Sample records for cultural practices language

  1. Popular Culture in Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender


    Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…

  2. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice. (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs


    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  3. Culture in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella


    Full Text Available Learning a language means also the study of a different culture. This study focuses on the introduction of the topic of culture in language teaching into the curriculum of the subject Language Teaching Methodology for teacher trainees studying at Translation And Interpreting Studies, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş. This topic has not been treated separately so far, it has only been discussed implicitly, included in other topics. But we believe that future teachers should have a more thorough theoretical and practical training in terms of what incorporating culture into language teaching implies. For this purpose, we are going to examine and discuss some of the recommendations and principles stated in the specialized literature regarding culture in foreign language teaching and reflect on what the ideal content of a course related to the teaching of this skill should be.

  4. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojni Choy


    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.

  5. Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje


    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of

  6. Understanding the Interconnectedness between Language Choices, Cultural Identity Construction and School Practices in the Life of a Latina Educator (United States)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia


    This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…

  7. Language and Culture (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire


    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  8. Speech-Language Pathologists' Preparation, Practices, and Perspectives on Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Atkins, Jenny


    This study describes the backgrounds, diversity training, and professional perspectives reported by 154 Colorado speech-language pathologists in serving children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. The authors compare the results of the current survey to those of a similar survey collected in 1996. Respondents reported…

  9. Is it a Practical Strategy of Foreign Language Teaching? Unpacking the Integrated Language and Culture Instruction (ILCI Method in its Application to Learning of German as a Foreign Language in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ndhlovu


    Full Text Available It is without doubt, that most contemporary methods of language teaching are based on the Communicative language Teaching (CLT model. The principle that these methods share is that language can only be considered meaningful when it is not taught separately from its context, which is the context of the target language speakers. In other words, second and foreign language teachers are encouraged to pursue methods of instruction that seek to simultaneously improve not only the linguistic knowledge of the L2/foreign language learners (such as vocabulary and grammar but also their learning of the “appropriate” contextual meaning of this knowledge. To mention a few, these methods include the integrated content and language learning instruction (ICLI, theme based language instruction (TBI, Task based instruction (TBI and the integrated language and culture Instruction (ILCI. The last method of instruction which is the central subject of discussion in this study is not commonly addressed by most researchers despite its growing popularity in most foreign language teaching classrooms. It is mainly related to the theme based language instruction since it advocates for the teaching of language in tandem with topics in culture and civilisation and realises the importance of both culture (as content and language (as a medium of communication. This study unpacks this method, looking at its benefits and limitations when it comes to its application to the foreign language classroom. The major concern of this study therefore, is pedagogical implications of this method in actual foreign language teaching. To illustrate this, the study gives insights into learning of German in Zimbabwe, with the University of Zimbabwe as a close example. The underlying position in this study is that, while the integrated language and culture Instruction (ILCI method is a very attractive method on paper, there are a number of obstacles that can censor its practical application

  10. Culture in Foreign Language Teaching (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire


    In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…

  11. Culture and Language Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kazem Lotfipour saedi


    Full Text Available There are different views on the relationship between language and culture. Some consider them as separate entities one being a code-system and the other a system of beliefs and attitudes. Some believe in a cause and effect relationship between the two; and yet others argue for a co-evolutionary mode of interrelation. This paper will subscribe to the Hallidayan co-evolutionary view of the relationship (cf. Halliday 1991, presenting the view that language and culture are both integrated into a unique socio-semiotic system always interacting with one another for the successful functioning of the system. It will discuss some aspects of this interaction and the implications for ESL/EFL education programs.

  12. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Singh, Parlo; Li, Minglin


    Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and…

  13. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.


    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners. (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool teachers. Observational data were collected on practices. Teachers self-reported on language and culture beliefs, Spanish speaking ability, and classroom composition. Results indicated that teachers, including those who spoke Spanish, used few linguistically responsive practices to support preschool DLLs. Only Spanish-speaking ability was related to practices. Implications for targeted professional development are discussed.

  15. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice (United States)

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma


    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…

  16. Aller au cinema. Pratiques langagieres et habitudes culturelles (Going to the Movies. Language Practice and Cultural Customs). (United States)

    Fargeot-Mauche, Marie-Claude


    A technique for illustrating to foreign language students how diversity can exist within a given culture uses taped interviews on a specific topic with different individuals. Students have a chance to analyze sociocultural patterns and make linguistic comparisons and generalizations. (MSE)

  17. Working with culturally and linguistically diverse students and their families: perceptions and practices of school speech-language therapists in the United States. (United States)

    Maul, Christine A


    Speech and language therapists (SLTs) working in schools worldwide strive to deliver evidence-based services to diverse populations of students. Many suggestions have been made in the international professional literature regarding culturally competent delivery of speech and language services, but there has been limited qualitative investigation of practices school SLTs find to be most useful when modifying their approaches to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. To examine perceptions of nine school SLTs regarding modifications of usual practices when interacting with CLD students and their families; to compare reported practices with those suggested in professional literature; to draw clinical implications regarding the results; and to suggest future research to build a more extensive evidence base for culturally competent service delivery. For this qualitative research study, nine school SLTs in a diverse region of the USA were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview designed to answer the question: What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLTs' descriptions of how they modify their approaches, if at all, when interacting with CLD students and their family members? Analysis of data revealed the following themes: (1) language-a barrier and a bridge, (2) communicating through interpreters, (3) respect for cultural differences, and (4) positive experiences interacting with CLD family members. Participants reported making many modifications to their usual approaches that have been recommended as best practices in the international literature. However, some practices the SLTs reported to be effective were not emphasized or were not addressed at all in the literature. Practical implications of results are drawn and future research is suggested. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Promising Instructional Practices for English Language Learners (United States)

    Prince, Johanna


    Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how teachers, working with English Language Learners (ELLs), expanded their knowledge and instructional practices as they implemented a one-to-one iPad® program. Background: English Language Learners experience linguistic, cultural, and cognitive shifts that can be…

  19. Cross-cultural differences in beliefs and practices that affect the language spoken to children: mothers with Indian and Western heritage. (United States)

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith


    Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.

  20. Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners' Voices (United States)

    Chinh, Nguyen Duc


    The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…

  1. Language and Cultural Imperialism: Indonesian Case


    ZTF, Pradana Boy


    The discourse of language, culture and imperialism are closely intertwined. In this paper I will describe cultural imperialism through language by taking Indonesian case as an example. This essay will develop two main arguments. Firstly, it sets forth that language is a medium through which cultural imperialism could take place, since language is an important and even fundamental aspect of culture. The cultural imperialism through language starts to occur when a certain foreign...

  2. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom (United States)

    Lee, Ena


    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  3. Teaching and Learning Language as Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It's important to master a foreign language, English in particular.But the problem is how students should learn in order to communicate well with the native speakers and even become members of the target language community.The author narrates two incidents related to the Chinese study and English study experiences, pointing out that language study can't be separated from culture study.In line with the research results by some language experts about culture, language is the carrier of culture as literature is accomplished through languages,therefore language learning and teaching in isolation from culture is impossible.The author argues that language should be taught and learnt in a cultural approach.But as a sword with double blades, cultural approach may lead to culture invasion, culture inequality and the loss of culture diversity.

  4. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti


    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of…

  5. Culture Input in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.

  6. The role of traditional confinement practices in determining postpartum depression in women in Chinese cultures: a systematic review of the English language evidence. (United States)

    Wong, Josephine; Fisher, Jane


    The Chinese postpartum custom of "confinement" or "doing-the-month" involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. A systematic search of the English-language literature. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. It was found that the role of confinement in postpartum depression is complex: eight studies concluded that it had a protective role; four that it increased risk of postpartum mood disturbance and four studies had inconclusive findings. Aspects of the confinement practice that could contribute to or fail to protect against postpartum depression include the generally diminished social support in contemporary society, conflict with a mother-in-law and the tension experienced by modern women as they work to balance traditional with contemporary values. Methodological differences limit meaningful comparisons between the reviewed studies and generalizations from them. There is little consistent evidence that confinement practices reduce postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. Specific components of confinement practices might reduce psychological distress in Chinese mothers of newborns, but these cannot be discerned from the existing evidence. Confinement cannot be presumed to be available to, welcomed by or effective for all Chinese women or to be a substitute for health service provision.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradana Boy ZTF


    Full Text Available The discourse of language, culture and imperialism are closely intertwined. In this paper I will describe cultural imperialism through language by taking Indonesian case as an example. This essay will develop two main arguments. Firstly, it sets forth that language is a medium through which cultural imperialism could take place, since language is an important and even fundamental aspect of culture. The cultural imperialism through language starts to occur when a certain foreign language is arbitrarily and irresponsibly used in correspondence and combination with local languages within formal and colloquial contexts. Secondly, using Frantz Fannon’s theory as described in his Black Skin White Masks, Indonesian case of use of mixed language of Bahasa and English in any medium is an obvious example of how this language imperialism in contemporary setting arises.

  8. Culture and Language Teaching through Media (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem


    The topic of teaching and learning culture has been a matter of considerable interest to language educators and much has been written about the role of culture in foreign language instruction over the past two decades. ESL students whose success in a new environment is conditioned not only by their mastery of the new language, but also, and…

  9. Integrating Indigenous Cultures into English Language Teaching (United States)

    Barfield, Susan C.; Uzarski, Joelle


    One of the most important components of a culture is its language. With language, people not only expeditiously communicate; they also express their values, beliefs, and world views. When a language becomes extinct, a part of the cultural patrimony of humanity is lost. For linguists, this also means the loss of an opportunity for a better…

  10. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes. (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  11. Language as a Facilitator of Cultural Connection (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miigis B.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Kellar, Sidnee; Walls, Melissa L.; Greenfield, Brenna L.


    Understanding culture as a means of preventing or treating health concerns is growing in popularity among social behavioral health scientists. Language is one component of culture and therefore may be a means to improve health among Indigenous populations. This study explores language as a unique aspect of culture through its relationship to other demographic and cultural variables. Participants (n = 218) were adults who self-identified as American Indian, had a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and were drawn from two Ojibwe communities using health clinic records. We used chi-squared tests to compare language proficiency by demographic groups and ANOVA tests to examine relationships between language and culture. A higher proportion of those living on reservation lands could use the Ojibwe language, and fluent speakers were most notably sixty-five years of age and older. Regarding culture, those with greater participation and value belief in cultural activities reported greater language proficiency. PMID:29782622

  12. Cross-Cultural Differences in Beliefs and Practices that Affect the Language Spoken to Children: Mothers with Indian and Western Heritage (United States)

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith


    Background: Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. Aims: The goal of the project was to identify differences in the…

  13. Tasks for Integrating Language and Culture Teaching (United States)

    Neff, Peter; Rucynski, John, Jr.


    This article discusses the role of culture in language teaching and provides activities for introducing culture in the classroom, focusing on teaching context and methodology to integrate culture. The authors outline five activities that can be adapted to the language level and interests of students. Instructions for each activity include language…

  14. Developing Cultural Awareness in Foreign Language Teaching (United States)

    Shemshadsara, Zahra Ghorbani


    Culture awareness has become an important focus of modern language education, a shift that reflects a greater awareness of the inseparability of language and culture, and the need to prepare students for intercultural communication. The paper reports on an ongoing study into the presence and status of cultural understanding in EFL teaching. In…

  15. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity. (United States)

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge);…

  16. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is an important tool in the human society. Apart from the fact that it makes communication and integration possible, it is an important aspect of the socio-cultural life of a people. To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper ...

  17. Au Courant: Teaching French Vocabulary and Culture Using the Mass Media. Language in Education: Theory and Practice 65. (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    This volume outlines potential uses of many of the topics associated with daily newspapers, music, film, theater, and sports for vocabulary development and grammar review in French language instruction. The emphasis is on the advantage of using authentic, current materials prepared for the general public but somewhat familiar to students. The…

  18. English as an Additional Language: Is There a Need to Embed Cultural Values and Beliefs in Institutional Practice? (United States)

    Sood, Krishan; Mistry, Malini Tina


    The number of pupils who have English as an Additional Language (EAL) in English schools is increasing, with an influx of migrants from Europe. This paper investigates how schools are addressing the needs of these children. Using survey and interviews with teachers and paraprofessionals the identification of personal assumptions and challenges of…

  19. language as a culture and biodiversity conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    biodiversity conservation because life in a particular human environment is ... communication ,by language, by word expression as cultural genes, stories, legends and ..... for expressing individual identity, preserve culture, understanding the ...

  20. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy


    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  1. Rethinking Culture Teaching in English Language Programmes in Thailand (United States)

    Snodin, Navaporn S.


    This article reports on perceptions and practices in relation to integrating culture into EFL teaching and how course material was designed within the Thai curriculum framework. Thai teachers' understanding of what constitutes culture, the role it plays in language learning and how such understanding is being translated into pedagogical practices…

  2. Othering: Towards a Critical Cultural Awareness in the Language Classroom (United States)

    Moncada Linares, Sthephanny


    Due to the need of decentering language learners' conceptions and practices of "othering" against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus,…

  3. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students. (United States)

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  4. Study of the Relationship between Cultural differences and Language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.

  5. The relation between language, culture, and thought. (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kanero, Junko; Masuda, Takahiko


    The relationship between culture, language, and thought has long been one of the most important topics for those who wish to understand the nature of human cognition. This issue has been investigated for decades across a broad range of research disciplines. However, there has been scant communication across these different disciplines, a situation largely arising through differences in research interests and discrepancies in the definitions of key terms such as 'culture,' 'language,' and 'thought.' This article reviews recent trends in research on the relation between language, culture and thought to capture how cognitive psychology and cultural psychology have defined 'language' and 'culture,' and how this issue was addressed within each research discipline. We then review recent research conducted in interdisciplinary perspectives, which directly compared the roles of culture and language. Finally, we highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between culture and language to provide a comprehensive picture of how language and culture affect thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Language and Culture: Nigerian Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    that enables a human child to learn any language in about four years. Contrary views argue that there is no such faculty, since language derives from general purpose ..... Timber and Caliber”, “Juggernaut”,” political heavy weight” etc.

  7. Cultural influences for college student language brokers. (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Bersamin, Melina; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J


    Children from immigrant families often translate communication for parents, a process known as language brokering (LB). LB begins in childhood, but may continue through emerging adulthood, even when individuals are in college. We surveyed 1,222 university students with two immigrant parents and compared non-language brokers, infrequent language brokers, and frequent language brokers on a variety of ethnic, cultural, and identity measures. Significant differences emerged for cultural heritage value orientation, ethnic identity, and dimensions of acculturation with frequent language brokers scoring highest, infrequent language brokers scoring in the middle, and non-language brokers scoring the lowest on these measures. There were no significant differences on acculturative stress among these three groups. These results suggest that LB experiences may contribute to the development of psychological assets for ethnic minority, emerging adults from immigrant families.

  8. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Leaning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand


    Toyoshima, Noboru


    Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...

  9. On the viewpoint of Culture and Language


    李, 潤玉


    (Summary)This paper is intended to raise the query of `What is culture?' and to represent my assumption that `culture' is equivalent to `the way of thinking / viewing which people in the same group, community, nation etc. have in common conceptually'. This definition of `culture' is proved to be right mainly through linguistic examples in different languages.

  10. School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Instructional Practices (United States)

    Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn


    This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…

  11. Language and Culture: Nigerian Perspective | Obiegbu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking was first proposed by an American linguist and anthropologist, Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and his student, Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941). The Saphir-Whorf hypothesis stated that the way we think and view the world is determined by our language. This theory ...

  12. Global health language and culture competency. (United States)

    Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner


    This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need. 2012.

  13. An Exploration of Differences in Cultural Values in Teacher Education Pedagogy: Chinese English Language Teacher Trainees' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Practice Review (United States)

    Skinner, Barbara; Abbott, Lesley


    This study reports the impact of different cultural values on the teacher education of Chinese teacher trainees. By examining their perceptions of the effectiveness of teaching practice feedback, the study uses Hofstede's dimension of "individualism" (IDV) to explore the "culture bumps" which may occur between teacher educators…

  14. Critical Aspects of Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Examining the Established Practices and Cultural Forms in Minority Language Schools in Finland (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Westvall, Maria; Heimonen, Marja


    This article addresses the role of general music education within the framework of cultural diversity. The empirical part of the article focuses on teachers in Swedish-speaking minority schools in Finland and their perceptions of the relationship between music and multicultural perspectives. The results showed that in some instances it took some…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene


    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackett-Jones, A.V.


    Full Text Available The article deals with interlingual phenomena that occur in the process of multiple language acquisition in a learning environment. The notions of language interference and transfer put forward by the theories of bilingualism, give useful insights when applied to the modern day educational trends. Language and culture interference is an important aspect to be considered with regard to teaching of plurilingual learners, whose communicative competence is formed on the basis of several linguistic and cultural systems that interact with each other and exert mutual influence.

  17. Culture and Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina


    Besides the financial statements, rules, and calculations, the accounting also impliesprofessional reasoning, and the organizational culture promoted within the firm influences theaccounting decisions. We analyzed and identified several of accounting policies determined by thecorporate governance and organizational culture influence.

  18. An Inventory of Foreign Language Cultural Resources. (United States)

    Steele, Winifred H.

    The results of a survey of cultural resources available to high school foreign language students in the Central New Jersey and New York City areas are presented in a listing of cultural and professional organizations, businesses, schools, government tourist offices, television and radio broadcasts, publications, religious groups, travel agents,…

  19. Integrating Culture into Language Teaching and Learning: Learner Outcomes (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy


    This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…

  20. El Dinero [Money]: A Culture Unit for Foreign Language Classes. (United States)

    Enwall, Beverly

    This curriculum guide offers materials designed to acquaint students with aspects of Hispanic culture and language. Situations, pattern practices, visual aids, dialogues, games, literary passages, and authentic media advertisements, all closely revolving around the concept of "El Dinero" (Money), are employed to this end. Suggestions for…

  1. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon


    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  2. Cultural Sensitivity in English Language Teaching Materials


    MEHMET, Sean Collin


    This expository paper will begin by uncovering and examining some lesser known, Western journal articles, ones that deal specifically with the issue of cultural sensitivity in language classrooms. This opening discussion will attempt to reveal that cultural sensitivity in teaching materials is by no means an issue limited solely to the Western world. After this, the discussion will focus on Edward Said's widely-known Culture and Imperialism. Said's monograph will be used as a springboard to e...

  3. Language, Thought, and Culture: Views and Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zahedi


    Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.

  4. Educational Environment and Cultural Transmission in Foreign Language Teaching (United States)

    Memis, Muhammet Rasit


    Foreign language teaching is not to teach grammar and vocabulary of the target language and to gain basic language skills only. Foreign language teaching is teaching of the language's culture at the same time. Because of language and community develop and shape together, learning, understanding and speaking a foreign language literally requires…

  5. Teacher educators’ personal practical knowledge of language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Fenna; de Graaff, H.C.J.; Onstenk, Jeroen; Knezic, Dubravka


    This paper describes teacher educators’ understanding of language for classroom communication in higher education. We argue that teacher educators who are aware of their personal practical knowledge of language have a better understanding of their students’ language use and provide better support

  6. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.


    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  7. Language and Culture in the Multiethnic Community: Spoken Language Assessment. (United States)

    Matluck, Joseph H.; Mace-Matluck, Betty J.

    This paper discusses the sociolinguistic problems inherent in multilingual testing, and the accompanying dangers of cultural bias in either the visuals or the language used in a given test. The first section discusses English-speaking Americans' perception of foreign speakers in terms of: (1) physical features; (2) speech, specifically vocabulary,…

  8. Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language


    Wei, L.


    This article seeks to develop Translanguaging as a theory of language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind and the added values of the concept. I contextualize Translanguaging in the linguistic realities of the 21st century, especially the fluid and dynamic practices that transcend the boundaries between named languages, language varieties, and language and other semiotic systems. I highlight the contributions Translanguaging as a theoretical concept can make to the debates over the...

  9. The Role of Culture in the Language Classroom. (United States)

    Dwyer, David; Folarin-Schleicher, Antonia; Moshi, Lioba


    Discusses the role of culture in second language instruction; Examines properties of culture, culture as a product of human activity, culture as a shared product, culture as an artificial product, cultural diversity, cultural relativism, cultural sensitivity, and stages of cultural awareness. Focuses on how to teach cultural knowledge, and the…

  10. Production Practice During Language Learning Improves Comprehension. (United States)

    Hopman, Elise W M; MacDonald, Maryellen C


    Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production-comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices.

  11. Games culture and media practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Alsina


    Full Text Available Our aim in this article is to explore the relationship between videogames and other practices related to audiovisual media in everyday life; we are specifically interested in examining how far videogames, as a cultural form that combines audiovisual narrative with the fun of a game, may be useful in understanding broader cultural transformations in relation to cultural production in the new media context opened up by information and communication technologies.

  12. Cultural Practices, Oppression, and Morality. (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot


    Argues that contested meanings, multiple judgments, and conflicts are part of cultures and the individual's thoughts and actions. Contends that people make moral judgments that may affirm or contradict cultural norms and practices, and sometimes invoke concepts of welfare, justice, and rights. Notes that some key aspects of Baumrind's neo-Marxist…

  13. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures. (United States)

    Brainard, Sherri, Ed.


    This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…

  14. Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will technological terms impede telemedicine use? C Jack, Y Hlombe, M Mars. Abstract. Background. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has ...

  15. Foreign Language Workshop on French Culture. (United States)

    Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6)…

  16. Hupa Language: Literature and Culture. Third Edition. (United States)

    Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others

    One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…

  17. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing. (United States)

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W


    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice (United States)

    Young, Richard F.


    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  19. Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language (United States)

    Wei, Li


    This article seeks to develop Translanguaging as a theory of language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind and the added values of the concept. I contextualize Translanguaging in the linguistic realities of the 21st century, especially the fluid and dynamic practices that transcend the boundaries between named languages, language…

  20. 'Talking a different language': an exploration of the influence of organizational cultures and working practices on transition from child to adult mental health services. (United States)

    McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Paul, Moli; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Weaver, Tim; Hovish, Kimberly; Islam, Zoebia; White, Sarah; Singh, Swaran P


    Organizational culture is manifest in patterns of behaviour underpinned by beliefs, values, attitudes and assumptions, which can influence working practices. Cultural factors and working practices have been suggested to influence the transition of young people moving from child to adult mental health services. Failure to manage and integrate transitional care effectively can lead to young people losing contact with health and social care systems, resulting in adverse effects on health, well-being and potential. The study aim was to identify the organisational factors which facilitate or impede transition of young people from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS) from the perspective of health professionals and representatives of voluntary organisations. Specific objectives were (i) to explore organizational cultures, structures, processes and resources which influence transition from child to adult mental health services; (ii) identify factors which constitute barriers and facilitators to transition and continuity of care and (iii) make recommendations for service improvements. Within an exploratory, qualitative design thirty four semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and social care professionals working in CAMHS and AMHS in four NHS Mental Health Trusts and four voluntary organizations, in England. A cultural divide appears to exist between CAMHS and AMHS, characterized by different beliefs, attitudes, mutual misperceptions and a lack of understanding of different service structures. This is exacerbated by working practices relating to communication and information transfer which could impact negatively on transition, relational, informational and cross boundary continuity of care. There is also evidence of a cultural shift, with some positive approaches to collaborative working across services and agencies, involving joint posts, parallel working, shared clinics and joint meetings. Cultural

  1. So You Were a Language Major: Corporate Interviewing and Training in Foreign Languages and Cross-Cultural Skills. (United States)

    Seabrook, Roberta; Valdes, Berardo

    A study of the attitudes and practices in multinational corporations concerning second language and intercultural skills as criteria for employment of international managers consisted of three elements: (1) a survey of corporations; (2) followup interviews with respondents and with commercial language schools and cross-cultural training…

  2. Othering: Towards a Critical Cultural Awareness in the Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthephanny Moncada Linares


    Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.

