military health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Lanoe, Vincent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    After the sanitary disaster caused by the first months of the conflict, the Health service of the French armies undertook a true revolution. By 1918, it had become the most efficient of all the opposing armies. At the end of 1914, through the spacing out of the evacuating hospitals within the zone of the armies, the most efficient teams were placed as close as possible to the front. Injured soldiers were categorized at every step of the chain. Technical progress, especially in war surgery, pushed medicine into the moderne era.

  9. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  10. National movement in Diber after Young Turks Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatjon Kica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As all Albanians, people in Diber welcomed the new regime of the Young Turks. After Young Turks Revolution, the movement about the national Education, in the same way as the National Movement, achieved the highest level of development during Renaissance. However the success achieved from legal development of National Education in Albania, the widespread of Albanian language in different ways and the widespread of Albanian language school nets, which became home for the strengthening of National feelings, disturbed Young Turks a lot, which used every tool against them, from the exertion of religion feelings and intrigues, to the violence.

  11. Conrad's view of revolution/anarchism in under western eyes Conrad's view of revolution/anarchism in under western eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad's Polish background. First of all, he was a Pole, born in the Russian-occupied Poland of 1857 as the son of one of the most spirited participants in the Polish National Comittee, and with a profound fear of Russian autocratic power in his blood. Politics, nationalism, the forces of imperialism and rebellion, were the first and deepest parts of his inheritance. Conrad's character was linked to the patriotic and nationalistic ardour of his father's nature, an idealist revolutionary, and to the conservatism of his uncle Tadeuz Bobrowski his guardian during youth. The duality of thought conditioned by Apollo Korzeniowski, the father, and Tadeuz Bobrowski made his character divided all his life long. The political approach in Under Western Eyes exemplifies the writer's duality of thought. In order to write this novel Conrad found uggestions in the writings of Russian novelists, mainly Dostoievsky's Crime and Punishment. Although the book fully justifies this assertion, the writer denies it and even affirmed in a letter to a friend that he had a "Russophobia", and that he did not like the works of the famous Russian writer. It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad

  12. Intensive groundwater use: a silent revolution that cannot be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, M R; Martínez-Santos, P

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, agriculture in arid and semi-arid countries has experienced a true "silent revolution" of intensive groundwater use. Millions of independent farmers worldwide have chosen to become increasingly dependent on the reliability of groundwater resources, and as a result their countries have reaped abundant social and economic benefits. Data from several countries shows that groundwater irrigation presents a much greater efficiency, than surface water irrigation systems, thus contributing to fulfil the motto of "more crops and jobs per drop". If this situation is confirmed globally, the usual world water visions have to be reviewed. However, the "silent revolution" has been carried out with scarce control on the part of governmental water agencies, and thus a series of unwanted effects have developed in certain places. While these by no means justify the pervasive "hydromyths" and obsolete paradigms that voice the frailty of groundwater, appropriate management of groundwater resources remains a worldwide challenge. This paper provides an overview of these issues, and concludes with the necessity there is to educate all levels of society on the importance of groundwater and to create bottom-up user associations to manage aquifers as common pool resources.

  13. Transatlantic Discourses of Freedom and Slavery during the English Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Donoghue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three themes in the discursive history of freedom and slavery during the English Revolution are explored here: the liberty of conscience, the liberty of the body, and the liberty of commerce. In the contests waged to define these liberties, contending factions of revolutionaries refashioned their opponents’ concepts of freedom as forms of bondage. Although explored in discrete fashion by historians, these discourses of religious, bodily, and commercial liberty hardly operated independently from one another.  Indeed, they became increasingly entangled as the Revolution reached its imperial turn (ca. 1649-1655, accompanied as it was by the rise of the slave trade in the West Indies and debates over the nature of “free trade” that circulated between England and the colonies.  Ultimately, to recover the entangled nature of these languages of liberty and their importance in the Revolution’s history of ideas, we must move beyond England itself and into the wider Atlantic world to grasp the material contexts that conditioned the Revolution’s discursive history. 

  14. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam.

  15. Increased sedimentation following the Neolithic Revolution in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Nadel, Dani; Marco, Shmuel

    2017-05-01

    The Dead Sea drainage basin offers a rare combination of well-documented substantial climate change, intense tectonics and abundant archaeological evidence for past human activity in the Southern Levant. It serves as a natural laboratory for understanding how sedimentation rates in a deep basin are related to climate change, tectonics, and anthropogenic impacts on the landscape. Here we show how basin-wide erosion rates are recorded by thicknesses of rhythmic detritus laminae and clastic sediment accumulation rates in a long core retrieved by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project in the Dead Sea depocenter. During the last 11.5 kyr the average detrital accumulation rate is 3-4 times that during the last two glacial cycles (MIS 7c-2), and the average thickness of detritus laminae in the last 11.6 kyr is 4.5 times that between 21.7 and 11.6 ka, implying an increased erosion rate on the surrounding slopes during the Holocene. We estimate that this intensified erosion is incompatible with tectonic and climatic regimes during the corresponding time interval and further propose a close association with the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant (beginning at 11.5 ka). We thus suggest that human impact on the landscape was the primary driver causing the intensified erosion and that the Dead Sea sedimentary record serves as a reliable recorder of this impact since the Neolithic Revolution.

  16. Memories of Crisis: Bohr, Kuhn, and the Quantum Mechanical ``Revolution''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Suman

    2013-04-01

    ``The history of science, to my knowledge,'' wrote Thomas Kuhn, describing the years just prior to the development of matrix and wave mechanics, ``offers no equally clear, detailed, and cogent example of the creative functions of normal science and crisis.'' By 1924, most quantum theorists shared a sense that there was much wrong with all extant atomic models. Yet not all shared equally in the sense that the failure was either terribly surprising or particularly demoralizing. Not all agreed, that is, that a crisis for Bohr-like models was a crisis for quantum theory. This paper attempts to answer four questions: two about history, two about memory. First, which sub-groups of the quantum theoretical community saw themselves and their field in a state of crisis in the early 1920s? Second, why did they do so, and how was a sense of crisis related to their theoretical practices in physics? Third, do we regard the years before 1925 as a crisis because they were followed by the quantum mechanical revolution? And fourth, to reverse the last question, were we to call into the question the existence of a crisis (for some at least) does that make a subsequent revolution less revolutionary?

  17. The Copernican Revolution in Pragmatism? Dewey on Philosophy and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Ann P. Llanera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Copernican revolution heralds a grand renovation of a tradition of knowledge. In science—the discipline from which the concept originates—it aptly connotes a paradigm shift from a previously accepted notion of reality. It is upon this conceptualization that John Dewey wrote: “Kant claimed that he had effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy by treating the world and our knowledge of it from the standpoint of the knowing subject.” For the Enlightenment thinker, traditional philosophy construed a rational system of nature and then borrowed from it the features by which to characterize knowledge. He argued that this “borrowing” of a rational system should not be credited to some outworldy power, but to human reason. Thus, his “revolution” was a shift from theological to human authorship and a placing of the locus of intellect in man as a knowing subject. Kant’s work created a new center in philosophy: that it is the mind that knows by means of an equipment of powers complete within itself and that it merely exercises its capabilities upon an antecedent external material equally complete in itself.

  18. The LED outdoor lighting revolution : Opportunities, threats and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aube, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) in environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on the night sky, the fauna, the flora and the human health. A real revolution is undergoing in the outdoor lighting industry threatens the night integrity. This revolution is driven by the advent of the cost-effective Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology into the outdoor lighting industry. The LEDs provides many opportunities: they are long lasting, easily controlled, and generally allow a more efficient photometric design which, in term, may result in energy savings.After explaining the complex and non-linear behaviour of the propagation of the ALAN into the nocturnal environment, we will outline the potential impact of the ALAN on the human health and on the night sky, and we will introduce some dedicated indicators for its evaluation. We will focus on the role of the blue content of the ALAN in the evaluation of its impact. More specifically we will show how white LED technology, that often shows increased blue light content, compares to the traditional High Pressure Sodium technology. Finally, we will identify the possible mitigations to restrict the adverse impacts of the white LEDs in the urban and rural environment.

  19. Water and the other three revolutions needed to end rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, P

    2005-01-01

    Eight hundred million of the current 1.1 billion people who earn less than a dollar-a-day live in rural areas in developing countries. Since more than 550 million of them earn their living from agriculture, poverty eradication depends on increasing their income from farming. The millennium goals for hunger and poverty in the semi-arid tropics will not be met without four simultaneous revolutions. A revolution in water is needed to develop and mass disseminate a whole range of new affordable small plot irrigation technology. A revolution in agriculture is required to enable smallholders to produce a variety of high value marketable labor intensive cash crops. A revolution in markets is needed to open access to inputs and to profitable markets for their high value crops, incorporating effective strategies for aggregation, quality control, and decentralized added value processing. Finally, a revolution in design based on the ruthless pursuit of affordability is needed to support the other three revolutions. This paper describes the rapidly growing micro-irrigation revolution exemplified by the 250 million dollars in new net annual income now being earned by Treadle Pump farmers, and outlines the key features of the other three revolutions required to meet millennium poverty goals.

  20. Conversations with the Classics. Ancient Political Virtue and Two Modern Revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, W.R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Since R. R. Palmer formulated his influential thesis about the Age of the Democratic Revolution half a century ago, historians have criticized and revised his views on the nature of the late eighteenth-century political revolutions in the Western world. They have, among other things, pointed out tha

  1. A High Revolution Speed Noncontact Ultrasonic Motor Driven by a Non-Symmetrical Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; LIU Jing-Quan; CHEN Di; CAI Bing-Chu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A noncontact ultrasonic motor based on a non-symmetrical electrode is proposed. This motor has the advantages of using a simple driving electrode and having a high revolution speed. The revolution speed of its three-blade rotor can reach 5100rpm under a driving voltage of 20 V. A method operated easily is proposed to measure the output torque.