  3. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants' second-language processing through triggering first-language interference. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J


    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.

  4. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Immersion Training (United States)


    in TL Listen in TL Train or teach other in TL Conduct business negotiations in TL Use TL to maintain control Use TL to persuade people Use informal... teach what you’re going to do, you do a practical exercise where they’re integrating, the person’s integrating what you just taught them in a...1990). Investigating fluency in EFL : A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 3, 387– 417. Owens, W. (2010). Improving cultural education of Special

  5. Destruction of a Language and Culture: A Personal Story (United States)

    Clearsky, Eileen


    The extinction of language and culture in Canadian Aboriginal communities is closely linked to the historical experiences of families under past assimilation policies. Families must recover the language and culture to ward off the possibility of extinction. The revival of culture and languages, in effort not to lose our identity as First Nation…

  6. Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni


    Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... of guidelines and workshops. This paper discusses language practices used in the setting of a school for cochlear-implanted children. These children encounter language and pronunciation problems that accompany prelingual deafness and hearing with a cochlear implant. I examine two practices, which are used...

  7. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li


    Full Text Available This study investigates international students’ perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students’ learning of English in other ways, including international students’ isolation within their communities and America’s lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students’ learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country. Readers will find three main voices in addition to the international students who “speak” (in quotation marks throughout this article. Hong Li, a Chinese doctoral student in English Education at the University of Missouri-Columbia, authored the “regular” text. Second, Roy F. Fox’s voice appears in italics. Fox is Professor of English Education and Chair of the Department of Learning, Teaching, and Curriculum at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Third, Dario J. Almarza’s voice appears in boldface. Almarza, a native of Venezuela, is an Assistant Professor of Social Studies Education at the same institution.

  8. Culture in Language Learning: Background, Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.

  9. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities (United States)

    Björkman, Beyza


    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  10. Reconciling Diverse Communities through Language Policy Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Nadzimah Abdullah


    Full Text Available Malaysia is an example of a diverse nation with communities facing multiplicities in religions, languages, linguistic practices and cultural beliefs. These multiplicities and polarities need to be understood and managed in order to maintain harmony and unity in this multilingual and multicultural nation. Malaysia, therefore, has to strategize and build up paths that would lead to a solid foundation of trust and cohesiveness among its citizens. This paper seeks to achieve a better and clearer understanding of Malaysian language policies and the relationships in linguistic practices that are seen to contribute to the reconciliation among diverse communities. The paper investigates the language phenomenon through a survey questionnaire that would give information about the relative emphases given to the use of the various languages, and perceptions about issues pertaining to language maintenance. Data reveal diversities in language use in relation to ethnicity and the reconciliations that emerge from these diversities. The reconciliation is an adopted move towards a more united and inclusive community creating “oneness” within multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-cultural Malaysia. The results are also linked to the current program for transformation of Malaysian society under the context of a mission for unity.

  11. Lessons in the Korean Language and Culture for Teachers of English as a Second Language. (United States)

    Kim, Chang Whan

    This language text is designed to introduce the Korean language and culture to Peace Corps trainees and volunteers who will be teachers of English as a second language to Korean students. The disciplines of language training, cross-cultural training, and TESL are combined in a single volume into one integrated curriculum. The text contains 100…

  12. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York. (United States)

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  13. Researching language teaching: Understanding practice through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we argue that second language acquisition (SLA) research and theory have a significant role to play in teacher education, especially at the masters level. The danger of overly practical approaches is that they cannot challenge current practice in ways that are both critical and rigorous. However, to engage ...

  14. Genes, language, cognition, and culture: towards productive inquiry. (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh


    The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid.

  15. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold


    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  16. Culture as idea and practice in youth and family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ag, Astrid

    In my dissertation, I investigate the linguistic and cultural practices among adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds when they interact with peers and teachers at school, with immediate family members at home, and with peers on social media sites. I look into their local language practices...... while simultaneously relating the practices to broader societal discourses to see if and how the adolescents and their families respond to them. I argue that in order to describe the participants’ diverse practices, it is necessary to approach these aspects empirically through language and everyday...

  17. Integrating Culture and Second Language Teaching through Yoruba Personal Names (United States)

    Akinyemi, Akintunde


    Using Yoruba as a case study, this article demonstrates the fact that the languages of Africa and the cultures of its peoples are inseparable. Therefore, the study advocates that appropriate aspects of these cultures should form an integral part of African language teaching. This article discusses specifically how language teachers can transmit…

  18. Language, Culture, Gender, and Academic Socialization (United States)

    Morita, Naoko


    Recent research has explored the complex, situated process by which students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds become socialized into academic discourses and practices. As part of a multiple case study involving seven international students, this study provides an in-depth analysis of the academic discourse socialization…

  19. The Teaching of Culture in English Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Language is not only part of culture, but also the carrier. The relationship between them decides the important role of culture teaching in language teaching. However, some problems still exist in college English teaching. For example, classroom English teaching time is not enough for culture teaching; English learners’native language thinking has negative transfer in the target language learning, etc.. In order to solve these problems, this paper tends to discuss whether English teaching should put an emphasis on Big-C Culture or Little-c Culture.

  20. Could languages of the same language families reflect a similar culture?


    Laumann, Christiane


    When learning two languages of the same language family, one will realize quickly that there are similarities. But how deep are language and culture related? For long time the hypothesis that languages are responsible for cultural development was held to be true, later the opposite was assumed, and today it is maybe somewhere in between. With the help of Geert Hofstede's dimensions, comparing cultures on a continuum of nonverbal aspects, a connection between linguistic and intercultural commu...

  1. Teaching culture in the Japanese language classroom: A NSW case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Mahoney


    Full Text Available This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native- speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL are being implemented in teachers’ classrooms. Two non-native-speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers from a selective secondary school in NSW were interviewed and their classes observed over three days. Analysis of interview and observation data shows that these teachers teach culture as determined by language content, integrate language and culture teaching and teach culture as observable and factual. The study shows that both teachers view culture teaching as easier than language teaching, however their views on the influence of the syllabus differ. The study explores the teachers’ past experiences and how these affect how they feel towards, and teach culture. Finally, this study looks at how the teachers’ practices reflect concepts of IcLL such as integrating language and culture, student-centered learning and how their status as NNS teachers affects their culture teaching.

  2. 1 The Moral Imperative of Language and Communication in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    development and progress, and language and communication function as special cultural tools for .... become chaotic and insecure language can only promote a moral ideal by enhancing the .... tolerance and corporate existence. To put it the ...

  3. Narrative Inquiry: A Dynamic Relationship between Culture, Language and Education (United States)

    Chan, Esther Yim Mei


    Human development is a cultural process, and language serves as a cultural tool is closely related to virtually all the cognitive changes. The author addresses issues of language in education, and suggests that changing the medium of instruction should not be understood as purely a pedagogical decision. The connection between culture and language…

  4. Some Aspects of Culture Teaching in Foreign Language and ESP Classes: Cultural Scripts and Small Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Baranovskaja


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of teaching culture in the foreign language classes at all levels of education. Cultural studies should not be separated from the language syllabus and foreign language learning should not be limited to formal learning of systems of sounds, words, and syntactic structures, but should also include learning the culture of the target language. Success in intercultural communication depends greatly on the understanding of a number of cultural features. The article emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of cultural scripts and small talk in English, Russian and Polish languages. Understanding the cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural communication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to foreign language and ESP classes focusing on the improvement of both students’ language and cultural skills.

  5. The necessity of cultural knowledge during the foreign language studies


    Kroteva, Marijana; Mirascieva, Snezana


    The aim of this paper is to present the significance and introduction of cultural studies in the curricula for foreign language studies. Although the main focus in the paper is pointed to English as the most dominant language in the world today, the paper is primarily intended and refers to all the languages. Section two consists of the aspects and reasons for the necessity of introducing the cultural studies in the foreign language curricula. Section three is written upon the research result...

  6. Can a Successful ESL Teacher Hold Deficit Beliefs of Her Students' Home Languages and Cultures? (United States)

    Hertzog, Lisa


    In this article the author explores the seeming contradictions between the successful teaching practices of an English as a Second Language teacher and the deficit beliefs she expressed toward her students' home languages and cultures. This teacher believed her students were smart and capable, and she held herself accountable for her students…

  7. Family Treasures: A Dual-Language Book Project for Negotiating Language, Literacy, Culture, and Identity (United States)

    Roessingh, Hetty


    This article advances a framework for early language and literacy development among young English language learners (ELLs). A dual-language book project undertaken in partnership with a local elementary school provides a context within which to address children's need to negotiate language, culture, and identity as they transition and make meaning…

  8. Speech and Language Disturbances in Neurology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Tanrıdağ


    Full Text Available Despite the well-known facts discerned from interesting cases of speech and language disturbances over thousands of years, the scientific background and the limitless discussions for nearly 150 years, this field has been considered one of the least important subjects in neurological sciences. In this review, we first analyze the possible causes for this “stepchild” attitude towards this subject and we then summarize the practical aspects concerning speech and language disturbances. Our underlying expectation with this review is to explain the facts concerning those disturbances that might offer us opportunities to better understand the nervous system and the affected patients

  9. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen


    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  10. Legal Language – a Cultural Ambassador. A Language for Various Purposes, not only a Language for Specific Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita


    to another. It means also overcoming the typical blindness to one’s own culture. The Spanish-Danish Legal Language course introduces Danish language students to a new world of cultural knowledge, as they generally have insignificant knowledge of Danish law and the Danish legal system. Furthermore, they have......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...

  11. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice. (United States)

    Baker, C


    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hartono


    Full Text Available Translation is an activity of transferring information from one language into another. In transferring the message, a translator not only renders a language form but also replaces a cultural content. Practically it is because translation itself an activity that involves at least two languages and two cultures (Toury in James: 2000. Translating the text that contains a cultural content and message is more difficult than translating an ordinary text that only has literal meanings. Cultural aspects that include in stereotypes, speech levels, pronouns, idioms, even in proverbs are things that can lead difficulties for translators to translate. He or she sometimes should look for the closest meaning in order the translation products can be accepted in the target language culture.

  13. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Exploring How Korean Teacher's Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Using Inquiry and Language Based Teaching Practices Impacts Learning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Implications for Science Teacher Education (United States)

    Park, Jennifer; Chu, Hye-Eun; Martin, Sonya N.


    Demographic trends in Korea indicate that the student population is becoming more diverse with regards to culture, ethnicity and language. These changes have implications for science classrooms where inquiry-based, student-centered activities require culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students to connect with their peers and successfully…

  15. The Language-Culture Interface in German Advertisements. (United States)

    Gramberg, Anne-Katrin

    A comparison of German and American advertising reveals differences in technique and structures. Persuasion is central in both, but the grammatical structures and illocutionary devices available in each language vary. The culture is also reflected in the type and degree to which each language uses techniques of persuasive language. The findings…

  16. Second Language Acquisition and Its Pscycho-cultural Implications


    Waskita, Dana


    Bilingualism or multilingualism may imply socioeconomic advantages. But a further literature study indicates that this may also affect psychological and cultural viewpoints. The acquisition of second language would significantly influence the mentality or perceptual framework of the language users. Consequently, this finding may inspire to the appropriate pedagogical methods in language acquisition.

  17. Transformation and communication research strategies: language - society – culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Forkosh


    Full Text Available Main research strategies in the humanitarian sphere, connected with the transformation-communicative approach by K.-O. Apel, have been studied in the article. This approach is based on I. Kant’s classic transcendental method, but has much wider sphere of application. Syncretic tendencies in humanitarian sciences cause the search of criteria or generalizing principles, which would allow not only combining basic research strategies, but also covering variable forms of the social-dynamics. Language in its various forms becomes the common ground, where it is possible not only to describe, but to explain disparate elements of the society’s functioning. These elements, when developed, cause the formation of culture. The basis for the analysis of the interdisciplinary communication features are relevant branches of philosophy. Specific realities of the research activity are understood by the methodologist as the deep interrelation of language tools and specific features of scientific knowledge’s changes. In fact, the researcher simultaneously performs double task: interprets scientific texts, improves his/her understanding of their structural characteristics, and also studies social, cultural, humanistic priorities of the available practices. Based on the characteristics of the modern culture (rapidity of development, lack of self-awareness and «maturation» vector, non-manifestation of methodological tools, sociological and linguistic sciences become to be a model in the humanitarian area. At the same time, awareness of the structural maturation of such knowledge is low. The development of linguistic sciences has more advanced conceptual design and it resonates with the evolution of the language philosophy. That’s why, considering the socio-cultural transformations of the globalization era, grounds of clarification of the specific methodological potential, which are accumulated in the contemporary linguistics, should be considered. In this

  18. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language. (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  19. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture. (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.


    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  20. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.


    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  1. Portal: Your Door to World Languages and Cultures (United States)

    Elliott, Don; Lawton, Rachele


    Portal: Your Door to World Languages and Cultures was a series of public cultural events, in a variety of formats, created through a new partnership between the credit and continuing education (noncredit) foreign language programs at the Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC). Portal was designed to cultivate interest in foreign languages…

  2. Film Cross-culture Research under the Perspective of Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.

  3. L'apprentissage d'une langue etrangere comme ouverture culturelle (Second Language Learning as a Cultural Opportunity). (United States)

    LeBrun, Monique

    It has been suggested that the learning of a second language is not only a practical matter, as is commonly emphasized in discussion about language teaching, but is equally an experience of cultural initiation, particularly through the appreciation of literary texts in that language. The first part of this paper reviews educators' ideas about…

  4. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty. (United States)

    Smith, Kenny


    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  5. Introduction: integrating genetic and cultural evolutionary approaches to language. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G; Adger, David


    The papers in this special issue of Human Biology address recent research in the field of language evolution, both the genetic evolution of the language faculty and the cultural evolution of specific languages. While both of these areas have received increasing interest in recent years, there is also a need to integrate these somewhat separate efforts and explore the relevant gene-culture coevolutionary interactions. Here we summarize the individual contributions, set them in the context of the wider literature, and identify outstanding future research questions. The first set of papers concerns the comparative study of nonhuman communication in primates and birds from both a behavioral and neurobiological perspective, revealing evidence for several common language-related traits in various nonhuman species and providing clues as to the evolutionary origin and function of the human language faculty. The second set of papers discusses the consequences of viewing language as a culturally evolving system in its own right, including claims that this removes the need for strong genetic biases for language acquisition, and that phylogenetic evolutionary methods can be used to reconstruct language histories. We conclude by highlighting outstanding areas for future research, including identifying the precise selection pressures that gave rise to the language faculty in ancestral hominin species, and determining the strength, domain specificity, and origin of the cultural transmission biases that shape languages as they pass along successive generations of language learners.

  6. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina


    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  7. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba


    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  8. Assessment and Intervention for English Language Learners with Primary Language Impairment: Research-Based Best Practices (United States)

    Pieretti, Robert A.; Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste


    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are experiencing the exciting challenge of serving increasing numbers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools. When ELLs struggle in school, they may be overreferred for speech-language services. SLPs are routinely expected to differentiate a language difference based on cultural, linguistic, and…

  9. Inquiring into Culture in our Foreign-Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Castro


    Full Text Available This article presents some theoretical reflections about the concept of culture and its paramount importance in foreign language classrooms, as a basis for examining curriculum as inquiry, a facilitative tool to incorporate culture in courses in the Bachelor’s degree in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA. Feasible solutions to common problems that teachers face when trying to incorporate culture in their classrooms, are also discussed.

  10. Language and Literacy in Social Practice. (United States)

    Maybin, Janet, Ed.

    Readings on language and literacy within their social context include: "The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages" (Bronislaw Malinowski); "Toward Ethnographies of Communication" (Dell Hymes); "Language as Social Semiotic" (M. A. K. Halliday); "Language and Ideology" (V. N. Volosinov); "Family…

  11. Increasing Compatibility Between Educational Practices and the Educational Needs of Pupils Who are Asian With Emphasis on Their Language and Cultural Needs. (United States)

    Castillo, Lydia R.; Ponce, Corazon A.

    The contents of this document are organized in eight parts, as follows. Part One, "Speech of Dr. Esther M. T. Sato," the consultant, Associate Professor at the College of Education, University of Hawaii, discusses the following topics: in the background of Filipinos in Hawaii, their social problems, Filipino cultural values, guidelines…

  12. Language Learning as a Struggle for Distinction in Today's Corporate Recruitment Culture: an Ethnographic Study of English Study Abroad Practices among South Korean Undergraduates (United States)

    Jang, In Chull


    Young adults in South Korea are encouraged to constantly develop their skills and qualifications to meet the challenges posed by the job market in the country's neoliberal post-IMF crisis economy. This paper examines the ways in which changes in South Korea's labor market and corporate recruitment culture have affected the ideologies and practices…

  13. Cultural Differences in Educational Practices: The Case of a Korean Graduate Student


    Nazmiye Gürel


    Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern America...

  14. Effects of Community Service-Learning on Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes toward Their Language and Culture (United States)

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly


    This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…

  15. National Language Policy and Its Impacts on Second Language Reading Culture (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff


    This research concentrates on Malaysian language policy and its impacts on the development of English language (regarded as a second language in Malaysia) specifically on reading culture. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the weaknesses and strengths of the policy and also to come out with recommendations to improve the…

  16. The language and culture of delay. (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Flores, Glenn; Caronna, Elizabeth; Khandekar, Aasma; Augustyn, Marilyn


    Satish is a 3 (1/2)-year-old boy you are seeing in your primary care office for a "sick visit" due to parental concerns about his language development. He is the only child of a couple who immigrated to the United States from India shortly before his birth. He received early intervention services for speech and language delays for a few months before he attained 2 years of age. However, services were discontinued when the family moved back to India for a year. After the family returned to the United States, they lived in a different state for several months before moving again recently to his current home, so he is relatively new to your practice. Satish's mother is concerned not only about his communication skills but also about his attention and social skills. She notes that he often plays alone or in parallel with other children. She was also told by his first pediatrician that Satish had "a limited imagination." His parents feel that he has pretend play, in that he will pretend to get his haircut, talk on the phone, or ride on a train. Satish was born at term without complications. He passed his newborn hearing screen and a repeat hearing test at the age of 2 years. He has had no medical problems and takes a daily multivitamin. His parents are both of Indian descent. Satish's father is an engineer and had a history of being a late talker. His mother graduated from high school and is a homemaker. They are expecting their second child. Satish's developmental history is significant for language delays. He babbled at 6 months but did not have single words until he was 2 years. When he was 2 (1/2) years, he had 2 to 3 word sentences. He responded to his name at 15 months and could follow single step commands by the age of 2 years. Currently, Satish is noted to have difficulty with "back and forth conversation." He sometimes repeats what others are saying.The family speaks Hindi, their native language, exclusively at home. When Satish speaks, he usually speaks in

  17. Cultural Anarchism: The Consequences of Privileging Languages in Nepal (United States)

    Giri, Ram Ashish


    Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a "foreign" language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and…

  18. Language Barriers of the Culturally Different. (United States)

    Berg, Paul Conrad

    Language differences peculiar to the disadvantaged are discussed as they relate to reading. Linguistic differences, including the interdependence among language, operant feedback, thought, and experience, and the power of these to reconstruct and reassociate through reading constitute one barrier. Another is the effects of language on the total…

  19. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.


    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  20. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in speech-language pathology courses: A platform for culturally responsive services. (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue


    Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.

  1. Language practices in school-based Grade R classrooms | Lenyai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation on language practices aimed at establishing how the language of learning policy formulated by the Department of Education in South Africa was interpreted at classroom level. The study focused on language activities in schoolbased Grade R classes to observe how learners' home language was used as ...

  2. Language Practices on Internet Game Fora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Wach


    Full Text Available Online discussion fora form important venues for promoting language change across the boundaries of time, space, and formal organization. The aim in this paper is to discuss the processes by which participants of online communities develop a sense of common identity. The analysis involves several popular game discussion fora, from quite formal World of Warcraft to unrestrained Tibia. The reported analysis is based on language practices which are found during participation in online game fora. One can note that processes which could be considered as central to community formation are often different manner than the ones found in the literature regarding traditional discussion fora. Examples of such practices along with activities included in a particular category are provided based on selected examples. However, the results which emerge from the analysis indicate that the relationships tend to be constantly realigned under the influence of changing virtual circumstances, such as changing player roles in a group. In addition, language rules are typically not explicit and it appears that they are established and maintained as players imitate and react to each other’s roles. Moreover, there is very little evidence of formal establishing a code of conduct or netiquette for our group, as it is completely thought to be implied. However, the practices which are found to be central are the ones in the category of developing a consistent linguistic style, as they show a great diversity. It is indicated how this category seems to serve certain roles, such as forming a distinct code and with examples of forms of abbreviations and acronyms. It is shown that more traditional roles are played by the very fact of the formation of a distinct code.

  3. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice]. (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L


    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  4. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien


    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  5. The Politics of Cultural Difference in Second Language Education (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko


    Cultural difference is an important topic of discussion in second language education. Yet cultural difference is often conceptualized as fixed, objective, and apolitical based on an essentialist and normative understanding of culture. This article challenges such conceptualizations by examining and politicizing multiple and conflicting meanings of…

  6. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care. (United States)


    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelton Duarte de Santana


    Full Text Available Language as a social element is constitutive to every human being. Language gives each person, as well as to his or her own linguistic community, an individual and peculiar way to figure out the world and its surroundings. Language is influenced by several processes, including sociocultural and historical ones. If we say that each language may allow its speaker to do a very own world reading, a question about its language behavior in other continents arises. This way we were able to understand how sociocultural influences could improve the whole cultural identity construction process. Both defining linguistic communities and specifying social groups, language becomes a symbolic space of identification. The movie – Language- lives In Portuguese reunites Portuguese speakers reports around the world aiming to illustrate Portuguese language as a nations identity construction, autoafirmation and legitimation factor through social, cultural and historic processes. This study is based on the belief in such a kind of dialogism between Language and Culture. The sociolinguistic studies nowadays do not intend, as they used to, understanding or describing structural language aspects and very individuals ones, but especially to reflect upon relations among subject, language, identity, culture and history.

  8. Interculturality and Social Awareness in a Spanish-as- a-Foreign-Language Classroom - a Solution to Conflicts Stemming From the Predomination of One Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ramallo Cuesta


    This article proposes solutions to put theory into practice in the classroom of Spanish as a foreign language. Key words: interculturality, intercultural skill, social consciousness, cultural shock, foreign language acquisition

  9. Computers and Languages: Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    A global introduction to language technology and the areas of computer science where language technology plays a role. Surveyed in this volume are issueas related to the parsing problem in the fields of natural languages, programming languages, and formal languages. Throughout the book attention is

  10. A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. (United States)

    VanTyle, W Kent; Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A; Hancock, Bruce


    To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates.

  11. Introduction-Minority Language Policy: Theory and Practice


    Stefan Oeter


    In practice the Charter has created legal standards that work like individual and collective rights and that empower minority language speakers to insist upon education in minority languages, on using the languages before judicial courts and the administration, on claiming a right to receive radio and television programmes in minority languages, and on insisting to be treated in the minority language in hospitals and homes for the elderly, to name only some of the most important guarantees of...

  12. Integrating Language and Cultural Knowledge into the Army Officer Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purser, Jennifer L


    .... By promoting the acquisition of culture and language comprehension before individuals become commissioned, the Army can save both time and money in training officers to prepare for the COIN fight...

  13. Language Intervention and the Culturally Different Child. (United States)

    Adler, Sol


    After describing a variety of compensatory programs that have not been very successful for children who enter school speaking nonstandard dialects, the author describes a bidialectal program that teaches standard usage as "school language" but accepts nonstandard dialects as "everyday language," and makes the differences…

  14. Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Education and in Cultural Context


    Ivanovska, Biljana


    The present paper is a brief review of the theoretical concepts about learner autonomy focusing on highlighting the main themes on learner autonomy in foreign language education and in cultural context as a globalized construct. These themes are based on the concepts of learner responsibility and independence, the importance of the autonomy in foreign language education in both the Western and Eastern style and the role of the culture in the concept of learner independence. The present study ...

  15. Language, Culture and the Neurobiology of Pain: A Theoretical Exploration


    Horacio Fabrega


    Language and culture, as conceptualized in traditional anthropology, may have an important influence on pain and brain-behavior relations. The paradigm case for the influence of language and culture on perception and cognition is stipulated in the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis which has been applied to phenomena “external” to the individual. In this paper, the paradigm is applied to information the person retrieves from “inside” his body; namely, “noxious” stimuli which get registered in consciousne...

  16. Breaking Barriers with Collaborative Language Practices in a Multiethnic Classroom: A Potential Model for Immigrant Children (United States)

    Tarim, Seyda Deniz


    Children's spontaneous peer-group interactions were video-recorded and analyzed using techniques of ethnography and talk-in interaction. The examples illustrate how the children socialize novices to language practices and other culturally appropriate practices used in their peer-group communities. The children's translation work is a discursive…

  17. Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Byumba School of Nursing and Midwifery, ... Culture is complex and it influences the development of individual beliefs, attitudes, and values. ... to notice cultural differences, and then be willing to modify their attitudes and behavior as an indication of.

  18. The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Ali


    Full Text Available English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing on the development of learners’ efficiency in communicating language through cultural context. However, the teaching of culture in communication has not been paid due importance in a number of academic and language settings of Pakistan and Iran. This assignment study indicates problems in view of teaching English as a medium of instruction in public sector colleges of interior Sindh, Pakistan and prescribed textbooks in Iranian schools. It also aims to identify drawbacks and shortcoming in prescribed textbooks for intermediate students at college level and schools. Therefore, the assignment study recommends integration of cultural awareness into a language teaching programme for an overall achievement of competence in intercultural communication.

  19. Speech-language pathologists' assessment and intervention practices with multilingual children. (United States)

    Williams, Corinne J; McLeod, Sharynne


    Within predominantly English-speaking countries such as the US, UK, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia, there are a significant number of people who speak languages other than English. This study aimed to examine Australian speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives and experiences of multilingualism, including their assessment and intervention practices, and service delivery methods when working with children who speak languages other than English. A questionnaire was completed by 128 SLPs who attended an SLP seminar about cultural and linguistic diversity. Approximately one half of the SLPs (48.4%) reported that they had at least minimal competence in a language(s) other than English; but only 12 (9.4%) reported that they were proficient in another language. The SLPs spoke a total of 28 languages other than English, the most common being French, Italian, German, Spanish, Mandarin, and Auslan (Australian sign language). Participants reported that they had, in the past 12 months, worked with a mean of 59.2 (range 1-100) children from multilingual backgrounds. These children were reported to speak between two and five languages each; the most common being: Vietnamese, Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Australian Indigenous languages, Tagalog, Greek, and other Chinese languages. There was limited overlap between the languages spoken by the SLPs and the children on the SLPs' caseloads. Many of the SLPs assessed children's speech (50.5%) and/or language (34.2%) without assistance from others (including interpreters). English was the primary language used during assessments and intervention. The majority of SLPs always used informal speech (76.7%) and language (78.2%) assessments and, if standardized tests were used, typically they were in English. The SLPs sought additional information about the children's languages and cultural backgrounds, but indicated that they had limited resources to discriminate between speech and language difference vs disorder.

  20. The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Karen


    Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks...... and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the learner: the (inter)cultural learning, competence and identity of the learner or subject. The next dimension was context: the situation and role of language teaching and learning in society and in the world....

  1. Research on the Importance of Language Culture for Transport Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė


    Full Text Available The article analyses the importance of language culture for transport experts. The analysis has been conducted on a questionnaire basis. Pursuant to the questionnaire, the obtained data were aimed at establishing if the use of a correct language might increase employment possibilities, if service suppliers talking correctly were stronger preferred, what sources designated for language culture were used in order to revise the accuracy of the employed terminol- ogy (or word, etc. The questionnaire also presents terms more relevant to transport staff and investigates the frequency of the used terminology both correct and incorrect. The researched data have been systemized and presented in the form of charts.

  2. International Business Culture: Merging Business with Foreign Language Cultural Expertise. (United States)

    Hovsepian, Kristen B.

    This report considers how the different departments of business administration and foreign languages can cooperate to create coursework that will benefit students in both areas of study. The ignorance many U.S. citizens have of the world is taken into consideration. Although foreign language majors have greater exposure to the world, this…

  3. Computers and languages theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nijholt, A


    A global introduction to language technology and the areas of computer science where language technology plays a role. Surveyed in this volume are issues related to the parsing problem in the fields of natural languages, programming languages, and formal languages.Throughout the book attention is paid to the social forces which influenced the development of the various topics. Also illustrated are the development of the theory of language analysis, its role in compiler construction, and its role in computer applications with a natural language interface between men and machine. Parts of the ma

  4. Culturally diverse attitudes and beliefs of students majoring in speech-language pathology. (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos

    Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.

  5. What Teachers Say about Addressing Culture in Their EFL Teaching Practices: The Vietnamese Context (United States)

    Nguyen, Long; Harvey, Sharon; Grant, Lynn


    This paper examines Vietnamese EFL teachers' beliefs about the role of culture in language teaching. It also considers how they address culture in their teaching practices in a Vietnamese university. Ethnographic data collected from semi-structured interviews indicated that opportunities for culture to find its way into EFL classroom activities…

  6. Examples of safety culture practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report has been prepared to illustrate the concepts and principles of safety culture produced in 1991 by the International Safety Advisory Group as 75-INSAG-4. It provides a small selection of examples taken from a worldwide collection of safety performance evaluations (e.g. IAEA safety series, national regulatory inspections, utility audits and a plant assessments). These documented evaluations collectively provide a database of safety performance strengths and weakness, and related safety culture observations. The examples which have been selected for inclusion in this report are those which are considered worthy of special mention and which illustrate a specific attribute of safety culture given in 75-INSAG-4

  7. Inter-functional influence of culture and language during the process of foreign language teaching of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergeshali kyzy A.


    Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.

  8. Localisation - When Language, Culture and Technology Join Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Byrne


    Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.

  9. Localisation - When Language, Culture and Technology Join Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Byrne


    Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.

  10. Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge Base, and Practices in Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners (United States)

    Gann, Linda


    The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported surveys,…

  11. Wikipedia Culture Gap: Quantifying Content Imbalances Across 40 Language Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miquel-Ribé


    Full Text Available The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is the largest general information repository created through collaborative efforts from all over the globe. Despite the project's goal being to achieve the sum of human knowledge, there are strong content imbalances across the language editions. In order to quantify and investigate these imbalances, we study the impact of cultural context in 40 language editions. To this purpose, we developed a computational method to identify articles that can be related to the editors' cultural context associated to each Wikipedia language edition. We employed a combination of strategies taking into account geolocated articles, specific keywords and categories, as well as links between articles. We verified the method's quality with manual assessment and found an average precision of 0.92 and an average recall of 0.95. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural context. Although a considerable part of this content was created during the first years of the project, its creation is sustained over time. An analysis of cross-language coverage of this content shows that most of it is unique in its original language, and reveals special links between cultural contexts; at the same time, it highlights gaps where the encyclopedia could extend its content. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The datasets produced are made available for further research.

  12. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language. (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E


    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Language & Culture in English as a Foreign Language Teaching: a socio-cultural experience of some exchange students from Piauí Federal Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda dos Santos Costa


    Full Text Available The internationalization of higher education has been dramatically intensified over the last fifteen years in Brazil, creating wide-ranging opportunities as well as threats and limitations in relation to foreign language teaching practices and the teaching of culture. Many linguists and anthropologists (BYRAM, 1997; KRAMSCH, 1993; MCKAY, 2003; JENKINS, 2005 have stated that for communication to be successful the use of language must be associated with other culturally appropriated behavior, not just linguistic rules in the strict sense. In this article, we discuss the problems related to internationalization, more specifically, the discussion revolves around the sociocultural challenges faced by some students of the Federal Institute of Piauí (IFPI regarding their experiences in the Science without Borders program spread through five countries. By using qualitative interviews, the results revealed that students had sociocultural problems which could be avoided if English teachers had worked in the language classroom before the execution of the exchange program.

  14. Culture and English Language Teaching in the Arab World (United States)

    Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab


    This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…

  15. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao


    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  16. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  17. To Know the Language: Leveraging Cultural Knowledge for Job Creation (United States)

    Antoine, Jurgita


    From the beginning, preservation and continuity of tribal histories and cultures have been at the center of the strategic vision for tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) (Bordeaux, 1989). TCUs have developed the infrastructure and networks to support the revitalization, preservation, and teaching of Indigenous languages and cultures. But while…

  18. The Role of Culture in English Language Education: Key Challenges (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian


    English language education is in the process of change regarding teacher identity and the ownership of English. Cultural issues are implicated in this change. Critical cosmopolitan approaches in the social sciences are critiquing the primacy of national cultures which they consider a Western imposition on the emergent identities of the Periphery.…

  19. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  20. Exploring communication challenges due to language and cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salient findings include that communication problems occur on construction sites due to languageand cultural diversity-related barriers; site managers are generally effective at communicating; the South African workforce is diversely cultured, which potentially leads to misunderstandings on sites, and language barriers ...

  1. Prospective English Language Teachers' Perceptions of the Target Language and Culture in Relation to Their Socioeconomic Status (United States)

    Arikan, Arda


    Prospective foreign language teachers need to have an accurate knowledge and a positive perception of the target language and target culture so that they can help their students gain further insight on culture by and large. Hence, by means of a questionnaire, prospective English language teachers' (n= 412) perceptions of the target language and…

  2. The Influence of Target Culture on Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sarıçoban


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the types of cultural activities students at Çankaya University wanted to have during their study of the target language and the level at which students preferred to see those cultural components in language classrooms. A questionnaire was used by the researcher for the purpose of collecting data. The questionnaire that was adapted for the study included 13 multiple choice questions. Each question had the option of “other” to enable further comments on the part of the students. The first part of the questionnaire elicited demographic information of the students. The data-gathering instrument was implemented on 95 preparatory school intermediate students and the results were analyzed statistically in terms of frequency, percentage and average. The findings of the research clearly showed the types of cultural activities students would enjoy in language classrooms, at which level they would like to do them, their attitudes towards the target culture, the level of importance students attach to the target culture and their understanding of “culture”. From the results it can be seen that most of the students who took part in the study had positive attitudes towards the inclusion of cultural components during their study of the English language. The study revealed very important data for the language teachers as well. The outcomes of the study are important not only for teachers but also for textbook publishers. This study presents them with valuable suggestions.

  3. Teacher Educators' Personal Practical Knowledge of Language (United States)

    Swart, Fenna; de Graaff, Rick; Onstenk, Jeroen; Knezic, Dubravka


    This paper describes teacher educators' understanding of language for classroom communication in higher education. We argue that teacher educators who are aware of their personal practical knowledge of language have a better understanding of their students' language use and provide better support for knowledge construction. Personal practical…

  4. Using Nursing Languages in School Nursing Practice. Second Edition (United States)

    Denehy, Janice


    The purpose of this updated manual is to define and describe standardized nursing languages, highlight how nursing languages are a part of the nursing process, and illustrate through case examples how nursing languages are used in school nursing practice. This manual also summarizes the history and development of three nursing classifications, the…

  5. Brave New (Virtual) World: Transforming Language Learning into Cultural Studies through Online Learning Environments (MOOs). (United States)

    Schneider, Jeffrey; von der Emde, Silke


    Describes an online approach through using a MOO, a computer program that allows students to share text-based virtual reality. The goal of the program was to build an environment that both enabled practice in the target language and sustained reflection on the processes of cultural production and reception. (Author/VWL)

  6. Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link. (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga


    It has been well recognized internationally that hospitals are not as safe as they should be. In order to redress this situation, health care services around the world have turned their attention to strategically implementing robust patient safety and quality care programmes to identify circumstances that put patients at risk of harm and then acting to prevent or control those risks. Despite the progress that has been made in improving hospital safety in recent years, there is emerging evidence that patients of minority cultural and language backgrounds are disproportionately at risk of experiencing preventable adverse events while in hospital compared with mainstream patient groups. One reason for this is that patient safety programmes have tended to underestimate and understate the critical relationship that exists between culture, language, and the safety and quality of care of patients from minority racial, ethno-cultural, and language backgrounds. This article suggests that the failure to recognize the critical link between culture and language (of both the providers and recipients of health care) and patient safety stands as a 'resident pathogen' within the health care system that, if not addressed, unacceptably exposes patients from minority ethno-cultural and language backgrounds to preventable adverse events in hospital contexts. It is further suggested that in order to ensure that minority as well as majority patient interests in receiving safe and quality care are properly protected, the culture-language-patient-safety link needs to be formally recognized and the vulnerabilities of patients from minority cultural and language backgrounds explicitly identified and actively addressed in patient safety systems and processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SAVU


    Full Text Available The focus in language education in the twenty-first century does no longer fall on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather on using language alongside with cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to other people all over the world. Our learners are going to become part of today’s intercultural communication network and they will need to use both their language and cultural skills for real life communication. Therefore, teachers themselves should be ready to assume the responsibility of teaching their learners how to become culturally competent. To do this properly and successfully, practitioners need to build and develop their own awareness of and motivation for an intercultural approach. The current paper will present and analyze some recent research findings on higher education practitioners’ motivation to adopt a cross-cultural approach in their classrooms.

  8. 125 The Fading Phase of Igbo Language and Culture: Path to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    favour of foreign language (and culture). They also ... native language, and children are unable to learn a language not spoken ... shielding them off their mother tongue”. ..... the effect endangered language has on the existence of the owners.

  9. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches. (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie


    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  10. From language classroom to clinical context: the role of language and culture in communication for nurses using English as a second language: a thematic analysis. (United States)

    O'Neill, Fiona


    This study explores the experiences of internationally educated nurses using English as a second language, recruited by advanced economies to supplement diminishing local workforces, as they progress from language learning programs to clinical settings. Understanding the journey these nurses experience as language learners and professionals highlights ways in which they could be better supported in their adaptation and integration into the Australian workforce. By means of semi-structured interviews, the nurses' narratives were explored and documented. Thematic analysis was used to interpret their experiences as they move from the English language classroom to the clinical setting. The participants had all completed studies in English as a second language in Australia and had experienced working in Australian as part of a competency based assessment program. At the time of the study, conducted in South Australia, six of the nurses had met the English language requirements of the Nurses Board of South Australia and had started working as Registered Nurses in Australia. Four participants were still to reach the mandatory English requirements, among whom three were to return to their home countries due to visa restrictions, and continue their efforts to attain the English language proficiency requirement. There were six female participants and four male. Five participants were Indian, four Chinese, and one, Nepalese. In exploring their experiences, themes of identity and belonging, safety and competence and adapting to new roles and ways of communicating are revealed. In their own words, these nurses reveal the challenges they face as they concurrently manage the roles of language learners and professionals. The journey from language classroom to clinical setting is a process that goes beyond the notions of language proficiency; these nurses are constructing new cultural and professional identities. Bridging the gap between preparation and practice involves making

  11. Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice | Nkurunziza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice. ... For example, Rwandan colleagues work from a collectivist viewpoint. ... In contrast, the U.S. healthcare system is based on individualism, rooted in a belief in the separation and autonomy of ...

  12. Multilingual Competences and Family Language Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana; Gogolin, Ingrid; Klinger, Thorsten; Schnoor, Birger


    In this paper we examine the role of family-induced linguistic input as a predictor for proficiencies in written language production of multilingual children aged 11. Our study considers their proficiencies in majority language (German) as well as in their family languages. Given that in most cases

  13. English Language Teaching in Indonesia: A Continuous Challenge in Education and Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcellino


    Full Text Available The linguistic situations and conditions in Indonesia are quite complex by their own natures as more than seven hundred vernaculars with their various dialects from a great number of ethnic groups have been used as media of communication in the country.  Accordingly, the success of English teaching in Indonesia cannot be freed from the students' cultural backgrounds, values, customs, and beliefs as well as the political standpoint of the government regarding this foreign language. English language teaching has then undergone more than four changes in its curriculum since the country's independence and brought no significant impact upon the learning outcomes. This study reveals the substantial unconstructive influence of the students' cultures and the non-conducive language environment affecting their language acquisition.  Other aspects related to the teachers' performance and class preparations equally contribute to the ineffective classroom interactions.  This study offers some practical suggestions to cope with those problems.

  14. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development (United States)

    Gilliland, Betsy


    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  15. Bridging the gap between theory and practice in language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the increasing concerns about language endangerment in Sub-Saharan Africa, and assesses the necessity and practicality of language revitalization efforts in some situations in the region in light of a number of practical problems of implementation. The paper identifies the need for a clearer paradigm ...

  16. Heritage Language Maintenance and Cultural Identity Formation: The Case of Korean Immigrant Parents and Their Children in the USA (United States)

    Lee, Boh Young


    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovna Olga Komornikova


    Full Text Available The article discusses the mechanisms and activities for promotion of the Russian language and culture of the Urals. Special attention is paid to one of the most promising directions of this activity is to attract students from other countries to obtain education in Russian language. The authors analyze a number of factors that determine the attractiveness of Russian education for students from post-Soviet States, as well as difficulties arising in the process of integration into the social and cultural environment of the host community. Presents the experience of the educational organization’s involvement in the work with foreign students volunteers at the example of club of international friendship Shadrinsk state pedagogical University and volunteers of the school “Dobroslava”. The article concluded that direct contact of volunteers from different countries contribute to the production practices of intercultural interaction, creating a favorable atmosphere for the promotion of Russian language and culture abroad.

  18. The Interrelationship between Language and Culture. (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Chen


    Significant, real-life instances of cross-cultural miscommunication or conflict are presented and categorized into verbal and non-verbal parts. each case is discussed and analyzed for the possible causes and feasible solutions. (Author/VWL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin


    Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.

  20. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research. (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna


    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  1. Learner Autonomy in Language Education : A Cross-Cultural Perspective


    Kojima, Hideo


    In recent years, the importance of developing learner autonomy in language education hasbeen one of its more prominent themes in Japan as well as in the West. In spite of agreementconcerning its importance, there remains a good deal of uncertainty about its meaning inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This paper aims to consider theconcept of learner autonomy amongst different cultures. Autonomy has a social as well as anindividual dimension. The promotion of learner a...

  2. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar


    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FLOREA


    Full Text Available MOOCs remain the buzzwords of the current landscape of higher education (HE provision. In the context of the ever growing use of technology through e - Learning and OpenCourseWare and of the new generation of tablet - toting, hyper - connected youth, the university will continue to extend its reach to students around the world, unbounded by geography and time zones, at a fast pace and at a fraction of the cost of a traditional college education. In this context, “To Mooc or not to Mooc” remains a question that several universities are beginning to con sider against more pressing critical reflections on issues pertaining to their language and culture. Our paper aims to examine the role of language and culture in online learning, particularly the hegemony of English and Western cultures against the rising “politics of marginality” that other languages are forced to adopt in a dominant, non - negotiable, disruptive online competition space.

  4. Rorty on Language and Social Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet


    The question to be asked is, obviously, the following: What does this mean? Wittgenstein is right when he says that some questions cannot be asked because they do not even make sense, but in my view we may interpret him in a way different from the traditional ones that have been thus far put forward. We may accept Wittgenstein’s statement that the existence of the world, for instance, cannot meaningfully be questioned. But this means, in turn, that the linguistic games cannot go on forever. Sooner or later we run into a “hard rock” which is ultimately non-linguistic and whose existence is the original fact from which everything else stems, including language, linguistic games, conceptual schemes, social practices, etc. Everything, in sum, can be questioned, but nature. And when someone does question it, like the pupil mentioned in On Certainty, who will not let anything be explained to him by his teacher, for he continuously interrupts him with doubts concerning the existence of things, we are somehow forced to answer his questions as Wittgenstein’s teacher does: “Stop interrupting me and do as I tell you. So far your doubts don’t make sense at all”.

  5. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices. (United States)

    Kemp, Charles


    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  6. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions. (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida


    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Czerwiński


    Full Text Available In the article the question of the existence of the Croatian literary language in the semiotic space, i.e. the system of culture, is taken into consideration. In order to affirm the idea of the justification of the very term Croatian language, and thus acceptance of the thesis of the existence of such a language, this argumentation is directed towards theoretical investigation in the semiotic field. There is an attempt to envisage that discussions in the post-Yugoslav linguistics are not the problem, conventionally speaking, ‘ontological’ but ‘epistemological’. Thus, it is not important the question whether the Croatian language or any other language, e.g. Montenegrin, exists but rather the following question: what does it mean that literary language exists or does not exist?

  8. Culture: The Basis for Learning Business in a Foreign Language


    Hager, Michael


    In this article, we will first review various perspectives on the teaching of culture and what effect this can have on intercultural interaction in language teaching. We then take a look at ways of using culture to teach a foreign language. The first example is how preparing to write a German Lebenslauf can serve as a means to get to know and better understand fellow classmates. In addition, we look at how preparing for a mock job interview can function as the basis for teaching German. Final...

  9. Language, Culture and the Neurobiology of Pain: A Theoretical Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Fabrega


    Full Text Available Language and culture, as conceptualized in traditional anthropology, may have an important influence on pain and brain-behavior relations. The paradigm case for the influence of language and culture on perception and cognition is stipulated in the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis which has been applied to phenomena “external” to the individual. In this paper, the paradigm is applied to information the person retrieves from “inside” his body; namely, “noxious” stimuli which get registered in consciousness as pain.