  2. Exploring the limits of classical physics: Planck, Einstein, and the structure of a scientific revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Jochen; Renn, Jürgen; Schemmel, Matthias

    The emergence of the quantum theory in the beginning of the last century is generally seen as a scientific revolution par excellence. Although numerous studies have been dedicated to its historical analysis, there is so far only one major work available with an explicit historical theory of scientific revolutions in the background, Thomas Kuhn's Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity of 1978.

  3. Scientific Revolutions to the nth power: n = 0, 1, 2, 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2008-04-01

    Thomas Kuhn's description and characterization of scientific revolutions set the standard for interpreting and understanding these events, but his characterization introduced an anomaly. Newtonian science was at the pinnacle of its success immediately prior to the Second Scientific Revolution. From an evolutionary point-of-view, there were no crises to be solved just problems within the Newtonian paradigm, whereas the specific crises that initiated the revolution are evident from everyone's point-of-view after the revolution. This paradox is well recognized, but it seems not to be a problem and is just ignored as if it were not important or significant. Yet this discrepancy strikes at the very heart of physics and the overall progress of science. Historical conditions currently parallel the period immediately prior to the Second Scientific Revolution indicating that a new scientific revolution is approaching. When a comparison of the two periods is made, new characteristics of scientific revolutions are identified, the paradox is solved and evidence of a Zeroth Scientific Revolution emerges from the historical record.

  4. The Quality Revolution and the Business School Response. Selected Paper Number 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry V.

    A management, or "quality revolution" among United States companies in the 1980s has brought rapid change, and has been promoted more by businesses than by business schools which are responding more gradually to the quality revolution. The developments in Japan in the 1950s triggered similar developments in many other countries,…

  5. The diffusion of Revolutions. A Comparison of regime turnovers in 5 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind

  6. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... a triathlon event. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 to 11 a.m. on September 11, 2011....

  7. Talkin' 'bout a Revolution: The Social, Political, and Fantasmatic Logics of Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the Australian government's education revolution policy as promulgated in the media release document, "Quality Education: The Case for an Education Revolution in our Schools". It seeks to problematize the government's claim to marry quality and equity, via an analysis of the discursive…

  8. A Third Revolution in Linguistics: The Interplay between the Verbal and Non-Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    This article regards Saussure's social, static and structural perspective and Chomsky's individual, generative and formal perspective as two revolutions in linguistics in the 20th century. A third revolution is already on the way. This is characterised by considering the individual's mental mechanisms in relation to the interplay between verbal…

  9. The 3. industrial revolution according to Jeremy Rifkin: vision or utopia?; La 3. revolution industrielle selon Jeremy Rifkin: vision ou utopie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-11-15

    Is the civilization of hydrogen on its way? This is what Jeremy Rifkin claims, who is announcing the 3. industrial revolution, based on electricity produced in an entirely decentralized manner from renewable energy and stored in the form of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis. This article analyses the three main 'pillars' of this industrial revolution and concludes that it is much more a matter of utopia than a 'vision'. (author)

  10. Political Economy, Alexander Von Humboldt, and Mexico’s 1810 and 1910 Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weiner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is informed by Steve Pincus’ scholarship on revolution, engages in the novelendeavor of comparing Mexico’s 1810 and 1910 Revolutions. The article explores broad parallelsbetween the two upheavals, and highlights significant features of Mexico’s Revolutions thatscholars have ignored. Alexander von Humboldt’s Ensayo político sobre el reino de la NuevaEspaña proved to be influential in both of Mexico’s Revolutions, albeit in distinct ways in eachcase. Conflicts over political economy were also central aspects of each Revolution. Theseeconomic disagreements sometimes pitted revolutionists against traditionalists, and sometimesdivided revolutionists against each other. Even if revolutionists differed in terms of economicvisions, they were all “statists” in the sense that they designated an important role for governmentin fostering economic and social modernization.

  11. Creating wealth from groundwater for dollar-a-day farmers: Where the silent revolution and the four revolutions to end rural poverty meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Paul; Yoder, Robert

    2006-03-01

    More than 550 million of the current 1.1 billion people earning less than 1-a-day earn a living from agriculture in developing countries. A revolution in water control is needed to develop and mass-disseminate new, affordable, small-plot irrigation technologies. A revolution in agriculture is required to enable smallholders to produce high-value, marketable, labor-intensive cash crops. A revolution in markets is needed to open access to markets for the crops they produce and the inputs they need to produce them. Finally, a revolution in design, based on the ruthless pursuit of affordability, is needed to harness shallow groundwater. The experiences of suppliers of treadle pumps, low-cost drip irrigation and water storage systems were examined. The wealth these technologies generated, coupled with falling prices for small diesel pumps in countries like India and China, created a suitable environment for the rapid adoption of affordable diesel pump tubewells, which in turn created vigorous water markets and expanded access to affordable irrigation water for smallholders. The combination of smallholder-centered revolutions, along with the ‘silent revolution in groundwater’ described by Llamas and Martinez-Santos (Water Sci Technol 51(8):167-174, 2005) provide new practical options for meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals on poverty and hunger by 2015.

  12. An analysis of United States K-12 stem education versus STEM workforce at the dawn of the digital revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franca

    The world is at the dawn of a third industrial revolution, the digital revolution, that brings great changes the world over. Today, computing devices, the Internet, and the World Wide Web are vital technology tools that affect every aspect of everyday life and success. While computing technologies offer enormous benefits, there are equally enormous safety and security risks that have been growing exponentially since they became widely available to the public in 1994. Cybercriminals are increasingly implementing sophisticated and serious hack attacks and breaches upon our nation's government, financial institutions, organizations, communities, and private citizens. There is a great need for computer scientists to carry America's innovation and economic growth forward and for cybersecurity professionals to keep our nation safe from criminal hacking. In this digital age, computer science and cybersecurity are essential foundational ingredients of technological innovation, economic growth, and cybersecurity that span all industries. Yet, America's K-12 education institutions are not teaching the computer science and cybersecurity skills required to produce a technologically-savvy 21st century workforce. Education is the key to preparing students to enter the workforce and, therefore, American K-12 STEM education must be reformed to accommodate the teachings required in the digital age. Keywords: Cybersecurity Education, Cybersecurity Education Initiatives, Computer Science Education, Computer Science Education Initiatives, 21 st Century K-12 STEM Education Reform, 21st Century Digital Literacies, High-Tech Innovative Problem-Solving Skills, 21st Century Digital Workforce, Standardized Testing, Foreign Language and Culture Studies, Utica College, Professor Chris Riddell.

  13. The Disquieting Revolution: A Genealogy of Reason and Racism in the Québec Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the past decade, a series of contentious events concerning the accommodation of different cultural and religious traditions and practices in Quebec has incited much debate in this region. Labelled the “reasonable accommodation” issue by the local press, this controversy, which has its roots in neo-nationalist sentiments born of the Quiet Revolution, has incited responses ranging from denunciations of racist discrimination to calls for more stringent measures to ensure the assimilation of non-Westerners into Québécois culture. As Monika Kin Gagnon points out, this concept has moved beyond its legal origins to become a “social discourse” in the culture at-large, in that many in Quebec are vocally expressing their anxieties over the idea that the rights of newcomers has reached a tipping point, whereby the limits of reason are now over-stretched, weakening the dominant population’s values and identity. Much of this fear was stoked by certain stakeholders in the 2007 Quebec election, namely politicians and media outlets, when reasonable accommodation was highlighted as a major issue. This paper provides an analysis of that election and the campaigns leading into it, revealing how the press and the leaders of the three major political parties were complicit in transforming some negligible and private incidents into a greater menace endangering the very existence of Quebec society. By tracing the genealogy of “the reasonable Québécois”, I will demonstrate how reason and racism became intertwined during the course of this debate over rights, identity, and citizenship in Quebec.

  14. Revolutions in the Science of Learning: A New View from a New Center--Visual Language and Visual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Revolutions can happen in different ways. About six years ago, a very particular type of revolution began in a cluster of rooms on the main campus of Gallaudet University. There, a handful of individuals began a "quiet revolution" guided by an overarching passionate mission to conduct groundbreaking science that would have widespread…

  15. Preface to the first monograph: The Fourth Psychiatric Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, psychiatry is in the midst of a fourth revolution. The first revolution was the so-called Moral Treatment which involved the activism of Phileppe Pinel (1745-1826 and William Tuke (1732-1819, as also the efforts of Dorothea Dix (1802-1887. This resulted in destigmatization of the lunatic label which had earlier meant treating the insane in a dehumanizing manner e.g.. chaining them to walls, displaying them for money etc. It resulted in the transition to custodial care and the opening of mental hospitals. The second psychiatric revolution was the Mental Hygiene Movement heralded by the eye­opening works of Elizabeth Packard (Modern Persecution or Insane Hospital Unveiled and Clifford Beers (1876-1943; A Mind That Found Itself which was furthered by, amongst others, pioneers like Adolf Meyer (1866-1950 and William James (1842-1910. This was followed by the third Psychiatric revolution, that of the Community Psychiatry Movement. This involved community participation, removal of restrictions, comprehensive set of services multi-disciplinary in nature, active consumer participation, mental health consultancy and preventive measures. This well intentioned grand movement had its problems, as all such grand movement must indeed have. It became the fountain­source of a fresh crop of difficulties related to transinstitutionalization in boarding and halfway houses, with increased rates of hospital admission, and the 'revolving door syndrome'. Moreover, it lead to an ominous rise in contact between the criminal justice system and the mentally ill as they moved more freely in the community.Today, we are in the midst of a silent by strong fourth revolution. Firstly, this revolution reiterates its strong linkage with the mainstream of medicine. Secondly, it bases itself on strong, empirical findings based on rigorous methodological studies, mainly biological. The major paradigm shift of contemporary psychiatry is towards methodological rigour on