  10. An Exploration of English Language Teachers' Perceptions of Culture Teaching and Its Effects on Students' Motivation (United States)

    Yesil, Seyma; Demiröz, Hakan


    As the seamless connection between language and culture is commensurate with related research carried on language and culture; language is greatly affected and structured by cultural values, attitudes and beliefs. The goal of the present study is to investigate and analyse English language teachers' perceptions and opinions about the integration…

  11. The Employment of Pop Culture in Middle School English Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays,culture teaching is more emphasized in language teaching. But less attention is paid to the influence of pop culture in language teaching. The important role of pop culture in middle school English language teaching will be discussed in this thesis through its correlation with some factors in English language teaching.

  12. Pronunciation and phonetics a practical guide for English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam


    This engaging, succinct text is an introduction to both phonetics and phonology as applied to the teaching of pronunciation to English language learners. Section 1 selectively covers the main areas of phonetics and phonology, without going into any area in more depth than the average English language teacher requires or that the average English language teacher trainee can handle. Section 2 focuses on practical issues related to learners and how they learn languages, and what represents good practice in terms of classroom activities for pronunciation—including aspects such as targets, motiva

  13. Ethics, culture and nursing practice in Ghana. (United States)

    Donkor, N T; Andrews, L D


    This paper describes how nurses in Ghana approach ethical problems. The International Council of Nurses' (ICN) Code for Nurses (2006) that serves as the model for professional code of ethics worldwide also acknowledges respect for healthy cultural values. Using the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles as a benchmark, a survey was conducted in 2009 to ascertain how nurses in Ghana respond to ethical and cultural issues in their practice. The study was qualitative with 200 participant nurses. Data were obtained through anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Nurses' approaches to ethical problems in Ghana do not always meet expectations of the ICN Code for Nurses. They are also informed by local ethical practices related to the institutional setting and cultural environment in the country. While some cultural values complemented the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles, others conflicted with them. These data can assist nurses to provide culturally competent solutions to ethical dilemmas in their practice. Dynamic communication between nurses and patients/clients, intentional study of local cultural beliefs, and the development of ethics education will improve the conformity between universal ethical standards and local cultural values. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Programming languages for MIS concepts and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai


    Introduction Computers Computer Programming Languages     Role of Computer Programming Language      Software Systems     Taxonomies of Computer Programming LanguagesComputing Architecture in the Internet Environment Key Characteristics Shared by All Procedural Programming Languages      Syntax, Sentence, and Word     Variable     Arithmetic Operation     Execution Sequence      If-Then-Else Logic      Loop      Module C++ Introduction to Function-Oriented and Object-Oriented Programming A Tour of C Language      C and C++ Keyword and User-Defined Word      Comment Statements      Preprocessor

  15. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice. (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David


    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  16. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene


    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  17. Attitudes of Foreigners Who Learn Turkish as a Second Language towards Turkish Culture (United States)

    Maden, Sedat


    There is a very close association between language and culture. Thus, cultural values should be prioritized in language training and cultural knowledge should be concurrently instructed. Turkish culture should also be introduced to learners of Turkish as a foreign language. Therefore, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners of…

  18. Culture in teaching English as an international language in CLT curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This thesis explored the role of culture in EIL teaching on the basis of CLT contexts by reviewing plentiful previous studies. Generally speaking, this thesis emphasized the relationship between language and culture, the necessity and importance of culture teaching in language teaching, what kind of culture should be included in cultural content for culture teaching and challenges of culture teaching in EIL teaching as well. In a word, Culture is correlated with language. Culture teaching plays a significant role in EIL teaching. In culture teaching, not only the target culture, but also various cultures related to EIL learners' daily life should be included.

  19. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.


    a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies...

  20. Latina/o Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Language and Culture while Assisting Children in Mathematics (United States)

    Vomvoridi-Ivanovic, Eugenia


    Guided by symbolic interactionism and cultural historical activity theory this study investigated how four bilingual Latina/o pre-service teachers use language (Spanish and English) and culture, defined as social practices, as instructional resources in mathematics. The setting of the study was an after-school bilingual mathematics program, namely…

  1. Teaching Culture and Identifying Language Interference Errors through Films (United States)

    Argynbayev, Arman; Kabylbekova, Dana; Yaylaci, Yusuf


    This study reflects intermediate level learners' opinion about employing films in the EFL classroom for teaching culture and avoiding negative language transfer. A total of 63 participants, aged 21-23, took part in the experiment in the Faculty of Philology at Suleyman Demirel University in Almaty, Kazakhstan. During the experiment the subjects…

  2. Autonomous Language Learning in Africa: A Mismatch of Cultural Assumptions. (United States)

    Sonaiya, Remi


    Questions the global validity of the autonomous method of language learning, which has origins in the European and North American traditions of individualism. Raises the question of appropriateness of the cultural content of educational materials that are alleged to be suitable for global dissemination, with special reference to the Yoruba world…

  3. Language, History and Culture in Bessie Head's "a Question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the interrelationship between language culture and history we have established homosexuality and other forms of perversions in Bessie Head's A Question of Power; Sethe's infanticide in Toni Morrison's Beloved, and Amoo's murder of his wife and his scarifying of his daughter in Sembéne Ousmane's Tribal Marks.

  4. The Implications of Culture for Dictionaries of the African Languages*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nkabinde


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple-ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural aspects of a single language are examined, the conclusions are valid for cultural aspects of all African languages.


    Opsomming: Die implikasies van kultuur vir woordeboeke van die Afri-katale. Hierdie artikel probeer om aan te toon hoe kultuur of aspekte daarvan gebruik kan word om taalkundige en ander inligting aan te vul by die samestelling van woordeboeke van die Afrika-tale. 'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor-stelle gemaak oor hoe om hulle te hanteer. Alhoewel slegs sommige kulturele aspekte van 'n enkele taal ondersoek word, is die gevolgtrekkings geldig vir kulturele aspekte van alle Afrikatale.


  5. German Culture and Civilization, Foreign Language: 7536.14. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This is a guide to a realization and appreciation of the German culture, gained through the use of oral and written German. Four areas of language instruction are emphasized: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, and (4) writing. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) broad goals and performance objectives, which include a breakdown of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Diana


    Full Text Available Communicative Language Teaching (CLT has been accepted as one of the teaching methods by numerous language teachers due to its major focus on developing learners’ communicative competence. This paper aims to describe communicative language teaching, misinterpretations about its practice and the factors leading to teachers’ misconceptions. It shows four misinterpreted beliefs of the implementation of communicative language teaching: communicative skills, teacher’s role in communicative activities, fluency and accuracy as the main goals and teaching techniques. It then presents three reasons that might lead to teachers’ misinterpretations concerning the practice of CLT. Teachers do not have enough training and  adequate resources.

  7. Towards culturally competent health care: language use of bilingual staff. (United States)

    Johnson, M; Noble, C; Matthews, C; Aguilar, N


    The presence of diverse language skills within health staff provides opportunities to better meet the needs of a multicultural population. A cross-sectional survey of all staff within the South Western Sydney Area Health Service was undertaken to compare language skills with population needs and examine the context of language use. Thirty-one per cent of staff (n = 964) were bilingual or multilingual, with the predominant languages spoken being Tagalog (Filipino), Cantonese, Hindi, Spanish, Vietnamese and Italian. Thirty-seven per cent of bilingual staff used their language skills at least weekly, predominantly in situations of simple conversation and giving directions. Bilingual staff are a valuable resource for the organisation and the presence of a similar overall proportion of bilingual and bicultural staff may engender tolerance and adaptability in providing care to a diverse population. However, supply does not directly match community demand. This mismatch will continue unless recruitment is focused towards identified language groups. The high proportion of staff who rarely used their language skills (37%) may be due to lack of opportunity or limited need, and suggests that further research needs to examine service models that locate bilingual workers close to client need. This study takes a crucial first step towards realising equitable and culturally appropriate care utilising the principles of productive diversity.

  8. National Atlas, Indian tribes, cultures & languages (United States)

    Sturtevant, William C.


    Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.

  9. French, English or Kanak Languages? Can Traditional Languages and Cultures Be Sustained in New Caledonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bissoonauth


    Preliminary results from the study show a difference in the language habits between older and younger generations on New Caledonians of Melanesian descent. Although French is perceived as the lingua franca by all, English is more valued than ancestral Melanesian languages by the younger generations. In terms of cultural representations and links with family history, there seems to be a discrepancy between the younger and the older generations. Whilst the older generations perceive the Centre Culturel Tjibaou as a traditional space for Melanesian art and culture their younger counterparts on the contrary view it as a place associated with contemporary art and music performances.

  10. Creole Practices as Prescriptive Guidelines for Language Didactics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi


    . In the following section, the author introduces different sociolinguistic studies of language practices in Martinique and the Caribbean giving a particular attention to the school system. The section ends with a brief discussion of how didactics in language teaching intersects with Glissant’s thinking....... The conclusion presents a proposition of how Glissant’s thought may inspire sociolinguistics and didactics....

  11. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring English Language Teachers' Beliefs and Practices (United States)

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Sachdev, Itesh


    This paper reports on an investigation into the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers in the USA, UK and France relating to the application of a model of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to English language programmes. Broadly, "intercultural" approaches to language learning and teaching are strongly advocated in both the…

  12. Managing Self-Access Language Learning: Principles and Practice (United States)

    Gardner, David; Miller, Lindsay


    This paper is based on a research project looking at the management of self-access language learning (SALL) from the perspective of the managers of self-access centres. It looks at the factors which influence the practice of seven managers of self-access language learning in tertiary institutions in Hong Kong. The discussion centres around five…

  13. Dialogismo, lenguas extranjeras e identidad cultural (Dialogism, Foreign Languages, and Cultural Identity). (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Foreign Language education will play an important role in the broadening and globalization of higher education for the 21st century. Where else will educators find the tools to "dialog" with--to engage--the "other" as part of the enriching process that accompanies cultural exchange, cultural broadening? This paper sheds light on these issues, and…

  14. Language, Culture, and Cognition in Cross-cultural Communication


    Nardon, Luciara; Steers, Richard; Stone, Christian


    It is well documented that communication styles and patterns vary across cultures. However, less is known about the process underlying these differences. Understanding why communication patterns vary is just as important as understanding how they vary because communication is by nature a dynamic and interactive process. Despite the importance of the transmission of meaning for successful communication, and the role that cognition plays in the assignment of meaning, little has been done to dra...

  15. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlina Baharudin


    Full Text Available The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students’ needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning strategies should be considered by the teachers to make teaching and learning become interesting, effective and not boring. Basic effectiveness of a language program was the factors of socio-culture, the style of teaching and learning, the students, and the characteristics of the program. This paper however focused on the socio-cultural factors (learning of cultures and the activities program that enable to generate excitement and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Malay language as a foreign language. In the teaching and learning process found that the more we gave the activities to the students, the more the students acquired the meaning of the lessons. In this study, the selected respondents were the two groups of students from TWG, Konstanz, Germany who have followed the Malay Language and Culture Program in the Languages, Literacies and Translation Center, University of Sains Malaysia, Penang, in 2011. The first group was started in March to June, and the second group in September to November. The research was based on formal and informal observations and interviews. This paper also discussed about the outdoor activities program used as curriculum in the teaching and learning process that gives an interesting environment to foreign students

  16. Is it culture or is it language? Examination of language effects in cross-cultural research on categorization. (United States)

    Ji, Li-Jun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Nisbett, Richard E


    Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language. Nevertheless, language affected some Chinese bilinguals' categorization. The responses of Chinese from the Mainland and Taiwan were more relational when tested in Chinese than when tested in English. Responses of Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore were equally relational when tested in Chinese and in English. Age and context of learning English are discussed to explain the differential language effects among different Chinese groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  17. The Language of Mathematics Utilizing Math in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Baber, Robert L


    A new and unique way of understanding the translation of concepts and natural language into mathematical expressions Transforming a body of text into corresponding mathematical expressions and models is traditionally viewed and taught as a mathematical problem; it is also a task that most find difficult. The Language of Mathematics: Utilizing Math in Practice reveals a new way to view this process-not as a mathematical problem, but as a translation, or language, problem. By presenting the language of mathematics explicitly and systematically, this book helps readers to learn mathematics¿and i

  18. Shared Knowledge and Mutual Respect: Enhancing Culturally Competent Practice through Collaboration with Families and Communities (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; Wong, Sandie; McLeod, Sharynne


    Collaboration with families and communities has been identified as one of six overarching principles to speech and language therapists' (SLTs') engagement in culturally competent practice (Verdon et al., 2015a). The aim of this study was to describe SLTs' collaboration with families and communities when engaging in practice to support the speech,…

  19. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers (United States)

    Rhodes, Christy M.


    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  20. English language teaching: linguistic and cultural imperialism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Duncan Hunter


    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina a posição do Inglês como língua internacional em termos de forças políticas e econômicas que contribuíram para a posição dominante do inglês na arena mundial. O trabalho examina a acusação de que o ensino de inglês como segunda língua ou língua estrangeira contribui para o imperialismo lingüístico e cultural e desafia o pressuposto de que os falantes nativos de inglês são necessariamente os melhores professores. Recomenda- se aos profissionais de língua inglesa a adoção de uma filosofia de relativismo pragmático na sua avaliação das necessidades do aprendiz de forma a evitar tendências etnocêntricas em seus currículos.

  1. Bilingual Language Assessment: Contemporary Versus Recommended Practice in American Schools. (United States)

    Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer


    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The study was modeled to replicate portions of Caesar and Kohler's (2007) study and expanded to include a nationally representative sample. A total of 166 respondents completed an electronic survey. Results indicated that the majority of respondents have performed bilingual language assessments. Furthermore, the most frequently used informal and standardized assessments were identified. SLPs identified supports, and barriers to assessment, as well as their perceptions of graduate preparation. The findings of this study demonstrated that although SLPs have become more compliant to ASHA and IDEA guidelines, there is room for improvement in terms of adequate training in bilingual language assessment.

  2. East meets West: The influence of language and culture in clinical education. (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard


    The marketing of education in South East Asia has become big business for Australian Universities. Physiotherapy programs are not exempt from this marketing push, with increases in foreign student enrollment becoming commonplace. This raises numerous opportunities and dilemmas for those involved in physiotherapy clinical education. This action research project investigated the influence of language and culture on clinical education practices. Nine South East Asian undergraduate physiotherapy students and 11 clinical instructors were involved in this qualitative research project. A variety of issues were identified which have important ramifications for academics and clinical instructors. Cultural membership, issues of authority and respect, and language proficiency were identified as having a direct influence on the clinical education process. Strategies for dealing with these cross cultural teaching and learning challenges are discussed.

  3. World Language Students' Ethnographic Investigations of Culture through Mobile Devices (United States)

    Tuttle, Harry G.; Tuttle, Lori A.


    World language teachers can transform how their students learn culture through the use of mobile devices. When world language students use their mobile devices to access authentic current culture, they go from being passive receivers of culture to active cultural investigators. These students go from learning thin surface culture to exploring…

  4. Language Cultural Specificity of the Language Units “Cat” and “Dog” in English and Chinese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жером Багана


    Full Text Available The article deals with the national and cultural features of zoonyms “cat” and “dog” in English and Chinese languages. The authors point out zoonyms’ main characteristics and their national cultural originality. Zoonyms represent the special features of national linguistic world view and values in the comparative analysis’ aspect The article represents interpretation of the language units in the monolingual explanatory dictionaries. The dictionary definitions of the terms phraseology and zoonym are given. The research is devoted to phraseology in the English and Chinese languages. The historical notes about the attitude toward cats and dogs in Britain and China are shown. Also some peculiarities of zoonyms function in English and Chinese animal fairy-tales are observed. Based on the differences the authors notice differences of phraseology between zoonyms “cat” and “dog”. Some examples in the English and Chinese languages are observed. The analysis represents universal and national specific semantic features of the present units in the languages so far as phraseology contains the most vivid representation of the national-cultural specificity of world view, connotative features and values peoples in Europe and Asia.

  5. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice. (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel


    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  6. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree


    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  7. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.


    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  8. Reflections on Revitalizing and Reinforcing Native Languages and Cultures (United States)

    Real Bird, Lanny


    The purpose of this essay is to introduce nativist expression, historic practices, and perceptions in describing an important approach to exercising language revitalization based on traditional fundamentals and operational ownership in Native organizations of these reflections. Information is presented to enhance the understanding of how Native…

  9. A Study of Formulaic Language in Traditional Greek Tales and Its Cultural Implications in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In our study we examine teaching mother tongue through faire and folk tales from the perspectives of recognizing clichés in fairy tales and myths, idiomatic phrases which work as morals, proverbs and very specific phrases of traditional tales’. We suggest that formulaic language can be involved in children’s language games at school and become a methodological tool for innovative approaches in Language and Teaching especially at the primary education. We search the sources from Greek traditional tales that could serve as teaching material for this option of teaching formulaic language in mother tongue. Cultural and geographical implications of the examples applied are noted as a suggestion for further discussion.

  10. The practical implementation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo


    When, during the review of the Chernobyl accident, the INSAG Committee introduced the term 'Safety Culture', it spread very quickly. Later on, as a result of activities sponsored by the IAEA, the original Safety Culture concept was extended to include a large number of issues that are typical requirements of Quality Assurance Unfortunately, the way in which certain organizations approached this subject has not helped to find the right way for it to be implemented. Safety Culture is not mentioned at all in ICRP-60 and in the new recommendations of 2005 it does not even appear in the principal body and only a minor reference exists. The IAEA's Basic Safety Standards deal with the requirements for Safety Culture and for Quality Assurance as absolutely individual issues; however, Safety Culture should be considered as a part of the Quality System. Very recently the situation was strongly improved by the release of the new standard 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities' Safety Requirements GS-R-3. The EURATOM 97/43 Directive, used in the European Community for the preparation of regulations for medical practice, which, while inspired by ICRP-73, does not even mention Safety Culture. Increasing personnel training is not enough if, at the same time, there are no activities aimed at improving their attitude towards quality and safety. To achieve a change in Culture in the organization or to implant the new concept, there must be a suitable supporting Methodology to allow it to be put into practice. If not, the Safety Culture will only be a simple expression of wishes without any chance of success. Criteria, methodology and effective practical tools must be available. Two basic principles for the management system (GSR-3): a) All the tasks may be considered as 'a system of interactive processes'; b) All persons must take part in order to achieve safety and quality. These two principles are the basis of the strategy for the development of a Safety Culture

  11. The practical implementation of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, Rodolfo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires. (Argentina)


    When, during the review of the Chernobyl accident, the INSAG Committee introduced the term 'Safety Culture', it spread very quickly. Later on, as a result of activities sponsored by the IAEA, the original Safety Culture concept was extended to include a large number of issues that are typical requirements of Quality Assurance Unfortunately, the way in which certain organizations approached this subject has not helped to find the right way for it to be implemented. Safety Culture is not mentioned at all in ICRP-60 and in the new recommendations of 2005 it does not even appear in the principal body and only a minor reference exists. The IAEA's Basic Safety Standards deal with the requirements for Safety Culture and for Quality Assurance as absolutely individual issues; however, Safety Culture should be considered as a part of the Quality System. Very recently the situation was strongly improved by the release of the new standard 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities' Safety Requirements GS-R-3. The EURATOM 97/43 Directive, used in the European Community for the preparation of regulations for medical practice, which, while inspired by ICRP-73, does not even mention Safety Culture. Increasing personnel training is not enough if, at the same time, there are no activities aimed at improving their attitude towards quality and safety. To achieve a change in Culture in the organization or to implant the new concept, there must be a suitable supporting Methodology to allow it to be put into practice. If not, the Safety Culture will only be a simple expression of wishes without any chance of success. Criteria, methodology and effective practical tools must be available. Two basic principles for the management system (GSR-3): a) All the tasks may be considered as 'a system of interactive processes'; b) All persons must take part in order to achieve safety and quality. These two principles are the basis of the strategy for the development of a Safety Culture

  12. Relationship between Attitude toward Target Language Culture Instruction and Pragmatic Comprehension Development (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Majid, Norazman Bin Abdul; Eng, Lin Siew


    Familiarity with the cultural features of the target language society and interest in learning those cultural features are the key factors to determine language learners' level of pragmatic comprehension. To investigate this issue, this study attempted to assess the relationship between attitude toward incorporating target language culture into…

  13. Language and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Practice Paper-Literature Review and Case Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Singh


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of language on cognitive behavioural therapy. Language is emotive and studies carried out in the linguistic field have shown second language is less emotive when describing events occuring in the first language. This paper has been written based on the experiences of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT service providing therapy to patients from a diverse cultural and ethnic population. Patients whose first language is not English often receive therapy in their second language. Global migration is a common phenomenon and mainly occurs for economic reasons or threat of violence. This paper has been drawn from the results of a literature review on first and second languages and therapy. Despite being an area that is extremely relevant to therapy, there is an apparent lack of literature in relation to cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and other disorders. CBT is one of the recommended therapies by National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Findings from the linguistic field highlight the potential short comings providing therapy in a patient’s second language. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance that therapists working in this field have an understanding of how first and second languages function and the role they play in maintaining patients’ psychological problems. This practice paper discusses measures that can be used in cognitive behavioural therapy to deal with this using a case example.

  14. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Andryukhina


    Full Text Available Introduction. High level of ecological culture in modern society is the most important condition of self-preservation and sustainable development of a human civilization. The processes of globalization force to consider environmental problems with a support on polycultural practice, to take into account national and regional peculiarities in their integrity. Thus, there is the need of the international cooperation not only at the government level, but also at the levels of expert communities, separate groups of society and citizens of the country. Moreover, ecological culture is constantly highlighted in numerous studies, materials and documents of the international forums, summits and conferences of the UN and UNESCO. The aim of this publication is to present the authors’ didactic complex of development tools of ecological culture of students, and to show the potential of teaching foreign languages (on the example of French for students’ ecological culture formation by means of development of cross-cultural communicative competence.  Methodology and research methods. Culturological approach has been chosen as a key approach for creation of integrative model of development of ecological culture. The methods involve: the system-based analysis of the content of ecological education; generalization of the theory and practice of implementation of the international strategies of ecological culture development and the analysis of efficiency of the pedagogical technologies intended for this purpose; modeling of the process of formation of ecological culture of students. The diagnostics of components of students’ ecological culture has been performed by means of internal questioning, observation, and comparative analysis of group interactions. Also, pedagogical ascertaining experiments, methods of pedagogical design for forms of the educational environment organization, design of the educational programmes, and methods of graphical

  16. From Cultural Knowledge to Intercultural Communicative Competence: Changing Perspectives on the Role of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching (United States)

    Piatkowska, Katarzyna


    Approaches to the concept of culture and teaching cultural competence in a foreign language classroom have been changing over the last decades. The paper summarises, compares, contrasts and evaluates four major approaches to teaching cultural competence in foreign language teaching, that is, knowledge-based approach, contrastive approach,…

  17. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment Project: Training Emphasis: Language and Culture (United States)


    fluency in both the target language and English. In order to score well on the DLPT V you need to have an extensive vocabulary in both the target...environment IOT cement what you learned in Phase 1; Phase 3 = maintenance training which includes shorter periods of both classroom and immersion. Though


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kryvda


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the cultural aspect of texts using in European culture. The paper found out methodological basis of correctly interpreting the term "practice" in the philosophical and sociological discourses. In the first case the concept reveals human nature; appealing to the field of ethics and intersubjective interactions. In sociological approach the term practice is contrasted to institutional life. It seems to be an organic; vital relevance of actions for contrast to the mechanically regulated community life. Methodology. The paper considered the typology of human intellectual conditions according to Kant’s divided into pure and practical reason. The last one directs action-willed individual efforts so as to meet the universal relevance and ethical coherence. Gottlieb Fichte interpreted practice reason as the way to combine intellectual intentions and material conditions of human being. G. W. F. Hegel enriched the concept with terms of "objectification" and "alienation” of labour. Karl Marx formulated the main features of activity approach to the human nature exploring. In sociological discourse the term practice is opposed to mechanically done actions (according to institutional normativity. Given the philosophical and sociological methodological contexts the reading is studied as activity that aimed emotional and volitional contact with sense. Originality. The paper analysed the genealogy of reading practices. There were selected two types of text perception – rapid "masculine" and prudent "women's" reading. Women salon environment of the XVIII-th century capitalistic Europe was the main condition for the forming of literary-aware public. The authors analysed the process of reading of the text-as-satisfaction and text-as-pleasure (R. Barthes. The work presents the overview of classical studies of sociocultural field: Thorstein Veblen; Vladimir Toporov; Rolan Barthes and contemporary researchers such as T. Markova

  19. Cultural Differences in Educational Practices: The Case of a Korean Graduate Student

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    Nazmiye Gürel


    Full Text Available Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern American university. The data is collected through in-depth face-to-face interviews which yielded to significant implications. Classroom activities, power relations, and expectations are presented through cultural lenses and how the differences in cultures affect the success of a foreign student are presented.

  20. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.


    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  1. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin


    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  2. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.


    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  3. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology. (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza


    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ivanovna Skachkova


    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and increasing international cooperation in different spheres of life the issue of national security and economic prosperity of nations is becoming increasingly urgent.Purpose: Consideration of sociolinguistic and cultural characteristics of the functioning of foreign languages in a multinational state, the example of the United States.Methodology: We used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: It is concluded that foreign languages in a multinational state, such as the U.S., are studied through active actions of government, public and educational institutions, and the main purpose of language learning is to maintain national security and economic competitiveness in the international arena.Practical implications: The results of the work may be used both in linguistic theory, and sociolinguistics.DOI:

  5. Cultural Transfer and Creating Cultural Awareness in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language: A Sample from Gaziosmanpasa University Tömer (United States)

    Iscan, Adem; Karagöz, Beytullah; Konyar, Merve


    Culture and language are two phenomena that have existed by influencing each other for centuries. It is impossible to think independently of the culture on which the language is cultivated, nor on the language, which influences culture. One of the best signs of mastering a language is the ability to understand the cultural elements and the…

  6. Islam and its Influence on the Kazakh Culture and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina T. Yedgina


    Full Text Available After The Republic of Kazakhstan has got its independence we can observe intensive revival of the national culture and traditional religion as well as increasing of religiousness level of the population. So, studying of the Islamic development in our country is necessary nowadays, because it may help to comprehend specific character of social, political, historical and cultural features. The Koran is unique, it is the first written literary monument of the rise of Islam period and a code of moral, religious, civil, political and legal regulations. At the beginning of 8-th century Islam became the prevailing religion in our region due to its monotheism ideas. Since that time we can notice the development and prosperity of the Moslem Arabic culture which has influenced the social, economic, political and cultural life in Central Asia and Southern Kazakhstan. After Islam had been declared a new state religion, the Arabic language, script and literature became an integral part of the culture, and it is no doubt that the culture of local population was enriched greatly after the Arabic invasion

  7. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Cultural Awarenes and Knowledge Training (United States)


    hours. Training must incorporate language, culture, norms, customs, etiquette , religion, etc as to how not offend the local ethnicities.” SOF Leader...consensus. The frequency of occurrence for each theme is presented in this report. Analysis of the focus group data followed the same protocol , except

  8. The Spanish Foreign language teaching for specific purposes in The Formation of Physical Culture Professional

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    Liliana Valdés-Aragón


    Full Text Available This work is the result of an ended research about the Spanish foreign language teaching for specific purposes, that contains a proposal of theoretic methodological model based on interactive communicative tasks for speaking skills development in the students academic discourse, who are preparing as future professionals of Physical Culture. The model is derived of the dialectical materialistic interpretations of the interaction and the communication from diverse dimensions (philosophical, psychological, sociological, pedagogic and linguistic and it constitutes a theoretical contribution. In making of this work were used procedures and research techniques like oral records that facilitated to know the students' interlanguage and it was directed to check in what measure a correct use of the language was made. The contribution to Spanish's teaching as a foreign language for professional goals in the physical culture area, reflected in this work, precise the components of the teaching learning process and the teachers' and students' functions in an interactive process. It allows the students to express their ideas with correction and property making use of the scientific style and transactional functions of the language to be able to define, to describe, to argue, to synthesize, to narrate, to debate, among others. The making of a tasks program used in Spanish's teaching as foreign language, constitutes the practical contribution of the research carried out, as well as the application of the model in other courses of foreign languages for professional goals. The work in general sense is a professional experience directed to solve educational problems, particularly those related with the abilities of the Physical Culture professional of the country and the institution in question, where its results were applied during several courses.

  9. Understanding foreign language teachers’ practical knowledge: What’s the role of prior language learning experience?

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    Sibel Arıoğul


    Full Text Available Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefsand thinking (Borg, 2003 which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin,1988 and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer,Verloop, and Beijard, 1999. This paper initially discusses how language teachers areinfluenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, priorteaching experience, and professional coursework in pre- and in-service education. Bydrawing its data from the author’s longitidunal study, it also presents the findings of a crosscasetheme emerged from the investigation of three English as a foreign language (EFLteachers’ prior language learning experiences. The paper also discusses how the participationin studies on teachers’ knowledge raises teachers’ own awareness while it informs theresearch.

  10. Influence of the Dimensions of Corporate Cultural Practices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture is described as a common identity among people based on shared social relationships, beliefs and technology. People are different in not only gender, qualifications or skills but also in their cultural characteristics. Cultural differences in languages, custom, traditions and norms often follow organisational lines and in ...

  11. Using Interconnected Texts to Highlight Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom (United States)

    Smith, Maya


    SLA research on foreign language pedagogy has long demonstrated that culture is essential to language learning. However, presenting culture in the language classroom poses certain problems. For learners, there is a tendency to stereotype others and to rely excessively on the teacher. For teachers, there is a tendency to transmit isolated facts…

  12. Relationship between Language Learners’ Attitudes toward Cultural Instruction and Pragmatic Comprehension and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan


    Full Text Available Development of target language pragmatic competence in language learners requires not only provision of cultural features of target language community in language classes but also language learner’s willingness to learn and use those cultural features. To investigate the relationship between language learners’ attitudes toward cultural instruction and their gains in comprehension and production aspects of pragmatic competence, the current study was conducted on 50 undergraduate Japanese students of English education at a university in Japan. The adapted version of the attitude questionnaire developed by Albirini (2009 was used to measure language learners’ attitudes toward cultural instruction. A 24-item pragmatic comprehension test developed by Taguchi (2007, 2008 was used to measure language learners’ pragmatic comprehension ability. Finally, a 32-item discourse completion task developed by Bardovi-Harlig (2009 was used to measure language learners’ pragmatic production ability. The analysis of Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient (r revealed a strong positive relationship between attitude toward cultural instruction and pragmatic comprehension ability as well as attitude toward cultural instruction and pragmatic production ability. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of interesting cultural features of the target language community in language classes and presenting them in interesting ways to attract language learners’ attention and interest. Keywords: Attitude, Cultural Instruction, Pragmatic Comprehension, Pragmatic Production

  13. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online. (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda


    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  14. Cultural accommodation and language priming : Competitive versus cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, D.H.M.; Harzing, A.W.; van Witteloostuijn, A.


    This paper explores three arguments. First, cultural accommodation by living in another culture for a while may have a long-lasting but partially dormant influence on behavior. Second, foreign language is a prime, activating behavior associated with this language. Third, a foreign language is

  15. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  16. Cultural Collision: The Interference of First Language Cultural Identity on Pragmatic Competence of the Target Language (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Fen Cecilia


    This reflective study explores a different perspective of intercultural communicative competency (ICC) by focusing on the speech acts that nonnative speakers of Spanish from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds find difficult to perform competently in various contexts in Colombia. This article covers a qualitative case study using…

  17. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo


    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  18. Biography, policy and language teaching practices in a multilingual context: Early childhood classrooms in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Ankiah-Gangadeen


    Full Text Available Language policies in education in multilingual postcolonial contexts are often driven by ideological considerations more veered towards socio-economic and political viability for the country than towards the practicality at implementation level. Centuries after the advent of colonisation, when culturally and linguistically homogenous countries helped to maintain the dominion of colonisers, the English language still has a stronghold in numerous countries due to the material rewards it offers. How then are the diversity of languages – often with different statuses and functions in society – reconciled in the teaching and learning process? How do teachers deal with the intricacies that are generated within a situation where children are taught in a language that is foreign to them? This paper is based on a study involving pre-primary teachers in Mauritius, a developing multilingual African country. The aim was to understand how their approach to the teaching of English was shaped by their biographical experiences of learning the language. The narrative inquiry methodology offered rich possibilities to foray into these experiences, including the manifestations of negotiating their classroom pedagogy in relation to their own personal historical biographies of language teaching and learning, the policy environment, and the pragmatic classroom specificities of diverse, multilingual learners. These insights become resources for early childhood education and teacher development in multilingual contexts caught within the tensions between language policy and pedagogy.

  19. The Effect of Cultural Background Knowledge on Learning English Language

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    Dr. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of cultural background knowledge on learning English Language. It also aims to investigate if there are significant differences between subjects' performance in reading comprehension according to sex and general ability in English (GAE. The study aims at answering the following questions: 1 . To what extent is the effect of cultural background knowledge on subjects' performance in reading comprehension? 2 . What is the difference in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge? 3. What is the differenc e between subjects' performance in reading comprehension texts which are loaded with American culture and their general ability in English. ? The population of th is study consisted of all first - year students majoring in English at Hebron University in th e first semester of the academic year 2011/2012. They were 600. The sample of the study consisted of 60 subjects, males and females divided into four groups, two experimental and two controlled. The researcher followed the experimental method. Means, stand ard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were calculated by using SPSS program. The study revealed the following results: 1. There are statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cu ltural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge . 2 . There are no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. 3. Subjects' GAE revealed that there are significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. In the light of the results of th e study, the researcher recommends the

  20. Variations in Beliefs and Practices: Teaching English in Cross-Cultural Contexts (United States)

    Gu, Qing


    This article examines variations in beliefs and practices between British English language teaching (ELT) specialists and their Chinese colleagues in a cross-cultural educational development project which used interviews and a questionnaire survey to gather the perceptions and retrospective experiences of Chinese tertiary teachers and expatriate…

  1. Students' Framing of Language Learning Practices in Social Networking Sites (United States)

    Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen


    The amount of time that people, especially young people, spend on communicative activities in social media is rapidly increasing. We are facing new arenas with great potential for learning in general and for language learning in particular, but their impact on learning is not yet acknowledged as such in educational practice (e.g., Conole, 2010;…

  2. Learners' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Practice on Social Network Sites (United States)

    Villafuerte, Jhonny; Romero, Asier


    This work aims to study learners' attitudes towards practicing English Language on Social Networks Sites (SNS). The sample involved 110 students from the University Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabi in Ecuador, and the University of the Basque Country in Spain. The instrument applied was a Likert scale questionnaire designed Ad hoc by the researchers,…

  3. Researching Language Teacher Cognition and Practice: International Case Studies (United States)

    Barnard, Roger, Ed.; Burns, Anne, Ed.


    This book presents a novel approach to discussing how to research language teacher cognition and practice. An introductory chapter by the editors and an overview of the research field by Simon Borg precede eight case studies written by new researchers, each of which focuses on one approach to collecting data. These approaches range from…

  4. English as a Transcultural Language in Swedish Policy and Practice (United States)

    Hult, Francis M.


    The globalization of English in Sweden is examined as it takes shape in educational policy and practice. Following in the tradition of a "new wave" of language policy and planning research that emphasizes connections between policy and how it is interpreted by local stakeholders, this investigation focuses on textual data from Swedish…

  5. The role of metrology in mediating and mobilizing the language and culture of scientific facts (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Stenner, A. J.


    The self-conscious awareness of language and its use is arguably nowhere more intense than in metrology. The careful and deliberate coordination and alignment of shared metrological frames of reference for theory, experiment, and practical application have been characteristics of scientific culture at least since the origins of the SI units in revolutionary France. Though close attention has been focused on the logical and analytical aspects of language use in science, little concern has been shown for understanding how the social and historical aspects of everyday language may have foreshadowed and influenced the development and character of metrological language, especially relative to the inevitably partial knowledge possessed by any given stakeholder participating in the scientific enterprise. Insight in this regard may be helpful in discerning how and if an analogous role for metrology might be created in psychology and the social sciences. It may be that the success of psychology as a science will depend less on taking physics as the relevant model than on attending to the interplay of concepts, models, and social organization that make any culture effective.

  6. English Language Teaching in Indonesia: A Continuous Challenge in Education and Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcellino


    Full Text Available The linguistic situations and conditions in Indonesia are quite complex by their own natures as more than seven hundred vernaculars with their various dialects from a great number of ethnic groups have been used as media of communication in the country. Accordingly, the success of English teaching in Indonesia cannot be freed from the students’ cultural backgrounds, values, customs, and beliefs as well as the political standpoint of the government regarding this foreign language. English language teaching has then undergone more than four changes in its curriculum since the country’s independence and brought no significant impact upon the learning outcomes. This study reveals the substantial unconstructive influence of the students’ cultures and the non-conducive language environment affecting their language acquisition. Other aspects related to the teachers’ performance and class preparations equally contribute to the ineffective classroom interactions. This study offers some practical suggestions to cope with those problems.

  7. The Role of Cultural Competence in the Teaching of Hungarian as a Foreign Language and in Cultural Diplomacy

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    Erika Sólyom


    Full Text Available In the present paper, I aim to shed light on the importance of cultural competence from three perspectives. First, in my capacity as a sociolinguist, I will talk about how Hungarian culture is incorporated in the textbook "Colloquial Hungarian" (Rounds and Sólyom 2011, providing particular examples from various dialogues and cultural notes from the book. I believe that linguistic competence, communicative competence, and cultural competence are equally important parts of foreign language teaching and foreign language learning. Second, as a foreign language instructor at U.S. study abroad programs, I plan to discuss the importance of cultural norms of the speakers of the local language in the host country. Third, as a director of an American cultural and resource center in Budapest, I will talk about the importance of building bridges between two cultures, describing the goals and missions of the center as well as giving specific examples of the activities of the American Corner Budapest.

  8. Differences between Chinese and American Language Cultures from the Aspect of Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between

  9. Quantitative and qualitative research across cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application. (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole


    Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted.

  10. The Treatment of Culture in the Foreign Language Curriculum: An Analysis of National Curriculum Documents (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Evgenia; Orland-Barak, Lily


    Teaching culture in the foreign language classroom has been widely debated ever since its importance was recognized. Current research suggests that centralized "top down" curricular policies can become potential constraints to teaching culture and points to the need for adapting curricula for culture-integrated language learning. This…

  11. The fading phase of Igbo language and culture: path to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fading phase of Igbo language and culture: path to its revitalisation. ... philosophy of the Igbo man towards himself, his environment and his personal effects, and has discovered that the bane of Igbo language and culture is the Igbo man's attitude towards that which is his, and his easy enchantment with foreign cultures.

  12. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.


    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  13. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context. (United States)

    Shen, Heyong


    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  14. Emotions in “the world”: cultural practices, products, and meanings of anger and shame in two individualist cultures (United States)

    Boiger, Michael; Deyne, Simon De; Mesquita, Batja


    Three studies tested the idea that people’s cultural worlds are structured in ways that promote and highlight emotions and emotional responses that are beneficial in achieving central goals in their culture. Based on the idea that U.S. Americans strive for competitive individualism, while (Dutch-speaking) Belgians favor a more egalitarian variant of individualism, we predicted that anger and shame, as well as their associated responses, would be beneficial to different extents in these two cultural contexts. A questionnaire study found that cultural practices promote beneficial emotions (anger in the United States, shame in Belgium) and avoid harmful emotions (shame in the United States): emotional interactions were perceived to occur more or less frequently to the extent that they elicited culturally beneficial or harmful emotions. Similarly, a cultural product analysis showed that popular children’s books from the United States and Belgium tend to portray culturally beneficial emotions more than culturally harmful emotions. Finally, a word-association study of the shared cultural meanings surrounding anger and shame provided commensurate evidence at the level of the associated response. In each language network, anger and shame were imbued with meanings that reflected the cultural significance of the emotion: while culturally consistent emotions carried relatively stronger connotations of emotional yielding (e.g., giving in to anger and aggressing against the offender in the United States), culturally inconsistent emotions carried relatively stronger connotations of emotional containment (e.g., a stronger emphasis on suppressing or transforming shame in the United States). PMID:24367340

  15. Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems. (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang


    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.

  16. The role of culture in breast health practices among Chinese-Australian women. (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Sullivan, Gerard; Cant, Rosemary


    Exploring how cultural meanings of the breast impact on perceived images of breast cancer and breast health practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Chinese-Australian women in their native language (Cantonese). The findings revealed that the meanings of the breast are constructed within the women's social and cultural context where breasts are associated with sex; and talking about, being concerned with or expressing curiosity about breasts is considered inappropriate. These views have a significant impact on (1) the way the informants viewed breast cancer; (2) perceptions of breast health practices; and (3) the explanations of breast cancer and associated risk perception. Understanding the nature of culturally-based barriers to utilization of breast cancer screening is the first step to discovering solutions for making screening tests more acceptable to women from other cultures. This study provides insight about obstacles for breast health promotion practices and for developing culturally appropriate health education programs and counselling strategies.

  17. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders. (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S


    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  18. Exchange students crossing language boundaries in clinical nursing practice. (United States)

    Myhre, K


    This article examines challenges and learning outcomes for nursing students from a Central European university of applied sciences who completed 3 months of clinical practice in Norway. The clinical practice was supervised in English by Norwegian nurses and nursing teachers. English is not the primary language in any of the countries. Increases in global migration have contributed to the need for an international dimension in nursing education. Personal mobility is a crucial part of the European Union's goal of becoming a knowledge society. Clinically based experiences pose challenges that are additional to and often more complex than traditional course-based experiences. Students who come from a non-English-speaking country for clinical practice in Norway face challenges regarding language. Accepting incoming students is a way of achieving higher quality and more relevant education in nursing. The study shows that clinical practice in a foreign country gives added value compared with clinical practice at home. Greater self-confidence and understanding of core concepts in nursing is described by the participants. Language differences are not regarded as a problem but as a way of developing personal and professional competence. The ability to compare healthcare systems in the two counties is important in developing competencies in nursing. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dzo'ul Milal


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reveal some strategies performed by teacher which indicate that s/he is exercising power in managing and con-ducting language teaching and learning process. Such power may be mani­fested in terms of the frequency of directives or of the holding of control over the interaction Process. Despite the fact that exercising power seems to impair justice, democracy, and humanity because it implies inequality, in a pedagogical context, especially in a language teaching and learning process, such a practice may still be beneficial and justifiable. Among the benefits of the exercise of power are enumerated by the end of the paper.

  20. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta


    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  1. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices. (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan


    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  2. Community Health Center Provider and Staff’s Spanish Language Ability and Cultural Awareness (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.


    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866

  3. Community health center provider and staff's Spanish language ability and cultural awareness. (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H


    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.

  4. The Role of Cultural Understanding and Language Training in Unconventional Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beleaga, Constantin


    .... After examining some situations in which United States and British forces carried out counterinsurgency operations, the author reveals that ground troops with foreign-language skills and cultural...

  5. Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners (United States)

    Lee, Okhee


    This study examined patterns of change in beliefs and practices as elementary teachers learned to establish instructional congruence, a process of mediating academic disciplines with linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse student groups. The study focused on six bilingual Hispanic teachers working with fourth-grade, mostly Hispanic students. The results indicated that teacher learning and change occurred in different ways in the areas of science instruction, students' language and culture, English language and literacy instruction, and integration of these areas in establishing instructional congruence. The results also indicated that establishing instructional congruence was a gradual and demanding process requiring teacher reflection and insight, formal training, and extensive support and sharing. Implications for further research in promoting achievement for all students are discussed.

  6. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI (United States)

    Musso, Paolo


    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  7. Micro Language Planning and Cultural Renaissance in Botswana (United States)

    Alimi, Modupe M.


    Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Lustyantie


    Full Text Available The culture of a society is closely related to the language used by the speakers. Moreover, there are opinions saying that in a language there will be patterns of behavior, materials, ideas (beliefs and knowledge, and sentiments (attitudes and norms of a society that are formed and exposed. This fact is in accordance with the opinion that a language is more than just a communion; it is the relation between individual and sociocultural values. Among all characteristics of culture, language is the most prominent distinguishing feature, since each social group feel themselves as a different entity from other groups. For certain social groups, language is used as the social identity/symbol. Close relation between language and culture is reflected in words used by the society. A concept or way of life in a society can be supported by words and language. Someone’s language behavior generally follows the culture of a society where he/she lives, including how the cultural elements appear in the equipment of human life, livelihood, social system, language (and literature system either written or oral, various of arts, knowledge system, and religious system. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that there is a close relation between the language used by people and how they understand the world and behave in it. Based on 17th Century French fairytales, this article will review the moral values contained in the cultural elements and the implications in learning French as a foreign language.

  9. Our Own Stories: Cross-Cultural Communication Practice. (United States)

    Dresser, Norine

    The textbook for students of intermediate English as a Second Language (ESL) is based on cross-cultural communication misunderstandings described in essays written by university students. It consists of 20 instructional units, each beginning with a real student's dilemma caused by cultural differences and each dealing with one particular custom.…

  10. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton


    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  11. Parenting Practices in Cultural Context: An Ecological Perspective (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh


    Despite general consensus that parenting practices influence the developmental processes of children, many questions about the impacts of parenting practices on child development within the cultural context remain unanswered. This article presents how cultural templates influence parenting practices and developmental processes of young children.…

  12. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety. (United States)

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace


    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment. © 2015 The Author(s).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Skybina


    Full Text Available This paper discusses encyclopedic module of definitions in language dictionaries as a source of historical and cultural information. The main aim of the study is to reveal and compare the encyclopedic modules of definitions in early dictionaries of Australian and Indian English. The method applied consists in the analysis of the definitions and in the review of citation. The data was selected from two dictionaries on historical principles – Austral English (Morris, 1898 and Hobson-Jobson (Yule and Burnell, 1886. The corpus consists of 320 and 292 articles respectively. The study showed that in both dictionaries encyclopedic module of the definitions overshadows the linguistic one. At the same time, specificity of the nascent varieties of English and particularities of the linguistic situation in Australia and India determined the framework of these dictionaries, mainly the criteria of the entries’ selection and, as a consequence, the lexical domains covered by encyclopedic modules of the definitions.