  16. Representing masculinity: Male citizenship in modern Western culture [second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudink, S.P.; Hagemann, K.; Clark, A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that citizenship was the right of all humanity emerged during the French Revolution. However, this right was limited by gender, class and race. Studying Europe and its colonies and the United States, this book analyzes images of masculine citizenship in political rhetoric, culture, and var

  17. METAPHYSICAL REVOLUTION OF DESCARTES AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to reveal and comprehend forms of influence metaphysical' revolution for a way of interpretation of the anthropological project by Descartes on the basis of investigations of modern dekartes's researchers, that is the recognition of a fundamental role of metaphysics. Methodology. As methodological base modern investigations of dekartes's researchers accenting a fundamental role of metaphysics and expediency of unbiassed judgment of heritage of the great thinker are used. The scientific novelty. The transformation of the anthropological project is outlined as manifestation of metaphysical revolution. It is about a transcendencecy of naive anthropology (as an embodiment of reductive mindset, that is interpretations of human nature as its corporality and transition to metaphysical anthropology which consists in upholding of unconditional priority of human thinking as associated with God. As result of transition concentration of attention on intense human nature, that is at tension between sensuality and intelligence, aspiration to truth and tendency to delusion, between Life and Nothing, etc. Conclusions. The appeal to the incomplete anthropological project of Descartes on the basis of innovative researches allows proving the thesis about influence of metaphysical revolution on a way of its interpretation. The main forms of oriented to science ideals of naive anthropology, trust in evidence of the senses, atheism, interpretation of science as the main form of detection rationality of human nature, which Descartes tends constructively to overcome in the text of "meditation", are highlighted. During creation of metaphysical anthropology the attention of the thinker is drawn by the fact of impossibility of comprehension of human nature by means of natural-science rationality and expediency of the appeal to metaphysics. The subject of attention of the thinker is the tension between sensuality and intelligence, need

  18. The Darwinian revolution La revolución darwiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR M CHAVES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific revolution probably began at 16th century with the heliocentric theory of the eminent astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, but it was culminated with the masterful discoveries of Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton at 17th century who revealed that planet movements around the sun and other similar phenomena can be explained by simple mechanical laws of physics and astronomy. However, the origin, complexity and configuration of living beings remained in the mystery until 19th century, with the publication of "On the origin of species". In this essay I discuss the importance of the Darwinian scientific revolution, its beginnings, and the main objections of creationists to his evolutionary ideas. Darwin demonstrated that the origin and complexity of living beings can be explained by natural processes, without the intervention of a supernatural being. However, the beginnings of the Darwinian revolution were particularly difficult and 128 years after his death, the controversy between evolutionists and creationists still persists.Con base en la teoría heliocéntrica formulada por Nicolás Copérnico en el siglo XVI, Galileo Galilei e Isaac Newton iniciaron la revolución científica al demostrar que los movimientos de los planetas alrededor del sol podían ser explicados por las leyes de la física y la astronomía. No obstante, el origen y complejidad del mundo orgánico permaneció en el misterio hasta mediados del siglo XIX, cuando Charles Darwin publicó su célebre obra 'El origen de las especies'. Desde entonces, la selección natural se ha convertido en una de las teorías científicas más umversalmente aceptadas y Darwin en el fundador de la biología moderna. En este ensayo se discute la importancia de la revolución darwiniana, sus inicios y las principales objeciones de sus detractores. Darwin demostró que el origen y la complejidad de los seres vivos pueden ser explicados por procesos naturales sin necesidad de la intervenci

  19. The dispersion of pederasty and the athletic revolution in sixth-century BC Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas F

    2005-01-01

    Dorian Crete and Thebes are conventionally seen by ancient sources as the originators of pederasty; modern historians see support for this view in Dorian male-centered militarism and sexual segregation in upbringing. Here athletic culture, including training, nudism, and competition, is argued to be a chief 'trigger' for the emergence of pederasty in Sparta and its relatively rapid spread to other Greek states in the seventh to sixth centuries BC. Athletic nudity, in particular, was not a device to enforce civic egalitarianism, as some have argued, but is a persistently erotic incentive that reinforces hegemonic maleness and advertises the individual's virtuous exercise of restraint. In particular, Sparta is found to be the likely source of generalized athletic nudity combined with open pederasty in the early seventh century BC. Nudism in Greek art is erotically charged and not, as others argue, simply a gender marker in the seventh century. Generalized athletic nudity spread to other Greek states emulating the successful Spartan model by the 'athletic revolution' of the early sixth century. With athletic nudity, open pederasty, again following Sparta, was fostered.

  20. The Identity Process in Times of Rupture: Narratives From the Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hassan Awad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011 revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense of agency in individuals’ ability to create new meanings of their world in spite of the socio-cultural and political constraints. This study presents narratives as an informing methodological resource that connects identity process with social representations and emphasizes the value of storytelling as an integral part of the adaptation process.

  1. Sexual revolution in China: implications for Chinese women and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick

    2011-06-01

    China is undergoing rapid changes in sexual mores due to several reasons such as decreasing control of the state over private lives of individuals, globalization of its economy, and some policies initiated by the state. There is increased acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex in China, especially among youth. In historically conservative China, influenced by Confucian ideals of patriarchal dominance for centuries, the sexual freedom currently enjoyed by many is unprecedented. This has impacted women's status and sexual lives in several positive ways such as increasing freedom of sexual expression, control over their bodies, sexual choices, and increasing equality with men in all spheres of life. However several negative consequences such as a rise in STD/HIV prevalence, commercial sex, and divorce rates have also been attributed to the ongoing sexual revolution in China. Recommendations combating these and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  2. The Dutch Republic. Laboratory of the Scientific Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas van Berkel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historians agree about the significance of the Scientific Revolution for the development of modern society; there is little agreement, however, as to the nature and the causes of this major shift in our perception of the natural world. In this article, it is argued that we may profit from studying this problem in the context of the Dutch Republic during the seventeenth century, the Republic being in many ways a laboratory of modern life. In this article, three factors often mentioned as contributing to the new scientific themes are explored in the Dutch context. The first factor dealt with is the mingling of scholars and craftsmen; the second the role of the universities as centers of both teaching and research, and the third the congruence of scientific and mercantile values in the early modern Dutch trading communities.

  3. Bowlby's children: the forgotten revolution in Australian children's nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeanette

    2008-10-01

    Children's hospitals are vastly different today from fifty years ago. Although there have been dramatic changes in treatment and environment, the biggest contrast for patients is the involvement of parents and family in the nursing and care of the children. This change is largely due to the work of two men from Great Britain, Dr John Bowlby and James Robertson, whose research findings changed the way children were nursed to include consideration of their psychological alongside physical needs. This caused a revolution in the nursing of children that spread throughout Australasia. Bowlby and Robertson's work is largely forgotten now, but it forms the basis for the current policy of nursing children within the context of the family. This paper includes excerpts from an Australian oral history collection of twenty-six narratives from former child patients, parents and nurses and the personal papers of Dr Bowlby.

  4. How Peircean was the "'Fregean' Revolution" in Logic?

    CERN Document Server

    Anellis, Irving H

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of logic conceives of a Fregean revolution in which modern mathematical logic (also called symbolic logic) has replaced Aristotelian logic. The preeminent expositors of this conception are Jean van Heijenoort (1912-1986) and Donald Angus Gillies. The innovations and characteristics that comprise mathematical logic and distinguish it from Aristotelian logic, according to this conception, created ex nihlo by Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) in his Begriffsschrift of 1879, and with Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) as its chief This position likewise understands the algebraic logic of Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871), George Boole (1815-1864), Charles Sanders Peirce (1838-1914), and Ernst Schr\\"oder (1841-1902) as belonging to the Aristotelian tradition. The "Booleans" are understood, from this vantage point, to merely have rewritten Aristotelian syllogistic in algebraic guise. The most detailed listing and elaboration of Frege's innovations, and the characteristics that distinguish mathematical logic from ...

  5. Need for multidisciplinary research towards a second green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Bernd; Porter, John R; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Despite recent achievements in conventional plant breeding and genomics, the rate of increase of crop yields is declining and thus there is a need for a second green revolution. Advances within single disciplines, alone, cannot solve the challenges of increasing yield. As scientific disciplines have become increasingly diversified, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variation modify grain yield and composition is needed, so that specific quantitative and quality targets can be identified. To achieve this aim, the expertise of plant genomics, physiology and agronomy, as well as recently developed plant modelling techniques, must be combined. There has been recent progress in these individual disciplines, but multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented to tackle drought stress and salinity as major constraints to achieving sufficient grain yield in the future.

  6. Reading arendt's on revolution after the fall of the wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard, Dick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo revista a obra de Hannah Arendt On Revolution e os eventos históricos da revolução americana, de forma a reformular os chamados "problemas da época". Embora todo ator político revindique que as suas políticas sejam a encarnação da vontade unida da nação em uma democracia, abre-se a porta da antipolítica na medida em que a natureza simbólica - e portanto contestada - do povo soberano é reduzida à sua realidade temporária. Tal é a lição crucial a ser extraída ainda hoje da obra The Origins of Totalitarianism, que pode ser lida como uma tentativa de pensar a expressão mais extrema da antipolítica

  7. IT Complexity Revolution: Intelligent Tools for the Globalised World Development

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; 10.1007/978-3-642-03978-2_1

    2009-01-01

    Globalised-civilisation interaction intensity grows exponentially, involving all dimensions and regions of planetary environment. The resulting dynamics of critically high, exploding complexity urgently needs consistent understanding and efficient management. The new, provably universal concept of unreduced dynamic complexity of real interaction processes described here provides the former and can be used as a basis for the latter, in the form of "complexity revolution" in information systems controlling such "critically globalised" civilisation dynamics. We outline the relevant dynamic complexity properties and the ensuing principles of anticipated complexity transition in information and communication systems. We then emphasize key applications of unreduced complexity concept and complexity-driven IT to various aspects of post-industrial civilisation dynamics, including intelligent communication, context-aware information and control systems, reliable genetics, integral medicine, emergent engineering, effic...