  14. Ethnic Identity and Culture in Foreign Language Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khudgir Agha, Taha Hammad Ameen

    This thesis presents a study of Iraqi (Kurdish and Arabic) undergraduate students’ motivation to learn English, using Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self-System and Gardner's (1985a) Socio-educational model as the main theoretical frameworks, while also including some social contextual factors...... in Sulaymaniyah university (Kurdistan Region-Northern Iraq) and Arabic students in AL-Mustansiriya university (Baghdad city) on their motivation to learn English as a foreign language in Iraq; secondly to determine their motivational orientation (instrumental and/or integrative orientation); and finally to get...... insight into how the concepts of ethnic identity and culture have influenced their motivation to learn English. The study applies a mixed method approach. A structured questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 576 undergraduates in twelve scientific departments divided into two major fields...

  15. Cultural Shifts: Putting Critical Information Literacy into Practice (United States)

    Hicks, Alison


    This paper uses the example of foreign languages to explore the integration of critical information literacy into the curriculum of various disciplines. By closely examining the practices and values inherent in the foreign language information environment, the paper suggests that a critical vision of information literacy provides the most…

  16. Redrawing the Boundaries on Theory, Research, and Practice Concerning Language Teachers' Philosophies and Language Teacher Cognition: Toward a Critical Perspective (United States)

    Crookes, Graham V.


    Two areas of investigation and professional practice--language teachers' philosophies and language teacher cognition--can be considered as related, perhaps overlapping, insofar as they are both the result of thought. The concept of a philosophy of teaching may hold together sets of language teacher cognitions, or guide specific investigations of…

  17. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Significance of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne


    Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…

  18. Linguistic Minorities and the Multilingual Turn: Constructing Language Ownership through Affect in Cultural Production (United States)

    McLaughlin, Mireille


    The "multilingual turn" brings questions of language ownership to the forefront of debates about linguistic minority governance. Acadian minority cultural producers construct language ownership using multiple languages and targeting multilingual publics, but use ideologies of monolingualism to situate Acadian authenticity in place and…

  19. Away with Good Bantus: De-Linking African Language Literature from Culture, "Tribe" and Propriety (United States)

    Mkhize, Nomalanga


    This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…

  20. Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures (Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures). (United States)

    Lahjomri, Abdeljalil


    In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. (MSE)

  1. Spanish language content on reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice websites. (United States)

    Londra, Laura C; Tobler, Kyle J; Omurtag, Kenan R; Donohue, Michael B


    To analyze the use of Spanish language translation on the websites of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) practices in the context of evidence of underuse of infertility services by minority populations. Cross-sectional survey of websites from REI practices. Not applicable. None. None. Assessment of the relationship between having a Spanish-translated website and REI practice characteristics. Variables included concurrent use of social media, size of the practice, Spanish-speaking practitioner in the practice, being a private or a university-based practice, being in a mandated insurance state, and being in an area with different levels of percentage of Hispanic population, adjusted for annual income levels of the population. Of the 376 REI practice websites analyzed, 101 (27%) offered at least some information in Spanish. We identified 97 Spanish-speaking practitioners at 71 REI practices. Having a Spanish-translated website was significantly associated with the practice's use of social media, having an international/out-of-town web page, and having a Spanish-speaking physician in the practice. The size of the practice, as measured in number of cycles reported per year, was not associated with having a translated website. In practices located in the top 60 metropolitan areas by Hispanic population, the odds of having a Spanish-translated website were only related to the percentage of Hispanic population after adjusting for state-mandated insurance and average annual income level of the Hispanic population. Sixty-six of the websites with Spanish-translated content had been automatically translated. An additional eight websites were partially translated automatically. REI practices in metropolitan areas with a higher percentage of Hispanics were more likely to reach out to this minority population by translating their website content into Spanish. These practices were also more likely to use social media. Future studies are needed to determine whether

  2. "A Tale of Two Programs": Interrogating "Open(closed)ness" and "Cultural Diversity" through Critical Observations of Two Japanese University English Language Programs (United States)

    Toh, Glenn


    Japan is known to be a country that manicures its socio-cultural borders. In this article I will examine discourses regarding openness, closedness and cultural diversity in relation to policies and practices that draw heavily on mythologies of English language as an inroad to greater openness and diversity. To do this I will examine two English…

  3. Cultural Humility: An Active Concept to Drive Correctional Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Steefel, Lorraine

    Correctional nursing practice is focused on a unique patient population: inmates who present with their own ethnicities and have an imposed culture from the prison structure. As such, culture must be considered to provide holistic care. Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, which maintains that care is the essence of nursing (without inclusion of culture, there is no care), suggests three nursing actions: to maintain the patient's culture, make accommodations for it, and/or repattern cultural ways that may be unhealthful. Given that correctional nurses work within the context (and culture) of custody, Leininger's nursing actions may not always be feasible; however, showing an underlying attitude of cultural humility is. In this article, cultural humility, the basis of culturally competent care, is described in a manner that can drive nursing practice in corrections.

  4. Cultural and Social Processes of Language Brokering among Arab, Asian, and Latin Immigrants (United States)

    Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Nash, Afaf; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich


    This study examines how language and culture brokering (translating and interpreting language and culture for others) influences the acculturative experiences and self-perceptions of young adults from immigrant Arab, Asian, and Latino American backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 10 participants suggest that mediating information for…

  5. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  6. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in Taiwan: A Socio-Cultural Analysis (United States)

    Kung, Fan-Wei


    This article examines the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in Taiwan based on Vygotsky's (1978) socio-cultural framework. The historical context is provided after some delineations of the educational system in Taiwan with regard to its foreign language instruction policy and development. Based upon the proposed socio-cultural framework,…

  7. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan


    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  8. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  9. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2. (United States)

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot,…

  10. Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various...... to the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in contrast......Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition...

  11. Linguistic Theory in the Practical Lexicography of the African Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article, we look at the relationship between linguistics and lexicography. We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of diction-aries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both lexicography and linguistic theory, lexicographers can improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view is that as long as lexicographers focus on words and their existence in the linguistic system, they cannot work effectively without referring to linguistic theory, consciously or unconsciously. Lexicography is not only concerned with dictionary creation, that is, with the collection of lexical units and their proper description in dictionary entries, but also with the theoretical aspects concerning the lexicon. It is necessary for dictionaries to capture all lexical interrelationships of a phonetic, morphological, syntactic or semantic nature. Drawing examples from a few dictionaries on African languages, we try to show how dictionary compilers have benefited from specific theoretical investigations in general linguistics. We look at how the different linguistic theories have contributed to the improvement in the quality of the contents of some dictionaries of African languages. Our conclusion is that there is a stronger bond between linguistic theory and lexicographic practice than is generally assumed. Ways must therefore be found to understand the various links between the two disciplines. There should be a deliberate move from mutual neglect to collaboration between the two disciplines.

  12. Linguistic culture – active attitude toward (standard) language norm


    Nikolovska, Violeta


    Ever since the respectable Prague School of Linguistics the issues of standard language have been getting serious treatment in linguistics. These issues are addressed in sociolinguistics, language policy and language planning - domains that are receiving the treatment of specific scientific disciplines today. This paper deals with one segment of the language standard functioning, and that is its cultivation. This segment of the functioning of the language standard begins with its codification...

  13. Investigating the attitudes towards learning a third language and its culture in Polish junior high school


    Kiermasz, Zuzanna


    It is believed that attitudes to languages and culture tend to affect achievement in foreign language learning (Baker, 1997). Thus, this factor may be seen as crucial when it comes to the discrepancies in attainment in different languages learnt by the same students. Therefore, it seems vital to investigate variation in attitudes towards both learning L2 together with the approach to the L2 culture and the corresponding issues with respect to L3. Nevertheless, the general at...

  14. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi


    Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.

  15. Gender in identification practices of mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Sinkevych


    The dynamics of the images of masculinity and femininity in popular culture depends on shared cultural paradigm. However, these images not only reflect, but also construct social and cultural reality. Gender representation in popular culture activates the process of selecting, structuring and formation of values of a stereotype, its communicative refinement, giving it new meaning. It promotes innovative images, which play the role of landmarks gender identity.

  16. The Arabic Language Fog of War: Exploring Iraq War Veterans’ Motivations to Study Arabic Language and Culture Post-Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jennifer Nichols


    Full Text Available This article describes research into Iraq War Veterans studying Arabic at the college level post-deployment. What is it about their exposure to the language and culture that motivates them to study the language after serving in Iraq? Few research studies exist in the area of Veterans’ education, a federally recognized minority. The study’s purpose was to explore Iraq war veterans’ language learning motivations and described their experiences, through the use of qualitative research methodology and the development of case study narratives. Results indicate that understanding the Veteran experience can foster a diversity-friendly, inclusive environment in the critical language classroom. There are broader implications for veteran higher education, other Less Commonly Taught Languages, alternative pedagogies, non-traditional student education, K-12, foreign language education policy, foreign relations, diversity & equity in the classroom, and national security.

  17. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients. (United States)

    Muntean, Valentin; Calinici, Tudor; Tigan, Stefan; Fors, Uno G H


    Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  18. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Valentin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs, especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010 of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011 of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results We found no significant differences between the students’ performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students’ performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students’ activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students’ ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  19. Cross cultural dimensions to the learning and practice of learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focused on the question of cultural dimension to learning and the practice of learning in different schools. It can be argues that values mould a culture and this influences the interactions through their adherence to the daily practices. Thus the different schools experience different kinds of conflicts between their ...

  20. Academic and Social Media Practices of Arabic Language among Malaysian Students (United States)

    Ismail, Wail; Zailani, Muhammad Azhar; Awad, Zakaria Alcheikh Mahmoud; Hussin, Zaharah; Faisal, Mohd; Saad, Rahimi


    Nowadays, more and more countries are paying attention to graduates' language skill and sending their students abroad to learn languages. As an Islamic country, Malaysia has sent many students to learn Arabic language and Islamic knowledge. This paper aims at examining the level of practice of Arabic language among Malaysian students in Jordanian…

  1. Review of Pütz et al., eds: Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)......Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)...

  2. Review of Pütz et al., eds: Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'.......Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'....

  3. Deaf Mothers and Breastfeeding: Do Unique Features of Deaf Culture and Language Support Breastfeeding Success? (United States)

    Chin, Nancy P.; Cuculick, Jess; Starr, Matthew; Panko, Tiffany; Widanka, Holly; Dozier, Ann


    Background Deaf mothers who use American Sign Language (ASL) consider themselves a linguistic minority group, with specific cultural practices. Rarely has this group been engaged in infant-feeding research. Objectives To understand how ASL-using Deaf mothers learn about infant feeding and to identify their breastfeeding challenges. Methods Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach we conducted four focus groups with Deaf mothers who had at least one child 0–5 years. A script was developed using a social ecological model (SEM) to capture multiple levels of influence. All groups were conducted in ASL, filmed, and transcribed into English. Deaf and hearing researchers analyzed data by coding themes within each SEM level. Results Fifteen mothers participated. All had initiated breastfeeding with their most recent child. Breastfeeding duration for eight of the mothers was three weeks to 12 months. Seven of the mothers were still breastfeeding, the longest for 19 months. Those mothers who breastfed longer described a supportive social environment and the ability to surmount challenges. Participants described characteristics of Deaf culture such as direct communication, sharing information, use of technologies, language access through interpreters and ASL-using providers, and strong self-advocacy skills. Finally, mothers used the sign ‘struggle’ to describe their breastfeeding experience. The sign implies a sustained effort over time which leads to success. Conclusions In a setting with a large population of Deaf women and ASL-using providers, we identified several aspects of Deaf culture and language which support BF mothers across institutional, community, and interpersonal levels of the SEM. PMID:23492762

  4. Enhancing Reflective Practice in Multicultural Counseling through Cultural Auditing (United States)

    Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina


    Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…

  5. The Best Practices for Shaping School Culture for Instructional Leaders (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer; Asberry, Jacqueline; DeJarnett, Gregory; King, Gwendolyn


    School culture is the belief and attitude influencing every aspect of how a school functions. Culture shared by all school stakeholders makes the actualization of both short-and long-term objectives easier. In this context, the best practices for shaping school culture for professional educators are personal mastery, team learning, and building a…

  6. Religious culture and health promotion: care, practice, object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Timm


    s congratulatory homage to homo sapiens’s scientific progress with the invocation of an artist’s rendition of the precarious place occupied by modern medicine in the larger historical panorama, namely Gustav Klimt’s now lost depiction of the ancient goddess Hygieia flanked by the allegorical figures of Sickness and Death. The intuitive artist interpretation not only reinstates the reality to which the medical sciences are called to perform their duties, namely finitude and suffering, but also places the two distinct -- regrettably still irreconcilable – origins of modern medicine side by side: Greco-Roman rationality and scriptural-sacramental culture rooted in the Christian notion of caritas, which organized the procedural space of the modern hospital and the modern orphanage, the two key historical developments that gave birth to contemporary health welfare and health promotion systems. The traditions of votive practice, especially the sacred rite of delivering an ex-voto as payment for healing and fulfillment of a promise contracted and carried out in the “metaphysical” realm of language and representational media, are not so much prototypical ideas or proto-phenomena of welfare and promotion, but of the linguistic performative act of ontologization supporting the existence, of what was termed Fuersorge(6 (German for welfare, but also care as in Arendt’s caritas, and the organization of the future. Promotional activity falls under the paradigm of Fuersorge as main ontological principle structuring the social reality of the welfare system of values and of scientific thought, but Fuersorge was irreducible to political principle and state governance(6. In this oeuvre, it is a much richer term referring to the cultural-poetic birth of the future(6. Likewise, the reality of Catholic language, practice, and artifacts, though it gave birth to the scientific-technological complex of modern industry, medicine, and state-juridical bureaucracies, differs from the rational

  7. Oral Transmission: A Marriage of Music, Language, Tradition, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Patterson


    Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova, E.V.


    Full Text Available In this article the variety of borrowings, internationalisms, phraseological units, idioms in the professional-oriented texts is considered. It opens an opportunity to understand the statement of a thought and laconicism of its expression, including the field of jurisprudence. The research objective is demonstration the ways of interpretation and application of legal English language units in practice through characteristic features of English legal terminology. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of phraseological units and their translation in oral and written speech.

  9. Shared Places, Separate Spaces: Constructing Cultural Spaces through Two National Languages in Finland (United States)

    From, Tuuli; Sahlström, Fritjof


    Finland is a bilingual country with 2 national languages, Finnish and Swedish. The Swedish-speaking school institution aims to protect the minority language by maintaining a monolingual school space. In this article, the construction of linguistic and ethnic difference in educational discourse and practice related to the national languages in…

  10. Quality Communication in Hospitality: Language Skills or Culture Transfer? (United States)

    Leung, Peggy; Lo, Terence

    This paper focuses on English language teaching for the hospitality industry in Hong Kong, presenting a brief statement on the concept of transfer and its relevance to teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for the world of work. The observable changes in the nature of language in the world of work in a service-oriented economy are…

  11. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly


    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  12. Cultural Aspects of Language Imposition in Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. (United States)

    Bickley, Verner C.


    This paper distinguishes Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language) and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language) according to type and function and summarizes their development as the national languages of Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. It presents a short, historical account of the spread, through religious and educational activities, of the English…

  13. Language Proficiency and Cultural Identity as Two Facets of the Acculturation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmiotek Łukasz


    Full Text Available This article describes a cross-cultural study comparing bicultural identity of first generation Poles and high school students in the Rhône Alpes region (France, as well as French language university students in Poland. Studies show that two components, language and identity, are related. This article intends to answer questions regarding the relationship between the migrant’s bicultural identity and language proficiency. Bilingualism is operationalized as (i listening comprehension and (ii bidirectional translation. The results do not confirm that there is a relation between bilingual skills and identification with shared French and Polish values. Cultural identity appears to be inversely related to country of residence: Polish identity is strongest amongst immigrant youth in France and French identity is strongest amongst Polish students of French language and culture. These identities run in opposite direction to language competencies. The results suggest internalization of one of the cultures' negative stereotypes towards the other or towards itself.

  14. Simulating the Effects of Cross-Generational Cultural Transmission on Language Change (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    Language evolves in a socio-cultural environment. Apart from biological evolution and individual learning, cultural transmission also casts important influence on many aspects of language evolution. In this paper, based on the lexicon-syntax coevolution model, we extend the acquisition framework in our previous work to examine the roles of three forms of cultural transmission spanning the offspring, parent, and grandparent generations in language change. These transmissions are: those between the parent and offspring generations (PO), those within the offspring generation (OO), and those between the grandparent and offspring generations (GO). The simulation results of the considered model and relevant analyses illustrate not only the necessity of PO and OO transmissions for language change, thus echoing our previous findings, but also the importance of GO transmission, a form of cross-generational cultural transmission, on preserving the mutual understandability of the communal language across generations of individuals.

  15. Brazilian and German perspectives: a study on perception, interculturality and foreign language and culture teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergenfel A. Vaz Ferreira


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a comparative study of the perception of multimodal texts, more specifically, advertisements printed in Brazilian and German magazines, by Brazilian learners of GFL(German as a Foreign Language and German learners of PFL (Portuguese as a Foreign Language , with special attention to the intercultural dimension involved in this process. Through the analysis developed in the study, it was possible to identify not only cultural aspects strictly related to language phenomena (as the use of personal pronouns and forms of treatment, for instance, but also more subjective cultural aspects (such as emotional states, the view about work, among others. This study also discusses the implications of the link between culture and language choices for the area of teaching and learning foreign languages / cultures.

  16. The Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA): A Multilingual Community of Practice (United States)

    Herrero, Carmen


    This article presents the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) project, a community of practice (CoP) whose main goals are first to engage language teachers in practical uses of film and audio-visual media in the second language classroom; second, to value the artistic features of cinema; and third, to encourage a dialogue between…

  17. Students with Learning Disabilities in the Foreign Language Learning Environment and the Practice of Exemption (United States)

    Wight, Mary Caitlin S.


    This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…

  18. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers (United States)

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.


    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  19. Cultural transition of international medical graduate residents into family practice in Canada. (United States)

    Triscott, Jean A C; Szafran, Olga; Waugh, Earle H; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Barton, Martina


    To identify the perceived strengths that international medical graduate (IMG) family medicine residents possess and the challenges they are perceived to encounter in integrating into Canadian family practice. This was a qualitative, exploratory study employing focus groups and interviews with 27 participants - 10 family physicians, 13 health care professionals, and 4 family medicine residents. Focus group/interview questions addressed the strengths that IMGs possess and the challenges they face in becoming culturally competent within the Canadian medico-cultural context. Qualitative data were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. Participants identified that IMG residents brought multiple strengths to Canadian practice including strong clinical knowledge and experience, high education level, the richness of varied cultural perspectives, and positive personal strengths. At the same time, IMG residents appeared to experience challenges in the areas of: (1) communication skills (language nuances, unfamiliar accents, speech volume/tone, eye contact, directness of communication); (2) clinical practice (uncommon diagnoses, lack of familiarity with care of the opposite sex and mental health conditions); (3) learning challenges (limited knowledge of Canada's health care system, patient-centered care and ethical principles, unfamiliarity with self-directed learning, unease with receiving feedback); (4) cultural differences (gender roles, gender equality, personal space, boundary issues; and (5) personal struggles. Residency programs must recognize the challenges that can occur during the cultural transition to Canadian family practice and incorporate medico-cultural education into the curriculum. IMG residents also need to be aware of cultural differences and be open to different perspectives and new learning.

  20. Using Cultural and Social Beliefs in Language Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerapol Limsatta


    Full Text Available Agreement on word-object pairing in communication depends on the intensity of the beliefs that gradually emerge in a society of agents, on the condition that no one was born with embedded knowledge. The agents search and exchange ideas about unknown word-object pairings, until they meet a consensus about what the object should be named. A language game is a social process of finding agreement on word-object pairings through communication in a multi-agent system. In this paper, a technique is proposed to discover the association between a word and the agents’ beliefs on an object using self-organizing maps and a cultural algorithm in a multi-hearer environment. A conceptual space is implemented, which stores the agent’s beliefs in three dimensions, represented by colors. The technique was evaluated for a variety of scenarios using four significant measures: coherence, specificity, success rate, and word size. The results showed that with the proposed method social agents can reach agreement fast and that their communication is effective.

  1. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    tian xiu ying


    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  2. Smartness as a Cultural Practice in Schools (United States)

    Hatt, Beth


    This study explores smartness as a cultural construct rather than a biological capacity. The cultural construction of smartness has broad consequences related to teacher expectations, student academic identity development, and schooling inequities. This study is based on a 1-year ethnography in a kindergarten classroom, and the author investigates…

  3. High-Impact Practices for Cultural Competency (United States)

    Talbani, Aziz


    The world has closely-knitted economic, social, and cultural relations that offer greater entrepreneurial and professional opportunities than ever before. Students in the 21st century global society will live and work in a rapidly changing social, economic, and political world; they will require global cultural competencies to be successful. Study…

  4. Forming Future Teachers’ Aesthetic Culture in Foreign Educational Practice


    Sotska Galyna


    The article deals with a theoretical analysis of foreign educational experience in solving scientific problems of forming future teachers’ aesthetic culture. Given the current socio-cultural situation, it has been noted that a teacher who developed his/her aesthetic culture can make a direct contribution to the social and cultural challenges of a changing world. Based on the study of scientific and pedagogical literature, normative and legal support and the content of practical courses, the a...

  5. Changing collaborative practices through cultural interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marrewijk, A.H.; Veenswijk, M.B.; Clegg, S.R.


    After a parliamentary enquiry into construction industry malpractice, changes occurred in collaborative practices between clients and contractors in megaprojects within the Dutch construction sector. The enquiry meant that both clients and contractors were forced to acknowledge illegal practices of

  6. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel


    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  7. A Case Study on the Influence of Organizational Culture on Language Classroom (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui


    This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…

  8. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement'' (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker


    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  9. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement" (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker


    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  10. Group Counseling with International Students: Practical, Ethical, and Cultural Considerations (United States)

    Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.


    International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…

  11. Continuous Professional Development of English Language Teachers: Perception and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari


    Full Text Available Professional development is considered as an essential element in enhancing the teaching and learning process to ensure student learning. Professional development can also be deemed as a cornerstone of teacher professionalism and quality. The governments and educational institutions invest significantly in Continuous Professional Development (CPD to improve teacher quality and to meet the changing needs of the students. To uncover the perceptions and practices of professional development in Saudi Arabia, a survey was conducted at Taif University English Language Centre. The sample consisted of 121 English language teachers from various countries and having varied educational and academic experiences. The survey comprised items relevant to learning approaches, concept of professional development, perceptions and feedback on CPD. The respondents supported lifelong learning and experiential learning leading towards learner centered approach. They perceived the CPD as a challenge to their existing knowledge and classroom practice. However, they expressed their concerns regarding indigenization of activities in CPDs, institutional support in conducting classroom activities, and follow up activities.  Keywords: Professional development, Teacher perception, ELT in Saudi Arabia

  12. Can formal language planning link to grassroots cultural initiatives? An informal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright, Laurence


    Full Text Available Formal language planning is inevitably a top-down, highly technical process. Success for such planning would seem to depend on engaging productively with existing or readily developed social motivation within the society. This article reports on an informal investigation into how ordinary language practitioners and cultural workers in South Africa view the possibilities of contributing to the country's emerging language dispensation, what they regard as their most useful possible contributions, and what they expect from the language planners and 'government' in support of South Africa's Language Policy and Plan.

  13. How Australian and New Zealand schools of optometry prepare students for culturally competent practice. (United States)

    Truong, Mandy; Bentley, Sharon A; Napper, Genevieve A; Guest, Daryl J; Anjou, Mitchell D


    This study is an investigation of how Australian and New Zealand schools of optometry prepare students for culturally competent practice. The aims are: (1) to review how optometric courses and educators teach and prepare their students to work with culturally diverse patients; and (2) to determine the demographic characteristics of current optometric students and obtain their views on cultural diversity. All Australian and New Zealand schools of optometry were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected with two surveys: a curriculum survey about the content of the optometric courses in relation to cultural competency issues and a survey for second year optometry students containing questions in relation to cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity and attitudes to cultural diversity. Four schools of optometry participated in the curriculum survey (Deakin University, Flinders University, University of Melbourne and University of New South Wales). Sixty-three students (22.3 per cent) from these four schools as well as the University of Auckland participated in the student survey. Cultural competency training was reported to be included in the curriculum of some schools, to varying degrees in terms of structure, content, teaching method and hours of teaching. Among second year optometry students across Australia and New Zealand, training in cultural diversity issues was the strongest predictor of cultural awareness and sensitivity after adjusting for school, age, gender, country of birth and language other than English. This study provides some evidence that previous cultural competency-related training is associated with better cultural awareness and sensitivity among optometric students. The variable approaches to cultural competency training reported by the schools of optometry participating in the study suggest that there may be opportunity for further development in all schools to consider best practice training in cultural competency. © 2014 The

  14. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence. (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M


    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  15. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community (United States)

    Ramani, Uma


    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  16. "We communicated that way for a reason": language practices and language ideologies among hearing adults whose parents are deaf. (United States)

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P


    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."

  17. Patients' evaluation of quality of care in general practice: what are the cultural and linguistic barriers? (United States)

    Harmsen, J A M; Bernsen, R M D; Bruijnzeels, M A; Meeuwesen, L


    Increased migration implies increased contacts for physicians with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds who have different expectations about healthcare. How satisfied are immigrant patients, and how do they perceive the quality of care? This study investigated which patient characteristics (such as cultural views and language proficiency) are related to patients' satisfaction and perceived quality of care. Patients (n=663) from 38 general practices in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) were interviewed. General satisfaction with the general practitioner (GP) was measured by a report mark. Perceived quality of care was measured using the 'Quote-mi' scale (quality of care through the patient's eyes-for migrants), which contains an ethnic-specific subscale and a communication process subscale. Using multilevel regression techniques, the relation between patient characteristics (ethnicity, age, education, Dutch language proficiency, cultural views) and satisfaction and perceived quality of care was analysed. In general, patients seemed fairly satisfied. Non-Western patients perceived less quality of care and were less satisfied than Dutch-born patients. The older the patients and the more modern cultural views they had, the more satisfied they were about the GP in general, as well as about the communication process. However, non-Western patients holding more modern views were the most critical regarding the ethnic-specific quality items. The poorer patients' Dutch language proficiency, the more negative they were about the communication process. It is concluded that next to communication aspects, especially when the patient's proficiency in Dutch is poor, physician awareness about the patient's cultural views is very important during the consultation. This holds especially true when the immigrant patient seems to be more or less acculturated. Medical students and physicians should be trained to become aware of the relevance of patients' different cultural backgrounds

  18. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.


    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science. Their cultural preference or profile defined their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning processes. The culture- and language-influenced curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by Pangasinan learners' cultural preference or profile. Results of the experimental participants' pretest and posttest on science attitude measure, when compared, showed significant statistical difference. Assessment of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data gathered from postimplementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries indicated the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study yielded that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning processes of physics concepts allowed students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  19. Quality Assurance and Foreign Languages--Reflecting on Oral Assessment Practices in Two University Spanish Language Programs in Australia (United States)

    Díaz, Adriana R.; Hortiguera, Hugo; Espinoza Vera, Marcia


    In the era of quality assurance (QA), close scrutiny of assessment practices has been intensified worldwide across the board. However, in the Australian context, trends in QA efforts have not reached the field of modern/foreign languages. This has largely resulted in leaving the establishment of language proficiency benchmarking up to individual…

  20. The pedagogical practices of a teacher of Portuguese Foreign Language (PLE in immersion and non-immersion context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildicéia Aparecida Rocha


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a reflection on the specifics of teaching Portuguese as a Foreign Language (PLE both in the context of immersion and outside it, from the observations carried out in two stages: first, the practice of a teacher PLE will be described in immersion situation at a university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil; and then practice the same teacher in a course of PLE out of the immersion context, at a university in Spain, in a provincial capital. In this sense, the teaching practice will be analyzed from a teacher of PLE in immersion situation and beyond when the didactic and pedagogical treatment of the inseparable relationship between language and culture within an intercultural communicative approach. It is a qualitative research in which it is a case of state, showing the practice of one teacher (research subjects in two socio-historically different contexts, but with the same approach. The survey results indicate that the teacher's practice in non-immersion context had to be re-signified to enable PLE learning in such a context. In fact, the teacher had to redefine their practice and deconstruct a belief and turn to the theory, according to their didactic and pedagogical and linguistic concerns, finding that the examination of social, historical and cultural data should always be the guiding and / or determinants as regards the teaching of a foreign language, in particular PLE out of immersion.

  1. The Role of Irish Language Teaching: Cultural Identity Formation or Language Revitalization? (United States)

    Slatinská, Anna; Pecníková, Jana


    The focal point of the article is Irish language teaching in the Republic of Ireland. Firstly, we deal with the most significant documents where the status of the Irish language is being defined. In this respect, for the purposes of analysis, we have chosen the document titled "20 Year Strategy for the Irish language" which plays a…

  2. Multilingual Language and Literacy Practices and Social Identities in Sunni Madrassahs in Mauritius: A Case Study (United States)

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear


    This study analyzes the connections among multilingual language practices, multilingual literacy practices, and social identities in two Sunni madrassahs in Mauritius. The study is framed by sociolinguistic and poststructuralist perspectives on language and identity, and social practice views of literacy. Data collection and analysis involved…

  3. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia. (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew


    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  4. French Cuisine in the Classroom: Using Culture to Enhance Language Proficiency. (United States)

    Abrate, Jane E.


    French cuisine offers a valuable resource for creating culture-based contexts for language use in the classroom. Suggestions and ideas are presented for incorporating food-related activities in the French class. (VWL)

  5. Language Classroom Risk-Taking Behavior in a Performed Culture-Based Program


    Stephen D. Luft


    While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA) is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Th...

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language. (United States)

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira


    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  7. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS


    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  8. Critical Text Analysis: Linking Language and Cultural Studies (United States)

    Wharton, Sue


    Many UK universities offer degree programmes in English Language specifically for non-native speakers of English. Such programmes typically include not only language development but also development in various areas of content knowledge. A challenge that arises is to design courses in different areas that mutually support each other, thus…

  9. Language Usage and Culture Maintenance: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Mothers in Australia (United States)

    Mejía, Glenda


    This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…

  10. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin


    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  11. "Those Anime Students": Foreign Language Literacy Development through Japanese Popular Culture (United States)

    Fukunaga, Natsuki


    Using multiliteracies and sociocultural perspectives on language and literacy learning, this article describes three Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) students' literacy development through involvement with Japanese popular culture. As part of a larger qualitative ethnographic study, the author interviewed JFL learners who have a particular…

  12. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  13. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program (United States)

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi


    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  14. Carrying a Baby in the Back: Teaching with an Awareness of the Cultural Construction of Language. (United States)

    Holme, Randal


    Shows how culture is encoded in the everyday conceptual metaphors speakers take for granted. Describes the way these encodings differ across languages as "semantic relativism" and argues that language teachers need to be aware of this phenomenon to understand their learners' interlanguage and to help them recognize the internal structure of the…

  15. Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in School: Helping Hispanic Students Acquire Success in Elementary School (United States)

    Ivey, Pauline S.


    Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…

  16. True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy (United States)

    Gilyard, Keith


    In "True to the Language Game", Keith Gilyard, one of the major African American figures to emerge in language and cultural studies, makes his most seminal work available in one volume. This collection of new and previously published essays contains Gilyard's most relevant scholarly contributions to deliberations about linguistic diversity,…

  17. Machinima Filmmaking as Culture in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    is a practice whereby game worlds and game play are captured and edited, thereby transformed into a film. The chapter frames the phenomenon of machinima by looking at it from a view on topics of authorship, media ecology and remix practices. Two case studies are presented herein in order to leverage...... practices of authorship such as machinima and is inspired by the dialogic theories of Russian literary philosopher M.M. Bakhtin. A three-part structure is used herein: (1) introduction to theoretical concepts, background on machinima and this study, and a review of methodology, (2) data and analysis, and (3...

  18. Language, Mind, Practice: Families of Recursive Thinking in Human Reasoning (United States)

    Josephson, Marika


    In 2002, Chomsky, Hauser, and Fitch asserted that recursion may be the one aspect of the human language faculty that makes human language unique in the narrow sense--unique to language and unique to human beings. They also argue somewhat more quietly (as do Pinker and Jackendoff 2005) that recursion may be possible outside of language: navigation,…

  19. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...

  20. Variation in Second Language Learners' Strategies among Non-Native English Speakers from Three Language/Culture Backgrounds (United States)

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline


    This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…

  1. Variation in Second Language Learners' Strategies among Non-Native English Speakers from Three Language/Culture Backgrounds (United States)

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline


    This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…

  2. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution. (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick


    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  3. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn


    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  4. Examiner Practices and Culturally Inflected Doctoral Theses (United States)

    Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gillian


    Increase in numbers of postgraduate students worldwide represent an opportunity and necessity for nurturing and recognising the diversity of culturally inflected research topics, methodologies and expression. However, there are tensions in the definitions, encouragement and recognition of diversity in theses, and in balances of power in…

  5. Practicing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Physical Education (United States)

    Young, Shawna; Sternod, Brandon M.


    As a result of continuous global immigration to the United States, several microcultures coexist within the country. Today's classroom should provide an interface where individuals from different cultural backgrounds have the potential for sharing a rich place of learning--a place where the teacher embraces and celebrates individual differences,…

  6. Plant Cell Culture Initiation: practical tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.


    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  7. Critical Thinking as Cultural-Historical Practice. (United States)

    Panofsky, Carolyn P.


    Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…

  8. Open and Distance Learning: Cultural Practices in Nepal (United States)

    Pangeni, Shesha Kanta


    Nepali education culture is dominated by face-to-face tutoring. It has a long history starting from the Gurukul culture to the present formal schooling. Emerging practices of using technology in education have been promoting online learning as a form of distance education and gaining popularity. This paper focuses on digging out the contextual…

  9. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice. (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  10. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice (United States)

    Patish, Yelena


    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  11. Individualism and the cultural roots of management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre

    We study the cultural foundations of management practices, which are increasingly recognized as important determinants of firm performance. This research closes the loop on two developing literatures, one seeking cultural explanations for economic development and the other seeking to account for

  12. Slavic and Norwegian Language and Culture in Contact: The Influence of the Norwegian Language and Culture on Immigrant Youth from the Former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Lie


    Full Text Available This paper is in fact an extensive summary of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on the immigrant children’s life in migratory existence in Norway. The dissertation is divided into two main parts: Part I – Cultures in Contact and Part II – Languages in contact. The main purpose of this dissertation was to find out what happened with the first language of the former Yugoslav immigrant youth in Norway, while under the influence of the Norwegian environment and language. It has been an aim to understand and analyse these immigrant children’s bilingual and bicultural lives as immigrants in Norway. The term immigrant children are here defined as children of first generation of immigrants where both parents are ex-Yugoslavians. Among these immigrant children were those who were born in Norway, and those who arrived in Norway as babies, as preschoolers, and as school age children. Research on immigrants’ language and culture indicates that it is possible for immigrant children to identify themselves with two cultures and two languages. The dissertation tries to give answer to what extent the immigrant children in this study have become bilingual and bicultural.

  13. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women. (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S


    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  14. The place of Germanic language and culture in Freud's discovery of psychoanalysis between 1895 and 1900. (United States)

    Anzieu, D


    Freud's self-analysed dreams between 1895 and 1900 point out: His attachment to his German mother tongue and the use of its peculiarities to represent certain polymorphous perverse fantasies of childhood (voyeurism, masochistic mostly); the recourse to living foreign languages (English and French mostly) to name the parts of the self both left alive and foreign to the consciousness; the use of Latin and Greek words to constitute one scientific universal language fitting to the knowledge of the unconscious. For Freud, the German culture is the culture to which he belongs; the antique Mediterranean culture being the culture of reference. It allows him to get free from the motherly symbiosis and to discover the Oedipus complex. The variety of languages and cultures is necessary to the preconscious activity of the psychoanalyst to whom it provides 'intermediate ideas'.

  15. Teaching and training for global engineering perspectives on culture and professional communication practices

    CERN Document Server

    Flammia, Madelyn


    Provides a foundation for understanding a range of linguistic, cultural, and technological factors to effectively practice international communication in a variety of professional communication arenas This book presents a range of perspectives, examples, and concepts for teaching international professional communication in different settings. Industry professionals and academic researchers alike have written entries for Teaching and Training for Global Engineering: Perspectives on Culture and Professional Communication Practices, which have been organized into four cohesive, context-based sections that examine central issues associated with offering effective instruction on communication in global settings. The first section presents approaches for teaching issues of language and visual design related to international communication. The second section reviews aspects of software use and ethical practices associated with communicating globally. The third ection discusses how educators can use information a...

  16. Language Classroom Risk-Taking Behavior in a Performed Culture-Based Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Luft


    Full Text Available While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. This study finds that risk-taking behavior has a moderate positive relationship with student performance in PCA. While questionnaire items related to teaching style and classroom dynamics are not found to significantly correlate with students’ risk-taking behavior, some items related to daily grading and personal study habits are found to have a moderate positive relationship with risk-taking behavior. Based on these findings, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between assessment and risktaking in language learning. As second language acquisition researchers have investigated the role of affective variables in language learning, risk-taking has frequently been identified as a variable linked with success (Beebe, 1983; Ely, 1986; Naiman, Frolich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Rubin, 1975; Samimy & Pardin, 1994; Samimy & Tabuse, 1992. However, it is difficult to apply these findings to language classrooms that use the performed culture approach (PCA, an approach to the teaching of East Asian languages, for two reasons: (a PCA’s focus on the learning of a foreign culture could mean that greater risk is involved in 106 Luft language learning than in a typical language classroom; (b PCA creates a language learning experience for which the risks involved are different than those in language classrooms where other approaches are used.

  17. Developing Culturally Competent Health Knowledge: Issues of Data Analysis of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Language Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai


    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suitable analytic approaches and research methods for cross-cultural, cross-language qualitative research. The authors also discuss the implications of these lessons for the development of culturally competent health knowledge.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Translanguaging Practices in an Online Beginner-Level Foreign Language Classroom (United States)

    Adinolfi, Lina; Astruc, Lluïsa


    Translanguaging, the movement between communicative modes and features of different languages, is becoming an established research tradition in content-focused second language learning contexts. Pedagogic translanguaging practices nevertheless remain under-applied and under-researched in foreign language instructional settings, whether…

  19. Exploring communication challenges due to language and cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    culture have on communication in the workplace and to emphasise the importance of .... resource for innovation and adaptability (Ely & Thomas 2001: 269). ... African workplace. In addition to these groups, there are others that are intermingled, causing a greater diversity of cultures influenced by other 'primary' cultures.

  20. Conflicting Language Ideologies and Contradictory Language Practices in Singaporean Multilingual Families (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups--Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing…

  1. Culture misunderstood——the language barrier in cross culture——From the aspect of differences on word cultural connotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From the relationship between culture and language, we know language is a carrier of culture; each nation has its own distinctive culture. Through comparing cultural connotation between Chinese characters and English words, we know it is more important for us to master the cultural connotation of words than just knowing their spelling and pronouncing. Only under this condition, we can use English properly and freely.

  2. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi


    for efficiency, nurses’ barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. Design Concept analysis. Data sources Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. Methods Walker and Avant......Aim To report an analysis of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice. Background Nursing research culture should be valued for its contribution to improving patient care and should be considered as a routine hospital activity. However, the demand......'s eight-step framework for concept analysis. Results Five defining attributes of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice were identified: strong monodisciplinary nursing professionalism, academic thinking and socialization, research use as a part of daily nursing practice...

  3. Ewe (for Togo): Communication and Culture Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series. (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook, concerning the Ewe language and culture of Togo, presents classroom activities that require the learner to exchange messages in a way that is appropriate to the cultural context. These activities are presented in 30 lessons containing both basic and supplementary material that deal with situations and topics which will be useful to…

  4. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (United States)

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.


    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  5. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.


    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science.…

  6. Battles and Borders. : Perspectives on Cultural Transmission and Literature in Minor Language Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broomans, Pieternella; Jensma, Goffe; Jiresch, Esther; Klok, Janna; van Elswijk, Roald


    Battles and Borders. Perspectives on Cultural Transmission and Literature in Minor Language Areas is about literature on the fringes of Europe. The authors all discuss the often unique ways in which literary history and cultural transfer function in peripheral and central regions against the

  7. Foreign Culture Awareness Needs of Saudi English Language Majors at Buraydah Community College (United States)

    Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh


    Although many EFL learners have a command of internalized foreign language knowledge, they may have difficulty using this knowledge in different contexts. This is due to many interacting factors affecting their performance, mainly lack of target culture awareness. This study intended to identify the cultural aspects suitable to be integrated into…

  8. Language, Culture and Ethnicity: Interplay of Ideologies within a Japanese Community in Brazil (United States)

    Sakuma, Tomoko


    This dissertation is a sociolinguistic study of the ideologies about language, culture and ethnicity among Japanese immigrants and descendants in Brazil (hereafter, Nikkeis) who gather at a local Japanese cultural association, searching for what it means to be "Japanese" in Brazil. This study focuses on how linguistic behaviors are…

  9. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.


    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  10. Engaging a "Truly Foreign" Language and Culture: China through Chinese Film (United States)

    Ning, Cynthia


    In this article, the author shares how she uses Chinese film in her Chinese language and culture classes. She demonstrates how Chinese films can help students "navigate the uncharted universe of Chinese culture" with reference to several contemporary Chinese films. She describes how intensive viewing of films can develop a deeper and…

  11. The national spirit reflection in the memory of language and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov A.S.


    Full Text Available this research focuses on a dialectic interrelation between language and culture perceived as existential manifestations of the national spirit. Identity of the national linguistic world perception is defined by its social-historic development, geographic and climatic conditions of living and distinctiveness of the national linguo-cultural heritage.

  12. Giving a Virtual Voice to the Silent Language of Culture: The "Cultura" Project. (United States)

    Furstenberg, Gilberte; Levet, Sabine; English, Kathryn; Maillet, Katherine


    Presents a Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled, "Cultura," designed to develop foreign language students' understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world. Focuses on the pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways the Web can be used to…

  13. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna


    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  14. A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Children's Early Language: A Family Study (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor; Tašner, Veronika


    This study examines the effect of certain socio-cultural factors of the family environment on the language of toddlers and children in early childhood. The sample included 86 families with one- to six-year-old children. The data on the social, economic, and cultural factors of the family environment, parental reading literacy, parental knowledge…

  15. Performed Culture: An Approach to East Asian Language Pedagogy. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series, Volume 11 (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew; Warnick, Paul


    This book is a general introduction to the performed culture approach, which trains students how to express themselves in a way that native speakers of the target culture feel appropriate in given situations. Target readership includes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean language teachers and graduate students. Chapters of this book include: (1)…

  16. Culture care meanings, beliefs, and practices in Rural Dominican Republic. (United States)

    Schumacher, Gretchen


    This ethnonursing study explored the meanings, beliefs, and practices of care for rural Dominicans in the Dominican Republic. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory, ethnonursing, and four-phase analysis method guided the study. Interviews were conducted with 19 general and 10 key informants. Analysis of interviews revealed three main themes: (a) family presence is essential for meaningful care experiences and care practices, (b) respect and attention are central to the meaning of care and care practices, and (c) rural Dominicans value and use both generic (folk) and professional care practices. Implications and recommendations for nursing practice, education, and research are described.

  17. A culture of safety: a business strategy for medical practices. (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M; Marles, Adam F


    Physician practices can enhance their economics by taking patient safety to a new level within their practices. Patient safety has a lot to do with systems and processes that occur not only at the hospital but also within a physician's practice. Historically, patient safety measures have been hospital-focused and -driven, largely due to available resources; however, physician practices can impact patient safety, efficiently and effectively, with a methodical plan involving assessment, prioritization, and compliance. With the ever-increasing focus of reimbursement on quality and patient safety, physician practices that implement a true culture of safety now could see future economic benefits using this business strategy.

  18. Organizational Culture and ISD Practices: Comparative Literature Review (United States)

    Ovaska, Päivi; Juvonen, Pasi

    This chapter reports results from a study that aims to analyze and compare the literature related to custom IS, packaged, and open source software organizational cultures, and their systems development practices. The comparative analysis is performed using a framework for organizational culture as lenses to the literature. Our study suggests that the beliefs and values of these three communities of practice differ remarkably and make their organizational culture and systems development practices different. The most important differences were found in business milieu, ISD team efforts, ISD approaches, and products and quality. Based on the study we can question the widely held wisdom of methods, techniques, and tools in systems development and managing its efforts. Our study has several implications for research and practice, which are discussed in this chapter.

  19. State assessment policy and practice for English language learners a national perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Charlene; Albus, Debra


    State Assessment Policy and Practice for English Language Learners presents three significant studies, each examining a different aspect of states' strategies for including English language learners in state assessments. *an Analysis of State Assessment Policies Regarding Accommodations for English Language Learners; *a Survey and Description of Test Translation Practices; and *an Examination of State Practices for Reporting Participation and Performance of English Language Learners in State Assessments. With the rise in population of English language learners and the subsequent stepped-up legislative focus on this student population over the past decade, states have been challenged to include English language learners in state assessment programs. Until now, the little data available on states' policies and practices for meeting this challenge has been embedded in various reports and professional journals and scattered across the Internet. This volume offers, for the first time, a focused examination of stat...

  20. The language policy practice in mathematics education in the upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that teachers teach between 30-46% of their mathematics lesson periods in English at the lower primary level. Efforts to use the native language for meaningful mathematics instructions are constrained by teachers' inability to speak the language and the lack of materials in the native language.