  8. Two Decades of Revolution. An Anti-Revisionist Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the crucial differences between the breakdown of the totalitarian communist regimes in Central Europe and in Romania. For Central-Europeans, Westerners and the international community, the anti-communist revolutions of 1989 are related with 11/9, „the Fall of the Berlin Wall”, and „the Velvet Revolution”, while for Romanians, the same events are related with the bloody violent repression and confrontation, the faked „show trial” of Ceauşescu and his execution. While regime change in other former communist countries is related with terms and sintagms like transplacement, ruptforma, extrication or reforma pactada-ruptura pactada, pacted transition, „the four-player game theory model”, none of them is relevant for the Romanian case. He is trying to find answers for the questions „Why?” and „How?” related with so many events before, during and after 1989.

  9. The fourth revolution how the infosphere is reshaping human reality

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an ". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, ". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. " defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmenta...

  10. The genetic revolution: new ethical issues for obstetrics and gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen; Cain, Joanna M

    2002-10-01

    The genomic revolution inherently changes the paradigms that have informed the interactions between patient and physician. These changes obligate physicians both to continually learn about the advances occurring in genetic testing and to review their interactions in light of the changing ethical issues these advances uncover. Particular areas for concern are the use of genetic testing for predisposition genes. The issues differ between uses for adults, for children and for pre-implantation genetics. Furthermore, there are issues of justice raised by limited access to these technologies, research confidentiality, potential discrimination and the meaning of individuality in an era of potential genetic cloning. These changes require obstetrician/gynaecologists to advocate for the best interests of both their patients and those who may not be able to voice their interests, for example children-to-be and research subjects in developing countries.

  11. The Copernican Revolution as Story: an Antidote for Scientific Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P. M.

    2005-08-01

    ``When a white-robed scientist, momentarily looking away from his microscope or cyclotron [or telescope], makes some pronouncement for the general public, he may not be understood but at least he is certain to be believed.'' The truth of this opening sentence of Anthony Standen's 1950 book Science is a Sacred Cow, as clear today as it was then, is the motivation for a new astronomy course at Berry College near Atlanta, GA, USA. To non-scientists, science is known by its products, not by what it is: a human progress. For this illiteracy an antidote is offered: the history of astronomy. In this course the story of the Copernican Revolution is told, for within this story the true nature of science can be found in its fullness. For example, Aristotle's uniform circular motion is used to emphasize the role of assumptions, and the occasional value of wrong ideas is evident in Tycho's theory and in Kepler's universe of perfect solids. Tycho's observations of Mars and Kepler's analysis illustrate the interplay of observation, theory, and technology. As a final example, the indirectness and often-unintentional nature of scientific advance can be seen in the work of Copernicus. The roles of personality and the intersections of science and society are themes throughout the course, as are the merging of disparate fields and the power of strong theories. There are other themes (e.g., coherence, the role of mathematics), but the emphasis is on the science and much of the work is quantitative. There is a laboratory component that features observations and experiments, and in order to bring the narrative to life the class spends two weeks in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Italy, touring sites that are relevant to the story of the Copernican Revolution.

  12. A Try-Out of the February Revolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Nefedov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question about the causes and actors of the February revolution can be understood only in the context of previous events. In this connection, of great importance is the analysis of the causes and circumstances of a strike wave that swept through Petrograd in October 1916. Up to 100 thousand strikers (together with locked-out workers were involved in these labor unrests that were accompanied by demonstrations and clashes with the police. In many ways (bread shortage as the main motivation, bakeshops pillage, spontaneity, suddenness, involvement of adolescents and women, Cossacks’ refusal to shoot into the crowd, solders’ desertion to the side of people, these events recall those of February 23–28, 1917. The American historians L. Haimson and E. Brian called them “a try-out of the February revolution”. Short information about these strikes is available in the papers of a number of Soviet authors; however, it is presented to some extent tendentiously, based on the desire to show the directing and organizational role of the Bolshevik party. In this regard, it seems important to restore the actual course of the events and give them an objective interpretation. The study shows that the October strikes were the first reaction of Petrograd workers to the emerging food crisis, whereas the February revolution was the reaction to the second, a much more acute phase of this crisis. The mechanism of these events was similar: in the both cases, famine was the major factor pushing for protests. In the both cases, protests were spontaneous and massive, externally similar to a hunger riot. The food crisis determined the army’s position as well: both in October and in February, Cossacks and soldiers sympathized with the starving population and refused to use weapons to crackdown demonstrators

  13. Low-Thrust Many-Revolution Trajectory Optimization via Differential Dynamic Programming and a Sundman Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectories about planetary bodies characteristically span a high count of orbital revolutions. Directing the thrust vector over many revolutions presents a challenging optimization problem for any conventional strategy. This paper demonstrates the tractability of low-thrust trajectory optimization about planetary bodies by applying a Sundman transformation to change the independent variable of the spacecraft equations of motion to the eccentric anomaly and performing the optimization with differential dynamic programming. Fuel-optimal geocentric transfers are shown in excess of 1000 revolutions while subject to Earths J2 perturbation and lunar gravity.

  14. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golub

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper places America's “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  15. Portugal and the Luso-Atlantic World in the Age of Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Paquette

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The "Age of Revolutions" paradigm, pioneered by R.R. Palmer and Eric Hobsbawm, has been enormously influential, especially in the study of the Atlantic World c. 1750-1850. Yet it was developed without reference to the Luso-Brazilian World (and a mere passing reference to Spanish America. This essay explores the utility of the "Age of Revolutions" framework for the study of the Luso-Atlantic and suggests that Luso-Brazilian History can enrich, and modify, the prevailing understanding of the "Age of Revolutions".

  16. Viva La Revolucion! "La Revolucion No Ha Terminado." Teaching the Mexican Revolution across the Curriculum. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludgate, Kathleen

    This presentation features materials for teaching about the Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940. The presentation is divided into four broad sections. The first section, "Why Teach the Mexican Revolution?" furnishes a rationale for teaching a course about a revolution that took place much closer to home than the Russian or Chinese Revolutions.…

  17. Conceptual apparatus of synergetics and study of cultural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanova

    2015-04-01

    The second kind of cultural consciousness of researchers of cosmos and nature is analyzed in the article. This group has such features as involvement into revolution ideology and loyalty to the ideals of Enlightenment, faith in the future, confidence in science and its unlimited possibilities to change human nature. Carriers of second kind of cultural consciousness have negative attitude to any attempts of humanitarians to establish prohibition of intervention to human nature.

  18. The non-Euclidean revolution with an introduction by H.S.M. Coxeter

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    2001-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America.

  19. Anthropometric history of the French Revolution in the Province of Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Hermann

    2011-07-01

    We estimate the trend in average height of the population of the French province Orleans from 1715 to the beginning of the 19th century using data on recruits who were drafted either through a lottery system or through general conscription. After controlling for age, residence, and occupation, we find a general decline in the biological standard of living in the decades before the French Revolution. The results support a Ricardian-Malthusian interpretation of the causes of the French Revolution. In the debate 'Revolution de la misère ou de la prospérité' our findings support the side which argues that the French Revolution was a culmination of a long-lasting economic malaise during the final phases of the Ancien Régime.

  20. Bildung, Erziehung und Modernisierung in der Franzosischen Revolution: Ein Soziologischer Deutungsansatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Hans Christian

    1992-01-01

    Contends that education was an important instrument of social change during the French Revolution. Argues that education became a way to speed up social modernization and, at the same time, hide the contradictions of modernization. (CFR)

  1. Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution / David J. Fanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fanning, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution, Op. 74 a. The Tale of the Stone Flower - experts. Philharmonia Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABTD 1597; CHAN9095 (75 minutes:DDD)

  2. Thomas Kuhn's revolutions a historical and an evolutionary philosophy of science?

    CERN Document Server

    Marcum, James A

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Thomas Kuhn's Revolution marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Kuhn's most influential work. Drawing on the rich archival sources at MIT, and engaging fully with current scholarship, James Marcum provides the historical background to the development of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Exploring the shift Kuhn makes from a historical to an evolutionary philosophy of science and examining Kuhn's legacy in depth, Marcum answers key questions: What exactly was Kuhn's historiographic revolution and how did it come about? Why did it have the impact it did? What will its future impact be for both academia and society? Marcum's answers build a new portrait of Kuhn: his personality, his pedagogical style and the intellectual and social context in which he practiced his trade. Thomas Kuhn's Revolution shows how Kuhn transcends the boundaries of the philosophy of science, influencing sociologists, economists, theologians and even policy makers and politicians. This is a comprehensi...

  3. Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution / David J. Fanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fanning, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution, Op. 74 a. The Tale of the Stone Flower - experts. Philharmonia Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABTD 1597; CHAN9095 (75 minutes:DDD)

  4. Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-06-29

    This synthesis has three main parts. The first discusses the overall tree of life and nature of the last common ancestor (cenancestor). I emphasize key steps in cellular evolution important for ordering and timing the major evolutionary innovations in the history of the biosphere, explaining especially the origins of the eukaryote cell and of bacterial flagella and cell envelope novelties. Second, I map the tree onto the fossil record and discuss dates of key events and their biogeochemical impact. Finally, I present a broad synthesis, discussing evidence for a three-phase history of life. The first phase began perhaps ca 3.5 Gyr ago, when the origin of cells and anoxic photosynthesis generated the arguably most primitive prokaryote phylum, Chlorobacteria (= Chloroflexi), the first negibacteria with cells bounded by two acyl ester phospholipid membranes. After this 'chlorobacterial age' of benthic anaerobic evolution protected from UV radiation by mineral grains, two momentous quantum evolutionary episodes of cellular innovation and microbial radiation dramatically transformed the Earth's surface: the glycobacterial revolution initiated an oxygenic 'age of cyanobacteria' and, as the ozone layer grew, the rise of plankton; immensely later, probably as recently as ca 0.9 Gyr ago, the neomuran revolution ushered in the 'age of eukaryotes', Archaebacteria (arguably the youngest bacterial phylum), and morphological complexity. Diversification of glycobacteria ca 2.8 Gyr ago, predominantly inhabiting stratified benthic mats, I suggest caused serial depletion of 13C by ribulose 1,5-bis-phosphate caboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to yield ultralight late Archaean organic carbon formerly attributed to methanogenesis plus methanotrophy. The late origin of archaebacterial methanogenesis ca 720 Myr ago perhaps triggered snowball Earth episodes by slight global warming increasing weathering and reducing CO2 levels, to yield runaway cooling; the origin of anaerobic methane

  5. Block regularization of the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution with positive constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution that are homeomorphic to $S^2$ and have constant Gaussian curvature. We show that the system is maximally superintegrable, finding constants of motion that generalize the Runge-Lentz vector. Then, using such first integrals, we determine the class of surfaces that lead to block-regularizable collision singularities. In particular we show that the singularities are always regularizable if the surfaces are spherical orbifolds of revolution with constant curvature.

  6. REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS, MISSILE DEFENCE AND WEAPONS IN SPACE: THE US STRATEGIC TRIAD

    OpenAIRE

    Joelien Pretorius

    2011-01-01

    American plans for Missile Defence (MD) and the weaponisation of space should be analysed in the larger framework of the contemporary Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA).1 Soviet military analysts have written about this revolution from as early as the 1970s, but it was the application of information age technology (IT) in the 1991 Gulf War that captured the imagination of military planners and policy makers, especially in the US. The US is actively pursuing an RMA, conceptualised as integra...

  7. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Golub; Bennett, Alex S.; Luther Elliott

    2015-01-01

    This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating th...

  8. Progress on hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on the development and implementation of hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution are described. It was found that earlier finite element-boundary integral formulations suffered from convergence difficulties when applied to large and thin bodies of revolution. An alternative implementation is described where the finite element method is terminated with an absorbing termination boundary. In addition, an alternative finite element-boundary integral implementation is discussed for improving the convergence of the original code.

  9. Revolution in Egypt and the Potential for a New Suez Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    the junta secured the appointment of a figurehead leader, General Muhammad Nagib, as prime minister and then forced King Farouk to abdicate the throne ... Game " In Revolution in the Arab World: Tunisia, Egypt, and the Unmaking of an Era, by Foreign Policy, ed. Marc Lynch, B Glasser Susan and Blake...Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991. Bouckaert, Peter. "February 9: Egypt’s Foreigner Blame Game ." In Revolution in the Arab World: Tunisia

  10. “Si Nicaragua Venció”: Lesbian and Gay Solidarity with the Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Hobson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the radical imagination of lesbian and gay activism in solidarity with the Nicaraguan Revolution. It examines the reasons US lesbian and gay radicals supported that revolution and investigates the ways that homoerotic, especially lesbian, desire shaped their solidarity. Drawing on Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault, the article argues that lesbian and gay radicals viewed the Nicaraguan Revolution in erotic and heterotopic terms. Posters, fliers, and interviews reveal that US activists, people of color and white, represented the Revolution and solidarity through tropes of female masculinity and women’s affection. Many Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men shared these nonnormative images of socialist change. Yet while Nicaraguans claimed Sandinismo as their own, for US activists revolution remained a distant object of desire and solidarity a “seduction,” “crush,” or embrace.  United States activists who embraced developmentalist views of Latin American sexualities remained unable to witness lesbian and gay life inside Nicaragua, while lesbian and gay Sandinistas kept silent about FSLN homophobia so as not to undermine solidarity against the Contra war. Desire served as a powerful tool for mobilizing transnational solidarity. By failing to examine desire critically, however, US activists limited their communications with Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men and weakened the relationship they sought with revolution itself.

  11. Explaining Italian Underdevelopment. The Liberal Revolution of Piero Gobetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Varela Petito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents to the readers in Latin America the thought of the Italian liberal writer and politician Piero Gobetti (Torino 1900–Paris 1926 who was a close friend of Antonio Gramsci and one of the main intellectual influences on the work of the marxist peruvian thinker José Carlos Mariátegui. His most relevant book, La Rivoluzione Libérale, was translated into Spanish only recently but —as Mariátegui understood— some of Gobetti's ideas are very relevant to an analysis of Latin American socialformations. His very original "movement oriented" liberalism was influenced by the Russian revolution as well as by philosophers like Georges Sorel, Gaetano Mosca, Benedetto Croce and Henri Bergson.Gobetti's major concern in politics was to promote the emergence of a new ruling class. For a better comprehension of his thought, Gobetti's ideas are here compared with those of Gramsci and Mariátegui.

  12. Immigration and the American industrial revolution from 1880 to 1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we measure the contribution of immigrants and their descendents to the growth and industrial transformation of the American workforce in the age of mass immigration from 1880 to 1920. The size and selectivity of the immigrant community, as well as their disproportionate residence in large cities, meant they were the mainstay of the American industrial workforce. Immigrants and their children comprised over half of manufacturing workers in 1920, and if the third generation (the grandchildren of immigrants) are included, then more than two-thirds of workers in the manufacturing sector were of recent immigrant stock. Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. The closing of the door to mass immigration in the 1920s did lead to increased recruitment of native born workers, particularly from the South, to northern industrial cities in the middle decades of the 20th century.

  13. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  14. Carnap and Kuhn on linguistic frameworks and scientific revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Olegario da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent works in history and philosophy of science have re-evaluated the alleged opposition between the theses put forth by logical empiricists such as Carnap and the so-called "post-positivists", such as Kuhn. Although the latter came to be viewed as having seriously challenged the logical positivist views of science, recent authors (e.g., Friedman, Reisch, Earman, Irzik and Grünberg maintain that some of the most notable theses of the Kuhnian view of science have striking similarities with some aspects of Carnap's philosophy. Against that reading, Oliveira and Psillos argue that within Carnap's philosophy there is no place for the Kuhnian theses of incommensurability, holism, and theory-ladenness of observations. This paper presents each of those readings and argues that Carnap and Kuhn have non-opposing views on holism, incommensurability, the theory-ladenness of observations, and scientific revolutions. We note at the very end - without dwelling on the point, however - that they come apart on other matters, such as their views on metaphysics and on the context of discovery/justification distinction.

  15. Total error vs. measurement uncertainty: revolution or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2016-02-01

    The first strategic EFLM conference "Defining analytical performance goals, 15 years after the Stockholm Conference" was held in the autumn of 2014 in Milan. It maintained the Stockholm 1999 hierarchy of performance goals but rearranged them and established five task and finish groups to work on topics related to analytical performance goals including one on the "total error" theory. Jim Westgard recently wrote a comprehensive overview of performance goals and of the total error theory critical of the results and intentions of the Milan 2014 conference. The "total error" theory originated by Jim Westgard and co-workers has a dominating influence on the theory and practice of clinical chemistry but is not accepted in other fields of metrology. The generally accepted uncertainty theory, however, suffers from complex mathematics and conceived impracticability in clinical chemistry. The pros and cons of the total error theory need to be debated, making way for methods that can incorporate all relevant causes of uncertainty when making medical diagnoses and monitoring treatment effects. This development should preferably proceed not as a revolution but as an evolution.

  16. Zombies in Revolt: The Violent Revolution of American Cinematic Monsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Opatić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper unveils the revolutionary potential incarnated in the post-9/11 transformed figure of the cinematic zombie. It is my contention that zombies, through their cinematic (revolution, came to embody Deleuze and Guattari’s vision of the nomad war machine. Zombie films are used as a vehicle for addressing the tension between the hegemonic fear of the violent multitude in revolt and the counter-hegemonic liberatory potential of the rising masses. It is impossible to achieve a final resolution between these contradicting tendencies since the narrative structure of zombie films remains open-ended. The characteristics of the zombies and the meaning ascribed to them transform over time but they also maintain a continuity with a difference with the previous expressions of the monstrous. The monstrous characteristics which have pertained since George A. Romero’s paradigm shift in the 1960s (the zombifying contagion, violence and swarm attacks, joined with the new features appearing in the American zombie cinema of the new millennium, formulate a response to the manifest and latent violence of the State apparatus.

  17. Building an alliance for a green revolution in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenniessen, Gary; Adesina, Akinwumi; DeVries, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Most of Africa's people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. These predominantly small-scale farmers face many challenges, including food insecurity, rising poverty, and natural resource degradation. To increase the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of their farms, they need greater access to affordable yield-enhancing inputs, including well-adapted seeds and new methods for integrated soil fertility management, as well as to output markets where they can convert surplus production into cash. To address these needs, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation established the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). AGRA is now African led and is working within the context of the comprehensive agricultural development program established by Africa's leaders. From offices in Nairobi, Kenya, and Accra, Ghana, AGRA will support work across all key aspects of the African agricultural value chain to help millions of small-scale farmers and their families lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.

  18. The Big Data Revolution: Opportunities for Chief Nurse Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Informatics competency adoption is a recognized issue across nursing roles in digital health practice settings. Further, it has been suggested that the health system's inability to reap the promised benefits of electronic health/patient records is, in part, a manifestation of inadequate development of informatics competency by chief nurse executives (CNEs) and other clinicians (Amendola 2008; Simpson 2013). This paper will focus on CNE informatics competency and nursing knowledge development as it pertains to the Big Data revolution. With the paper's aim of showing how CNEs armed with informatics competency can harness the full potential of Big Data offering new opportunities for nursing knowledge development in their clinical transformation roles as eHealth project sponsors. It is proposed that informatics-savvy CNEs are the new transformational leaders of the digital age who will have the advantage to successfully advocate for nurses in leading 21st-century health systems. Also, transformational CNEs armed with informatics competency will position nurses and the nursing profession to achieve its future vision, where nurses are perceived by patients and professionals alike as knowledge workers, providing the leadership essential for safe, quality care and demonstrating nursing's unique contributions to fiscal health through clinically relevant, evidence-based practices (McBride 2005b).

  19. Voigt's transformations and the beginning of the relativistic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In 1887 W. Voigt published a paper on the Doppler effect, which marked the birth of the relativistic revolution. In his paper Voigt derived a set of spacetime transformations by demanding covariance to the homogeneous wave equation in inertial frames, and this was an application of the first postulate of special relativity. Voigt assumed in his derivation the invariance of the speed of light in inertial frames, and this is the second postulate of special relativity. He then applied the postulates of special relativity to the wave equation 18 years before Einstein explicitly enunciated these postulates. Voigt's transformations questioned the Newtonian notion of absolute time for the first time in physics by suggesting that the absolute time should be replaced by the non-absolute time $t'=t-vx/c^2$. Unfortunately, Voigt's 1887 paper was not appreciated by most physicists of that time. Voigt's transformations do not form a group and are an example of the conformal symmetry of spacetime. In the present paper we e...

  20. The Bacterial Origins of the CRISPR Genome-Editing Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontheimer, Erik J; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-07-01

    Like most of the tools that enable modern life science research, the recent genome-editing revolution has its biological roots in the world of bacteria and archaea. Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci are found in the genomes of many bacteria and most archaea, and underlie an adaptive immune system that protects the host cell against invasive nucleic acids such as viral genomes. In recent years, engineered versions of these systems have enabled efficient DNA targeting in living cells from dozens of species (including humans and other eukaryotes), and the exploitation of the resulting endogenous DNA repair pathways has provided a route to fast, easy, and affordable genome editing. In only three years after RNA-guided DNA cleavage was first harnessed, the ability to edit genomes via simple, user-defined RNA sequences has already revolutionized nearly all areas of biological science. CRISPR-based technologies are now poised to similarly revolutionize many facets of clinical medicine, and even promise to advance the long-term goal of directly editing genomic sequences of patients with inherited disease. In this review, we describe the biological and mechanistic basis for these remarkable immune systems, and how their engineered derivatives are revolutionizing basic and clinical research.

  1. [The physicians from Aguascalientes during the Mexican Revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López y de la Peña, Xavier A

    2011-01-01

    The historical event known as the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) took place at different locations in the country and many people participated in it, directly or indirectly. In this paper I describe the role that some physicians played in this struggle in the state of Aguascalientes, where the social structure was broken up so thunderously. But why specifically physicians? Because they formed an important local sphere of influence, both socially and politically, and had vision, actions and sometimes conflicting ideals, that were all at the mercy of the vortex of the revolutionary social struggle that after its partial or total end, favored and exalted some while damaged and eliminated others. These were the doctors in their role as citizens, politicians, and even revolutionaries, who contributed to the forging of modern Mexico, inside and outside of Aguascalientes. Their contributions deserve to be remembered by all; good or bad as you may judge them, they only were the product of their time and particular circumstances.

  2. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Medical education under the Revolution and the Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaye, Jean

    2014-01-01

    After the suppression of medical education during the French revolution in 1793, the lack of caregivers is dramatic, especially in the army. The medical education is therefore rehabilitated in 1794 in 3 (then 6) Health Schools, which will become Schools of Medicine and Faculties of Medicine, incorporated in 1808 into then Imperial University. During 3 years, the courses are theoretical and also based on a practical teaching on the patient. The defense of a thesis provides access to the title of doctor in medicine or surgery and allows practicing for all the pathologies on the entire territory of the Empire. Meanwhile, medical courses are given in military hospitals to train officers of health. They are dedicated for the service of the army and for minor diseases in rural areas. They are authorized to practice only in the department in which they were received. The inspectors general provide medical education directly in the military medical structures and conduct examinations about medical care. This type of career is illustrated by the biography of Surgeon Major François Augustin Legaÿ.

  4. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  5. Science Teachers' Response to the Digital Education Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Wendy; Miller, K. Alex; Hoban, Garry

    2015-08-01

    We report a case study of two highly qualified science teachers as they implemented laptop computers in their Years 9 and 10 science classes at the beginning of the `Digital Education Revolution,' Australia's national one-to-one laptop program initiated in 2009. When a large-scale investment is made in a significant educational change, it is important to consider teachers perspectives and responses to such change and we draw from sociocultural perspectives for our analysis. Through interviews and classroom observations, our interpretive analysis identified four key tensions and contradictions. These include the following: (1) barriers to innovative science teaching; (2) maintaining classroom and school connectivity; (3) teacher versus student expectations; and (4) changes to classroom management. Analysis leads to implications for the future of this and similar programs. The study shows that while these two teachers were committed to developing and delivering technology-rich science lessons, there were many factors that challenge how the implementation progressed. The findings from this study have implications for the continued engagement of teachers in this and other jurisdictions considering the introduction of one-to-one laptop programs.

  6. Separated flows near the nose of a body of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the problem of cross-flow separataion about a deforming cylinder was achieved by iteration. It was shown that the separation starts at the rear stagnation point and the point of primary separation moves upstram along the cylinder surface. A general method of linear stability analysis for nonparallel external flows was constructed, which consists of representing the eigenfunctions with complete orthogonal sets and forms characteristic equations with the Galerkin method. The method was applied to the Kovasznay flow which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. The results show that when the critical parameter is exceeded, there are only a few isolated unstable eigen-frequencies. Another exact solution is shown to be absolutely and monotonically stable with respect to infinitesimal disturbances of all frequencies. The flow is also globally, asymptotically, and monotonically stable in the mean with respect o three-dimensional disturbances. This result forms the sound foundation of rigorous stability analysis for nonparallel flows, and provides an invaluable test ground for future studies of nonparallel flows in which the basic states do not posses exact solutions. The application of this method to the study of the formation of spiral vorticies near the nose of a rotating body of revolution is underway. The same method will be applied to the stability analysis of reversed flow over a plate with suction.

  7. Stress and vibraton analyses of anisotropic shells of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient computational strategy is presented for reducing the cost of the stress and free vibration analyses of laminated anisotropic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the Sanders-Budiansky shell theory including the effects of both the transverse shear deformation and the laminated anisotropic material response. The fundamental unknowns consist of the eight strain components, the eight stress resultants and the five generalized displacements of the shell. Each of the shell variables is expressed in terms of trigonometric functions (Fourier series) in the circumferential co-ordinate, and a three-field mixed finite element model is used for the discretization in the meridional direction. The shell response associated with a range of Fourier harmonics is approximated by a linear combination of a few global approximation vectors, which are generated at a particular value of the Fourier harmonic, within that range. The full equations of the finite element model are solved for only a single Fourier harmonic, and the response corresponding to the other Fourier harmonics is generated using a reduced system of equations with considerably fewer degrees of freedom.

  8. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  9. Tesco's Bob Tessari: launching a drilling revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.

  10. The Egyptian Military’s Role in the 25 January Revolution, and the Post-Revolution Impacts on Egypt’s Foreign Relations and Middle East Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    At the end, society cannot escalate the revolution. The people become exhausted due to the state of temporary insanity. They crave stability...Iranians believe that with the birth of the Arab Spring and the rise of the Islamists, a new Islamic era in the ME has been born . However, many Egyptians

  11. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  12. Culture of Reading in the Daily Routine of the Southern Russian Peasantry in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna D. Bagdasaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of the state Soviet policy in the formation of a new country daily culture on the basis of development of book culture in the conditions of the fight against illiteracy of the country people the South of Russia. The author analyzes the means and ways of carrying out actions of a cultural revolution in rural society, and the results of the pursued state policy in the concept of the creation of new Soviet society.

  13. Ranking of delay factors in construction projects after Egyptian revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time is one of the major considerations throughout project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Time delay is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly all constructing projects. However, little effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate, and rank factors perceived to affect delays in the Egyptian construction projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, researcher invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of delay factors were identified in construction projects. Totally, ninety-nine (99 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and were identified and categorized into nine (9 major categories. The survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public, and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index (RII, ranking and simple percentages. Ranking of factors and categories was demonstrated according to their importance level on delay, especially after 25/1/2011 (Egyptian revolution. According to the case study results, the most contributing factors and categories (those need attention to delays were discussed, and some recommendations were made in order to minimize and control delays in construction projects. Also, this paper can serve as a guide for all construction parties with effective management in construction projects to achieve a competitive level of quality and a time effective project.

  14. Gedeo Work Songs in the Context of the Ethiopian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Wedekind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quest’articolo è stato scritto nel 1977 per una conferenza tenuta nell’Etiopia marxista, ma incomincia con un’affermazione controversa: “La società è più di quello che l’economicismo marxista non ci induca a credere” (Attali 1977. Tradizionalmente la gente gedeo possiede la stretta compattezza di una società a strato unico, e in ciascun capitolo il contesto sociologico dei loro “canti di lavoro” fornisce delle indicazioni per la loro comprensione. Il primo capitolo descrive la particolare geografia del territorio densamente popolato di questa società agricola che intrattiene strette relazioni con le popolazioni confinanti (soprattutto con i Gugi. Vengono descritte le condizioni prevalenti all’epoca della rivoluzione etiopica, comprese le condizioni psicologiche e fisiche del loro lavoro e dei loro canti. In ciascun capitolo vengono effettuati dei confronti con altri stili di canto, sulla base dei risultati delle analisi di Alan Lomax. Il secondo capitolo descriver le diverse funzioni dei vari tipi di canti di lavoro – tutti rigorosamente definiti e circoscritti a particolari attività: la raccolta del caffè, la costruzione delle abitazioni e delle strade, la macinatura, la pastorizia, la preparazione dei cibi, o il taglio della legna. Alcune trascrizioni cercano di chiarire il metro, il tempo, l’armonia, la polifonia, il timbro e l’insieme dell’organizzazione tonale. Il terzo capitolo si occupa dei testi. Citazioni in lingua gedeo forniscono un’esemplificazione dei metri e delle rime, ma è la semantica quella che consente a un osservatore esterno di comprendere quanto viene espresso. Il quarto capitolo riassume i diversi rapporti tra gli stili dei canti e i tratti culturali. Keywords: Gedeo, work song, revolution, Ethiopia ISO 693-3: drs, amh, gax Dei file audio consentono al lettore di costruirsi una propria “immagine” di questi canti.

  15. Revolução 2008-? Revolution 2008-?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dunn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por dois séculos, a experiência da França em 1789 transformou a relativamente anódina categoria da revolução num eixo obrigatório do juízo político em todo o mundo. Nessa longa travessia, ela serviu mais insistente e efetivamente para definir a lealdade e a antipatia políticas do que para dirigir a agência política para fins bem definidos e politicamente acessíveis. O que a equipou para fazer isso foi uma imagem das exigências imperiosas e abrangentes da razão humana no interior da vida coletiva. Mas é duvidoso hoje que tais pretensões sejam capazes de oferecer uma base massiva de solidariedade para reconstruir a sociedade e a política, depois do colapso ou derrubada de um regime.For two full centuries the experience of France in 1789 turned the relatively anodyne category of revolution into a mandatory axis of political judgment across the world. Throughout that long traverse it served more insistently and effectively to define political allegiance than to direct political agency towards well defined and potentially accessible ends. What equipped it to do this was a picture of the comprehensive and imperious requirements of human reason within the collective life. But it is dubious today that those claims are still able to offer a massive basis of solidarity for reconstructing society and polity in the aftermath of regime collapse or overthrow.

  16. The audio-visual revolution: do we really need it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, I

    1979-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, The audio-visual revolution has steadily gained converts in the nursing profession. Nurse tutor courses now contain information on the techniques of educational technology and schools of nursing increasingly own (or wish to own) many of the sophisticated electronic aids to teaching that abound. This is taking place at a time of hitherto inexperienced crisis and change. Funds have been or are being made available to buy audio-visual equipment. But its purchase and use relies on satisfying personal whim, prejudice or educational fashion, not on considerations of educational efficiency. In the rush of enthusiasm, the overwhelmed teacher (everywhere; the phenomenon is not confined to nursing) forgets to ask the searching, critical questions: 'Why should we use this aid?','How effective is it?','And, at what?'. Influential writers in this profession have repeatedly called for a more responsible attitude towards published research work of other fields. In an attempt to discover what is known about the answers to this group of questions, an eclectic look at media research is taken and the widespread dissatisfaction existing amongst international educational technologists is noted. The paper isolates out of the literature several causative factors responsible for the present state of affairs. Findings from the field of educational television are cited as representative of an aid which has had a considerable amount of time and research directed at it. The concluding part of the paper shows the decisions to be taken in using or not using educational media as being more complicated than might at first appear.

  17. Water Intelligence and the Cyber-Infrastructure Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    As an intrinsic factor in national security, the global economy, food and energy production, and human and ecological health, fresh water resources are increasingly being considered by an ever-widening array of stakeholders. The U.S. intelligence community has identified water as a key factor in the Nation's security risk profile. Water industries are growing rapidly, and seek to revolutionize the role of water in the global economy, making water an economic value rather than a limitation on operations. Recent increased focus on the complex interrelationships and interdependencies between water, food, and energy signal a renewed effort to move towards integrated water resource management. Throughout all of this, hydrologic extremes continue to wreak havoc on communities and regions around the world, in some cases threatening long-term economic stability. This increased attention on water coincides with the "second IT revolution" of cyber-infrastructure (CI). The CI concept is a convergence of technology, data, applications and human resources, all coalescing into a tightly integrated global grid of computing, information, networking and sensor resources, and ultimately serving as an engine of change for collaboration, education and scientific discovery and innovation. In the water arena, we have unprecedented opportunities to apply the CI concept to help address complex water challenges and shape the future world of water resources - on both science and socio-economic application fronts. Providing actionable local "water intelligence" nationally or globally is now becoming feasible through high-performance computing, data technologies, and advanced hydrologic modeling. Further development on all of these fronts appears likely and will help advance this much-needed capability. Lagging behind are water observation systems, especially in situ networks, which need significant innovation to keep pace with and help fuel rapid advancements in water intelligence.

  18. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  19. Egyptian Foreign Policy after the 25 January Revolution: What Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    objectives. As Egypt resolves domestic politica l issues and establishes a new government, there will be severa l key indicators. as to the...stereotypes, particularly in the age of extremism. Egypt does have certain cultural characteristics, embraced by the population and illustrated...repository society subject to the ideas and influences of global cultures . A visitor to this land will see the shadows of the Pharaohs, Greeks, Romans

  20. Scaling up nano-milling of poorly water soluble compounds using a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Tachibana, S; Nishimura, Y; Mori, H; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a rotation/revolution pulverizer (NP-100) could mill a small amount of a drug (0.1 g) into nanoparticles in several minutes. In this investigation, scale up from the milligram to the kilogram scale of the nano-milling process by the rotation/revolution pulverizer was studied. Phenytoin was used as a model drug with low solubility in water. After confirming the improvement of the phenytoin bioavailability by milling to nanoparticles using NP-100, scaling parameters were evaluated using NP-100 and the middle scale model of NP-100 (ARV-3000T). A theoretical equation for the specific collisional energy was adapted for wet milling; this suggested that the relative centrifugal acceleration of revolution (revolution G) and the drug concentration in the suspension were the two most important parameters. The results obtained using NP-100 and ARV-3000T correlated well when these two parameters were identical. These results were applied to the large scale model of NP-100 (ARV-10KT), where 2 kg (1 kg x 2) of phenytoin nanoparticles were obtained in 60 min. The results from PXRD and DSC indicated that the milled phenytoin by ARV-3000T and ARV-10KT maintained its crystallinity. These results suggest nano-milling using a rotation/revolution pulverizer will be widely applicable to the development of nano-medicine.

  1. Haplotype variation of Green Revolution gene Rht-D1 during wheat domestication and improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chihong Zhang; Lifeng Gao; Jiaqiang Sun; Jizeng Jia; Zhenglong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Green Revolution made a substantial contribution to wheat yields worldwide in the 1960s and 1970s. It is of great importance to analyze the haplotype variation of Rht-D1, the Green Revolution gene, during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) domestication and breeding to understand its evolution and function in wheat breeding history. In this study, the Rht-D1 and its flanking regions were sequenced and single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected based on a panel of 45 accessions of Aegilops tauschi , 51 accessions of landraces and 80 accessions of commercial varieties. Genetic diversity in the wild accessions was much higher than that in the varieties and higher than that reported previously. Seven haplotypes (Hapl I to Hapl VII) of Rht-D1 were identified and their evolutionary relationships were proposed. In addition to the wel-known Green Revolution al ele Rht-D1b, Hapl VII (an al ele Rht-D1k) was identified in early breeding varieties, which reduced plant height by 16%. The results suggested that Rht-D1k had been used in breeding before the Green Revolution and made a great contribution to wheat production worldwide. Based on the breeding history and molecular evidence, we proposed that the wheat Green Revolution in China and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) occurred independently.

  2. 1968 A referência da revolução 1968: The revolution reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenyr Caldas

    2009-04-01

    , that later was known as the movement of counterculture, of the hippies and of the psychedelic culture. From that moment on, the bases for all that would yet come in the 1960’s and 1970’s was launched. Those decades were revolutionary; a time when the youth did not prevaricated about the right of tracing its own destiny. The greatest goal was to insure what the man has as a precious gift: the freedom and the fight against the behavior asphyxia imposed by the establishment. Keywords:Counterculture. Politics. Freedom. Society. State. Revolution. Psychedelic.

  3. Replacing Victoria's Scientific Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Morus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional views of nineteenth century science has viewed it in terms of a largely unproblematic institutional consolidation. More recently, the consensus view of the century as a period of leisurely progress towards scientific professionalization has been decisively broken. In particular the issues of what counted as science at all and what sorts of spaces counted as scientific have been rigorously contested. A variety of new accounts of Victorian science have now emerged, built around new sets of questions concerning science's place in culture and the emergence of new strategies of self-fashioning and legitimation. In this overview I survey promising trends in the cultural history of nineteenth-century science with a view to assessing the possibility of resurrecting a new grand narrative. I suggest in conclusion that the possibility of reconstructing such a big picture as an explicitly political account might be improved by rethinking the category of Victorian science and reorienting our understanding around the French Revolution and its immediate aftermath.

  4. Fiches pratiques: Nation, etat, patrie; La patrie en danger; La Revolution en direct; Moi, la Tour Eiffel (Practical Ideas: Nation, State, Country; The Country in Danger; The Revolution Reported Live; I, the Eiffel Tower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteloot, Jean; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four articles present ideas for classroom French language teaching. Topics include the semantic distinctions between the French words for nation, state, and country; historical events in the 10 years following the French Revolution; class creation of a newspaper during the French Revolution; and exercises focusing on the Eiffel Tower. (MSE)

  5. Fiches pratiques: Nation, etat, patrie; La patrie en danger; La Revolution en direct; Moi, la Tour Eiffel (Practical Ideas: Nation, State, Country; The Country in Danger; The Revolution Reported Live; I, the Eiffel Tower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteloot, Jean; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four articles present ideas for classroom French language teaching. Topics include the semantic distinctions between the French words for nation, state, and country; historical events in the 10 years following the French Revolution; class creation of a newspaper during the French Revolution; and exercises focusing on the Eiffel Tower. (MSE)

  6. Fiche Pratique: Magic Circus; Une revolte? Non, une revolution!; 1789: tous en scene; Lexique de didactique, les 39 marches. (Practical Ideas: Magic Circus; A Revolt? No, a Revolution!; 1789: All on Stage; The Vocabulary of Instruction: 39 Steps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende de Rezende, Eleonora; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles present practical classroom ideas related to language instruction, including (1) a children's circus production; (2) a language-learning game using the French Revolution as its theme; (3) a play using the French Revolution as its theme; and (4) definitions of terminology used in language teaching. (MSE)

  7. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichilnisky, G. [Columbia Univ., New York (United States)

    2006-07-01

    public goods have been shown to require a measure of equity to ensure efficiency (Chichilnisky 1996, Chichilnisky and Heal 2002). This conclusion has been validated theoretically and is also in line with what was agreed by 160 nations in the Kyoto Protocol. Somewhat surprisingly, the same conclusion applies also to trading knowledge goods. Knowledge is a global public good. This paper proposes a new property rights regimes for knowledge goods and for environmental assets that seem crucial for economic progress in the era of the Knowledge Revolution{sup TM}. (author)

  8. The revolution in Russia’s Mideast strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korybko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the guiding imperatives behind Russia’s grand strategy in the Mideast, including both its domestic decision-making institutional idiosyncrasies and the wider geopolitical considerations at play. It discusses the evolution of Russian strategy after the so-called “Arab Spring” events and into the present day, taking care to individually analyze Moscow’s most important bilateral relationships. The review begins by addressing Russia’s anti-terrorist intervention in Syria, before progressing to some words about the two competing foreign policy factions present in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After outlining the key differences between the Liberal and Military-Security camps, the work then broadly explains how their rivalry fi gures into the formulation of Russia’s overall grand strategy in the Mideast. Following that, it logically proceeds to examine the other bilateral relationships that are of signifi cance to Moscow, beginning with Turkey, Iraq, and Israel, and ending with Saudi Arabia and Iran. The goal of the research is to establish a very general understanding of how Russia’s foreign policy is presently practiced in the Mideast, how and why it got to where it is today, and forecast on the prospects for its further development. In doing this, the article relies on empirical observations and references several under-discussed news items that have evaded wider scrutiny. It also makes use of a few academic sources in proving that the geopolitical environment in which Russia conducts its present foreign policy was largely shaped by the US’ legacy of Hybrid Wars on the region, which in hindsight created fertile ground for the revolution in Russia’s Mideast strategy. In summary, Russia seeks to replace the US as the Mideast countries’ most preferred and trusted partner, capitalizing off of Washington’s decline in regional infl uence brought about by the disastrous rise of Daesh and the controversial

  9. The transpotation revolution: On track for a better future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.; Krause, C.; Cabage, B.

    1995-12-31

    Patricia Hu and Jennifer Young, both of ORNL`s Center for Transportation Analysis, paint a foreboding picture of life on America`s crowded highways. Their work shows that rush hour has become nearly an all-day affair, stretching from dawn until dusk, with only a brief midmorning lull. Their report, based on a U.S. Department of Transportation survey of more than 21,000 households across the country, suggests a number of reasons for this trend. More drivers are driving more cars more often than ever before. More women are working outside the home, and more women are getting drivers` licenses. Teenagers are driving more too - nearly twice as much as they did in the 1960`s. Even retirement-aged folks are getting in on the act, driving 40% more than they did 25 years ago. And society itself is changing: Referring to urban sprawl, Hu says, `You can`t really compare driving habits people has 30 years ago with the way we drive today. Thirty years ago, people could walk to the store, to school, even to work. Most of us can`t do that anymore.` Carmakers and policymakers have been taking these trends into account for some time. So have scientists, who see technology as the source of solutions to the issues the travel boom has brought about - issues such as increases in traffic congestion, energy consumption, and emissions of pollutants that may threaten personal health and the global climate`s stability. To help solve these problems and help keep the revolution rolling without derailing the economies it has bolstered, ORNL has joined forces with other laboratories, corporations, and universities. In fact, transportation research in Oak Ridge is a $100-million-a-year business, bringing together world-class scientists with specialities from advanced materials to communications technologies to supercomputing. The goal is to keep people in the driver`s seat of a transportation system that will carry us, as well as our children and grandchildren, through the next century.

  10. Chemistry courses, the Parisian chemical world and the chemical revolution, 1770-1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John

    2010-03-01

    The last two decades of the ancien régime saw a rapid growth in the number of chemistry courses being offered in Paris. These courses were central to the continuing popularisation of chemistry, but they played an equally important role in the development of a large and dynamic community of chemical practitioners in Paris. They indicate that this community was undergoing major changes: rapid growth that challenged the position and authority of the Académie; expanding opportunities for making a career in and around the teaching of chemistry; new ways of organising research; a change in the relationship between pharmacy and chemistry; and the emergence of new forms of scientific sociability. These developments pre-date the chemical and political revolutions, and provide the context for a broader understanding of both the Chemical Revolution and the politically contested history of chemistry during the Revolution and Empire.

  11. Revolution Becoming a Must%电信转型,选择还是适应?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜燕鹏

    2005-01-01

    When the outer environment changes, we always face the same question which is to decide whether or not to suit the changes. The same question happens in information industry now. With the increasing of customers, advancing of technologies and developing of services in information industry, the traditional developing mode of information industry has been out of time. Revolution has become a must for the industry, which can be proven by our action. And so in this issue """"""""New Telecom Salon"""""""" focuses on the revolution in information industry, and we are horned to invite some experts in this field. They will show us the new image of information industry revolution and that of telecom enterprises.

  12. [The conceptual revolutions about nature as imposed by 20th century physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Posada, D Francisco

    2002-01-01

    A catalogue is offered of the thirteen conceptual--and observational--revolutions which took place in twentieth century Physics, those which should be considered the most revelant for their significance in the scientific and philosophical thought about Nature as established along that century. The are organized in the three areas where they were originated: Relativity, Quantum Physics and Cosmology. Several of these conceptual revolutions appeared in Physics explicitly, while the rest only happened to arise in a latent way. The ones and the others are remarked in this contribution with philosophical expressions and through the world horizon, a perspective which opens in a general manner each revolution to the whole of the scientific and philosophical of the past century.

  13. Judicial Activism in the Context of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution: Emerging Conceptions of Femininity and Masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lindbekk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates gender implications of judicial activism within the context of the 2011 revolution. Relying on analysis of a sample of judicial decisions in the field of divorce and child-rearing, I argue that individual judges used the family courts as a platform to articulate alternative legal discourses prior to the 2011 revolution. During the period between February 2011 and the military coup in July 2013 family legislation emerged as a controversial point. The period witnessed the mobilisation of small but vocal fathers’ rights groups that called for a revolution in Egyptian family law and formed strategic alliances with a handful of judges. The latter became members of a legislative committee formed under the presidency of Muhammad Mursi. I investigate the gender implications of their activism against a background where old and new actors and institutions competed over the right to interpret shari’a in an authoritative way.

  14. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneberger, T

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a "revolution" in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism.

  15. The contribution of Facebook to the 2011 Tunisian revolution: a cyberpsychological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Skandrani-Marzouki, Inès; Béjaoui, Moez; Hammoudi, Haythem; Bellaj, Tarek

    2012-05-01

    The influence of Facebook in social life keeps constantly growing. Recently, the communication of information has been vital to the success of the Tunisian revolution, and Facebook was its main "catalyst." This study examines the key reasons that explain Facebook's contribution to this historical event, as perceived by Tunisian Internet users. To do so, we launched this study 5 days after the fall of the regime using an online questionnaire in which participants (N=333) first rated the importance of Facebook in the Tunisian revolution and then explained the reasons for their ratings. A cluster analysis based on the Euclidean distance between the most frequent words in the participants' text corpus (6,640 words), revealed three main clusters that we interpret as follows: 1: Facebook political function, 2: Facebook informational function, and 3: Facebook media platform function. It is likely that these factors reflect the dynamic of Tunisian cyberspace and the Tunisian Internet users' collective consciousness during the revolution.

  16. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  17. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  18. Revolution in The Valley The Insanely Great Story of How the Mac Was Made

    CERN Document Server

    Hertzfeld, Andy

    2011-01-01

    There was a time, not too long ago, when the typewriter and notebook ruled, and the computer as an everyday tool was simply a vision. Revolution in the Valley traces this vision back to its earliest roots: the hallways and backrooms of Apple, where the groundbreaking Macintosh computer was born. The book traces the development of the Macintosh, from its inception as an underground skunkworks project in 1979 to its triumphant introduction in 1984 and beyond. The stories in Revolution in the Valley come on extremely good authority. That's because author Andy Hertzfeld was a core member of the

  19. The Readiness of the European Union to Embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kuruczleki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become a crucial factor of production in the developed economies and, as humans are the carriers and utilisers of knowledge, skilled human resource is gaining similarly large relevance. These advancements are elements of the substantial changes that characterise the fourth industrial revolution – a phenomenon worth studying in detail. The European Union has been explicitly concerned about the shift to the knowledge economy since the Lisbon Summit of 2000. More than one and a half decades later the eu’s readiness to embrace the knowledge-driven fourth industrial revolution can be examined. We undertake that by creating an index based on various related data.

  20. The Strategic Consideration for Expanding the New Technological Revolution of Agriculture in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@At the birth of the 21st century, the global technological revolution of agriculture has occured. The new breakthroughs of biological technology in agriculture are being obtained on end Information technology, nuclear technology, new-material technology and other new high technologies are being adopted in agriculture on a larger and larger scale. As a big province of agriculture, it is imperative for Hunan to develop the new agricultural high technology,promote the new technological revolution of agriculture and realize the modernization of agriculture by taking the opportunity and facing the challenges in the new century.