  1. Multilingualism in the Workplace: Language Practices in Multilingual Contexts (United States)

    Angouri, Jo


    The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…

  2. Communicative language teaching in Georgia : from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edisherashvili, Natalia


    In a globalizing world, the majority of language learners need to study foreign languages for real-life purposes, in order to be able to communicate beyond the bounds of their own country. This is especially important for the populations of smaller countries such as Georgia, whose native language is

  3. Parallel transaction processing in functional languages, towards practical functional databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; de Keijzer, Ander


    This paper shows how functional languages can be adapted for transaction processing, and discusses the implementation of a parallel runtime system for such functional transaction processing languages. We extend functional languages with current state variables and result state variables to allow the

  4. "I Am One-of-a-Kind": Unveiling the Silence of Korean American Elementary Students' Negotiations of Culture, Language, and Literacy (United States)

    Ra, Esther H.


    In this study, the author explores the roles of family, culture, language as these shape both the articulated identities of Korean American elementary students, and their literacy practices at school. Using data from an academic year of ethnographic study at a public elementary school, located outside a northeastern metropolitan city, the author…

  5. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Ikhsan, Siti Ajar


    The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students' needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning…

  6. Coitus in the Symbolic Language of Slavic Culture


    Aleksandr V. Gura


    Folk culture considers sexual intercourse unclean and dangerous and therefore applies many restrictions to it. Usually coitus is referred to with euphemisms and other substitutes that can be both neutral and expressive, or even humorous. Symbols of coitus in popular culture are numerous and diverse. Coitus is one of the most important objects of allegory among different types of human activity. In traditional popular culture it corresponds to a wide paradigm of behavioural symbols. The ...

  7. Language policies and communication in multinational companies : Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Floor; Peltokorpi, Vesa


    This article focuses on the degree of alignment among multinational company (MNC) strategic orientation, human resource management (HRM) practices, and language policies. On the one hand, the authors propose that the coherent, tight alignment among the HRM practices, language policies, and MNC

  8. The Relationship between Iranian ELT Instructors' Beliefs about Language Teaching and Their Practices in Real Classrooms (United States)

    Mellati, Morteza; Fatemi, Mohammad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Khalil


    Teachers play different roles in multidimensional process of language teaching and their beliefs about language teaching might influence their practices. Donaghue (2003) stated that beliefs guide teachers in their practice. However, Argyris and Schon (1978) claimed that there is almost a discrepancy between teachers' beliefs about language…

  9. Curriculum-Based Language Assessment With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in the Context of Mathematics. (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Johnson, Valerie E


    The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the use of curriculum-based language assessment (CBLA) with students who are English language learners and students who speak nonmainstream varieties of English, such as African American English. The article begins with a discussion of the discourse of mathematics and the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP), followed by a review of studies that includes those that examined the performance of English language learner and nonmainstream dialect-speaking students on word-based math items. The literature review highlights the linguistic and content biases associated with word-based math problems. Useful strategies that SLPs and educators can incorporate in culturally and linguistically appropriate assessments are discussed. The tutorial ends with a discussion of CBLA as a viable assessment approach to use with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Tests used at national, state, and school levels to assess students' math abilities have associated linguistic bias and content bias often leading to an inaccurate depiction of culturally and linguistically diverse students' math skills. CBLA as an assessment method can be used by school-based SLPs to gather valid and useful information about culturally and linguistically diverse students' language for learning math. By using CBLA, SLPs can help modify curricular tasks in broader contexts in an effort to make math, including high-level math, "accessible and achievable for all" students (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017).

  10. Counseling Spanish-speaking patients: Atlanta pharmacists' cultural sensitivity, use of language-assistance services, and attitudes. (United States)

    Muzyk, Andrew J; Muzyk, Tara L; Barnett, Candace W


    To document the types of language-assistance services available in pharmacies and the perceptions of pharmacists regarding the effectiveness of these services, and to measure the attitudes toward counseling Spanish-speaking patients and cultural sensitivity of pharmacists. Cross-sectional assessment. Metropolitan Atlanta, Ga. Registered Georgia pharmacists residing in metropolitan Atlanta. Mailed survey, with repeat mailing 2 weeks later. 38 survey items measuring demographic and practice-site characteristics, types of language-assistance services available with an assessment of the effectiveness of each measured on a nominal scale, and attitudinal items concerning counseling of Spanish-speaking patients and pharmacists' cultural sensitivity using a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Of 1,975 questionnaires mailed, 608 were returned, a 30.8% response rate. Nearly two thirds of the pharmacists had recently counseled a Spanish-speaking patient, but only one fourth of those respondents considered their interactions effective. Nearly all pharmacists, 88.0%, worked in pharmacies with language-assistance services. Of seven types of these services, a mean of 2.19 were available in pharmacies, and the majority of pharmacists (84.4% or more) identifying a service considered it to be effective. The pharmacists were neutral about counseling Spanish-speaking patients (mean = 2.94) and indifferent toward other cultures (mean = 3.28); however, they agreed they had a responsibility to counsel Spanish-speaking patients, and they believed that use of language-assistance services would constitute a reasonable effort to counsel these patients. Pharmacists have an opportunity to address barriers to communication with the Spanish-speaking population through use of language-assistance services and educational measures within the profession.

  11. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie


    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  12. The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning (United States)

    Ali, Sheeraz; Kazemian, Bahram; Mahar, Israr Hussain


    English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing…

  13. Language Immersion and Cultural Identity: Conflicting Influences and Values. (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne


    Examines developing cultural and linguistic identities of three French/English bilingual children reared in two linguistic cultures: American and Quebecois. Results indicate the adolescent boy, who speaks more English than French, identifies with his American peers, from whom he conceals his bilingualism. The twin girls, in a French-immersion…

  14. Language learners as cultural tourists: Development potential of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the increasingly competitive world of English language teaching and learning, the tourism attractiveness of the destination is certain to feature more prominently in the decision making of those who want to learn English, but need to decide where. South Africa can create competitive advantage by packaging its English ...

  15. College Slang Revisited: Language, Culture, and Undergraduate Life. (United States)

    Hummon, David M.


    Analysis of 642 slang terms that college students use to characterize peers at Holy Cross College (Massachusetts) and University of California, Davis suggests that undergraduate slang usage is socially complex, the language is reflective of campus and academic life, and that it portrays undergraduate life from the perspective of dominant student…

  16. Language, culture and traversing the scholarly evaluation landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann


    The chapter takes an external view of the Italian evaluation experience in SSH, as described in various chapters of this volume. It compares the choices made by the Italian Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca (ANVUR) to those of other countries, in light of ......-country differences rooted in language and history....

  17. English Language Cultures in Bulgaria: A Linguistic Sibling Rivalry? (United States)

    O'Reilly, Laurie M.


    In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…

  18. Cultures & Languages across the Curriculum: Strengthening Intercultural Competence & Advancing Internationalization (United States)

    Plough, India C.


    The role of world languages in the internationalization of college campuses in the United States (U.S.) has become a recurring theme of discussions in academic, government, and private sectors. Topics have ranged from the lack of a common definition of internationalization to a review of college curricula. Klee (2009) and Bettencourt (2011) have…

  19. Language Choice and Cultural Imperialism: A Nigerian Perspective. (United States)

    Bisong, Joseph


    Argues against the thesis put forth in Phillipson's "Linguistic Imperialism," that the relationship between core English-speaking countries and periphery-English countries is one of dominant and dominated languages, as it applies to Nigeria. It is maintained that the sociolinguistic and sociocultural realities of the country have not…

  20. Effects of language of assessment on the measurement of acculturation: measurement equivalence and cultural frame switching. (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Stephens, Dionne P; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José


    The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge--that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures--self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity--were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures--Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications-met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations. 2014 APA

  1. Communicative Competence Approach to Person-Oriented Teaching of the Russian Language and Culture of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Orlova


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the communicative competence approach in professional training of physicians on the undergraduate level. The main emphasis is on developing linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences while teaching the Russian language and the culture of speech. The paper is aimed at analyzing the requirements of federal state educational standards of the 3rd generation concerning the competences in the humanities which should be developed by medical students in the course of the Russian language and the culture of speech; defining the contents of the «communicative competence» term based on consideration of general European competences in mastering the language and the analysis of lingua-didactic works of modern Russian scientists; identifying the component content of linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences of the Russian language and the culture of speech course for medical schools. The research results regarding the analysis and component content of linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences of the Russian language and the culture of speech course have been applied while designing the Russian and the culture of speech curriculum, as well as electronic textbooks and manuals for medical students. 

  2. Translanguaging practices in the teaching of French as a foreign language in Malta


    Bezzina, Anne-Marie;


    This study reviews beliefs related to translanguaging activities in the French as a Foreign Language (FFL) classroom and suggests cultural reasons why some condemn the concomitant use of previously learnt languages with the target language in FFL learning contexts. A corpus analysis of two Maltese FFL teachers’ recorded lessons attempts a structural categorisation of translanguaging instances according to the classification of classroom translanguaging in Causa (1998). It sheds light on the f...

  3. PNRA: Practically Improving Safety Culture within the Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Habib, M.A.


    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major nuclear accident of Fukushima, Japan. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities. Considering the complexity of cultural assessment starting from visual manifestations to the basic assumptions at the deeper level, PNRA decided to utilise IAEA emerging methodology for assessment of culture and then used modified IAEA normative framework (made it applicable for regulatory body) for assessing safety culture at a regulatory body. PNRA SCSA team utilised safety culture assessment tools (observations, focus groups, surveys, interviews and document analysis) for collecting cultural facts by including all level of personnel involved in different activities and functions in the organization. Different challenges were encountered during implementation of these tools which were tackled with the background of training on SCSA and with the help of experts during support missions arranged by IAEA. Before formally starting the SCSA process, pre-launch activities

  4. Concentrated Language Encounter Approach in Practice for Global Teaching of Literacy: Lighthouse Strategy Implementation (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak


    This article presents the lighthouse literacy strategies model using the concentrated language encounter (CLE) approach that has been successfully replicated in many countries in different languages and cultures. A review of CLE research studies and the project implementation in Thailand showed highly significant results in students' literacy…

  5. Within-person changes in the structure of emotion: the role of cultural identification and language. (United States)

    Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine; Heller, Daniel; Rafaeli, Eshkol


    This study explored the within-person dynamic organization of emotion in East-Asian Canadian bicultural individuals as they function in two cultural worlds. Using a diary design, we examined under what conditions their emotional structure resembles that of Westerners or that of East Asians. As predicted, when these bicultural individuals identified with a Western culture or had recently spoken a non-Asian language, their positive and negative affect were inversely associated. When they identified with an Asian culture or interacted in an Asian language, this inverse association disappeared. This study shows that as bicultural individuals identify and communicate with members of one or the other cultural group, they may adopt a culturally congruent phenomenology, including a distinct affective pattern.

  6. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. (United States)

    Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya


    The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.

  7. Dimensions of patient safety culture in family practice. (United States)

    Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam; Zwicker, Karen; Harding, Brianne K; Casebeer, Ann


    Safety culture has been shown to affect patient safety in healthcare. While the United States and United Kingdom have studied the dimensions that reflect patient safety culture in family practice settings, to date, this has not been done in Canada. Differences in the healthcare systems between these countries and Canada may affect the dimensions found to be relevant here. Thus, it is important to identify and compare the dimensions from the United States and the United Kingdom in a Canadian context. The objectives of this study were to explore the dimensions of patient safety culture that relate to family practice in Canada and to determine if differences and similarities exist between dimensions found in Canada and those found in previous studies undertaken in the United States and the United Kingdom. A qualitative study was undertaken applying thematic analysis using focus groups with family practice offices and supplementary key stakeholders. Analysis of the data indicated that most of the dimensions from the United States and United Kingdom are appropriate in our Canadian context. Exceptions included owner/managing partner/leadership support for patient safety, job satisfaction and overall perceptions of patient safety and quality. Two unique dimensions were identified in the Canadian context: disclosure and accepting responsibility for errors. Based on this early work, it is important to consider differences in care settings when understanding dimensions of patient safety culture. We suggest that additional research in family practice settings is critical to further understand the influence of context on patient safety culture.

  8. Integrating Language and Cultural Knowledge into the Army Officer Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purser, Jennifer L


    As the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE) has shifted away from a necessity to apply conventional tactics towards a counterinsurgency fight, culture has become increasingly important to the U.S. Army...

  9. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research. (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din


    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  10. Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2013-2014


    Louise O. Vasvári


    As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2013-2014, covering the period since the publication in Fall of 2013 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items that were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included.      ...

  11. Enhancing student schematic knowledge of culture through literature circles in a foreign language classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham-Marr Alastair


    Full Text Available Improving student understanding of a foreign language culture is anything but a peripheral issue in the teaching of a foreign language. This pilot study reports on a second year required English course in a university in Japan that took a Literature Circles approach, where students were asked to read short stories out of class and then discuss these stories in class. Although students reported that they did not gain any special insights into the target language culture presented, they did report that reading fiction as source material for classroom activity helps with the acquisition of a vocabulary set that is more closely associated with lifestyle and culture. The results suggest that further study is warranted. Procedures of this pilot study are described and interpreted in the context of the English education system in Japan.

  12. Culture Influence on the Perception of the Body Language by Arab and Malay Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Gordan


    Full Text Available Intercultural communication is applied for communicating with each other among the different cultures and traditions. It highlighted the problems which faced by different communities and organizations, the problems which are natural to the person like when the people face to new culture or tradition even the religious issues. So intercultural communication here is seeking for an answer between the different nations that how they communicate with each other when they face some problems in their tradition and culture. This one highlights how the people encode a message and how they interpret a message to each other.  So here in this paper interaction is between students of Arabs and Malays from National University of Malaysia and it deals with their body language especially hand gestures. This paper is based on the Micheal Byram theory of language. In this quantitative research some questions will distribute among the students and the similarities and differences between their sign languages will be highlighted.

  13. Language Contact. (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans


    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  14. A formative approach to cultural content learning in intercultural foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijević Maja M.


    Full Text Available The paper outlines the effectiveness of the formative approach in the adoption of cultural content as part of intercultural foreign language teaching. In contrast to the informative, the formative approach is based on a constructivist approach to foreign language acquisition; in other words, it is a process of tertiary socialization through the construction of an intercultural identity, by means of experiential acquisition, interaction and cognitive conflict with previously adopted patterns. Byram's (1997 propositions about the importance of acquiring intercultural competence in foreign language teaching represent a complete shift towards a formative approach since they formulate general educational goals according to which it is impossible to have an insight into the language reality of a different culture unless an individual is aware of their own and the relative nature of both, which is vital to the development of critical intercultural awareness. Thus the focus of teaching shifts to the integration of the target and the source cultures through participatory tasks and constructive analysis, and to the construction of the learner's identity as intercultural speaker with a range of affective, cognitive and behavioral competences enabling successful contact with difference. The formative approach enables the foreign language teacher, whose role has also been redefined, to use appropriate materials in order to develop critical thinking and intercultural competence in students through their active involvement in the process of target language acquisition.

  15. Cultural and language differences in voice quality perception: a preliminary investigation using synthesized signals. (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M-L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly; Ho, Elaine Mandy


    Perceptual voice evaluation is a common clinical tool. However, to date, there is no consensus yet as to which common quality should be measured. Some available evidence shows that voice quality is a language-specific property which may be different across different languages. The familiarity of a language may affect the perception and reliability in rating voice quality. The present study set out to investigate the effects of listeners' cultural and language backgrounds on the perception of voice qualities. Forty speech pathology students from Australia and Hong Kong were asked to rate the breathy and rough qualities of synthesized voice signals in Cantonese and English. Results showed that the English stimulus sets as a whole were rated less severely than the Cantonese stimuli by both groups of listeners. In addition, the male Cantonese and English breathy stimuli were rated differently by the Australian and Hong Kong listeners. These results provided some evidence to support the claim that cultural and language backgrounds of the listeners would affect the perception for some voice quality types. Thus, the cultural and language backgrounds of judges should be taken into consideration in clinical voice evaluation. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Hermanto


    Full Text Available Writing is a skill derived from a long way of learning and exercises. Different from other language skills, writing is considered the difficult language skill to acquire since it involves many aspects of linguistics, social, and writing knowledge and conventions. There are at least three important elements of writing useful to produce a good piece of composition, language competence, writing competence and cultural competence. This paper shows the influence of these three elements in order to produce good, readable, communicative, and successful writing

  17. Book Review: The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red books list everything endangered; green books revitalize the endangered. That is exactly what Hinton and Hale set out to do when they brought together no less than-thirty three essays, divided into categories such as Language Policy, Language Planning, Maintenance and Revitalization of National Indigenous ...

  18. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice (United States)

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.


    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  19. Examining Transcription, Autonomy and Reflective Practice in Language Development (United States)

    Cooke, Simon D.


    This pilot study explores language development among a class of L2 students who were required to transcribe and reflect upon spoken performances. The class was given tasks for self and peer-evaluation and afforded the opportunity to assume more responsibility for assessing language development of both themselves and their peers. Several studies…

  20. Pragmatic Language Assessment: A Pragmatics-as-Social Practice Model (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.


    Pragmatic language skills are important for developing relationships with others, and for communicating with a range of interlocutors in a variety of contexts, including preschool and elementary school classrooms. Pragmatic language difficulties frequently are a primary area of disability for children diagnosed with autism, Asperger's syndrome,…

  1. Integration, Language, and Practice: Wittgenstein and Interdisciplinary Communication (United States)

    Piso, Zachary


    The dominant account of interdisciplinary integration mobilizes linguistic metaphors such as bilingualism or the learning of new languages. While there is something right about these linguistic metaphors, I urge caution about philosophical confusions that can arise in the absence of careful scrutiny of how our language relates to the world.…

  2. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.


    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  3. English Language Teaching in South America: Policy, Preparation and Practices (United States)

    Kamhi-Stein, Lía D., Ed.; Maggioli, Gabriel Díaz, Ed.; de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.


    This book investigates new English language policies and initiatives which have been introduced and implemented across Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela. Chapters are organized around three themes. Chapters in the first section critically examine newly-implemented English language policies, as well as factors that…

  4. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations. (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente


    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Infusion of Language, Regional, and Cultural Content into Military Education: Status Report (United States)


    cultural awareness and the opportunity to examine cultural and moral relativism in the context of how others perceive us, with a special focus on...Learning Concept for 2015, 20 January 2011, TRADOC PAM 525-8-2, p. 11 10 Discussed at the DoD “Language and Culture Summit: A Strategic Imperative...Function. The Air Force’s approach to LRC emphasizes the concept of “Cross- Cultural Competence” (3C). In the Flight Plan, 3C is defined as “the

  6. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration. (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M


    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Terms in the Language of Culture-Dependent LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro


    Many dictionaries covering the cultural and social sciences are monolingual, but bi- and polylingual dictionaries should also be included in this category, in particular bilingual dictionaries with a monolingual dimension. These are culture-dependent dictionaries that can only be analysed...... and designed with a view to their genuine purpose. First, this concerns the components of the dictionary, as the inclusion of an encyclopaedic section may facilitate cross-references from individual articles to a systematic and general presentation of a specialist field. Second, it concerns the lemma selection...

  8. What can we talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom? Sami patients' experiences of language choice and cultural norms in mental health treatment. (United States)

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis


    The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients' encounters with mental health services. To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Two themes were identified:(I) Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about.Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants' lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami. Sami patients' language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients.

  9. The Potential Of Cultural And Chemical Control Practices For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Potential Of Cultural And Chemical Control Practices For Enhancing ... and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in yield components of hands per bunch and finger ... Une étude de l\\'effet de la population de plantes, l\\'application des engrais, ...

  10. Faculty Perspectives on Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Developmental Education (United States)

    Raney, Kristen A.


    This mixed methods study examined the perspectives of developmental math faculty at a two-year technical college regarding culturally responsive beliefs and instructional practices. Thirteen faculty who taught the developmental class Elementary Algebra with Applications were surveyed. Nine of the 13 faculty responded. One section of Wisconsin's…

  11. Geophagia among female adolescents as a culturally driven practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a culturally sanctioned practice common to the world's more tribally oriented people. Widely reported among pregnant and lactating women, geophagia is also practised by female adolescents (FA). This article presents preliminary findings on the incidence and reasons of ...

  12. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia


    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  13. Singapore International Schools: Best Practice in Culturally Diverse Music Education (United States)

    Cain, Melissa Anne


    This paper explores the preliminary outcomes of research into the place and role of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five International Schools in Singapore. It highlights the ways in which school philosophy, policy, curriculum and in-service training influence teacher practice. The research provides insights into the challenges…

  14. Ethnic Tourism: A Case Study of Language and Culture Preservation of the Bateq Indigenous Group of Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Lah Salasiah


    Full Text Available Malaysia provides ethnic tourism which is related to the more popularly known as nature or eco-tourism where an indigenous or traditional group of people who live in this environment will interact with and provide services to the tourists who would like to experience ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism refers to travel motivated by the search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and/or cultural background is different from the tourists. Tourists are also driven by the desire to see some of the threatened cultures that may soon disappear through assimilation into the nation’s majority. This paper aims to explore ethnic tourism as a preservation strategy for language and culture in a selected community of Bateq Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia in relation the language and cultural preservation of this community. An in-depth interview, a qualitative research technique, was selected as a method of data collection. The multimedia data was also collected including the recordings of the indigenous languages, still pictures and videotapes of the indigenous and cultural activities. The findings of this study show that the Bateq Orang Asli groups have preferences of their languages even though there is a pattern that a high number of lexical items have been borrowed from Malay. Language shift among younger speakers is also becoming a trend. In terms of the preservation of cultural heritage, the Bateq Orang Asli are still very positive about keeping their practices and lifestyles. The involvement of Bateq Orang Asli in promoting ethnic tourism in the surrounding areas near their settlements has contributed to their language and cultural preservation.

  15. Teaching Popular Culture in a Second Language University Context (United States)

    Pierson-Smith, Anne; Chik, Alice; Miller, Lindsay


    This article examines an established course on Popular Culture which is framed within the general educational model in an English-medium university. The article is organized into three parts: the underlining educational rationale for general educational courses, the course description, and the students' perspectives of their learning experience.…

  16. Native Cultures and Language: Challenges for Land Managers in Alaska (United States)

    Thomas J. Gallagher


    Many of the Aleuts, Inuits, and Indians of Alaska continue to live a traditional lifestyle. Eighty-eight percent of the land they use for subsistence activities, however, is managed by federal or state agencies. Clear communication across cultures is essential if Native people are to be represented in agency land management decisions. Problems in communication relate...

  17. Language and Cultural Maintenance of Hawai'i-Born Nisei (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi


    This article examines how "Nisei," the second generation of Japanese immigrants, in Hilo on the island of Hawai'i have maintained their Japanese cultural and linguistic skills. In this article, the author first provides a history of these Japanese immigrant communities in Hilo. This article describes the author's research findings. The…

  18. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction. (United States)

    Sinha, Chris


    Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin's theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of "counting as" and "standing for." I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by reflecting on

  19. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction (United States)

    Sinha, Chris


    Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of “counting as” and “standing for.” I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by

  20. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eSinha


    Full Text Available Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of counting as and standing for. I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude