WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultural practices including

  1. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, <17% involved human use of restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Cultural Practices, Oppression, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contested meanings, multiple judgments, and conflicts are part of cultures and the individual's thoughts and actions. Contends that people make moral judgments that may affirm or contradict cultural norms and practices, and sometimes invoke concepts of welfare, justice, and rights. Notes that some key aspects of Baumrind's neo-Marxist…

  3. Cultural Practices, Oppression, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contested meanings, multiple judgments, and conflicts are part of cultures and the individual's thoughts and actions. Contends that people make moral judgments that may affirm or contradict cultural norms and practices, and sometimes invoke concepts of welfare, justice, and rights. Notes that some key aspects of Baumrind's neo-Marxist…

  4. Games culture and media practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Alsina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this article is to explore the relationship between videogames and other practices related to audiovisual media in everyday life; we are specifically interested in examining how far videogames, as a cultural form that combines audiovisual narrative with the fun of a game, may be useful in understanding broader cultural transformations in relation to cultural production in the new media context opened up by information and communication technologies.

  5. Best practices in cell culture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baust, John M; Buehring, Gertrude Case; Campbell, Lia; Elmore, Eugene; Harbell, John W; Nims, Raymond W; Price, Paul; Reid, Yvonne A; Simione, Frank

    2017-08-14

    This overview describes a series of articles to provide an unmet need for information on best practices in animal cell culture. The target audience primarily consists of entry-level scientists with minimal experience in cell culture. It also include scientists, journalists, and educators with some experience in cell culture, but in need of a refresher in best practices. The articles will be published in this journal over a six-month period and will emphasize best practices in: (1) media selection; (2) use and evaluation of animal serum as a component of cell culture medium; (3) receipt of new cells into the laboratory; (4) naming cell lines; (5) authenticating cell line identity; (6) detecting and mitigating risk of cell culture contamination; (7) cryopreservation and thawing of cells; and (8) storing and shipping viable cells.

  6. Assessing and changing medical practice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Your medical practice has an existing culture that manifests itself daily in literally hundreds of ways. Some aspects of your culture likely support your practice's growth; others may be impeding your progress. This article describes the characteristics of medical practice culture and provides numerous examples of how culture influences behavior. It describes how culture is expressed in a medical practice through objects and artifacts, language, emotions, interactions, practice management systems, and daily work habits. It offers three techniques for assessing an existing medical practice culture and a checklist for conducting culture observations. This article also provides guidelines for identifying a desired medical practice culture and explores why changing culture is so difficult. It describes five reasons employees are likely to resist culture change and provides 12 fundamental changes that will enable a practice to improve its culture. Finally, this article explores how medical practice cultures are formed and perpetuated and provides more than a dozen questions to ask employees in a culture survey.

  7. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  8. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  9. Miscommunication and Discourse Practices in Occupational Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyk, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the contrasting discourse practices and occupational cultures of engineers and marketing representatives. The article argues that strong occupational cultures have different value systems and discourse practices. The article stresses the need for an interdisciplinary approach combining linguistic and cultural analyses to reduce…

  10. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  11. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  12. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  13. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  14. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-04-25

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  16. Cultural reflexivity in health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason; Tach, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This "misrecognition," which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice.

  17. Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice | Nkurunziza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice. ... In 2012, Human Resources for Health (HRH) Rwanda brought together international nursing ... providers in a globalized world and requires intellectual, attitudinal and behavioral flexibility.

  18. Celebrating Difference: Best Practices in Culturally Responsive Teaching Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Xeturah; Hernandez, Cecilia; Parra, Julia; Negash, Beyan

    2017-01-01

    Culturally responsive teaching and design practices flip the online classroom by creating an environment that acknowledges, celebrates, and builds upon the cultural capital that learners and teachers bring to the online classroom. Challenges exist in all phases of online course design, including the ability to create online courses that reflect…

  19. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009......This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...

  20. Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man.

  1. Persuasive argumentation as a cultural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Gałkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article author traces relation between argumentation and cultural practice. The first part focuses on definition of argumentation in informal logic tradition. In particular, it discusses argument in terms of verbal and social activity involving the use of everyday language. Author claims that there is no argumentation beyond language. The second part explains persuasive argumentation as a form of cultural practice. The persuasive arguments found in “social practice” can be understood as a social activity, analysable within the context of a given cultural system. Author refers to an approach taking the argumentative expression as a certain type of communicative practice, directed towards respecting, recognising or accepting specific actions. The inclusion of persuasive argumentation in the “circuit of cultural activities” to be studied makes it possible to compare this type of argumentation with other social practices, and to posit a clear historical dimension in the study of argumentation. It also makes it possible to view persuasive argumentation as one of many cultural activities aimed at changing or perpetuating behaviours, attitudes, thinking, etc. The third part of the paper concerns the problem of humanistic interpretation of persuasive argumentation. Author attempts to develop this intuition, at the same time demonstrating the problems that arise from this approach. In conclusion, author tries to analyze argumentation in terms of culture theory and humanistic interpretation.

  2. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  3. Muslim American adolescents' explanations of changing religious practices: Cultural tools in cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kathleen M; Schiro, Isabella N; Gregory, Wesley E; Westberg, Lindsay M; Lee, Samantha R; Boyle, Colleen D

    2017-03-01

    To examine the culturally embedded nature of religious practices, we conducted a mixed-methods study in which Muslim American adolescents described how and why their religious practices had changed in recent years (see Etengoff & Daiute, 2013, J. Adolesc. Res., 28, 690). Participants included 201 Muslim adolescents (ages 13-19) from predominantly immigrant families; all were contestants in a Muslim Inter-Scholastic Tournament regional competition. Participants completed surveys including an item regarding whether their religious practices had changed, and for those who answered affirmatively, open-ended questions about the change. Additional measures assessed ethnic identity and perceived discrimination. As hypothesized, the 60% of participants who reported a change in religious practices described this shift as a response to new contexts, people, and religious knowledge. Those who reported a change also reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and perceived discrimination. Overall, Muslim American adolescents' descriptions portrayed religious practices as developing through reciprocal interactions with culture. More generally, participants' descriptions point to the viability of a model in which religious practices change and in turn are changed by cultural contexts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious development is viewed as taking place in relational systems with reciprocity between individuals and surrounding contexts. Variations in contexts predict variations in religious development, but mechanisms of development are not well understood. Muslim Americans, including adolescents, show high levels of religious involvement and experience unique cultural and religious contexts. Muslim American emerging adults describe their religious practices as responsive to sociocultural contexts. What does the study add? This study focuses on Muslim American adolescents, a group that has received little research attention

  4. Exploring cultural tensions in cross-cultural social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Miu Chung

    2008-10-01

    Discussion of cultural tension in the social work literature is piecemeal. As part of a grounded theory study, this article reports some major findings on cultural tensions experienced by 30 frontline social workers. Cultural tensions caused by cultural similarities and differences among social workers, clients, organizations, and society are multifaceted. Social workers, however, are always at the center of the tensions. Findings indicate that the social work profession may need to consider the neutrality claim of the profession, the different experience of ethnic minority social workers, and the need of critical reflexivity for reflective practitioners. Implications for social work practice, social work education for ethnic minority social workers, and social work research are discussed.

  5. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.

  6. Social inclusion from visual culture: practices and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the social inclusion in social and educational programmes since a visual culture perspective. Is considered the work with contemporary art resources and the educative possibilities including new practices in public space and the place of technologies.

  7. Incorporating cultural issues in education for ethical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda

    2007-07-01

    The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking.

  8. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  9. Dermatoses Due to Indian Cultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Gupta; Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing ...

  10. GENDER GENEALOGY OF READING AS CULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kryvda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the cultural aspect of texts using in European culture. The paper found out methodological basis of correctly interpreting the term "practice" in the philosophical and sociological discourses. In the first case the concept reveals human nature; appealing to the field of ethics and intersubjective interactions. In sociological approach the term practice is contrasted to institutional life. It seems to be an organic; vital relevance of actions for contrast to the mechanically regulated community life. Methodology. The paper considered the typology of human intellectual conditions according to Kant’s divided into pure and practical reason. The last one directs action-willed individual efforts so as to meet the universal relevance and ethical coherence. Gottlieb Fichte interpreted practice reason as the way to combine intellectual intentions and material conditions of human being. G. W. F. Hegel enriched the concept with terms of "objectification" and "alienation” of labour. Karl Marx formulated the main features of activity approach to the human nature exploring. In sociological discourse the term practice is opposed to mechanically done actions (according to institutional normativity. Given the philosophical and sociological methodological contexts the reading is studied as activity that aimed emotional and volitional contact with sense. Originality. The paper analysed the genealogy of reading practices. There were selected two types of text perception – rapid "masculine" and prudent "women's" reading. Women salon environment of the XVIII-th century capitalistic Europe was the main condition for the forming of literary-aware public. The authors analysed the process of reading of the text-as-satisfaction and text-as-pleasure (R. Barthes. The work presents the overview of classical studies of sociocultural field: Thorstein Veblen; Vladimir Toporov; Rolan Barthes and contemporary researchers such as T. Markova

  11. Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lafont

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail.

  12. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  13. Dimensions of patient safety culture in family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam; Zwicker, Karen; Harding, Brianne K; Casebeer, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Safety culture has been shown to affect patient safety in healthcare. While the United States and United Kingdom have studied the dimensions that reflect patient safety culture in family practice settings, to date, this has not been done in Canada. Differences in the healthcare systems between these countries and Canada may affect the dimensions found to be relevant here. Thus, it is important to identify and compare the dimensions from the United States and the United Kingdom in a Canadian context. The objectives of this study were to explore the dimensions of patient safety culture that relate to family practice in Canada and to determine if differences and similarities exist between dimensions found in Canada and those found in previous studies undertaken in the United States and the United Kingdom. A qualitative study was undertaken applying thematic analysis using focus groups with family practice offices and supplementary key stakeholders. Analysis of the data indicated that most of the dimensions from the United States and United Kingdom are appropriate in our Canadian context. Exceptions included owner/managing partner/leadership support for patient safety, job satisfaction and overall perceptions of patient safety and quality. Two unique dimensions were identified in the Canadian context: disclosure and accepting responsibility for errors. Based on this early work, it is important to consider differences in care settings when understanding dimensions of patient safety culture. We suggest that additional research in family practice settings is critical to further understand the influence of context on patient safety culture.

  14. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  15. Dermatoses Due to Indian Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ‘Henna’ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ‘Kumkum’ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ‘bindis’ and ‘alta’ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ‘Holi’ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ‘Mudichood’ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device “kangri” is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause. PMID:25657390

  16. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  17. Management Documentation: Indicators & Good Practice at Cultural Heritage Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Garcia Grinda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation for cultural heritage places usually refers to describing the physical attributes, surrounding context, condition or environment; most of the time with images, graphics, maps or digital 3D models in their various forms with supporting textural information. Just as important as this type of information is the documentation of managerial attributes. How do managers of cultural heritage places collect information related to financial or economic well-being? How are data collected over time measured, and what are significant indicators for improvement? What quality of indicator is good enough? Good management of cultural heritage places is essential for conservation longevity, preservation of values and enjoyment by the public. But how is management documented? The paper will describe the research methodology, selection and description of attributes or indicators related to good management practice. It will describe the criteria for indicator selection and why they are important, how and when they are collected, by whom, and the difficulties in obtaining this information. As importantly it will describe how this type of documentation directly contributes to improving conservation practice. Good practice summaries will be presented that highlight this type of documentation including Pamplona and Ávila, Spain and Valletta, Malta. Conclusions are drawn with preliminary recommendations for improvement of this important aspect of documentation. Documentation of this nature is not typical and presents a unique challenge to collect, measure and communicate easily. However, it is an essential category that is often ignored yet absolutely essential in order to conserve cultural heritage places.

  18. The psychiatric cultural formulation: translating medical anthropology into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation for clinical practice. The author begins by exploring the theoretical development of and assumptions involved in the Cultural Formulation. A case presentation is then used to demonstrate shortcomings in the current implementation of the Cultural Formulation based on older definitions of culture. Finally, the author recommends practical questions based on the growing anthropological literature concerning the interpersonal elements of culture and the social course of illness. A simple clear format that clinically translates social science concepts has the potential to increase use of the Cultural Formulation by all psychiatrists, not just those specializing in cultural psychiatry.

  19. Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

    2013-07-16

    Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl's phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects' experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence.

  20. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  1. Research Report: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Practical Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jane R.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the extent to which practical intelligence can be measured in a reliable and valid fashion cross-culturally. Differentiates between the internal validity of our measure of practical intelligence and its external validity. (LHW)

  2. Method and Practice of Cultural Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Hui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,translation theorists begin to take translation as an activity of cultural exchange,that is,it is not only a linguistic transformation,but essentially a cultural communication.Language and culture are interactive.Language,as the carrier of the culture,can break through the limitation of time and space and carry all the aspects of the culture information.As a main means of cross-cultural communication,translation is connected with the culture tightly.However,in cross-cultural translation,especially between those cultures with great difference like Chinese and English,many cultural elements surface from the confrontation of cultural deposits,making it impossible to capture the relationship of the source text to the source culture in the target text.Thus,problems in translating cultural elements arise.Different approaches shall be adopted to solve this culture barrier.They are omission,transliteration,alienation and domestication.Using what kind of solutions is determined by many complicated factors.Under the circumstance of cultural globalization,these solutions are supposed to complement each other.Thus the translation action can become more scientific.

  3. Method and Practice of Cultural Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,translation theorists begin to take translation as an activity of cultural exchange,that is,it is not only a linguistic transformation,but essentially a cultural communication.Language and culture are interactive.Language,as the carrier of the culture,can break through the limitation of time and space and carry all the aspects of the culture information. As a main meansof cross-cultural communication,translation is connected with the culture tightly.However,in cross-cultural translation,especially between those cultures with great difference like Chinese and English,many cultural elements surface from the confrontation of cultural deposits,making it impossible to capture the relationship of the source text to the source culture in the target text.Thus,problems in translating cultural elements arise. Different approaches shall be adopted to solve this culture barrier. They are omission,transliteration,alienation and domestication. Using what kind of solutions is determined by many complicated factors.Under the circumstance of cultural globalization,these solutions are supposed to complement each other.Thus the translation action can become more scientific.

  4. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.

  5. Gender in identification practices of mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Sinkevych

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of the images of masculinity and femininity in popular culture depends on shared cultural paradigm. However, these images not only reflect, but also construct social and cultural reality. Gender representation in popular culture activates the process of selecting, structuring and formation of values of a stereotype, its communicative refinement, giving it new meaning. It promotes innovative images, which play the role of landmarks gender identity.

  6. Cultural Connections in Leadership Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    "Culture Currents" presents the books, essays, poetry, performances, music, websites and other cultural media influencing educational leaders. "Culture Currents" is a snapshot, a peek behind the scenes. It reveals what people are reading or seeing that may not be normally mentioned or cited in their academic work. In this issue's contribution, two…

  7. Cultural safety and its importance for Australian midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Jasten; Dietsch, Elaine; Bonner, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Cultural safety is an important concept in health care that originated in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to address Maori consumer dissatisfaction with health care. In Australia and internationally, midwives are now expected to provide culturally safe midwifery care to all women. Historically, Australia has received large numbers of immigrants from the United Kingdom, European countries and the Middle East. There have also been refugees and immigrants from South-East Asia, and most recently, from Africa. Australia continues to become more culturally diverse and yet to date no studies have explored the application of cultural safety in Australian midwifery practice. This paper explores how cultural safety has evolved from cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity. It examines the importance of cultural safety in nursing and midwifery practice. Finally, it explores the literature to determine how midwives can apply the concept of cultural safety to ensure safe and woman centred care.

  8. Soil residual nitrogen under various crop rotations and cultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop rotation and cultural practice may influence soil residual N available for environmental loss due to crop N uptake and N immobilization. We evaluated the effects of stacked vs. alternate-year crop rotations and cultural practices on soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N contents) at the 0-125 cm dep...

  9. Enhancing Reflective Practice in Multicultural Counseling through Cultural Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…

  10. Culture and Cultural Competence in Nursing Education and Practice: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Linda; Kaddoura, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of cultural competency has developed a substantial presence in nursing education and practice since first attracting widespread attention in the 1990s. While several theories and corresponding measures of cultural competency have been advanced and tried, much work remains, as many nursing professionals continue to call for greater evidence-based research and attention to patient perspectives and outcomes. Using a method provided by Hawker et al. to appraise articles, this paper compares nine recent (2008-2013) studies (including two composite studies) related to cultural competency, undergraduate curricula, and teaching strategies in nursing to assess the state of the art in this important area of care. The studies applied phenomenological, study abroad, online, and service learning strategies, four of which relied on some version of Campinha-Bacote's IAPCC© model. These studies reported a general improvement in competency among students, though generally only to a level of cultural awareness, and admitted being constrained by several common limitations. Improved results and more realistic expectations in this area may require a closer understanding of the nature of the "culture" that underlies cultural competence. Harkess Kaddoura. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Machinima Filmmaking as Culture in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The topic of game and player culture is addressed herein as individual and socio-cultural processes of authorship in relation to machinima filmmaking. The terms machinima (from machine, cinema and anime) and machinimators (referring to filmmakers) were coined by gamers in the late 1990s. Machinima...

  12. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  13. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  14. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  15. Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2006-09-01

    This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant, standards-based science curricula for Native Hawai'ian students. Teachers and Native Hawai'ian instructors lived and worked together during a five day culture-science immersion in rural school and community sites and met several times at school, university, and community sites to build knowledge and share programs. Teachers were deeply moved by immersion experiences, learned to connect cultural understandings, e.g., a Hawai'ian sense of place and curriculum development, and highly valued collaborating with peers on curriculum development and implementation. The study finds that long term professional development providing situated learning through cultural immersion, cultural translators, and interdisciplinary instruction supports the establishment of communities of practice in which participants develop the cross-cultural knowledge and literacy needed for the development of locally relevant, place and standards-based curricula and pedagogy.

  16. Living the border: Social and cultural practices from the sidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Winikor Wagner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Migrants, while in a position of subordination and vulnerability in the host society, can be defined as subjects of analysis of cultural studies. It is from this theoretical framework, which will investigate the social and cultural practices of Brazilian migrants settled in the northeast of the province of Misiones, Argentina. We focus our attention on analyzing whether these practices are truly ways to resist the dominant culture or simply constitute forms of reproduction and naturalization of them. Through four concrete practices (portuñol, el brique, the buying and selling of improvements and spontaneous occupation of private land will reach the conclusion that the same evidence loans, grants, amalgams, conflicts, subordination and yet interstices creativity with the dominant culture. It shows the relational character that owns the popular culture with the dominant culture and its position of subordination and domination.

  17. Cultural Competence in Child Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Henderson, Schuyler W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. faces a changing demographic landscape that is increasingly multiracial. The application of a cultural competence model for assessing and treating the psychiatric disorders of minority youths in light of this demographic change is discussed.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF FOLK CULTURE ELEMENTS INCLUDING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is a total of common values, behaviors and ways of living patterns produced, kept alive, transferred to the next generations orally or written, informal education and concentrating on traditional areas. There is no doubt that transferring folk culture to the next generations will contribute to the protection of national identities against globalization, an inevitable process. The way of its realization is based on education. One of the most important lessons in which folk culture can be transferred to the young generations in primary education is social studies. The aim of this research is to reveal to what extend folk culture elements were included in 4th,5th, 6th, 7th grade social studies textbooks and workbooks. At the end of the research, which was carried out with scanning model and content analysis, it was found that seasonal festivals, children's games, marriage, processing, women's clothing and dress-ornament, dining-food-beverage, Karagoz, proverbs, folk music/instrument, Turkish folk dances, wrestling, and javelin folk culture elements were mostly included in the textbooks. Since social studies is an interdisciplinary field, it was presented with samples that all the elements of folk culture can be included in social studies textbooks.

  19. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety culture has been studied in many practice settings, but there is a dearth of information on the culture of safety in nephrology nurse practice settings. This research study employed the use of an online survey to assess patient safety cultures in nephrology nurse practice settings. The survey was created using items from two Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) survey assessment tools--the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Select items from these tools were combined to address the safety of care delivered in hospital and outpatient nephrology nurse practice settings. Almost 1,000 nephrology nurses responded to the survey. Analysis of results and comparison with AHRQ comparative data found high ratings for teamwork, but indicted a continued needfor additional education and attention related to hand hygiene, medication administration safety, communication, and prioritization in nephrology practice settings. Nurses in all nephrology nurse practice settings need to routinely assess and positively contribute to the culture of patient safety in their practice settings, and lead and engage in efforts to ensure that patients are safe.

  20. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  1. Pharmacy students' perceptions of cultural competence encounters during practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana

    2014-03-12

    To determine pharmacy students' perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters. Fourth-year pharmacy (P4) students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their fourth APPE. Fifty-two of 124 respondents (31.9%) reported having 1 or more cultural competence events during their APPEs, the most common of which was caring for a patient with limited English proficiency. Students reported high levels of comfort with specific types of cultural encounters (disabilities, sexuality, financial barriers, mental health), but reported to be less comfortable in other situations.

  2. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2017-04-06

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Student Culture and Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Tilia

    2012-01-01

    Constructivism maintains that instruction is more meaningful when it is relevant, social and interactive. Formative assessment has been empirically demonstrated as being an effective form of instruction and assessment for learners (Black & Wiliam, 1998a, 1998b). Since assessment orients instruction and learning, combining student culture with…

  4. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  5. Critical Thinking as Cultural-Historical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…

  6. Perspectives of Early Intervention Professionals about Culturally-Appropriate Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Bennett, Tess; Fowler, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 123 early intervention professionals found they considered recommendations for providing culturally appropriate services important. However, multiple barriers often hindered implementation. Lack of time was the most common barrier to providing culturally appropriate practices, followed by lack of training and lack of materials.…

  7. School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…

  8. Organizational Training across Cultures: Variations in Practices and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Abderrahman; Storti, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis based on a review of the existing literature with respect to the variations in training practices and attitudes across national cultures. Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis technique was adopted with a comparative cross-cultural management perspective as a backdrop to…

  9. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  10. Popular Culture in Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender

    2017-01-01

    Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…

  11. Individualism and the cultural roots of management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We study the cultural foundations of management practices, which are increasingly recognized as important determinants of firm performance. This research closes the loop on two developing literatures, one seeking cultural explanations for economic development and the other seeking to account for dif

  12. Individualism and the cultural roots of management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, André van

    2012-01-01

    We study the cultural foundations of management practices, which are increasingly recognized as important determinants of firm performance. This research closes the loop on two developing literatures, one seeking cultural explanations for economic development and the other seeking to account for dif

  13. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  14. [Patient safety culture in Family practice residents of Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela Romero, Manuel; Bugarín González, Rosendo; Rodríguez Calvo, María Sol

    To determine the views held by Family practice (FP) residents on the different dimensions of patient safety, in order to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional study. Seven FP of Galicia teaching units. 182 FP residents who completed the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was chosen because it is translated, validated, and adapted to the Spanish model of Primary Care. The results were grouped into 12 composites assessed by the mentioned questionnaire. The study variables were the socio-demographic dimensions of the questionnaire, as well as occupational/professional variables: age, gender, year of residence, and teaching unit of FP of Galicia. The "Organisational learning" and "Teamwork" items were considered strong areas. However, the "Patient safety and quality issues", "Information exchange with other settings", and "Work pressure and pace" items were considered areas with significant potential for improvement. First-year residents obtained the best results and the fourth-year ones the worst. The results may indicate the need to include basic knowledge on patient safety in the teaching process of FP residents in order to increase and consolidate the fragile patient safety culture described in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Machinima Filmmaking as Culture in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    is a practice whereby game worlds and game play are captured and edited, thereby transformed into a film. The chapter frames the phenomenon of machinima by looking at it from a view on topics of authorship, media ecology and remix practices. Two case studies are presented herein in order to leverage...... a discussion on machinima authorship as an example of evolving, dialogic processes circulating in media ecologies. This dialogic authorship involves remix (re-assemblage) and it occurs within the shifts in our current situation of media convergence. The aim in this chapter is to shed light on the dialogic...... practices of authorship such as machinima and is inspired by the dialogic theories of Russian literary philosopher M.M. Bakhtin. A three-part structure is used herein: (1) introduction to theoretical concepts, background on machinima and this study, and a review of methodology, (2) data and analysis, and (3...

  16. Social Work Practice with LGBT Elders at End of Life: Developing Practice Evaluation and Clinical Skills Through a Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Darren P

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on culturally sensitive clinical issues related to best practices with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) elder patients at end-of-life (EOL) at key points in the therapeutic relationship. Vital concepts, including practice evaluation and clinical skills, are presented through a cultural and oncology lens. There is a paucity of LGBT research and literature as well as a shortfall of MSW graduate school education specific to social work palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) practice with LGBT elders. The content of this article is designed to be adapted and used as an educational tool for institutions, agencies, graduate programs, medical professions, social work, and students. Learning the unique elements of LGBT cultural history and their implications on EOL care can improve social work practice. This article provides an examination from assessment and engagement basics to advance care planning incorporating specific LGBT EOL issues.

  17. A culture of safety: a business strategy for medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M; Marles, Adam F

    2012-01-01

    Physician practices can enhance their economics by taking patient safety to a new level within their practices. Patient safety has a lot to do with systems and processes that occur not only at the hospital but also within a physician's practice. Historically, patient safety measures have been hospital-focused and -driven, largely due to available resources; however, physician practices can impact patient safety, efficiently and effectively, with a methodical plan involving assessment, prioritization, and compliance. With the ever-increasing focus of reimbursement on quality and patient safety, physician practices that implement a true culture of safety now could see future economic benefits using this business strategy.

  18. Organizational Culture and ISD Practices: Comparative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaska, Päivi; Juvonen, Pasi

    This chapter reports results from a study that aims to analyze and compare the literature related to custom IS, packaged, and open source software organizational cultures, and their systems development practices. The comparative analysis is performed using a framework for organizational culture as lenses to the literature. Our study suggests that the beliefs and values of these three communities of practice differ remarkably and make their organizational culture and systems development practices different. The most important differences were found in business milieu, ISD team efforts, ISD approaches, and products and quality. Based on the study we can question the widely held wisdom of methods, techniques, and tools in systems development and managing its efforts. Our study has several implications for research and practice, which are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Forming Future Teachers’ Aesthetic Culture in Foreign Educational Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotska Galyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a theoretical analysis of foreign educational experience in solving scientific problems of forming future teachers’ aesthetic culture. Given the current socio-cultural situation, it has been noted that a teacher who developed his/her aesthetic culture can make a direct contribution to the social and cultural challenges of a changing world. Based on the study of scientific and pedagogical literature, normative and legal support and the content of practical courses, the author has revealed the peculiarities of forming future specialists’ aesthetic culture in foreign countries (Japan, Germany, Canada, the United States, England. Special attention has been paid to the aesthetic potential of fine arts in forming future teachers’ aesthetic culture, which ensures the harmony of intellectual and aesthetic development of personality, enriches the emotional and sensual sphere, develops cognitive and creative activities, aesthetic needs and tastes, stipulates for future teachers’ involving in the process of artistic and aesthetic culture of the nation. The performed analysis proves that the forming of future teachers’ aesthetic culture should be based on the intercultural approach; the ideas of interrelation between aesthetic and ecological in aesthetic education; integration relations between powerful potential of fine (visual arts, environmental science and aesthetic creativity. The experience of foreign educational practice may be adopted by domestic universities to form individual aesthetic culture of future teachers.

  20. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  1. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  2. Discourse versus practice: are traditional practices and beliefs in pregnancy and childbirth included or excluded in the Ecuadorian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert

    2017-03-01

    Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations.

  3. Transforming nursing home culture: evidence for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Shier, Victoria; Saliba, Debra

    2014-02-01

    The nursing home culture change movement aims to improve resident quality of life and quality of care by emphasizing the deinstitutionalization of nursing home culture and focusing on person-centered care. This article briefly reviews the history of culture change, discusses some of the challenges related to culture change in nursing homes, and overviews the conceptualization and select models of culture change. Building from this background, it critiques current understanding, identifies critical research questions, and notes key issues arising during a workshop that addressed existing and emerging evidence in the field. This review and analysis provide a context for how 9 accompanying papers in this supplemental issue of The Gerontologist fill identified evidence gaps and provide evidence for future practice and policies that aim to transform nursing home culture.

  4. A careful balance: multinational perspectives on culture, gender, and power in marriage and family therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Margaret L; Piercy, Fred P

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined how marriage and family therapists from various countries and diverse cultural backgrounds address the intersection of gender, power, and culture in therapy. Twenty participants from 15 countries responded to an Internet survey that included several hypothetical, clinical vignettes not associated with any one particular culture or nationality. Participants selected a vignette based on its similarity to clinical situations they face in practice within their cultural contexts, and provided information about their conceptualizations of gender, culture, and power, along with treatment recommendations. We analyzed data using analytic induction and constant comparison methods. Results indicate the careful balance with which the participants work to engage clients in therapy, respect cultural values and practices, and promote equitable gender relationships.

  5. A meta-ethnography of organisational culture in primary care medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Guthrie, Bruce; Entwistle, Vikki; Williams, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing international interest in shaping local organisational cultures in primary healthcare. However, the contextual relevance of extant culture assessment instruments to the primary care context has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to derive a new contextually appropriate understanding of the key dimensions of primary care medical practice organisational culture and their inter-relationship through a synthesis of published qualitative research. A systematic search of six electronic databases followed by a synthesis using techniques of meta-ethnography involving translation and re-interpretation. A total of 16 papers were included in the meta-ethnography from the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand that fell into two related groups: those focused on practice organisational characteristics and narratives of practice individuality; and those focused on sub-practice variation across professional, managerial and administrative lines. It was found that primary care organisational culture was characterised by four key dimensions, i.e. responsiveness, team hierarchy, care philosophy and communication. These dimensions are multi-level and inter-professional in nature, spanning both practice and sub-practice levels. The research contributes to organisational culture theory development. The four new cultural dimensions provide a synthesized conceptual framework for researchers to evaluate and understand primary care cultural and sub-cultural levels. The synthesised cultural dimensions present a framework for practitioners to understand and change organisational culture in primary care teams. The research uses an innovative research methodology to synthesise the existing qualitative research and is one of the first to develop systematically a qualitative conceptual framing of primary care organisational culture.

  6. Praising as bodily practice: the neocharismatic culture of celebration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Hovi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic body movements and dancing, as well as singing, have been used as a means and inspiration for both individual and communal spiritual experience throughout the history of religions. This article takes a tentative look at the contemporary neocharismatic culture of celebration as a means of aiming at religious experience through collective bodily practice; namely praising, which is generally understood to take the form of singing but is, in fact, expressed also in bodily movements such as dancing. In the neocharismatic context, a celebration means a certain type of a meeting with a special focus on contemplative worship and prayer, accompanied with lively music of praise. First, the historical background of the neo­charismatic branch is outlined shortly. Secondly, the tradition of praise itself within this context is described – what are the insider definitions and what kinds of forms praise in the culture of celebration actually includes, especially in Finland. The description is basically based on internet material and the author's previous field experiences in the Word of Life congregational meetings and other charismatic Christian events. In conclusion, acts of praise as a source of religious experience are discussed.

  7. Bamboozled: A Visual Culture Text for Looking at Cultural Practices of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nancy S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade art educators have engaged in a dialogue about a reconceptualization of art education theory and practice. This reconceptualization has roots in cultural studies, anthropology, and critical theory. One focus has been on the notion of art as visual culture. This article is organized into four sections. The first section looks…

  8. Bamboozled: A Visual Culture Text for Looking at Cultural Practices of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nancy S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade art educators have engaged in a dialogue about a reconceptualization of art education theory and practice. This reconceptualization has roots in cultural studies, anthropology, and critical theory. One focus has been on the notion of art as visual culture. This article is organized into four sections. The first section looks…

  9. "Shattering culture": perspectives on cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Hannah, Seth Donal

    2015-04-01

    The concept of culture as an analytic concept has increasingly been questioned by social scientists, just as health care institutions and clinicians have increasingly routinized concepts and uses of culture as means for improving the quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities. This paper examines this tension, asking whether it is possible to use cultural categories to develop evidenced-based practice guidelines in mental health services when these categories are challenged by the increasing hyperdiversity of patient populations and newer theories of culture that question direct connection between group-based social identities and cultural characteristics. Anthropologists have grown concerned about essentializing societies, yet unequal treatment on the basis of cultural, racial, or ethnic group membership is present in medicine and mental health care today. We argue that discussions of culture-patients' culture and the "culture of medicine"-should be sensitive to the risk of improper stereotypes, but should also be sensitive to the continuing significance of group-based discrimination and the myriad ways culture shapes clinical presentation, doctor-patient interactions, the illness experience, and the communication of symptoms. We recommend that mental health professionals consider the local contexts, with greater appreciation for the diversity of lived experience found among individual patients. This suggests a nuanced reliance on broad cultural categories of racial, ethnic, and national identities in evidence-based practice guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Trading Culture: Practical Background for Azerbaijani-English Poetry Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandaville A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Where translation theory often argues the difficulties of translation—whether or not and under what conditions translation is possible—the authors take a more practical approach. Examining the translation of poetry from Azerbaijani to English, two very different languages and poetic traditions, the authors discuss key linguistic, political, cultural considerations and demonstrate some effective practical strategies. They approach translation as a fundamentally human endeavor and the work of a translator as cultural and linguistic exchange and enrichment, even commerce.

  11. Proposal for Teaching Practice which Includes the Content of the Reflective Practice : Possibility of “Teaching Practice Participation” Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    湯口, 雅史

    2015-01-01

    The outline of the core curriculum in Naruto University of Education creates a close relationship between “Teaching Practice” positioned at its core, and “core subjects” positioned alongside, thereby enabling quality assurance in elevating practical teaching skills. However, while the intention was to position “core subjects” vertically, in contrast “teaching practice” came to hold a complementary relationship with “core subjects”. Then it was thought that by independently making “teaching pr...

  12. Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters. Methods. Fourth-year pharmacy (P4) students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their fourth APPE. Results. Fifty-two of 124 respondents (31.9%) reported having 1 or more cultural competence events during their APPEs, the most common of which was caring for a patient with limited English proficiency. Conclusion. Students reported high levels of comfort with specific types of cultural encounters (disabilities, sexuality, financial barriers, mental health), but reported to be less comfortable in other situations. PMID:24672064

  13. The Problem of Cultural Identity in the Contemporary Archaeological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kuzmanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The decades-long reconsideration of the concept of culture in archaeology has been aimed at overcoming the traditional culture-historical concept, assuming culture as a relatively stable and homogeneous system of values characteristic of a certain group or a community of people. The practice of cultural classification of artefacts, based upon the premise that people linked by the production and usage of stylistically homogeneous material culture form a group with the feeling of communal identity, has been criticized as a reflection of ethnocentric projection of the modern idea of cultural identity. In spite of numerous critics of this concept, developed under the influence of various theoretical strains from the beginning of the 1960s, it seems that the implicit assumption is still present of the communal cultural identity of a group linked by the communal material culture. Furthermore, an attempt to counteract the critique and offer a multicultural interpretation of the past brings in the danger to rehabilitate the very concept of culture which archaeology has been trying to abandon for decades.

  14. Practice parameter for cultural competence in child and adolescent psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Mian, Ayesha; Carlisle, Lee; Toppelberg, Claudio; Harris, Toi; Gogineni, Rama Rao; Webb, Sala; Smith, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    The United States faces a rapidly changing demographic and cultural landscape, with its population becoming increasingly multiracial and multicultural. In consequence, cultural and racial factors relating to mental illness and emotional disturbances deserve closer attention and consideration. This Practice Parameter outlines clinical applications of the principle of cultural competence that will enable child and adolescent mental health clinicians to better serve diverse children, adolescents, and their families. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  16. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    experiencing significant change . It also demonstrates that a unit-level mentored EBP program is sustainable despite changes in organizational structure...culture, readiness, beliefs, and implementation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Evidence-based practice, culture, mentor, organizational change 16. SECURITY...Medical Command; her areas of interest include staffing, acuity, nursing workload, change management, organizational culture and empowering junior

  17. Cultural Practices of Hispanics: Implications for the Prevention of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, James K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Among 190 Hispanic Americans in Nevada, condom use as an AIDS prevention measure appeared to be a male prerogative associated with "being the one who buys the condoms" (mostly males) and machismo practices such as protection of women. Adherence to Hispanic cultural traits was related to education and acculturation. (SV)

  18. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  19. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  20. Practical Instruction in Tissue Culture and Cytogenetics for Sandwich Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. C.; Bishun, N. P.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the training and practical techniques taught to students involved in a sandwich course at the Tissue Culture and Cytogenetics Unit of the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation, Surrey, England. Students spend a minimum of six months involved in the sandwich course before returning to university for a final academic year. (JR)

  1. Cultural Practices of Hispanics: Implications for the Prevention of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, James K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Among 190 Hispanic Americans in Nevada, condom use as an AIDS prevention measure appeared to be a male prerogative associated with "being the one who buys the condoms" (mostly males) and machismo practices such as protection of women. Adherence to Hispanic cultural traits was related to education and acculturation. (SV)

  2. Faculty Perspectives on Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Developmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the perspectives of developmental math faculty at a two-year technical college regarding culturally responsive beliefs and instructional practices. Thirteen faculty who taught the developmental class Elementary Algebra with Applications were surveyed. Nine of the 13 faculty responded. One section of Wisconsin's…

  3. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  4. Historical and Theoretical Development of Culturally Competent Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Hermeet K.; Huber, Ruth; Faul, Anna C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a detailed review of the historical and theoretical context in which culturally competent practice has evolved in the social work profession and enables educators and practitioners to see holistic connections between the past and present. Historical review of the inclusion of diversity content is followed by definitions of…

  5. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  6. The Naming Practice in Akoose: Deviation from Cultural Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ekanjume-Ilongo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakossi names are generally inherited and are a strong bond for the cultural identity of the people. However, recent developments reveal that Bakossi names are losing their cultural values and identities which can make one to conclude that they are under threat. This is due to the fact that the so-called modern Bakossi people no longer follow the norms prescribed for naming by the traditionalists of old. The impact of the change from the traditionalists to so-call modernists, as seen in Bakossi naming practice nowadays, leads to the questioning of the Bakossi identity. Under this background, this paper looks at the function of names in constructing the Bakossi identity and especially how this is achieved following the historical and cultural background of the Bakossi naming practice. The paper demonstrates that the traditional naming practice has undergone some drastic change. It shows that the Bakossi names no longer stand for the cultural identity and succession of family members as once it was the case.

  7. Cultural Diversity Training: The Necessity of Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers and in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the need to provide culturally sensitive care to the growing number of diverse health care consumers. A literature review of national standards and research on cultural competency was conducted and specifically focused on the field of nursing. This study supports the theory that cultural competence is learned over time and is a process of inner reflection and awareness. The domains of awareness, skill, and knowledge are essential competencies that must be gained by health care providers and especially for nurses. Although barriers to providing culturally sensitive care exist, gaining a better understanding of cultural competence is essential to developing realistic education and training techniques, which will lead to quality professional nursing practice for increasingly diverse populations.

  8. Cultures of simulations vs. cultures of calculations? The development of simulation practices in meteorology and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mikaela

    While the distinction between theory and experiment is often used to discuss the place of simulation from a philosophical viewpoint, other distinctions are possible from a sociological perspective. Turkle (1995) distinguishes between cultures of calculation and cultures of simulation and relates these cultures to the distinction between modernity and postmodernity, respectively. What can we understand about contemporary simulation practices in science by looking at them from the point of view of these two computer cultures? What new questions does such an analysis raise for further studies? On the basis of two case studies, the present paper compares and discusses simulation activities in astrophysics and meteorology. It argues that simulation practices manifest aspects of both of these cultures simultaneously, but in different situations. By employing the dichotomies surface/depth, play/seriousness, and extreme/reasonable to characterize and operationalize cultures of calculation and cultures of simulation as sensitizing concepts, the analysis shows how simulation code work shifts from development to use, the importance of but also resistance towards too much visualizations, and how simulation modelers play with extreme values, yet also try to achieve reasonable results compared to observations.

  9. Cultural health beliefs in a rural family practice: a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Kamil M; Beng, Khoo S

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Includes traditional practices of 'hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes.

  10. Promoting Cultural Competence, Health Behaviors, and Professional Practice in Undergraduate Education through Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence (CC) has been identified as an important skill for all healthcare and public health professionals, and it must be integrated into all aspects of health practice. However, few university and college health education programs in North America have included CC education in their curriculums. This article describes an…

  11. Promoting Cultural Competence, Health Behaviors, and Professional Practice in Undergraduate Education through Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence (CC) has been identified as an important skill for all healthcare and public health professionals, and it must be integrated into all aspects of health practice. However, few university and college health education programs in North America have included CC education in their curriculums. This article describes an…

  12. [Science, technique, and culture: relations between risk and health practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeresnia, Dina

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.

  13. New method for culture of zona-included or zona-free embryos: the Well of the Well (WOW) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, G; Peura, T T; Holm, P

    2000-01-01

    . The cell number of blastocysts cultured in the WOW system did not differ from that of the controls. Apart from its theoretical value in revealing the role of different factors influencing embryo development in vitro, the WOW system may have immediate practical consequences in certain areas of mammalian......Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well...... presumptive zygotes were cultured from day 1 to day 7 (day 0: day of insemination) using three modules (single embryos, embryo groups of five, or single zona-digested embryos) and three different culture systems (400 microl medium, 200 microl drops, or WOWs). An additional control group consisted of 40 to 50...

  14. Good Cell Culture Practice for stem cells and stem-cell-derived models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Bal-Price, Anna; Simeonov, Anton; Tagle, Danilo; Allen, Dave; Gerhold, David; Yin, Dezhong; Pistollato, Francesca; Inutsuka, Takashi; Sullivan, Kristie; Stacey, Glyn; Salem, Harry; Leist, Marcel; Daneshian, Mardas; Vemuri, Mohan C; McFarland, Richard; Coecke, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Lakshmipathy, Uma; Mack, Amanda; Wang, Wen Bo; Yamazaki, Daiju; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari; Smirnova, Lena; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The first guidance on Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) dates back to 2005. This document expands this to include aspects of quality assurance for in vitro cell culture focusing on the increasingly diverse cell types and culture formats used in research, product development, testing and manufacture of biotechnology products and cell-based medicines. It provides a set of basic principles of best practice that can be used in training new personnel, reviewing and improving local procedures, and helping to assure standard practices and conditions for the comparison of data between laboratories and experimentation performed at different times. This includes recommendations for the documentation and reporting of culture conditions. It is intended as guidance to facilitate the generation of reliable data from cell culture systems, and is not intended to conflict with local or higher level legislation or regulatory requirements. It may not be possible to meet all recommendations in this guidance for practical, legal or other reasons. However, when it is necessary to divert from the principles of GCCP, the risk of decreasing the quality of work and the safety of laboratory staff should be addressed and any conclusions or alternative approaches justified. This workshop report is considered a first step toward a revised GCCP 2.0.

  15. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    OpenAIRE

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors i...

  16. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.

  17. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  18. Positioning Food Cultures: 'Alternative' Food as Distinctive Consumer Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Many sociological studies to date have explored the role of food in marking distinctions between groups. Less well understood is how 'alternative' means of food consumption become figured in such relations. Drawing on accounts of food practice derived from 20 in-depth interviews and a two-year period of participant observation, this article considers the role of class culture in the practice of alternative food consumption. As participants speak their position, expressions of class arise through discussions of food practice. Having explored how food plays a part in marking boundaries of distinction between foods 'for us' and 'for them', we are reminded that in reproducing certain ideas about proper eating, we confine our imagining of alternative food futures to a limited politics of the possible. The article highlights implications for future development of equitable alternatives to conventional foodways.

  19. Primary cell culture of human adenocarcinomas--practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerescu, Lucian; Tucureanu, Cătălin; Caraş, Iuliana; Neagu, Stefan; Melinceanu, Laura; Sălăgeanu, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    Cell culture is one of the major tools for oncology research, being an excellent system in which to study the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and to understand cancer cell physiology. Progress in understanding the biology of any type of carcinoma has been impeded by the inability to culture adequately malignant cells from most epithelial tissues. The ultimate in vitro tumor model would completely reflect the in vivo tumor microenvironment in function and mechanism. Unfortunately, such a model does not currently exist. Homogeneous cell lines that can be continuously propagated on plastic surfaces have been extensively used as a surrogate for tumor environment; however they are very different from the in vivo tumor cells. Model systems involving primary culture represent the situation most closely related to the original tissue although they have a number of disadvantages over cell lines, such as the limited ability to repeat studies with a well characterized culture system that can be used in multiple laboratories. The primary culture may contain many types of stromal and infiltrating cell types potentially complicating the interpretation of data. Yet, their properties better reflect the cellular interactions present in intact tissue. The present article reviews the critical steps in obtaining, routine maintenance and cryopreservation of primary tumor cell cultures, based on information from literature and personal experience on the subject. The article also includes an updated protocol for primary tumor cell isolation and culture.

  20. Effectiveness of practices to reduce blood culture contamination: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan R; Favoretto, Alessandra M; Baetz, Rich Ann; Derzon, James H; Madison, Bereneice M; Mass, Diana; Shaw, Colleen S; Layfield, Christopher D; Christenson, Robert H; Liebow, Edward B

    2012-09-01

    This article is a systematic review of the effectiveness of three practices for reducing blood culture contamination rates: venipuncture, phlebotomy teams, and prepackaged preparation/collection (prep) kits. The CDC-funded Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Initiative systematic review methods for quality improvement practices were used. Studies included as evidence were: 9 venipuncture (vs. versus intravenous catheter), 5 phlebotomy team; and 7 prep kit. All studies for venipuncture and phlebotomy teams favored these practices, with meta-analysis mean odds ratios for venipuncture of 2.69 and phlebotomy teams of 2.58. For prep kits 6 studies' effect sizes were not statistically significantly different from no effect (meta-analysis mean odds ratio 1.12). Venipuncture and the use of phlebotomy teams are effective practices for reducing blood culture contamination rates in diverse hospital settings and are recommended as evidence-based "best practices" with high overall strength of evidence and substantial effect size ratings. No recommendation is made for or against prep kits based on uncertain improvement. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  1. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  2. Organizational Culture in Budgeting Practices: A Study in an Agroindustrial Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Wrubel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between organizational culture and budgeting practices of an organization. Developed a qualitative, descriptive research through a case study. The company's study was selected for accessibility and intentionally, since it uses corporate budget management. For data collection was designed a semi structured interview guide with questions adapted from the study of Van der Stede (2000 applied to the agricultural industry of Paraná budget manager. Was also including questions about the cultural aspects and for this was used the dimensions of organizational culture of Hofstede (1991. The organizational culture focused on results orientation contributes to the company to carry out the budget with emphasis on goals, because in this orientation the managers tend to devote efforts on tasks and is facilitated implementation of budgets that are premised on achieving planning undertaken by senior management. The organizational culture of agribusiness presents evidence to positively influence the existence of rigid control related to the budget, in which notes that people are concerned about cost control in the workplace. Some budgeting practices carried out by agribusiness are consolidated, involving the participation of managers and are influenced by cultural aspects of organizational environment that encourage such practices.

  3. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  4. Evaluation of Bacterial & Fungal Culture Practices in School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of activities may be undertaken in elementary and secondary school science laboratories as part of regular curricular activities or optional classroom activities, including science fair projects. Among these is the culturing of microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. There are various potential educational opportunities associated…

  5. Cross-Cultural Interactions and Changing Management Practices in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    African societies demand and deserve visible economic benefits taht good management and governance can provide. But available evidence suggests that neither Western management practices nor thoe inspired by African culture can adequately address the socio-economic and political challenges...... confronting Sub-Saharan African countries today. This paper argues in favour of an eclectic synthesis of ideas from multiple sources to provide African managers with novel perspectives of the realities facing them and approaches to address them. The term "hybrid" management" has been used to describe...... this approach to management development. This development of a learning culture and a network of centres of management research have been suggested as preconditions for the effective development of hybrid management in Africa...

  6. Cross-Cultural Interactions and Changing Management Practices in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    African societies demand and deserve visible economic benefits taht good management and governance can provide. But available evidence suggests that neither Western management practices nor thoe inspired by African culture can adequately address the socio-economic and political challenges...... confronting Sub-Saharan African countries today. This paper argues in favour of an eclectic synthesis of ideas from multiple sources to provide African managers with novel perspectives of the realities facing them and approaches to address them. The term "hybrid" management" has been used to describe...... this approach to management development. This development of a learning culture and a network of centres of management research have been suggested as preconditions for the effective development of hybrid management in Africa...

  7. Cultural Studies and the Subaltern: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Györke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available My article discusses the theoretical and practical implications of applying the methodology of cultural studies, as it is delineated by Stuart Hall, in the East-Central European context. Despite the celebrated “internationalization” of the discipline as well as “de-Eurocentrizing” initiatives, a number of scholars, such as G. C. Spivak and Hall himself, claim that research taking a cultural studies approach has offered little innovative intervention in recent years, and the discipline remains defined by a Western, (postmodern theoretical framework. I argue that scholars in Hungary (and Slovenia have an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to the field, yet in order to avoid falling into the trap of repeating obvious claims and conclusion, we need to take an approach that Spivak associates with the toleration of uncertainty and paradox, and Jessica Benjamin calls intersubjective interaction.

  8. Does the introduction of nursing home culture change practices improve quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan C; Lepore, Michael; Lima, Julie C; Shield, Renee; Tyler, Denise A

    2014-09-01

    To understand whether nursing home (NH) introduction of culture change practices is associated with improved quality. NH-level panel study using multivariate fixed-effects statistical modeling to estimate the effect of culture change introduction on quality outcomes. Eight hundred twenty-four U.S. NHs with culture change practice involvement beginning between 2005 and 2010. Directors of nursing and nursing home administrators. A culture change practice score (derived from a 2009/10 national NH survey) was used to stratify NHs according to practice implementation (high (scores in the top quartile; n = 217) vs other (n = 607)). NH-level outcomes included prevalence of seven care practices and three resident outcomes, health-related and quality-of-life weighted survey deficiencies, and average number of hospitalizations per resident year. For NHs with high practice implementation, introduction of culture change was associated with a significant decrease in prevalence of restraints, tube feeding, and pressure ulcers; an increase in the proportion of residents on bladder training programs; and a small decrease in the average number of hospitalizations per resident year (coefficient -0.04, standard error (SE) 0.02, P = .06). For NHs with lower practice implementation (practice scores in lower three quartiles), introduction was associated with fewer health-related (coefficient -5.26, SE 3.05; P = .09) and quality-of-life (coefficient -0.10, SE 0.05; P = .04) survey deficiencies, although these NHs also had small statistically significant increases in the prevalence of residents with urinary tract infections and in average hospitalizations per resident year (coefficient 0.03, SE 0.01, P = .02). The introduction of NH culture change appears to result in significant improvements in some care processes and outcomes in NHs with high practice implementation. For other NHs, culture change introduction results in fewer survey deficiencies. © 2014, Copyright the

  9. Spatial turn and animation practices inspired by cultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wieszaczewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial turn is one of the cultural turns, which have recently occurred in the humanities. It stresses the importance of issues such as space and place and can be successfully used as a theoretical perspective gaining use in thought over issues such as globalisation, transnationality, mapping but also education. In the discourses of pedagogical science space and place are considered through their multidimensional impact on education and learning. As significant concepts rooting pedagogy or pedagogy of borderland. The pedagogical reflection on space could be also used in the field of animation practices, especially in activities, which are related to place somehow colonised.

  10. Cultural Practices and HIV in South Africa: A Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mswela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has not escaped the rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women. From an economic and social vantage point, the HIV/AIDS epidemic effects women the hardest, with underprivileged black women the most susceptible to the virus. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the intersection between HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and gender violence, and more specifically on certain cultural practices and customs that contribute towards and exacerbate women’s subordination and inequality, which in turn increase women’s exposure to HIV infection. Relevant to this focus is inevitably an analysis of the perceived threats to specific fundamental human rights as a result of some of the entrenched practices that continue to reinforce women’s subordinate position in society, aggravated by the high incidence of gender violence.

  11. MODERN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION, SPEECH CULTURAL TRADITIONS AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Butorina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal to simplify the Russian language for its practical use and the extension of Russian cultural influence was set in Peter the Great’s period. In his language policy Peter the Great preferred a functional criterion, insisting on the use of the Russian language variety, which would be understandable not by the elite only, so the Russian language regulation for business purposes has had a long-standing tradition. The article discusses the European practice of various languages standardization in modern business communication. To compare Russian business texts in Russia and abroad urban sites of Moscow, New York and Tallinn are analyzed. The data obtained suggest some hypotheses about peculiarities of business texts in modern Russian language space.

  12. Towards an Inclusive Pedagogical Culture: Experiences from University Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana María Fernández-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with conceptual and methodological elements to develop the pedagogical inclusive competence of the professors of higher education in Ecuador. We analyze the current conceptions and the main drawbacks related to the inclusion process in the university environment nowadays. We support a theoretical procedural model, and from the practical standpoint, we implemented the methodological procedures structured in a map of processes to reach an inclusive formative process. The main results are given in the development of the pedagogical inclusive competence and the increase of the inclusion culture at the university, and revealed in the improvement of university curriculum from an inclusive approach, the betterment of the physical and technological infrastructure, the permanent upgrading of professors and putting into practice policies of affirmative action.

  13. American academic headache specialists in neurology: practice characteristics and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, A G

    2004-07-01

    Headache diagnosis and treatment is the most important focus or concentration area for practising neurologists in America. The American Headache Society, formerly the American Association for the Study of Headache, is made up predominantly of neurologists. Recognition of the importance of the teaching and practice of headache medicine, especially migraine, is still incomplete at many academic teaching institutions. Suggestions that this results from inadequate academic hierarchies and education at graduate and post-graduate levels have been made. We therefore undertook a survey of academic practitioners of headache medicine in departments of neurology with membership of the American Headache Society. Subjects and addresses were identified using the 1999-2000 membership directory of the American Headache Society. Practice characteristics and time distribution were assessed. Teaching in undergraduate and resident programmes was also assessed. Fifty-five surveys from 46 institutions in 25 states were judged as adequate for this report. Academic neurologists with interest in headache medicine spent most of their time in clinic, with less than 25% spent doing either research or teaching. Medical schools had an average of 1 h of preclinical and 2 h of clinical teaching in headache. Neurology residents received an average of 3 h of didactic instruction in headache. This report is the first of its kind to review the practice characteristics and culture of headache medicine in the setting of academic departments of neurology. It describes a clinical practice similar to those of other non-academic American neurologists.

  14. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  15. The role of culture in the general practice consultation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasreen; Atkin, Karl; Neal, Richard

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we will examine the importance of culture and ethnicity in the general practice consultation process. Good communication is associated with positive health outcomes. We will, by presenting qualitative material from an empirical study, examine the way in which communication within the context of a general practitioner (GP) consultation may be affected by ethnicity and cultural factors. The aim of the study was to provide a detailed understanding of the ways in which white and South Asian patients communicate with white GPs and to explore any similarities and differences in communication. This paper reports on South Asian and white patients' explanations of recent videotaped consultations with their GP. We specifically focus on the ways in which issues of ethnic identity impacted upon the GP consultation process, by exploring how our sample of predominantly white GPs interacted with their South Asian patients and the extent to which the GP listened to the patients' needs, gave patients information, engaged in social conversation and showed friendliness. We then go on to examine patients' suggestions on improvements (if any) to the consultation. We conclude, by showing how a non-essentialist understanding of culture helps to comprehend the consultation process when the patients are from Great Britain's ethnicised communities. Our findings, however, raise generic issues of relevance to all multi-racial and multi-ethnic societies.

  16. Hormonal Eligibility Criteria for 'Includes Females' Competition: A Practical but Problematic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2016-01-01

    The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) adopted testosterone level criteria for eligibility (i.e. 10 nmol/l or 290 ng/dl in blood for IAAF, levels 'within the male range' for IOC) to compete in the 'includes females' category. The policies address the assertion that women with very high endogenous testosterone (unless they are androgen-resistant) have an unfair advantage over women with lower natural levels. Recently, the Court of Arbitration for Sport suspended the 'hyperandrogenism regulation' by the IAAF, but added: 'since there are separate categories of male and female competition, it is necessary for the IAAF to formulate a basis for the division of athletes into male and female categories for the benefit of the broad class of female athletes. The basis chosen should be necessary, reasonable and proportionate to the legitimate objective being pursued' [Branch J: Dutee Chand, Female Sprinter with High Testosterone Level, Wins Right to Compete. The New York Times, July 27, 2015]. An analysis of available evidence below - scientific as well as experiential - suggests that androgen-based criteria can, in fact, be rationally defended as the best currently available and practical approach to determine eligibility for competition in the 'includes females' category. However, to justify such policies, the IOC and IAAF must also show them to be not only rational, but also fair, necessary, and consistent with the treatment of athletes with other endogenous non-physiologic advantages.

  17. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Matthew G.; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Read, Russell W.; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Methods Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Results Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. Conclusions The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss. PMID:28146236

  18. Religious culture and health promotion: care, practice, object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Timm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment

  19. Cellulite treatment: evidence and ethics, brief history, and emphasis on current practices including liposuction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2005-04-01

    According to Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary "cellulite" is defined as: "a non-technical term for subcutaneous deposits of fat, especially in the buttocks, legs, and thighs." These deposits result in puckered, dimply skin and they are a cause for major aesthetic concerns in affected patients. The etiology of this condition is still unclear. Female predilection is witnessed in clinical practice as it is reported in the literature. It remains a subject for further studies whether it is a structural problem of connective tissue or as suggested probably related to hormonal causes. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide some answers to these questions. Not knowing what is causing this nuisance makes it almost impossible to treat. No wonder that there is little scientific validation to support any of the many treatments that are advertised on the Internet or in women's magazines. This review focuses on mechanical and microinvasive interventions that claim to alleviate "cellulite": lipoplasty, liposcultpure, liposuction, subcision, and laser. Among the parameters analyzed are the proposed modes of action of these techniques as well as adverse events and complications that may occur. Of special interest will be the evidence that backs these procedures. Extracting reliable data is hampered by methodical problems with the design of most of the published trials. In essence, at this time there is no "cure" for cellulite. Safe treatment recommendations are related to healthy life style choices that include toning exercises, dietary changes, and weight loss.

  20. How Positive Practices Can Accelerate Transformation To a Lean Improvement Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus; Hansen, David; Lilja, Johan

    2016-01-01

    With increasing pressure on creating more value with fewer resources, many organizations pursue continuous improvement culture and practices in daily operations.In operations management Lean and the Toyota Way have been continuous improvement role models for describing tools and culture. However......, the cultural transformation has been reported difficult to achieve. This study investigates how practices in daily operations can be used to purposely support the cultural transformation. During an explorative case study 9 practices were identified and analysed. The study showed that positive practices based...... on appreciative inquiry andpositive psychology were particularly effective in accelerating cultural transformation....

  1. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  2. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  3. Leadership of Learning in Early Years Practice: A Professional Learning Resource [Includes DVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with…

  4. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  5. Practice to research: integrating evidence-based practices with culture and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Hay, M Cameron

    2015-04-01

    There are ways to integrate culturally competent services (CCS) and evidence-based practices (EBP) which can improve the experiences of patients and their families and communities when faced with health problems, as well as the effectiveness and positive experiences of practitioners. CCS and EBP evidence should be jointly deployed for helping patients and clinicians. Partnership research models are useful for achieving the integration of CCS and EBP, since they involve close observation of and participation by clinicians and practitioners in the research process, and often use integrated qualitative and quantitative mixed methods. We illustrate this with 3 examples of work that can help integrate CCS and EBP: ongoing collection of information from patients, clinicians and staff, or "evidence farming"; close study and continuous improvement of activities and accommodations; and use of evidence of tacit, implicit cultural scripts and norms, such as being "productive," as well as explicit scripts. From a research practice point of view, collaborative partnerships will likely produce research with culture and context bracketed in, and will contribute stronger research models, methods, and units of analysis.

  6. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  7. Comparing Higher Education Practices and Cultural Competences in Kenya and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musamali, Kennedy; Martin, Barbara N.

    2016-01-01

    Examined within this paper are effective leadership practices across two cultures. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between cultural competency and effective leadership practices in higher education institutions. A quantitative design was used to investigate and compare effective practices of educational leaders in two distinct…

  8. Performance-based competencies for culturally responsive interprofessional collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Valerie; Lackie, Kelly

    2009-11-01

    This paper will highlight how a literature review and stakeholder-expert feedback guided the creation of an interprofessional facilitator-collaborator competency tool, which was then used to design an interprofessional facilitator development program for the Partners for Interprofessional Cancer Education (PICE) Project. Cancer Care Nova Scotia (CCNS), one of the PICE Project partners, uses an Interprofessional Core Curriculum (ICC) to provide continuing education workshops to community-based practitioners, who as a portion of their practice, care for patients experiencing cancer. In order to deliver this curriculum, health professionals from a variety of disciplines required education that would enable them to become culturally sensitive interprofessional educators in promoting collaborative patient-centred practice. The Registered Nurses Professional Development Centre (RN-PDC), another PICE Project partner, has expertise in performance-based certification program design and utilizes a competency-based methodology in its education framework. This framework and methodology was used to develop the necessary interprofessional facilitator competencies that incorporate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for performance. Three main competency areas evolved, each with its own set of competencies, performance criteria and behavioural indicators.

  9. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  10. Diversity of culturable bacteria including Pantoea in wild mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The microbiota has been shown to play an important role in the biology of insects. In recent decades, significant efforts have been made to better understand the diversity of symbiotic bacteria associated with mosquitoes and assess their influence on pathogen transmission. Here, we report the bacterial composition found in field-caught Aedes albopictus populations by using culture-dependent methods. Results A total of 104 mosquito imagos (56 males and 48 females) were caught from four contrasting biotopes of Madagascar and their bacterial contents were screened by plating whole body homogenates on three different culture media. From 281 bacterial colony types obtained, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) showed they had 40 distinct ribotypes. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA genes responsible for each representative profile made it possible to identify 27 genera distributed in three major phyla. In female mosquitoes, bacterial isolates were mostly Proteobacteria (51.3%) followed by Firmicutes (30.3%) and Actinobacteria (18.4%). Conversely, Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum in male mosquitoes (48%) followed by Proteobacteria (30.6%) and Firmicutes (20.4%). The relative abundance and composition of isolates also varied between sampling sites, ranging from 3 distinct families in Ankazobe to 8 in Tsimbazaza Park, and Toamasina and Ambohidratrimo. Pantoea was the most common genus in both females and males from all sampling sites, except for Ambohidratrimo. No differences in genome size were found between Pantoea isolates from mosquitoes and reference strains in pulse field gel electrophoresis. However, according to the numbers and sizes of plasmids, mosquito isolates clustered into three different groups with other strains isolated from insects but distinct from isolates from the environment. Conclusions The recent upsurge in research into the functional role of the insect microbiota prompts the interest to better

  11. Cultural resources of minority and marginalised students should be included in the school science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigeza, Philemon

    2011-06-01

    This paper responds to Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource—rich view of African American young men", and takes a resource-rich view to explore the notion of agency and elements of cultural resources that minority and marginalised students bring to the classroom. The paper examines the deficit model, the need to adopt capacity building perspective, and a classroom study, which sought to contextualise capacity building with a group of Australian indigenous students in a science class. As science educators, we need to reject the deficit model by developing capacity building pedagogies that affirm minority and marginalised students' lived languages, experiences and knowledge in their learning.

  12. The promotion of mental health through cultural values, institutions, and practices: a reflection on some aspects of botswana culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabone, Motshedisi B

    2009-12-01

    Botswana has seen rapid socioeconomic development since the 1970s that has contributed to the erosion of the values, institutions, and practices that are believed to be supportive of mental health. In this paper, the author argues that the aspects of culture that are supportive of mental health have been diluted by the process of urbanization and the interactions of Batswana (the indigenous people of Botswana) with other cultural groups, particularly those from the western hemisphere. The paper further highlights some of the values, institutions, and practices native to Botswana and describes how they promote mental health. Lastly, recommendations for reviving the cultural values, institutions, and practices of Botswana are discussed.

  13. Global and cultural perinatal nursing research: improving clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark

    2011-01-01

    High-quality perinatal nursing care should be based on the best evidence including research findings, clinical expertise, and the preferences of women and their families. Principles of perinatal research initiatives are defined, with suggested research priorities designed to close current gaps in the micro and macro environments of perinatal nursing throughout the world. Nearly a decade ago, the following question was asked, "Where is the 'E' (evidence) in maternal child health?" Improving the quality and safety of perinatal nursing care for culturally diverse women globally is the primary goal of nurse researchers leading the future of perinatal healthcare.

  14. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal

  15. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    Full Text Available Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting.Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events.A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate

  16. THE COLOMBIAN REALITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BEHAIOVR ANALYSIS: PEACE AS A RESULT OF CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS DE VALDERRAMA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantage of applying behavior analysis to cultural practices comprehension, considering cultural practices as group behaviors, selected and maintained by social reinforcement contingencies and metacontingencies. The three types of contingencies formulated by Skinner are described, and the principal existing data related to aggressive behavior. A proposal to analyze some relevant aspects to Colombian reality is formulated, and finally, an intent to analyze peace as a result of cultural practices is presented, emphasizing positive reciprocal social processes. Mattaini's (1996 suggestion to graphical representation of cultural practices analysis is applied.

  17. Cultural citizenship as a normative notion for activist practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of a notion of cultural citizenship that can function as an activist tool for formulating claims against cultural exclusion. It claims to have captured such a notion in the definition of cultural citizenship as the ability to co-author the cultural context in whic

  18. Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Wu, Tsai-Wei; Chiang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of researchers in this study were to examine acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and their association with postpartum depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. While the postpartum cultural practices in China are similar to mainstream Taiwanese practices, those of Vietnam differ from Taiwanese practices. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taiwan from October 2007 through March 2008, and included190 immigrant mothers from China and Vietnam who had delivered a child within the past year. Immigrant mothers from China had higher levels of acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and a lower rate of postpartum depressive symptoms than immigrant mothers from Vietnam, but the association between adherence to "doing-the-month" practices and postpartum depressive symptoms did not vary significantly between Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Adherence to these practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96) after adjustment for social support, duration between moving to Taiwan and delivery, and country of origin. Adherence to mainstream postpartum cultural practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms for both Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant women married to Taiwanese men.

  19. New method for culture of zona-included or zona-free embryos: the Well of the Well (WOW) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, G; Peura, T T; Holm, P

    2000-01-01

    (WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine....... The cell number of blastocysts cultured in the WOW system did not differ from that of the controls. Apart from its theoretical value in revealing the role of different factors influencing embryo development in vitro, the WOW system may have immediate practical consequences in certain areas of mammalian...

  20. Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia P; Folster, Samantha; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen

    2015-04-09

    Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids. The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four interventions (motivational interviewing, anticipatory guidance, fluoride varnish and dental care to expectant mothers) for reducing the prevalence of ECC in infants within Aboriginal communities. This research explored cultural based practices through individual interviews and focus groups with older First Nations women in the community. Participants in a First Nations community identified cultural based practices that have also been used to promote healthy infant feeding and good oral health. A wide range of themes related to oral health and infant feeding emerged. However, this paper focuses on three themes including: breastfeeding attitudes, social support for mothers and birthing and supporting healthy infant feeding through community programs. The importance of understanding cultural health traditions is essential for those working in oral public health capacities to ensure there is community acceptance of the interventions.

  1. Puerto Rican cultural beliefs: influence on infant feeding practices in western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, B

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural beliefs and practices of Puerto Rican families that influence feeding practices and affect the nutritional status of infants and young children. The goal of the study was to outline strategies that would enable nurses to provide culturally congruent care for this population. Culture care theory guided the research, and an ethnonursing methodology was used. From interviews with 10 key and 5 general informants, 11 universal and 2 diverse themes were abstracted. The dimensions of kinship, cultural values, lifeways, and philosophical beliefs were found to influence Puerto Rican infant feeding practices. The cultural belief that big is healthy was found to be integrally related to cultural feeding practices. Strategies are suggested to facilitate provision of culturally congruent care for Puerto Rican infants and children in an ambulatory setting.

  2. Impacts of Organizational Culture on the Practice of Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安然

    2013-01-01

      Organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practioners. Many researchers have confirmed the influence of values on management theories. Barney regards organizational culture as a significant element in creating and implementing the best strategy for competitive advantage. Every thing has pros and cons, organization culture is no exception, and problems caused by organizational culture must be recognized as well, such as barriers to mergers and acquisitions.

  3. Improving patient safety culture in general practice: An interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verbakel (Natasha J.); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); T.J. Verheij; C. Wagner (Cordula); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien Lyd Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground When improving patient safety a positive safety culture is key. As little is known about improving patient safety culture in primary care, this study examined whether administering a culture questionnaire with or without a complementary workshop could be used as an interventio

  4. The relationship between organizational culture and implementation of clinical practice guidelines: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter; Cahill, Naomi E; Heyland, Daren K

    2010-01-01

    The context in which critical care providers work has been shown to be associated with adherence to recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Consideration of contextual factors such as organizational culture may therefore be important when implementing guidelines. Organizational culture has been defined simply as "how things are around here" and encompasses leadership, communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, and other domains. This narrative review highlights the results of recent quantitative and qualitative studies, including studies on adherence to nutrition guidelines in the critical care setting, which demonstrate that elements of organizational culture, such as leadership support, interprofessional collaboration, and shared beliefs about the utility of guidelines, influence adherence to guideline recommendations. Outside nutrition therapy, there is emerging evidence that strategies focusing on organizational change (eg, revision of professional roles, interdisciplinary teams, integrated care delivery, computer systems, and continuous quality improvement) can favorably influence professional performance and patient outcomes. Consequently, future interventions aimed at implementing nutrition guidelines should aim to measure and take into account organizational culture, in addition to considering the characteristics of the patient, provider, and guideline. Further high quality, multimethod studies are required to improve our understanding of how culture influences guideline implementation, and which organizational change strategies might be most effective in optimizing nutrition therapy.

  5. Relation between creative teaching and sustainable practices in cultural heritage tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašperić Ružica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with alternative teaching methodologies. Creative teaching methodologies place the student at the center of the learning process. This paper is a case study of 'Orion - promotion of the Vučedol culture' project as a self-sustainable cultural product. The primary goal of the project is the promotion of heritage through cultural tourism. The 'Orion' project was launched in cooperation with third year undergraduate students at the Department of Tourism of VERN University of Applied Sciences from Zagreb, as part of the Event Management and Marketing course (March to June 2014. Inspired by the Vučedol archaeological site, historical data and lectures on the Vučedol culture and the oldest Indo-European calendar called 'Orion' the students have developed a plan for a two-day festival that would take place in Vinkovci, Croatia and world include a scientific conference, cultural and artistic program, presentation of local cuisine, creative workshops, and promotion of local crafts. This paper reinforces the need for imaginative thinking in education for tourism. The variety of ways in which creative teaching practices can be used is infinite and this case study presents only a small contribution.

  6. Measuring Culture Effect size Differences in Slovenian and Portuguese Leadership Practices: Cross-Cultural Leadership Universality or Contigency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Matevž

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the cultural effect size across five types of leadership practices by using the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI instrument and drawing on the GLOBE research project framework. It tests cultural universality vs. contingency in five LPI leadership practices in an East-West EU comparison, both with an ex-socialist past. It employs four different effect size statistics. The paper contributes to the narrowing of the empirical gap in researching leadership practices in a small, East-West European country context. Only two of the five leadership practices show statistically significant effect sizes. Furthermore, the leadership practice Encouraging the heart is the only one to display a relatively moderate effect size. Thus, the evidence seems to support the universalist perspective over the contingency perspective.

  7. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  8. Soil total carbon and crop yield affected by crop rotation and cultural practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacked crop rotation and improved cultural practice have been used to control pests, but their impact on soil organic C (SOC) and crop yield are lacking. We evaluated the effects of stacked vs. alternate-year rotations and cultural practices on SOC at the 0- to 125-cm depth and annualized crop yiel...

  9. The influence of culture on human resource management processes and practices: The propositions for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the influence of national culture on HRM practices and processes in order to draw conclusions for Serbian HR practitioners, multinational corporations operating in Serbia, and any other country or organizational context that has similar cultural characteristics. To achieve this we first review the relevant literature to identify the interdependencies between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and HRM practices and processes. On the basis of recognized relationships we put forward 11 propositions about likely appropriate HRM practices (such as job analysis, recruitment and selection, human resource planning and career management for the Serbian cultural context, characterized by high Uncertainty Avoidance, high Power Distance, Collectivism and Femininity.

  10. Creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship across cultures theory and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures.   Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards.  Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses.   Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...

  11. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  12. What Teachers Say about Addressing Culture in Their EFL Teaching Practices: The Vietnamese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long; Harvey, Sharon; Grant, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnamese EFL teachers' beliefs about the role of culture in language teaching. It also considers how they address culture in their teaching practices in a Vietnamese university. Ethnographic data collected from semi-structured interviews indicated that opportunities for culture to find its way into EFL classroom activities…

  13. Cultural Safety Circles and Indigenous Peoples' Perspectives: Inclusive Practices for Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseron, Johnnie; Greymorning, S. Neyooxet; Miller, Adrian; Wilde, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous experiences, as found within traditional ways and cultural practices, are an acknowledgement of traditional methods for sharing, learning, and collective knowledge development and maintenance. The application of Cultural Safety Circles can help provide a collective space where definitions for cultural and educational exchange can take…

  14. Expressive Practices: The Local Enactment of Culture in the Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karen; Milburn, Trudy; Wilkins, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As students participate in corporate communication classes, they may, on occasion, use the term culture to make sense of their experiences. The authors use Mino's idea of a learning paradigm to shift the emphasis away from teaching traditional theories of culture and use student-centered experiences to teach culture as an expressive practice.…

  15. What Teachers Say about Addressing Culture in Their EFL Teaching Practices: The Vietnamese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long; Harvey, Sharon; Grant, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnamese EFL teachers' beliefs about the role of culture in language teaching. It also considers how they address culture in their teaching practices in a Vietnamese university. Ethnographic data collected from semi-structured interviews indicated that opportunities for culture to find its way into EFL classroom activities…

  16. Canopy Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Rice with Different Cultural Practices and Their Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of major cultural practices including different nitrogen application rates, population densities, transplanting leaf ages of seedling, and water regimes on rice canopy spectral reflectance was investigated. Results showed that increased nitrogen rates, water regimes and population densities and decreased seedling ages could enhance reflectance at NIR (near infrared) bands and reduce reflectance at visible bands. Using reflectance of green, red and NIR band and ratio index of 810-560 nm could distinguish the different type of rice by fuzzy cluster analysis.

  17. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona

    2017-07-02

    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  18. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  19. Managerial capacity and adoption of culturally competent practices in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2010-12-01

    The field of cultural competence is shifting its primary emphasis from enhancement of counselors' skills to management, organizational policy, and processes of care. This study examined managers' characteristics associated with adoption of culturally competent practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment field. Findings indicate that in 1995, supervisors' cultural sensitivity played the most significant role in adopting practices, such as matching counselors and clients based on race and offering bilingual services. Staff's exposure to cross-cultural training increased from 1995 to 2005. In this period, positive associations were found between managers' cultural sensitivity and connection with the community and staff receiving cross-cultural training and the number of training hours completed. However, exposure to and investment in this training were negatively correlated with managers' formal education. Health administration policy should consider the extent to which the decision makers' education, community involvement, and cultural sensitivity contribute to building culturally responsive systems of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ‘Fit’ for telework’? Cross-cultural variance and task-control explanations in organizations’ formal telework practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Ligthart, P.E.M.; Bardoel, A.; Poutsma, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how nation-level cultural values (‘individualism’ and ‘collectivism’) and intra-organizational task control mechanisms influence the level of organizations’ use of formal telework practices. Employing a multi-level analysis on survey data (2009/10), including 1577

  1. Practitioner characteristics and organizational contexts as essential elements in the evidence-based practice versus cultural competence debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vivian Hopkins

    2015-04-01

    The different pathways chosen to efficiently and effectively provide relief to those struggling with mental health challenges reflect different assumptions about the human condition and have led to disagreements over which intervention strategies are best suited to particular individuals or populations. Evidence-based practice and culturally competent services, as discussed within the United States, have been characterized as opposites. However, neither approach captures all of the elements that embody the full treatment experience. This article offers a framework that includes the personal identity of the practitioner and the organizational context as two elements that serve as active agents in the helping relationship, although they have rarely been included in the discourse about evidence-based practice or cultural competence. Suggestions for practice, education, and research are included based on this analysis. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Organizational Culture and Leadership Practices in the 75th Ranger Regiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DATE 5 June 1998 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4 August 1997-5 June 1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizational Culture and...and believe in being proactive problem solvers. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 75th Ranger Regiment, Organizational Culture , Unit Culture, Leadership, Shared...Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 298-102 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES IN THE 75TH RANGER REGIMENT A thesis presented

  3. Teaching as a cultural practice: managing diverse classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María RODRÍGUEZ IZQUIERDO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a cultural process. Actions that take place in this process are influenced by some cultural assumptions which shape pre-defined objectives and affect content, educational treatment, assessments, and relationships among participants. It is, therefore, of utmost importance not only to make explicit the cultural reality of education, but also to think critically about it. In this paper, we focus on the issue of teaching and learning in the context of cultural diversity from a socio-cultural and socio-political theoretical framework. The keywords «classroom management» it generates over 6.5 million hits in google.com. However, when we type «managing diverse classrooms», there are only 200,000 hits. This divergence indicates that classroom management is a widely explored topic, while work about how to manage a cultural diverse classroom is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for teachers to use and improve their cultural knowledge to manage classrooms more effectively. This article argues that growth in cultural awareness of the teaching process improves the quality of teaching and, therefore, students’ learning.

  4. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  5. Crossing Cultures: Considering Ethnotheory in Teacher Thinking and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Jody L.; Joshi, Arti; Konzal, Jean; Galen, Harlene

    2010-01-01

    Society is becoming more and more culturally diverse. Schools are no exception. This poses a unique set of challenges for establishing meaningful home-school relations. Given the fact that the home and the school may represent two different cultures, families and schools may not share the same vision with regard to how children should be educated…

  6. The Influence of Culture Difference in English Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    Because of different geographical environment, historical story, and psychic conditions, there exists distinct culture differences between china and western countries among varified nations. Therefore, we acknowledge that concrete understanding of the culture difference mkes the very basis of the acquisition of English language for students, and thus they are likely to have an enhancement in interpersonal ability.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  8. Shared Values and Socio-Cultural Norms: E-Learning Technologies from a Social Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patti; Velan, Gary M.; Shulruf, Boaz

    2017-01-01

    From a perspective of social practice, learning is a socially constituted practice that is imbued with socio-culturally significant meanings and shaped by the values and norms shared within a community of learners. This focus group study examines the role of e-learning technologies in mediating the social practice of learning among coursework…

  9. The role of cultural practices in the emergence of modern human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2008-06-12

    Innate cognitive capacities are orchestrated by cultural practices to produce high-level cognitive processes. In human activities, examples of this phenomenon range from everyday inferences about space and time to the most sophisticated reasoning in scientific laboratories. A case is examined in which chimpanzees enter into cultural practices with humans (in experiments) in ways that appear to enable them to engage in symbol-mediated thought. Combining the cultural practices perspective with the theories of embodied cognition and enactment suggests that the chimpanzees' behaviour is actually mediated by non-symbolic representations. The possibility that non-human primates can engage in cultural practices that give them the appearance of symbol-mediated thought opens new avenues for thinking about the coevolution of human culture and human brains.

  10. [Conflict as a reality and a cultural challenge in the practice of nurses' management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora

    2007-12-01

    The practice of nurses' management is permeated by conflicts that can be interpreted through culture references. The objective of this study is to denote cultural specificities, analyzed according to Geertz's Cultural Interpretative Theory, that are expressed as conflicts in the scope of nurses' management at a University Hospital. The results denoted the incorporation of ideological elements and mechanisms of control and power, whose origin can be seen in the way in which the work is organized. The application of policies based on the profession's very values was observed. Practices highlight a cultural construction that elucidates some understandings regarding cognitive, social and behavioral processes, because they organize the interpretations and the answers to the events of nurses' practices in management. The results of this study point out the importance of organizational culture in the practice of Nursing management in the face of labor uncertainties in the complexity of a hospital environment.

  11. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  12. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  13. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  14. Developing a collective future: creating a culture specific nurse caring practice model for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M R; Miller-Grolla, L

    1995-01-01

    Nurses continue to struggle with the knowledge that practice within a conceptual context is imperative, yet operationalizing theory-based practice has been fraught with challenges and frustrations. It is timely, given the current environment, for nurses to reflect personally and collectively on the processes and meanings of nursing. Caring theories have been examined with increasing frequency recently, as nurse leaders and theorists explore the profession using alternative frames of reference. The authors discuss the concepts central to development of a practice-based nurse caring model in a community hospital and review the process of nurse-caring model development. Concepts central to the development of the model include: individual;-collective experience as theory; cargiver-client congruence in perceptions of nurse caring; institutions as culture-specific environments. The ongoing process of theory development was initiated by data collection through focus group discussions on nurse-caring experiences and definitions. Twenty-four staff RNs and RNAs were interviewed by a trained facilitator. Audiotaped data were later transcribed and subjected to content analysis for initial theme and definition development. A parallel exercise was carried out with hospital patients using the same methodology. Subsequent analysis included validation of findings by both groups. Examinations of constructs as the theory development evolves will be expedited by both staff and in consultation with Dr. Madeleine Leininger and other external nurse-caring theorists. The Health Centre intends to operationalize and implement its nurse-caring model as an outcome of this long term project. Assumptions integral to the purpose of the project have been validated by staff response. Concepts and their relationships appear to achieve acceptance and be congruent with this nursing group's values and the way in which they practice. Observations to date indicate that collective development of a

  15. Building a culture of innovation a practical framework for placing innovation at the core of your business

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, Cris; Geraghty, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Being a truly innovative company is more than the dreaming up of new products and services by external consultants and internal taskforces. Staying one step ahead of the competition requires you to embed innovation into your organizational culture. Innovation needs to be embodied in everything that gets done by everyone who works there. By changing your organizational culture to one that supports innovation, you will remove the barriers that stop you responding quickly and agilely to changing market conditions and opportunities for growth. Building a Culture of Innovation presents a practical framework that you can follow to design and embed a culture of innovation in your business.The six-step Innovation Culture Change Framework offers a structured process to make change stick, from assessing your organization's innovation-readiness to leading a managed change process that will foster innovation at each level. It includes case studies from international organizations which have shifted their focus to an inno...

  16. Transnational Cultural Leadership as a Situated Practice : Dilemmas and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal transnational research project, a network of European research institutions and field organisations aims to understand how cultural managers mediate global and local pressures concerning creative autonomy, economy and ideology. Among the research questions are which variables

  17. SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT – OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Valenta Grebenšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving aviation safety has always been a priority for the aviation industry. While in recent decades the reliability of machinery and computers dramatically improved the reliability of the people and the organizational aspect of safety did not change much. Many of air accident investigations have shown that one of the causal factors, which increase the probability and severity of accidents, is exactly poor safety culture. The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of safety culture assessment and the overview and review of different methods of measuring the safety culture in aviation. This research provides the suggestion that by use of different methods of assessment (evaluation of the results, more credible insight into the level of safety culture in the organization can be obtained. It also provides an understanding of how measurement systems in order to guide future performance can be used proactively.

  18. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  19. Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Helle; Hornskov, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark......Exploring the Role of Cultural and Policy Context in Distributed Leadership Practices in the US and Denmark...

  20. Symbolic Meanings of High and Low Impact Daily Consumption Practices in Different Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ger, Güliz; Wilhite, Harold; Halkier, Bente

    1998-01-01

    Daily consumption practices are not only practical doings. They also express symbolic meanings; social signals by which we shape our identity, confirm or challenge cultural conventions and construct images of the good life. The symbolic meanings are collectively shared and negotiated....... They influence our choices and practices whether it is by motivating or impeding them. In this study we will look at the symbolic meanings of high and low environmental impact consumption practices. In order to create desirable social markers for environmentally-friendly practices and/or to change high impact...... practices, we need to understand emergent practices and their existing cultural meanings. Thus we have chosen three fields of daily consumption practices - food consumption, transport and hygiene - and sorted out the relatively environmentally friendly (low impact) and the relatively environmentally...

  1. Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Misago, Chizuru

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu's organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women's choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals.

  2. Honorary Authorship Practices in Environmental Science Teams: Structural and Cultural Factors and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; Settles, Isis H; Montgomery, Georgina M; Brassel, Sheila T; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Overinclusive authorship practices such as honorary or guest authorship have been widely reported, and they appear to be exacerbated by the rise of large interdisciplinary collaborations that make authorship decisions particularly complex. Although many studies have reported on the frequency of honorary authorship and potential solutions to it, few have probed how the underlying dynamics of large interdisciplinary teams contribute to the problem. This article reports on a qualitative study of the authorship standards and practices of six National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary environmental science teams. Using interviews of the lead principal investigator and an early-career member on each team, our study explores the nature of honorary authorship practices as well as some of the motivating factors that may contribute to these practices. These factors include both structural elements (policies and procedures) and cultural elements (values and norms) that cross organizational boundaries. Therefore, we provide recommendations that address the intersection of these factors and that can be applied at multiple organizational levels.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine practices, traditional healing practices, and cultural competency in pediatric oncology in Hawai' i

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad Ghiasuddin; Joyce Wong; Andrea M Siu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hawai’i is an ethnicaly diverse island state with a high rate of both traditional healing (TH) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use. The aim of this project was to assess TH and CAM use within the pediatric oncology population in Honolulu and improve the delivery of culturaly competent care. METHODS: A 9-item survey was distributed to al pediatric oncology patients at Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women and Children for 3 months. The survey inquired about patient ethnicity, TH practices, CAM practices and perception of cultural competence of the care received. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the survey items. Qualitative analysis was done with participant comments to identify themes. RESULTS:Sixty-two surveys were completed. TH was used by 39% of the respondents in the home, and 10% in the hospital (top method was traditional foods). CAM was used by 27% of the respondents in the home, and 68% in the hospital (top method was healing touch). Ninety-seven percent of the respondents reported receiving culturaly competent care. Areas for improvement included language services and dietary choices. CONCLUSION: CAM and TH are used frequently by pediatric oncology patients in Hawai’i, and the vast majority of patients and families felt that the care they received was culturaly competent.

  4. Bridging generic and professional care practices for Muslim patients through use of Leininger's culture care modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe-Alamah, Hiba

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide knowledge of traditional Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs, expressions and practices derived from research and descriptive sources, in order to assist nurses and other health care professionals to integrate generic (folk) into professional care practices. Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs and practices related to the caregiving process, health, illness, dietary needs, dress, privacy, modesty, touch, gender relations, eye contact, abortion, contraception, birth, death and bereavement were explored. A discussion involving the use of Leininger's culture care preservation and/or maintenance, culture care accommodation and/or negotiation and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring action modes to bridge the gap between generic (folk) and professional (etic) care practices and to consequently promote culturally congruent care is presented.

  5. Clinical accuracy of point-of-care urine culture in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Sørensen, Tina Møller

    2017-01-01

    in boric acid used for transportation for the reference standard. (4) Accuracy based on expert reading of photographs of POC urine cultures performed in general practice. Standard culture performed in the microbiological department was used as reference standard for all four measures. RESULTS: Twenty...... excluded was 0.82 (0.77-0.86) and agreement between expert readings of photographs and reference results was 0.81 (CI: 0.76-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: POC culture used in general practice has high SEN but low SPE. Low SPE could be due to both misinterpretation in general practice and an imperfect reference......OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical accuracy (sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value and negative predictive value) of two point-of-care (POC) urine culture tests for the identification of urinary tract infection (UTI) in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic...

  6. Hermeneutics and inter-cultural dialog: linking theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmayr, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Inter-cultural dialog is frequently treated as either unnecessary or else impossible. It is said to be unnecessary, because we all are the same or share the same ‘human nature'; it is claimed to be impossible because cultures seen as language games or forms or life are so different as to be radically incommensurable. The paper steers a course between absolute universalism and particularism by following the path of dialog and interrogation - where dialog does not mean empty chatter but the exp...

  7. The Language-Culture Connection in ELT : Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul; Paul, ROSS

    2004-01-01

    Defining the nature of the language-culture connection and proposing how that connection should be addressed in the language classroom have long been major issues in the ELT field, and these issues remain contested and largely unresolved to this day. This paper attempts to clarify some of the major ways that the language-culture connection is conceived of in the field, and it will also outline the influences that those conceptions may be having on both course content and language pedagogy. Th...

  8. A Cultural Understanding of Chinese Immigrant Mothers’ Feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A.; Jones, Shelby S.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/ cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers...

  9. Culturally Sensitive Best Practices for Sex Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Santiago, Verenice; Hund, Alycia M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues through the lifespan. Through family and peer interactions and media sources, youth learn about sexuality and relationships, and develop their own values. The learning process and trajectory, however, may differ among youth from diverse cultures. In fact,…

  10. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  11. Fostering Culturally and Developmentally Responsive Teaching through Improvisational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Whyte, Kristin; Delaney, Kate Kresin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore an effort to rethink curricular decision-making with a group of public pre-K teachers working in a context of curriculum escalation and commitment to play-based pedagogy. Through a professional development program designed to support developmentally and culturally responsive early mathematics, we examine how teachers…

  12. "Racialised" Pedagogic Practices Influencing Young Muslims' Physical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon; Hunter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern surrounding the "racialised" body and the way young people develop dispositions towards physical activity (PA) and sports, and more broadly to physical culture. This paper draws on Bourdieu's social theory in an effort to explore the ways in which the intersectionality of various "fields"…

  13. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    for efficiency, nurses' barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. METHODS: Walker...

  14. Culturally Sensitive Dementia Caregiving Models and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Family caregiving for individuals with dementia is an increasingly complex issue that affects the caregivers' and care recipients' physical, mental, and emotional health. This article presents 3 key culturally sensitive caregiver models along with clinical interventions relevant for mental health counseling professionals.

  15. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  16. Popular music as cultural heritage: scoping out the field of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.C. Brandellero (Amanda); M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper sets out to deepen our understanding of the relationship between popular music and cultural heritage and to delineate the practices of popular music as cultural heritage. The paper illustrates how the term has been mobilised by a variety of actors, from the public to the

  17. "A'ole" Drugs! Cultural Practices and Drug Resistance of Rural Hawai'ian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'A-Kekuawela, Ka'Ohinani; Okamoto, Scott K.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana; Chin, Coralee I. H.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how Native Hawai'ian youths from rural communities utilized cultural practices to promote drug resistance and/or abstinence. Forty-seven students from five different middle schools participated in gender-specific focus groups that focused on the cultural and environmental contexts of drug use for Native Hawai'ian…

  18. Effects of a team-based assessment and intervention on patient safety culture in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B; Müller, V; Rochon, J

    2014-01-01

    culture and decided on about 10 actions per practice to improve it. After 12 months, no significant differences were found between intervention and control groups in terms of error management (competing probability = 0.48, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.63, p = 0.823), 11 further patient safety culture indicators...

  19. Popular music as cultural heritage: scoping out the field of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Janssen, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to deepen our understanding of the relationship between popular music and cultural heritage and to delineate the practices of popular music as cultural heritage. The paper illustrates how the term has been mobilised by a variety of actors, from the public to the private sector, t

  20. Popular music as cultural heritage: scoping out the field of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.C. Brandellero (Amanda); M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper sets out to deepen our understanding of the relationship between popular music and cultural heritage and to delineate the practices of popular music as cultural heritage. The paper illustrates how the term has been mobilised by a variety of actors, from the public to the priva

  1. The Influence of Organizational Culture on Affinity for Knowledge Management Practices of Registered Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problems of hospitals' duplicated effort and ad hoc knowledge management (KM) practices. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the focus and type of organizational culture in order to describe and predict the relationship between organizational culture and the affinity for KM of nurses working in health…

  2. Social Action in Practice: Shifting the Ethnocentric Lens in Cross-Cultural Art Therapy Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of globalization and changing demographics, an intercultural perspective that is self-reflexively aware of ethnocentric bias is increasingly important for art therapists. This article draws from cross-cultural art therapy in the international service realm to consider the nature of art therapy as a distinctly cultural practice.…

  3. The Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communication Competence in Oral English Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the main problems and difficulties in current college English oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching…

  4. Social Action in Practice: Shifting the Ethnocentric Lens in Cross-Cultural Art Therapy Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of globalization and changing demographics, an intercultural perspective that is self-reflexively aware of ethnocentric bias is increasingly important for art therapists. This article draws from cross-cultural art therapy in the international service realm to consider the nature of art therapy as a distinctly cultural practice.…

  5. Culturally Responsive School Psychology Practice: A Study of Practitioners' Self-Reported Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Ronda S.; Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Burridge, Andrea Backscheider

    2017-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) recognizes cultural competence as a defining feature of psychological practice, education, training, and research (Sue et al. "American Psychologist," 49, 792-796, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-appraised cultural competence of school psychology practitioners…

  6. Topography of “Cronopaisajes” – Social Identities, Cultural Practices and Historical “Plots”

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the concept of social representation and its distinctive connections with the ideological, mentalities, the imaginary and cultural practices, and based on defining urban space as a cultural text, this article proposes an analytical repository of historical interpretation, the “Cronopaisaje,” composed of the interaction of architectural-urban forms, a grammar of sociability and mechanisms of regulation and hierarchization, and “escenicas,” or interpolative repertoires of cultural pra...

  7. Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom: Towards cultural collaborations in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Ruma

    2016-07-01

    Parental meaning systems (ethnotheories) constitute a very important part of the context in which children live and develop. Parental ethnotheories are in turn shaped by implicit cultural ideals that organize parental beliefs and actions and frame child-rearing practices. The article presents a qualitative research into Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom, which illustrates both the rich cultural meanings that orientate parental action and also demonstrates how parents generate new meanings following migration and culture change. Professional understandings about children's developmental needs, of child rearing and parenting, are not culture free and an examination of the cultural frames of professional theories is important as parenting is often taught as a universal technique that takes little account of the cultural context and of what parents think. An engagement with other cultural theories about child development can enhance critical reflexivity in clinical practice by provoking reflection on the cultural constructions of professional theories. Creating a context for the expression of parental ethnotheories is necessary for developing cross-cultural collaborations in clinical practice as it empowers families and redresses the power relationship between the therapist and the parent.

  8. The Challenge of Cultural Competency in the Multicultural 21st Century: A Conceptual Model to Guide Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Darawsheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available bstract Background: Occupational therapists increasingly encounter clients from diverse cultural backgrounds and need to meet their professional obligation of delivering culturally competent practice. Yet the process of cultural competency is poorly understood in occupational therapy practice. There is a need for a clear understanding of the meaning and process of cultural competency as it is enacted in practice with a wide range of individuals from culturally diverse backgrounds. Aim: To investigate the process, stages, characteristics, and requirements of cultural competency as practiced by experienced occupational therapists. Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 community occupational therapists experienced in delivering occupational therapy services in clients’ homes in a culturally diverse area in London, England. Findings: Interview data were analyzed and ordered into the format of a conceptual process model where cultural competency formed the core concept. The model of cultural competency that emerged from this study comprised six stages: cultural awareness, cultural preparedness, a cultural picture of the person, cultural responsiveness, cultural readiness, and cultural competence. Conclusion: Cultural competency is a complex process that needs to be based on underpinning occupational theory and actualized at the level of practice. Further research is needed to test out the model and illuminate the process of cultural competency in different areas of occupational therapy practice.

  9. The practicality of employee empowerment: supporting a psychologically safe culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Kevin J

    2004-01-01

    In times of workforce shortages and increasing pressures to compete, health care organizations need to advance and ameliorate their resources to ensure organizational success. Other industries have maximized empowerment initiatives as a strategy to retain and develop employees as primary stakeholders of its mission. While the notion of employee empowerment is by itself noble, for it to succeed, health care organizations must promote a culture of psychological safety to ensure a genuine commitment exists in its mission and strategies.

  10. Cross-Cultural “Allies” in Immigrant Community Practice: Roles of foreign-trained former Montagnard health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot case study describes foreign-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians’ practice experiences in Vietnam and their current community health worker and “ally” roles within the Montagnard refugee community. It highlights key features that facilitate cross-culturally responsive health care. We interviewed five Vietnam-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians using an open-ended interview format during March, 2012. We used content analysis procedures to identify key themes characterizing Montagnard physicians’ former and current practice experiences and emphasizing the roles they currently play in their new homeland. Montagnard physicians were fighting infectious diseases in homeland Vietnamese communities. Since coming to the U.S., Montagnard physicians have reoriented their competencies to fit within a community health workers model, and have shifted practice to fighting chronic disease in this refugee community. Tasks now include describing and contextualizing unique characteristics of the Montagnard languages and cultures to outside constituents. They become cross-cultural allies to the U.S. health care and facilitate individuals’ medical adherence with mainstream physicians’ orders. They ensure accuracy of interpretation of Montagnard patients’ medical complaints during a medical visit. Our findings reveal the potential roles that can be ascribed to a cross-cultural ally and can be built into practice to fulfill the Montagnard community’s unmet health needs: oral historian, mediator, facilitator/negotiator, quality assurer, psychosocial confidant, and health advocate. Normal 0 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE

  11. An Analysis Of National Culture And Leadership Practices In Indonesia

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    Dodi Wirawan Irawanto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Managers around the world need ideas and support to meet many of the challenges of leading. Leadership requires actions and strategies as well as convictions and ideas. Leadership occurs in relation with followers. Leading Indonesian people is not the same as leading Westerners nor is it the same as leading other Asian people. A leadership strategy effective in one culture can be counter-productive in another. In this paper, the use findings of Hofstede’s and the GLOBE’s studies are used to identify important values of Indonesians, relating them to Indonesian culture and leadership style in an organization setting. Indonesians emphasis collective well being and show a strong humane orientation within their society. The culture is assertive, and pays attention to maintaining harmony. Effective leaders are expected to show compassion while using a more paternalistic than autocratic leadership style. It is advisable that expatriate managers need to avoid actions that are not suited to these values and expectations.

  12. Practical strategies for providing culturally sensitive, ethical care in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care in developing nations results in cultural and ethical challenges for health care professionals. The authors' intent is to raise readers' awareness of how to maintain an ethical and culturally sensitive approach to practice in developing nations. Four practical approaches to ethical decision-making, developed from the literature and praxis, in conjunction with traditional moral theory and guidelines from professional and international organizations are discussed. Ethical multiculturalism, a view that combines universalism and multiculturalism undergirds culturally appropriate and ethically responsive decisions.

  13. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  14. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  15. Cultural Practices and the Conception of Individual Differences: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha

    1995-01-01

    Considers empirical evidence and theoretical issues that point out the need to reconceptualize individual differences in psychology. Studies use of arithmetic in everyday life and in the classrooms to explore consequences of cultural practices, the nature of individual differences in "ability," and links between practices and identity.…

  16. Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education and Cultural Adaptations: Challenges and Implications for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Lam, Yeana

    2017-01-01

    Many issues arise in the discussion of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement and implementation science in special education and specific educational practices for students with severe disabilities. Yet cultural adaptations of EBPs, which have emerged as an area of research in other fields, are being left out as a focus of EBP discourse. The…

  17. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  18. Identifying Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Culturally Competent Practice for School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James

    2010-01-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…

  19. VET Manager Identities: Culture, Philosophy and Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Using a post-structural approach this article investigates the working lives of frontline managers in VET and how they negotiate change in their day to day practices and decision making. The article is organised around accounts made by managers from different types of Vocational Education and Training (VET) organisations, namely: Technical and…

  20. VET Manager Identities: Culture, Philosophy and Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Using a post-structural approach this article investigates the working lives of frontline managers in VET and how they negotiate change in their day to day practices and decision making. The article is organised around accounts made by managers from different types of Vocational Education and Training (VET) organisations, namely: Technical and…

  1. Voices Off: Reconstructing Career Theory and Practice for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    The most fundamental challenge that career psychology faces is the construction of a new identity that will challenge the career theories and counselling practices that have occupied centre stage in evolving forms for over a century. As part of that challenge, career practitioners and career educators need to address the critical question of what…

  2. Cultural Shifts: Putting Critical Information Literacy into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the example of foreign languages to explore the integration of critical information literacy into the curriculum of various disciplines. By closely examining the practices and values inherent in the foreign language information environment, the paper suggests that a critical vision of information literacy provides the most…

  3. Beyond Authoritarianism: A Cultural Perspective on Asian American Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…

  4. Cross-Cultural Communities of Practice for College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2014-01-01

    College readiness is a social construct requiring both student and adult preparedness. This paper used a case study methodology to explore how teaching in an early college program might promote adult college readiness in the instructors. A community of practice, enhanced by a co-teaching model, in two separate high school settings under one early…

  5. Renegotiating cultural practices as a result of HIV in the eastern region of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Kunkeyani, Thokozani E

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that HIV awareness is very high among Malawians and yet infection rates are rising. Local cultural practices have been identified as contributing to this contradictory situation. Using data from 12 focus-group discussions collected in Balaka, Zomba, Machinga and Mangochi, the paper explores the reformulation of nine cultural practices as a preventive measure against HIV. The study reveals that cultural practices that involve sexual acts for completion are mediated through condoms and HIV tests. The study also shows that traditional herbs known for healing ailments are repurposed to symbolise sexual acts. We conclude that the idea of repurposing offers an avenue in which initiation and cleansing rites that involve sexual acts are replaced by other semiotics such as a traditional medicine called mtela. We also conclude that the modifications to cultural practices do not indicate complete abandonment of associated traditions, rather, they constitute the renegotiation of cultural practices and meanings associated with particular rites of passage. Lastly, we propose that a comprehensive prevention programme needs to be part of a wider national HIV-prevention effort combining a women and child rights and empowerment agenda and, critically, lifestyle lessons in a process of cultural renegotiation.

  6. Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-02-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for youths and families. Correlation analyses and multilevel hierarchical regressions, controlling for effects of provider characteristics, showed that constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP and poor organizational climates with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP. Behavioral health organizations may benefit from consideration of how culture and climate affect staff attitudes toward change in practice.

  7. A Cultural-Historical Interpretation of Resilience: the implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Edwards

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent attempts at preventing the social exclusion of vulnerable children in England have been driven by notions of resilience which centre primarily on changing children so that they may be better able to cope with adversity. Drawing on the concepts of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT, we suggest that the idea of resilience should be expanded to include developing a capacity to act on and reshape the social conditions of one’s development. We use evidence from two studies of practices in recent re-configurations of children’s services in England to examine whether practitioners are seeing resilience in these terms. We present examples of work which embody these views but suggest that they are not easily incorporated into practices where expertise is centred on care and clear communication. The care and communication model of practice reflects the emphases given to evolutionary notions of child development while a CHAT view of resilience reflects Vygotsky’s concerns with a dialectic between individuals and the social situations of their development.

  8. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    2016-12-06

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  9. The relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquiao, Dula

    2007-01-01

    This article attempted to examine the relationship between cultural competence education and increasing diversity in nursing schools and practice settings. In addition to the review of the literature, a panel of experts was interviewed regarding institutional practices in response to the challenge of increasing diversity and cultural competence education. Evidence of positive outcomes of cultural competent care and impact of race and ethnic concordance between patients and providers are presented. The challenge of increasing underrepresented minorities in health care professions remains elusive. An ecological analysis is recommended to address the social and cultural barriers that transcend the micro system of the school and the macro system of the society. The challenge of increasing diversity and realizing outcomes of cultural competence education requires social and comprehensive remedies to level life inequities that perpetuate a history of disadvantages in some groups.

  10. Cultural childbirth practices, beliefs, and traditions in postconflict Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2011-06-01

    In this qualitative study we used an interpretive, critical ethnographic approach to provide an understanding of childbirth and maternal illness and death in Liberia through the lens of women, families, and communities. We identified three major themes from the data: (a) secrecy surrounding pregnancy and childbirth; (b) power and authority; and (c) distrust of the health care system. The interpretive theory, Behind the House, generated from data analysis provides an understanding of the larger social and cultural context of childbirth in Liberia. Our findings provide a more complete understanding of the contextual factors that impact on the intractable problem of maternal mortality.

  11. Religious culture and health promotion: care, practice, object

    OpenAIRE

    Viola Timm

    2015-01-01

    At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost...

  12. Workshop V: Cultural Perception and Bias/Science Practice and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Kwek Leong; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Pierron-Bohnes, Veronique; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2015-12-01

    Despite the objectivity of science, the local work environment affects the daily activities of scientists. Differences in cultural perception can affect female scientists in the workplace directly. The pressure currently exerted on researchers, on the other hand, is altering how science is practiced and seems to affect women and men differently. In this paper we summarize the discussions that took place on this topic in Workshop V of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. We present some of the results of the 2010 Global Survey of Physicists analyzed by region and data from France and Taiwan. We also include the recommendations that were formulated at the end of the workshop.

  13. Cross-Cultural Practice in International Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, MNCs need to recognize the demographic factors those to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilizing Lee’s (2002 model to investigate the relationship among the demographic factors and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type of questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of post to Mainland China for international assignments. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and T-test were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with Taiwanese banking expatriates in United States. This thesis concludes with suggestions for both international enterprises or MNCs and individual expatriate who operate overseas journey in their normal path of business.

  14. Use of Safety Pin on Garments in Pregnancy: A Belief and Cultural Practice with Potential Harmful Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kola M Owonikoko; Aramide M Tijani; Olarewaju G Bajowa; Oluseyi O Atanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Culture has been known to influence practices and beliefs of people world over. Several cultural practices have been noted among pregnant women who were passed from one generation to the next with its potential harmful and beneficial effect. The use of safety pin in is one of such cultural practices that are widely practiced by many pregnant Nigerian women. Objective: We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the source of knowledge and motivation behind the use of safety pin on...

  15. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice: addressing a conceptual problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-05-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice. Nursing research culture should be valued for its contribution to improving patient care and should be considered as a routine hospital activity. However, the demand for efficiency, nurses' barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. Concept analysis. Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. Walker and Avant's eight-step framework for concept analysis. Five defining attributes of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice were identified: strong monodisciplinary nursing professionalism, academic thinking and socialization, research use as a part of daily nursing practice, acceptance by colleagues and management and facilitation of resources from management and organization. Although the method of concept analysis has been criticized and heavily debated, the development of nursing research cultures based on the defining attributes and antecedents of the concept will be important to emphasize evidence-based clinical nursing care. Further research should support the development and the implementation of nursing research culture in clinical nursing practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  17. A comparison of standard cultural methods for the detection of foodborne Salmonella species including three new chromogenic plating media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenbrücher, Vanessa; Mallinson, Edward T; Bülte, Michael

    2008-03-31

    In this study the draft of the horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella species from human food and animal feed (ISO 6579:2002) was compared to the European gold standard (DIN EN 12824:1998), including the three new chromogenic plating media AES Salmonella Agar Plate (ASAP), Oxoid Salmonella Chromogen Media (OSCM) and Miller-Mallinson agar (MM). First the growth and appearance of 36 bacterial type strains (Salmonella and other 21 species) on ASAP, OSCM and MM were compared to those on the three traditional agars Brilliant Green Agar according to Edel and Kampelmacher (BGA), Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD) and Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 Agar (XLT4). Only on MM agar, did all of 36 tested type strains produce typical colonies, especially strains of S. Senftenberg, Salmonella arizonae, S. Dublin and S. Derby. Artificial inoculation experiments using raw pork ground meat (n=92) were subsequently conducted. A shortened incubation time of 24 h in RVS broth yielded a Salmonella species recovery of 100% from spiked meat samples. Finally, 286 naturally contaminated raw porcine and bovine minced meat samples and raw poultry meat samples were investigated. Forty-three strains from a total of 39 Salmonella-positive samples were found. S. Typhimurium (n=21), with DT 104 L, DT 012 and RDNC being the most prevalent subtypes isolated. D-tartrate-positive S. Paratyphi B (n=2) and S. Saint-Paul (n=3) were also recovered. They were cultured from poultry meat and were multi-resistant against antibiotics including nalidixic acid. Rappaport Vassiliadis broth with soypeptone (RVS) yielded the highest recovery of Salmonella spp. (97,4%) compared to Tetrathionate broth with Novobiocin according to Muller and Kauffman (MKTTn, 94,9%) and Selenite Cystine broth (SC, 38,5%). However, no significant difference was obtained by comparing the ISO 6579:2002 draft to the gold standard.

  18. Mind the Gap: Integrating Science and Policy Cultures and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Simon, I.

    2015-12-01

    A 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center asked members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science about their support for active engagement in public policy debates. The survey found that 87% of the respondents supported scientists taking an active role in public policy debates about science and technology (S&T), but most believed that regulations related to areas like land use and clean air and water are not guided by the best science. Despite the demand for actionable scientific information by policy makers, these survey results underscore the gap that exists between the scientific and the public policy communities. There are fundamental differences that exist between the perspectives of these two groups, even within Federal S&T agencies that are required to balance the perspectives of the science and policy communities in order to fulfill their agency mission. In support of an ongoing agency effort to strengthen communication and interaction among staff, we led a Federal S&T agency office through an examination and comparison of goals, processes, external drivers, decision making, and timelines within their organization. This workshop activity provided an opportunity to identify the interdependence of science and policy, as well as the challenges to developing effective science-based policy solutions. The workshop featured strategies for achieving balanced science policy outcomes using examples from a range of Federal S&T agencies. The examples presented during the workshop illustrated best practices for more effective communication and interaction to resolve complex science policy issues. The workshop culminated with a group activity designed to give participants the opportunity to identify the challenges and apply best practices to real world science policy problems. Workshop examples and outcomes will be presented along with lessons learned from this agency engagement activity.

  19. Evaluation of an intervention to improve blood culture practices: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, P; Maillet, M; Vitrat-Hincky, V; Recule, C; Vittoz, J-P; Guyomard, A; Seigneurin, A; François, P

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention to improve blood culture practices. A cluster randomised trial in two parallel groups was performed at the Grenoble University Hospital, France. In October 2009, the results of a practices audit and the guidelines for the optimal use of blood cultures were disseminated to clinical departments. We compared two types of information dissemination: simple presentation or presentation associated with an infectious diseases (ID) specialist intervention. The principal endpoint was blood culture performance measured by the rate of patients having one positive blood culture and the rate of positive blood cultures. The cases of 130 patients in the "ID" group and 119 patients in the "simple presentation" group were audited during the second audit in April 2010. The rate of patients with one positive blood culture increased in both groups (13.62 % vs 9.89 % for the ID group, p = 0.002, 15.90 % vs 13.47 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.009). The rate of positive blood cultures improved in both groups (6.68 % vs 5.96 % for the ID group, p = 0.003, 6.52 % vs 6.21 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.017). The blood culture indication was significantly less often specified in the request form in the simple presentation group, while it remained stable in the ID group (p = 0.04). The rate of positive blood cultures and the rate of patients having one positive blood culture improved in both groups. The ID specialist intervention did not have more of an impact on practices than a simple presentation of audit feedback and guidelines.

  20. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  1. Parents' participation in cultural practices with their preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudge Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss cross-cultural similarities and variations in parents' engagement in the everyday activities in which their preschool-age children engage, focusing on mothers' and fathers' presence in the same setting as their children, the impact of their presence on the types of activities in which the children engaged, and the extent of mothers' and fathers' involvement with their children in those activities. The data were gathered from different societies - the United States, Korea, Russia, Estonia, and Kenya. They reveal that the children were involved primarily in play (more than in lessons, work, or conversation, and this was unaffected by the presence of either parent. However, parents were relatively less likely to be involved in their children's play than in the other activities. Mothers, not surprisingly, were more likely to be found in the same setting as their children and, even when taking account of their greater presence, were more likely to be involved with their children than were fathers.

  2. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.

  3. Formation of positive motivation as the basis of students will qualities’ perfection in physical culture practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudnyk I.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to theoretically substantiate and test experimentally pedagogic conditions of positive motivation’s formation as the basis for students will and physical qualities’ perfection in physical culture practicing. Material: 244 first year students participated in experiment. At the beginning and at the end of experiment levels of manifestation of students’ will and physical qualities were assessed. Results: we have proved successfulness of will training if this process is naturally coincides with formation of positive motivation and perfection of motor fitness. It was found that motivation for physical culture practicing result from different demands: demand in motion, demand in fulfillment of student’s duties and demand in competition functioning. Conclusions: we have offered the following pedagogic conditions: application of game and competition methods: setting of appropriate for students tasks of training; usage of sufficient sport equipment and apparatuses; forcing of students for independent physical culture practicing through system of encouragement.

  4. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2016-10-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  5. Contextual Utility and Practicality: Cultural Research for the School Community in Hong Kong

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    Po-Keung Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As an intellectual project, is cultural studies actually ‘useless’ in dealing with issues closely tied to students’ everyday practices? In this article, the authors examine the problem through the case of teacher training and curriculum development in the context of educational reform in Hong Kong—in particular, through a community-interface project we are engaged in as cultural researchers at the moment.

  6. Room for improvement? Leadership, innovation culture and uptake of quality improvement methods in general practice.

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    Apekey, Tanefa A; McSorley, Gerry; Tilling, Michelle; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-04-01

    Leadership and innovation are currently seen as essential elements for the development and maintenance of high-quality care. Little is known about the relationship between leadership and culture of innovation and the extent to which quality improvement methods are used in general practice. This study aimed to assess the relationship between leadership behaviour, culture of innovation and adoption of quality improvement methods in general practice. Self-administered postal questionnaires were sent to general practitioner quality improvement leads in one county in the UK between June and December 2007. The questionnaire consisted of background information, a 12-item scale to assess leadership behaviour, a seven-dimension self-rating scale for culture of innovation and questions on current use of quality improvement tools and techniques. Sixty-three completed questionnaires (62%) were returned. Leadership behaviours were not commonly reported. Most practices reported a positive culture of innovation, featuring relationship most strongly, followed by targets and information but rated lower on other dimensions of rewards, risk and resources. There was a significant positive correlation between leadership behaviour and the culture of innovation (r = 0.57; P quality improvement methods were not adopted by most participating practices. Leadership behaviours were infrequently reported and this was associated with a limited culture of innovation in participating general practices. There was little use of quality improvement methods beyond clinical and significant event audit. Practices need support to enhance leadership skills, encourage innovation and develop quality improvement skills if improvements in health care are to accelerate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The cultural economics of performance space: Negotiating fan, labor, and marketing practice in Glee's transmedia geography

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    Matthias Stork

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fox television show Glee (2009–present constitutes a cultural phenomenon of the digital age. Through its multiplatform marketing of musical and theatrical performance, the show has attracted a substantial fan base and created a self-sustaining economy of cultural expression. As a serialized narrative with a focus on the underdog's struggle for fame, it constructs a populist forum for fans to live their dream of becoming a star vicariously and learn how to realize it in real life—how to make it. Glee's marketing approach postulates performance as the essential element in forming an intimate relationship between the show and its core fans, the Gleeks. Performances are distributed across several spaces, including a multitude of video and audio channels, to satisfy Gleeks' desire for maximum content. The show's cast and crew further offer to discuss these performances and grant special insights into their creation. Glee's promotional discourse overtly characterizes fans as equals, positioning its programming as a gift to them. The overarching message of this marketing methodology is that Glee rewards its fans for their investment and loyalty by offering up content and interaction in a variety of performative spaces—a transmedia geography—that transcend television. By using an interdisciplinary framework of political economy, cultural geography, and transmedia communications, Glee may be examined in relation to its diegetic and nondiegetic conceptualization and commodification of performance space. Doing this illuminates how the show negotiates—indeed exploits—the concepts of fan and labor practice in contemporary media industries.

  8. [Geognosy versus Geology: National Modes of Thought and Cultural Practices Concerning Space and Time in Competition].

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    Klemun, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Natural science investigators at the end of the eighteenth century made use of conflicting labels to position their respective preferred fields of activity in the Earth sciences. This mania for labelling marked their break with natural science and the umbrella term 'mineralogy'. In this conflict situation of specialist classifications and explanations, two terms in particular were established: geognosy and geology, which covered the very promising project of research in the areas of the 'origin of the Earth' and the 'formation of the Earth'. These and the associated research goals were subsequently accorded a dazzling career. Proceeding from the conceptual core-meaning in the formation of terms und its semantic spectrum and conceptual shifts in a time of change, my study will look at the identity and heterogeneity functions of geology and geognosy. For whereas in French and English speaking countries the term geology came to be used exclusively (geology, géologie), this was avoided in German, particularly because the term geognosy was preferred. These national differences may be explained with reference to the different cultural and national styles of science: for example the social embedding of geology in the culture of the English gentleman or the French museum culture, and the close connection of 'German' geognosy to mining. A further starting point in the analysis of the double use of both geology and geognosy in German speaking countries until 1840 is provided by the different references to temporalization and spatialization of the two terms. And we should also include the practical implications and the epistemic requirements that were bound up with the defence of geognosy in the German speaking world.

  9. "We Wanted to See if You Were the Real Deal": Teaching as a Cultural Practice in a Challenging Environment

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    Lemon, Katrina; Edwards, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Teaching can be viewed as a cultural practice in which teaching is embedded in the culture of the teacher and informed by the culture of the students (Bell, 2011). In this paper, a narrative is presented detailing an authentic example of teaching in New Zealand in which culture is prioritised. It describes the challenges faced by a young female…

  10. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

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    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  11. [Role of bodily practices with newborn in the development of cultural identity. Examples of bodily practices in Africa and India].

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    Mannoni, C

    2001-08-01

    Bodily practices on newborns are the indicators of communication between the child and his/her surroundings. The culture has to introduce individuals into a specific group by using particular practices that have applied to the past generations. The techniques are different according to the ethnic group and allow the child to reach a social birth. To emphasize the relation between the identity and the culture, four cultural examples are presented. In Bambara country, the grandmothers massage and stretch the newborn in order to let him feel the limits of his body and get into the Bambara identity. For the Wolof, the psychomotor development will be made with specific movements on the body of the child according to initiation rituals. In Kabylie, the child will be protected from the outside world before he gets his proper name. In Tamil country, the way the foetus and the child are helped emphasize his coming into the living world and his reincarnated identity. The psychic structuring and the culture are tightly connected and the body is the first mediator of that representation.

  12. Cultured cells of the nervous system, including human neurones, in the study of the neuro-degenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease: an overview.

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    De Boni, U

    1985-01-01

    Human nervous-system cells in culture are a suitable model for the study of the degenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer-diseased brain contains a factor which induces the formation of paired helical filaments (PHF) in cultured cells, similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease. The excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, induce similar PHE formation in cultured cells. The neurotoxic element aluminium is present in high concentrations in the brain in several human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In cultured-cell systems, aluminium interacts with acidic nuclear proteins, decreases steroid binding, produces a form of neurofibrillary degeneration and alters nucleoside metabolism.

  13. [The cultural aspects of the practice of Community Health Agents in rural areas].

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    Lara, Maristela Oliveira; Brito, Maria José Menezes; Rezende, Lilian Cristina

    2012-06-01

    The daily practice of Community Health Agents (CHAs) is permeated with educational interventions aimed at preventive care and health promotion. The sociocultural universe of these professionals can affect the dynamics of their practice within the community, particularly in rural areas, where there is evidence that the population expects to obtain information relative to their health and/or disease by means of cultural rites. Based on a case study, we sought to analyze the influence of the cultural practices of the agents working in a rural area in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais. The analysis revealed the presence of a strong connection between the culture and their activities. Religious beliefs and knowledge developed from the fusion of biomedical information and values based on family tradition regarding the health-disease process have a direct effect on their practices. It is emphasized that they have an important role as facilitators in the practice of health care, with a positive effect stemming from the similarity of their life experiences and inherited cultures with those of the clients, thus making it possible to develop effective interventions.

  14. Anàlisi de la dimensió de gènere en el marc del projecte INCLUD-ED per a desenvolupar pràctiques educatives inclusives Analysis of gender aspects in the framework of the INCLUD-ED project to develop inclusive educational practices Análisis de la dimensión de género en el marco del proyecto INCLUD-ED para desarrollar prácticas educativas inclusivas

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    Patricia Melgar

    2010-01-01

    ésultats académiquesVarious aspects, including gender, must be considered to boost the inclusivity of education. The risk of social exclusion may increase when gender is combined with other factors such as the cultural group, age or low socioeconomic level. Some studies have shown that there has been a significant improvement in girls’ academic results, which are better than those of boys in certain areas. However, the contribution of such studies is limited, as they describe the situation without examining its causes in-depth. This has led to new debates in the scientific community. The power relationships between the genders and the transmission traditional models of masculinity and femininity that can still be found in some school practices today have an impact on academic results.La promoción de la dimensión integradora de la educación debe contemplar las diferentes perspectivas, entre ellas la de género. El riesgo de exclusión social puede aumentar cuando la dimensión de género se combina con otras dimensiones como el grupo cultural, la edad o el bajo nivel socioeconómico. Algunos estudios indican que se ha producido una mejora significativa en los resultados académicos de las niñas, superando incluso los resultados de los niños en determinadas áreas. No obstante, las contribuciones aportadas son limitadas ya que describen la situación sin profundizar en las causas que llevan a esta situación. Ello ha reabierto recientemente nuevos debates en el marco de la comunidad científica. Las relaciones de poder entre género, así como la transmisión de modelos tradicionales de masculinidad y feminidad, que todavía se pueden observar hoy en día en algunas prácticas en las escuelas, tienen un impacto en los resultados académicos.

  15. Cultural Mapping as a Social Practice: A Response to "Mapping the Cultural Boundaries in Schools and Communities: Redefining Spaces Through Organizing"

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    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.; Hanif-Shahban, Shenaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Gerald Wood and Elizabeth Lemley's (2015) article entitled "Mapping the Cultural Boundaries in Schools and Communities: Redefining Spaces Through Organizing," this response inquires further into cultural mapping as a social practice. From our perspective, cultural mapping has potential to contribute to place making, as well…

  16. Literacy of deaf people: language social practices between two languages/cultures

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    Ana Claudia Balieiro Lodi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper, written in the light of Bakhtin's work, aims to discuss some specificities of literacy practices for deaf people, since they are constituted on the basis of social practices involving the two languages - Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese. These languages share the same space/time in different spheres of activities and have asymmetric social-cultural and ideological forces. This linguistic-discursive feature relates literacy practices in both languages by establishing, within them, a dialogue (not always peaceful between languages/cultures. Based on these assumptions, an educational proposal will be presented in which students have developed literacy practices in both languages using their experience in Libras in its discursive/generic dimension. Although still in an early stage, this process might (resignify and change the historical relationship that has been constituting the dialogue that deaf communities have established with Portuguese.

  17. Impact of organizational change on organizational culture: implications for introducing evidence-based practice.

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    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) seeks to integrate the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of the values and expectations of clients. Prior to implementing EBP, it is important to understand the significance that organizational change and organizational culture play. This article seeks to explore the literature associated with both organizational change and organizational culture. The analysis of organizational culture and change draw upon findings from both the private, for-profit sector, and the public, non-profit field. It is divided into four sections: organizational change and innovation, organizational culture, managing organizational culture and change, and finally, applying the findings to the implementation of EBP. While the audience for this analysis is managers in public and nonprofit human service organizations who are considering implementing EBP into their work environment, it is not intended to provide a "how to" guide, but rather a framework for critical thinking.

  18. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

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    Sarojni Choy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.

  19. Socio-cultural aspect of sexual practices and sexual offences - an Indian scenario.

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    Bastia, Binaya Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Ignorance of the law of the land is no defence. Furthermore, it is a legal dictum that one should not be held criminally liable unless possessing a guilty mind. But during trials of some sexual offences in India it is often observed that the accused did not know that he had committed an offence because the crime in question was a part of his socio-cultural milieu. India is a vast country with great socio-cultural diversity and many different ethnic groups, each with its own distinct cultures. However, the entire Indian culture is religion based and finds its root from the ancient Holy Scriptures. The sexual culture of Indian society stems from the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, an epic on sex. This text is considered holy and is accepted culturally, even though many practices contained therein are offences under modern law. Child marriages and arranged marriages are an integral part of Indian society and in some tribes, even prostitution is socially sanctioned. However, all of these are also against the law. Many of the conflicts observed between the sexual practices that are accepted in Indian culture but not by the law can be explained on the basis that the Indian legal system is borrowed from that of the British.

  20. Translation as Critique of “Cultural Sameness”: Ricoeur, Luther and the Practice of Translation

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    Jonas Gamborg Lillebø

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses translation as a critical approach to how we see culture. According to the anthropologist Marianne Gullestad culture is part of mechanism of exclusion when it is linked to identity or “sameness”. Belonging to the same culture becomes a criterion for being included into a society, whereas having a different cultural belonging is a criterion for exclusion. Culture is thus placed within an oppositional logic of same-different. By seeing a parallel between languages and cultures, translation indicates another kind of thinking which is not based on this oppositional logic and hence question the reason for exclusion and inclusion. By the help of philosopher Paul Ricoeur the article looks at Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible in the 16th century as an example of how to avoid seeing linguistic sameness and difference as the only point of departure for thinking relations between languages, and analogically speaking: relations between cultures.

  1. Organizational culture, team climate and diabetes care in small office-based practices

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    van der Weijden Trudy

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Redesigning care has been proposed as a lever for improving chronic illness care. Within primary care, diabetes care is the most widespread example of restructured integrated care. Our goal was to assess to what extent important aspects of restructured care such as multidisciplinary teamwork and different types of organizational culture are associated with high quality diabetes care in small office-based general practices. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 83 health care professionals involved in diabetes care from 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands, with a total of 752 diabetes mellitus type II patients participating in an improvement study. We used self-reported measures of team climate (Team Climate Inventory and organizational culture (Competing Values Framework, and measures of quality of diabetes care and clinical patient characteristics from medical records and self-report. We conducted multivariate analyses of the relationship between culture, climate and HbA1c, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and a sum score on process indicators for the quality of diabetes care, adjusting for potential patient- and practice level confounders and practice-level clustering. Results A strong group culture was negatively associated to the quality of diabetes care provided to patients (β = -0.04; p = 0.04, whereas a more 'balanced culture' was positively associated to diabetes care quality (β = 5.97; p = 0.03. No associations were found between organizational culture, team climate and clinical patient outcomes. Conclusion Although some significant associations were found between high quality diabetes care in general practice and different organizational cultures, relations were rather marginal. Variation in clinical patient outcomes could not be attributed to organizational culture or teamwork. This study therefore contributes to the discussion about the legitimacy of the widespread idea

  2. Patient safety culture measurement in general practice. Clinimetric properties of 'SCOPE'

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    Zwart Dorien LM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A supportive patient safety culture is considered to be an essential condition for improving patient safety. Assessing the current safety culture in general practice may be a first step to target improvements. To that end, we studied internal consistency and construct validity of a safety culture questionnaire for general practice (SCOPE which was derived from a comparable questionnaire for hospitals (Dutch-HSOPS. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers of Dutch general practice as part of an ongoing quality accreditation process using a 46 item questionnaire. We conducted factor analyses and studied validity by calculating correlations between the subscales and testing the hypothesis that respondents' patient safety grade of their practices correlated with their scores on the questionnaire. Results Of 72 practices 294 respondents completed the questionnaire. Eight factors were identified concerning handover and teamwork, support and fellowship, communication openness, feedback and learning from error, intention to report events, adequate procedures and staffing, overall perceptions of patient safety and expectations and actions of managers. Cronbach's alpha of the factors rated between 0.64 and 0.85. The subscales intercorrelated moderately, except for the factor about intention to report events. Respondents who graded patient safety highly scored significantly higher on the questionnaire than those who did not. Conclusions The SCOPE questionnaire seems an appropriate instrument to assess patient safety culture in general practice. The clinimetric properties of the SCOPE are promising, but future research should confirm the factor structure and construct of the SCOPE and delineate its responsiveness to changes in safety culture over time.

  3. PHILOSOPHICAL-CULTURAL CONCEPTION OF TELEVISION AS A VISUAL PRACTICES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

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    A. M. Tormakhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to analyze the philosophical and cultural ideas about television, which is a leading visual practice of XX century. It does not lose its relevance in the beginning of the XXI. The role of television lies in visual presentation and formation of the basic norms of taste and traditions of different social groups. Television is the leading communicative practice, which consideration is represented differently in modern science. Research methodology involves an appeal to the philosophical and cultural concepts, representing different approaches to the understanding of television. The paper considers the views of Western scholars, such as R. Arnheim, M. Wolff, A. Kroker, G. Lipovetsky, M. McLuhan, D. Mulvin, J. Mittell, N. Postman, L. Saffhil, J. Sterne, E. Thompson, J. Fiske, S. Shapiro. During analysis of the issue of the specific nature of television content the works of Russian scientists – T. Savitskaya, N. Samutina and Polish contemporary author – R. Sapenko were used. Originality lies in the depiction of the main approaches to the study of television as a visual communicative practice. Deployment of the author's position within the designated issues is presented as a historical digression – from the first attempts at understanding the phenomenon of television to the newest scientific theories that have found expression in contemporary American philosophical and cultural thought. Results of the study can be used in the training course "Visual communication and practices." Conclusions indicated that the majority of contemporary visual practices based on certain patterns, embedded TV. Despite the emergence of new media practices, TV does not lose relevance, everywhere present in the culture, which means that his research will allow a better understanding of the specificity of cultural creativity process.

  4. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

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    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural

  5. A practical guide to microfluidic perfusion culture of adherent mammalian cells.

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    Kim, Lily; Toh, Yi-Chin; Voldman, Joel; Yu, Hanry

    2007-06-01

    Culturing cells at microscales allows control over microenvironmental cues, such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions; the potential to scale experiments; the use of small culture volumes; and the ability to integrate with microsystem technologies for on-chip experimentation. Microfluidic perfusion culture in particular allows controlled delivery and removal of soluble biochemical molecules in the extracellular microenvironment, and controlled application of mechanical forces exerted via fluid flow. There are many challenges to designing and operating a robust microfluidic perfusion culture system for routine culture of adherent mammalian cells. The current literature on microfluidic perfusion culture treats microfluidic design, device fabrication, cell culture, and micro-assays independently. Here we systematically present and discuss important design considerations in the context of the entire microfluidic perfusion culture system. These design considerations include the choice of materials, culture configurations, microfluidic network fabrication and micro-assays. We also present technical issues such as sterilization; seeding cells in both 2D and 3D configurations; and operating the system under optimized mass transport and shear stress conditions, free of air-bubbles. The integrative and systematic treatment of the microfluidic system design and fabrication, cell culture, and micro-assays provides novices with an effective starting point to build and operate a robust microfludic perfusion culture system for various applications.

  6. Mobile phones as cultural resources for learning – an analysis of mobile expertise, structures and emerging cultural practices

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    Ben Bachmair

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available If it is the case that mobile devices, with their specific social and technological structures and attendant cultural practices, have become an integral part of everyday life, then the educational field has to react. But how and who? Fact is that mobile devices have reached and become fully integrated in everyday life, worldwide and across social milieus. This development is «ubiquitous» (e.g. Haythornthwaite, 2008, Beale 2007, Nyiri 2002 and is accompanied by an increase in individualisation enabled and necessitated by a variety of mobile devices characterised by media convergence. Education must ask questions about the impact of these irreversible trends on the personal development of young people and about its role in mediating them as well as about their impact on individual agency of young people in the context of emerging socio-cultural structures (see Stald 2007.

  7. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

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    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  8. Variations in Beliefs and Practices: Teaching English in Cross-Cultural Contexts

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    Gu, Qing

    2010-01-01

    This article examines variations in beliefs and practices between British English language teaching (ELT) specialists and their Chinese colleagues in a cross-cultural educational development project which used interviews and a questionnaire survey to gather the perceptions and retrospective experiences of Chinese tertiary teachers and expatriate…

  9. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. The

  10. Creating a Climate for Innovation in Education: Reframing Structure, Culture, and Leadership Practices

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    Wong-Kam, JoAnn C. W. N.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was on creating a climate for innovation in schools to lead to improvements in student achievement. Bolman and Deal's (2008) four frame model of organizational thinking was used as a framework for the study. The study examined the influence of leadership practices, structure, and school culture in the context of a K-12…

  11. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices.

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    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F

    1994-07-01

    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  12. Policies on and Practices of Cultural Inclusivity in Learning Management Systems: Perspectives of Indigenous Holistic Pedagogies

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    Dreamson, Neal; Thomas, Gary; Lee Hong, Anita; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-01-01

    Online learning has become a conventional term and practice in Australian higher education, yet cultural inclusivity for Indigenous (Indigenous for the purposes of this paper refers to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples) students is insufficiently reflected in learning management system (LMS) policies and design. This study…

  13. Imagining Pedagogy in Public Space: Visions of Cultural Policies and Practices in a City in Transformation

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    Wildemeersch, Danny

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project completed with graduate students of the adult-education programme at the Leuven University in Flanders, Belgium. The research focused on cultural policies and practices in urban contexts that try to facilitate the learning of democratic citizenship in non-formal settings. In the first part we introduce some…

  14. Maternal Cultural Values and Parenting Practices: Longitudinal Associations with Chinese Adolescents' Aggression

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    Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…

  15. Maternal Cultural Values and Parenting Practices: Longitudinal Associations with Chinese Adolescents' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…

  16. Building Connections between a Cultural Practice and Modeling in Science Education

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    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the kinds of reasoning that African American young men learn and develop when playing Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities. The qualitative study found that the Spades players routinely consider multiple variables and their mathematical relationships when making decisions. The…

  17. Formative Assessment in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms: Activity Theory Analysis of Tensions, Contradictions and Hybrid Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong; Renshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has recently become a preferred assessment strategy in educational institutions worldwide. However, it is not easy to implement in Asian classrooms, because local cultures and institutional constraints potentially hinder the practice. This one-semester study aimed to use the "third space", as the core of the third…

  18. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  19. National Culture in Practice: Its Impact on Knowledge Sharing in Global Virtual Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kangning

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning global virtual collaboration have received considerable attention in both the academic and practical world; however, little research has been conducted on knowledge-sharing activities in global virtual collaboration, which is a key process to achieve collaboration effectiveness. Due to national culture having been seen as one of…

  20. An Exploratory Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices for Students Who Are ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sushama

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether teacher characteristics such as teacher quality, skills in teaching English language learners (ELLs), knowledge of second language acquisition, and attitudes towards ELLs impacted teachers' perceived importance and reported use of culturally responsive practices within their classrooms. The numbers…

  1. Cultural landscapes as heritage in Malaysia: Potentials, threats, and current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, R.

    2013-01-01

    The rural cultural landscape in Malaysia is relatively under-researched. The current heritage practices focus on built heritage as national heritage, which implies the everyday landscapes of the rural areas have been neglected as potential heritage and have received little attention from politicians

  2. Imagining Pedagogy in Public Space: Visions of Cultural Policies and Practices in a City in Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Danny

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project completed with graduate students of the adult-education programme at the Leuven University in Flanders, Belgium. The research focused on cultural policies and practices in urban contexts that try to facilitate the learning of democratic citizenship in non-formal settings. In the first part we introduce some…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF CULTURE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY OF MSC STATUS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is recognised as being an important asset in organisations these days. Despite this, many organisations are not doing enough to effectively manage this important asset for its competitive advantage. In response to this, knowledge management which is defined as a process that effectively creates, captures, shares and uses organisation-wide knowledge to improve the organisation’s performance was conceived and has since gained widespread acceptance the world over. Despite its widespread acceptance, little is known about the current levels of knowledge management within the Malaysian context, in particular amongst the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies in Malaysia. Furthermore, the extent to which cultural factors impact upon knowledge management practice in these companies is not known. This study investigated the various cultural factors (collaboration, mutual trust, leadership and incentives/rewards using a multiple case study approach operating within a critical realism research paradigm and found that these factors have impact on the level of knowledge management practice. The study also established that cultural factors do play an important role in facilitating knowledge management practice in these MSC status companies in Malaysia. It was found that collaboration, mutual trust, leadership, kiasu-ism and incentives/rewards have significant impact on the level of knowledge management practice. In view of the findings of this study, it is suggested that the relevant authorities pay adequate attention on these cultural factors to ensure that the knowledge management initiatives undertaken by Malaysian companies are effectively deployed.

  4. Culture, Leadership, and Activism: Translating Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Toby S.

    2016-01-01

    Through the article, I share the theoretical foundations, structure, knowledge acquisition, and outcomes of a cultural leadership course. The process for course development integrates several theories and research methods into practice: L. Dee Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning, Feminist Theory, Critical Race Theory, and…

  5. Culturally Responsive Pyramid Model Practices: Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosemarie; Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article reviews current research on racial disparities in disciplinary practices in early childhood education and work to address these issues within a positive behavior support (PBS) framework. Building largely on the Pyramid Model, recommendations and a culturally responsive approach are suggested for use within a program-wide…

  6. Cultural landscapes as heritage in Malaysia: Potentials, threats, and current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, R.

    2013-01-01

    The rural cultural landscape in Malaysia is relatively under-researched. The current heritage practices focus on built heritage as national heritage, which implies the everyday landscapes of the rural areas have been neglected as potential heritage and have received little attention from politicians

  7. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  8. Daisaku Ikeda's Philosophy of Soka Education in Practice: A Narrative Analysis of Culturally Specific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Julie T.

    2012-01-01

    The author analyzes two teachers' narratives of their understanding and practice of Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) philosophy of Soka (value-creating) education in relation to narratives of their experiences as students at the Soka schools he founded. These narratives both triangulate an implicit though culturally specific language used to articulate…

  9. Enabling "new" practices of renewable energy sharing: A cross-cultural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.; Van Dijk, H.W.; Romero Herrera, N.A.; Keyson, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Local generation, distribution and consumption of renewable energy within neighborhood is an emerging application context for the concept of `sharing'. This position paper introduces a cross-cultural approach to enable `new' social practices of renewable energy sharing in neighborhoods. The approach

  10. Creating a Climate for Innovation in Education: Reframing Structure, Culture, and Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kam, JoAnn C. W. N.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was on creating a climate for innovation in schools to lead to improvements in student achievement. Bolman and Deal's (2008) four frame model of organizational thinking was used as a framework for the study. The study examined the influence of leadership practices, structure, and school culture in the context of a K-12…

  11. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  12. Educating Students to Cross Boundaries between Disciplines and Cultures and between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Ir. Karen P. J.; Bush, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. These boundary crossing skills are needed to develop…

  13. Daisaku Ikeda's Philosophy of Soka Education in Practice: A Narrative Analysis of Culturally Specific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Julie T.

    2012-01-01

    The author analyzes two teachers' narratives of their understanding and practice of Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) philosophy of Soka (value-creating) education in relation to narratives of their experiences as students at the Soka schools he founded. These narratives both triangulate an implicit though culturally specific language used to articulate…

  14. Interagency Command and Control Approaches in Amazon Environment to Include, Trust, Cultural and Personal Relationship into a C2 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    makes the interpersonal trust among the officers play a greater role than a simple institutional relationship. AMAZON BRAZILIAN CULTURE...There is a duality in the concept of warmth . The most actions of the Brazilian people are directed by the heart than by reason, and...exchange in Brazilian Amazon environment is stronglly affected by the interpersonal relationship amongthe people involved in

  15. Does the Gap Matter? A Study of IT and Business Culture Toward Customer Relationship Management Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Limsarun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Customer Relationship M anagement (CRM has become the important part of business due to the benefit of analyze sale opportunities, campaigns management, personalization to each individual customer, cross-selling and up-selling. Unfortunately, many research evidence shows that most of the companies fail to make their CRM effort to pay off. Thus success CRM is required co-operate from the management and end user buy-in from every department in the CRM installed companies. Therefore this study aims to highlight the different between Information Technology culture and Business culture. The finding has shown the significant of the culture gap toward CRM practice, while each part of the organization has to take care for their role and responsibility in order to success in CRM practice.

  16. Formative assessment as a vehicle for changing classroom practice in a specific cultural context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then analyze the role of formative assessment in the change of local learning culture. Based on the practice of Yin and Buck I emphasize the significance of their "bottom up" strategy to the teachers' epistemological change. I believe that this strategy may provide practicable solutions to current Chinese educational problems as well as a means for science educators to shift toward systematic professional development.

  17. Cultural practices and spiritual development for women in a Native American alcohol and drug treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Fortier, Yvonne; Morris, Traci L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument that can be used to identify clients' readiness for spiritual development and its relationship with their participation in American Indian/Alaskan Native practices. Female clients and staff from Guiding Star, the female residential substance abuse program at Native American Connections in Phoenix, Arizona, participated in the study. Two focus groups (8 Native and 5 non-Native clients) were conducted to determine the clients' attitudes toward cultural practices. A Native cultural practitioner was interviewed regarding the clients' spiritual needs and development. Finally, a survey on attitudes toward issues related to spirituality was conducted with 51 female clients. Readiness for spiritual development was found to be positively related to a positive outlook on life, being religious, or participating in American Indian/Alaska Native cultural activities.

  18. Topography of “Cronopaisajes” – Social Identities, Cultural Practices and Historical “Plots”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the concept of social representation and its distinctive connections with the ideological, mentalities, the imaginary and cultural practices, and based on defining urban space as a cultural text, this article proposes an analytical repository of historical interpretation, the “Cronopaisaje,” composed of the interaction of architectural-urban forms, a grammar of sociability and mechanisms of regulation and hierarchization, and “escenicas,” or interpolative repertoires of cultural practices and social representations which at the very least correspond to levels of autopresentation and identity reference, as well as collective evaluation and qualification. The “Cronopaisaje,” then, serves as a configured dynamic for the construction of social identities.

  19. Consumer Culture, Sustainability and Business Practice: How Companies can Promote the Symbolic Value of Sustainability in Consumption Activities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Macário de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on sustainability began recently to focus on the consumption patterns of contemporary society as a major causative factors of social and environmental problems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss some opportunities that companies have to influence these changes consumption patterns towards sustainability, taking as a basis the view discussed in studies of Rindova and Ravasi (2008 who consider firms as producers of culture. To this end, we performed a theoretical essay. The results show that companies can influence the formation of specific cultures with the symbolic construction of sustainable practices, contributing to the formation of a culture of sustainable consumption. This occurs from innovation in their ways of working, considering that evoke meanings that products appear to be influenced by strategic choices of producers, such as the concepts and philosophies of design (Ravasi; Rindova, 2008, which includes the development new technologies and practices (Michaelis, 2003 based on the principles of eco-efficiency (Barber, 2008; Clark, 2008, as well as changes in values and discourses that shape the cultures of business, government, media and civil society (Michaelis, 2003, also aligned with the ethical principles and shared environmental responsibility (Tukkeret al, 2008.

  20. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  1. Compliance Culture or Culture Change? The role of funders in improving data management and sharing practice amongst researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-06-01

    over extended periods beyond grants. However there are also important differences in implementation. There is essentially no information available on the uptake and success of different policies in terms of compliance rates, or degrees of data availability. Many policies require a Data Management Plan as part of grant submission. This requirement can be enforced but there is disagreement on the value of this. One view is that requirements such as DMPs are the only way to force researchers to pay attention to these issues. The other is that such requirements lead to a culture of compliance in which the minimal effort is made and planning is seen as a “tick-box” exercise that has no further value. In this view requirements such as DMPs may actually be damaging the effort to effect culture change towards improved community practice. One way to bring these two views together is to see DMPs as living documents that form the basis of collaboration between researchers, funders, and data managers throughout the life of a research project. This approach is reflected in guidance on policy development that emphasises the importance of clarifying responsibilities of various stakeholders and ensuring that researchers are both recognised for good practice and see tangible benefits. More broadly this points to the need for the program of improving RDM and RDS to be shared project with the incentives for funders and researchers aligned as far as is possible. In the interviews successful policy implementation was often seen to be dependent on funders providing the required support, both in the form of infrastructure and resourcing, and via the provision of internal expertise amongst program managers. Where resources are limited, leveraging other support, especially from institutional sources, was seen as important as was ensuring the scope of policy requirements were commensurate with the support available and readiness of research communities. Throughout the desk research and the

  2. Developing and Testing the Short-Form Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Assessing Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvan, Gerard J; Garvan, Cynthia W; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2016-10-01

    The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015. There were a total of 1,786 respondents to the surveys; response rates to individual surveys ranged from 35% to 100%. There were 982 (55%) female and 804 (45%) male respondents, 286 (16%) underrepresented minority (URM) and 1,500 (84%) non-URM respondents, and 339 (19%) faculty and 1,447 (81%) student respondents. Three latent constructs were identified. Female respondents scored significantly higher on the culture-centered practice and efficacy of assessment factors, while URM respondents had significantly higher scores on all three of the KEPI factors. Measurements indicated that the long-form KEPI could be shortened by ten questions and still have three meaningful measurements. Continued research in assessing other health care providers' cultural competence is needed to expand the KEPI to measure providers' cultural competence with patients with minority sexual orientation and gender identity issues and those with physical disabilities, mental illness, and autism to advance patient-centric communication.

  3. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND QUALITY CULTURE WITH COMPETITIVENESS OF SAUDI CONTRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total quality management practices in construction industries can be described as the processes or that aligns the business performance strategy to the business processes in the hopes of achieving customer satisfaction and product and services quality. Quality culture conditions are strongly linked with project outcomes and hence, initiatives undertaken should be incorporated to the organizational cultural changes. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of total quality management practices, quality culture and their relationship with the competitiveness of Saudi Arabia contractors. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data and test hypotheses. A cross-sectional survey method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. Through the present study, the researcher expects the findings to indicate that total quality management practices meaningfully contributed and related to competitiveness and developing cooperative relationship with customers; practices that are related to the achievement of continuous improvement and in turn, continuous improvement affects quality outcomes.

  4. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  5. Teaching and training for global engineering perspectives on culture and professional communication practices

    CERN Document Server

    Flammia, Madelyn

    2016-01-01

    Provides a foundation for understanding a range of linguistic, cultural, and technological factors to effectively practice international communication in a variety of professional communication arenas This book presents a range of perspectives, examples, and concepts for teaching international professional communication in different settings. Industry professionals and academic researchers alike have written entries for Teaching and Training for Global Engineering: Perspectives on Culture and Professional Communication Practices, which have been organized into four cohesive, context-based sections that examine central issues associated with offering effective instruction on communication in global settings. The first section presents approaches for teaching issues of language and visual design related to international communication. The second section reviews aspects of software use and ethical practices associated with communicating globally. The third ection discusses how educators can use information a...

  6. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Jungsun; Park, Mijin

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21(st) century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1) how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2) the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  7. A look at Mayan artificial cranial deformation practices: morphological and cultural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Vargas, Samuel; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luis; Sotomayor-González, Arturo; Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Rogelio; Celis-López, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis; García-González, Ulises; López-Serna, Raul; García-Navarro, Victor; Mendez-Rosito, Diego; Correa-Correa, Victor; Gómez-Llata, Sergio

    2010-12-01

    Induced deformation of the cranial vault is one form of permanent alteration of the body that has been performed by human beings from the beginning of history as a way of differentiating from others. These procedures have been observed in different cultures, but were particularly widespread in Mesoamerica. The authors examined and reviewed the historical and anthropological literature of intentional deformation practices in Mayan culture. The Mayans performed different types of cranial deformations and used different techniques and instruments to deform children's heads. The most remarkable morphological alteration is seen in the flattening of the frontal bone. Some archeological investigations link deformation types with specific periods. This article provides a glance at the cultural environment of the Mayans and demonstrates the heterogeneity of this interesting cultural phenomenon, which has changed over time.

  8. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangho Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21st century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1 how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2 the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  9. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  10. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  11. Strategy and Culture: Hidden Secrets and Soft Skills in Supply Chain Best Practices from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kibuka-Sebitosi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies strategy and cultural hidden secrets and soft skills pertaining to supply chain management in African contexts that are pertinent to supply chain and operations management. Africa is increasingly becoming attractive for not only multi-nationals but supply chain businesses that either want to diversify or expand their foot print. The market is complex, turbulent and highly competitive (Porter, 1986 and requires significant knowledge and understanding of the local context but also culture (Johnson, 1987; 1992; 2000, diversity and institutional dynamics (Ogbonna et al., 2002. Due to the complex nature of the emerging markets, the paper draws from multiple-disciplines (Sociology, Business, Management and theoretical approaches namely: culture and strategy; Ubuntu, stakeholder theory and systems thinking, to elicit best practices. Utilizing qualitative methods comprising case study, interviews, focus group discussions and extensive document analysis, the study covers a variety of management practices ranging from strategy, culture to hyper market management. This paper highlights lessons from successful supermarket chains in Africa particularly the hidden secrets and soft skills that are often ignored in mainstream operations and supply chain management or strategy research. Findings underscore the lessons of understanding strategy and culture implementation through practicing cultural values, treating the customer as a queen/king, knowing political skills, being a learning organisation and implementing continuous improvement. It contributes to management theory for academics, researchers & managers through strategy and culture, proposing inclusion of the cultural diversity into strategy implementation as a critical force affecting the behaviour of people inside the organization. Managers should take into account the cultural context and use it to promote organizational business excellence. These lessons for business excellence

  12. Sourcing and using stem cell lines for radiation research: Potential, challenges and good stem cell culture practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn

    2012-10-01

    Exposition of best practice in management and experimental use of human stem cell lines in radiobiological research. This paper outlines the key challenges to be addressed by radiobiologists wishing to use human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines in their research including human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and human induced pluirpotency stem (hiPSC) lines. It emphasises the importance of guidance already established for cell culture in general and outlines some further considerations specific to the culture of human pluripotent stem cell lines which may impact on the interpretation of data from radiobiological studies using these cells. Fundamental standards include obtaining cells from bona fide suppliers with suitable quality controls, screening cell lines to ensure absence of mycoplasma and authentication of cell lines by DNA profiling. For hESC and hiPSC lines, it is particularly important to recognise the significance of phenotypic and genetic stability and this paper will address approaches to reduce their impact. Quality assured banking of these two types of stem cell lines will facilitate reliable supply of quality controlled cells that can provide standardisation between laboratories and in the same laboratory over time. hPSC lines could play an important role in future radiobiological research providing certain fundamental principles of good stem cell culture practice are adopted at the outset of such work.

  13. Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.

  14. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. The Match between Apache Indians' Culture and Educational Practices Used in Our Schools: From Problems to Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cultural values and practices of Apache Indian families in regards to child rearing and how culturally responsive our schools' educational practices are with this population of individuals. Findings from this study revealed a potentially negative impact on these students' development and academic achievement. Solutions to…

  16. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  17. Transformation of a nursing culture through actualization of a nursing professional practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Sandra G; Rich, Victoria L

    2010-01-01

    Leading and effecting meaningful change in a nursing division culture, such as the type required to achieve Magnet designation, entails senior nurse executives to be well-acquainted not only with the facts and figures of their business but also with the nuances, myths, and cultures that either enable or block a change from occurring. Expert nurse leaders embrace the story being told by data on dashboards and the quality outcomes achieved and look beyond those points of information out to the edges of their division. These nurse executives also seek to understand the pivotal, perhaps seemingly inconsequential things (notions, beliefs, cultural beliefs, and stories) that will block or tip a culture to change and achieve success. At the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP), a Magnet-designated organization, the road to Magnet was not straightforward. Instead, the path was a winding, learning journey. Through authentic leadership and the conception and actualization of a professional practice model, the HUP Nursing Excellence in Professional Practice (HUP NEPP) model, Magnet designation was achieved and a nursing culture was transformed.

  18. Teaching culture in Colombia Bilingüe: From theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is concerned with the incorporation of culture into foreign language learning (EFL classes within the context of “Colombia Bilingüe”. More specifically, some consideration will be given to what culture is, how it can be taught and what Colombian authors have maintained in terms of its practicality and implementation. It will be suggested that teaching culture is not tantamount to promoting an English sociocultural domination or adapting ethnocentric practices, but mainly approaching and reflecting on one’s and others’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, which are intertwined with language itself. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to point out both the difficulties and complexities that Colombian EFL teachers need to be able to cope with when working with culture in their classes. The main premise of the paper is that effective teaching of culture can be achieved if the Colombian EFL community strives to construct a coherent discourse that allows developing teaching models and learning experiences within the theoretical framework of the postmethod condition, world Englishes, and critical multiculturalism.

  19. Culturally Diverse Students in Higher Education: Challenges and Possibilities within Academic Literacy Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tkachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With growing diversity in the population, higher education faces a new situation with increasing student diversity. In our paper, we will explore questions concerning the consequences student diversity has for higher-education institutions. Based on our experience from three different R&D projects, the differences in culture and academic literacy practices give culturally diverse students challenges that have often been ignored in academia. Some other studies also document that this group of students has a much higher risk of dropping out and underachieving than majority students (Andersen & Skaarer- Kreutz, 2007; Støren, 2009. In our paper, we are going to discuss the students’ challenges and discourse of remediation that is often associated with their challenges and suggest how higher-education institutions can adjust their practices to be more oriented to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication as a dialogic approach may create dynamics in academic tutoring and lead to mutual change/transformation instead of a one-way adaptation of existing academic literacy norms. We argue that all teachers should be aware of cultural differences in literacy practices in the education systems and strive to adjust their teaching practices to the diversity in the classroom. This approach, we believe, can contribute to a better learning environment for all students, independently of their backgrounds. 

  20. Neuropsychology in South Africa: confronting the challenges of specialist practice in a culturally diverse developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ann D; Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B

    2016-11-01

    This was an invited paper on the history and current status of neuropsychology in South Africa. Information was gathered from literature searches, personal communication, and the authors' experiences while occupying relevant professional and academic positions for over 30 years. Since its origins in the 1950s, the development of neuropsychology in South Africa has faced numerous challenges, against a background of extreme sociocultural and socioeconomic disparity in the country that is on-going. The creation of the South African Clinical Neuropsychological Society in the 1980s, a credentialing and training body, gave impetus to the discipline. In the absence of a neuropsychology category within the South African professional framework, university instruction has been ad hoc with vastly different levels of competency depending on the institution involved. The small number of practitioners and/or academics involved in neuropsychology includes mainly masters, and some doctoral level psychologists registered in clinical, counseling or educational categories. A prime emphasis of neuropsychological research has been local norming of psychometric tests to facilitate valid assessment practices in the country. South Africa is on the cusp of achieving a hard-won neuropsychology professional register. It is anticipated that this development will provide impetus to the discipline by promoting training programs, the creation of neuropsychology posts, wider service delivery, and increased research funding. Despite significant challenges in a culturally diverse, developing country, neuropsychology has evolved sufficiently to warrant the creation of a separate category in the professional framework. This development will facilitate training, research, and services in the country.

  1. Habitus and Flow in Primary School Musical Practice: Relations between Family Musical Cultural Capital, Optimal Experience and Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…

  2. Small primary care practices face four hurdles--including a physician-centric mind-set--in becoming medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutting, Paul A; Crabtree, Benjamin F; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2012-11-01

    Transforming small independent practices to patient-centered medical homes is widely believed to be a critical step in reforming the US health care system. Our team has conducted research on improving primary care practices for more than fifteen years. We have found four characteristics of small primary care practices that seriously inhibit their ability to make the transformation to this new care model. We found that small practices were extremely physician-centric, lacked meaningful communication among physicians, were dominated by authoritarian leadership behavior, and were underserved by midlevel clinicians who had been cast into unimaginative roles. Our analysis suggests that in addition to payment reform, a shift in the mind-set of primary care physicians is needed. Unless primary care physicians can adopt new mental models and think in new ways about themselves and their practices, it will be very difficult for them and their practices to create innovative care teams, become learning organizations, and act as good citizens within the health care neighborhood.

  3. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  4. Organisational Culture and the Adoption of New Public-Management Practices = Povzetki Abstracts novega javnega managementa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Hookana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insights into the levels of adoption and success of New Public Management practices, reflected in the degree of innovative accounting practices and cultures. The analysis draws upon two in-depth empirical investigations. The results provide empirical evidence to support a two-way interaction between management orientation to adopting the new accounting methods and organisational innovative changes. The success and failure could be characterised as a fragile construction that turns on the strength of diverse ties connecting many heterogeneous elements. The meaning of the subcultures and the externally driven change process are discussed in the context of Scandinavian public management.

  5. Going above and beyond: How sustainability culture and entrepreneurial orientation drive social sustainability supply chain practice adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Donna; McCarthy, Lucy; McGrath, Paul; Claudy, Marius C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper examines what drives the adoption of different social sustainability supply chain practices. Research has shown certain factors drive the adoption of environmental sustainability practices but few focus on social supply chain practices; delineate which practices are adopted ; or what drives their adoption . We examine the facilitative role of sustainability culture to explain the adoption basic social sustainability supply chain practices, consisting of monitoring and man...

  6. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  7. Deficits in knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood culture sampling: results of a nationwide mixed-methods study among inpatient care physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Duddeck, Arne; Gehrlich, Maike; Helmke, Charlotte; Huebner, Johannes; Pletz, Mathias W; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Karch, André

    2017-08-01

    Blood culture (BC) sampling rates in Germany are considerably lower than recommended. Aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of physicians in Germany regarding BC diagnostics. We conducted a cross-sectional mixed-methods study among physicians working in inpatient care in Germany. Based on the results of qualitative focus groups, a questionnaire-based quantitative study was conducted in 2015-2016. In total, 706 medical doctors and final-year medical students from 11 out of 16 federal states in Germany participated. BC sampling was considered an important diagnostic tool by 95% of the participants. However, only 23% of them would collect BCs in three scenarios for which BC ordering is recommended by present guidelines in Germany; almost one out of ten physicians would not have taken blood cultures in any of the three scenarios. The majority of participants (74%) reported not to adhere to the guideline recommendation that blood culture sampling should include at least two blood culture sets from two different injection sites. High routine in blood culture sampling, perceived importance of blood culture diagnostics, the availability of an in-house microbiological lab, and the department the physician worked in were identified as predictors for good blood culture practice. Our study suggests that there are substantial deficits in BC ordering and the application of guidelines for good BC practice in Germany. Based on these findings, multimodal interventions appear necessary for improving BC diagnostics.

  8. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  9. Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…

  10. The cross-culture impact on managing business: an evidence from culture, performance evaluation practices, and trust in a Western Multinational Company’s subsidiary in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwohedi, Unggul

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural influence on organizational practices, performance evaluation process and trust on supervisors in a Multinational Company (MNC) in Indonesia. Amongst studies of national culture and MNCs there appears to have been no studies investigating the interaction between cross-culture, performance evaluation, and trust. Therefore, I conducted a case study research in one French MNC in Indonesia to understand this process. I int...

  11. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  12. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses\\' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  13. China’s Peaceful Development Road: Cultural Foundation, Strategic Orientation and Practical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xi

    2015-01-01

    Unswervingly pursuing the peaceful development road is the strategic choice made by the Government and people of China based on a development trend of the times and the national fundamental interests. As the traditional cultural origin of China’s peaceful development road, "harmony" is one constant principle permeated through China’s culture, and is true life for China humanistic spirit. "valuable harmony", "harmony without blind following", "harmony between heaven and man" are three important aspects of "harmony"-- thinking ideological connotation of China’s culture. The practice has proved that as the national long-term development strategy, the peaceful development road is the development road adapted to China’s conditions and era features, and has made outstanding contributions to peace and development of China and the world at large.

  14. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2013-09-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differ between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine.

  15. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  16. Trends and Ontology of Artistic Practices of the Dorset Culture 800 BC - 1300 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardenberg, Mari

    with the material world is presented. This framework is employed as a lens into the social role and meaning the carvings played in the Dorset society. The examined assemblages were recovered from a series of Dorset settlement sites, mainly in house, midden, and burial contexts, providing a substantive case study...... behavioral situations and subject matter suggesting carvings operated as material symbols that played a role in communicating aspects of Dorset ideology. This research suggests that a clear change occurred in the subject matter chosen to depict in the carvings throughout the Dorset culture temporally divided...... are integrated with analogies based on observations of other cultures from across the circumpolar region to assist with parallel perspectives. The different forms of artistic carvings reflect dynamic daily activities among agents. The analyses of which suggest that socially constructed practices are culturally...

  17. A Model for Translating Ethnography and Theory into Culturally Constructed Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J.; Schensul, Stephen L.; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J.; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts. PMID:25292448

  18. A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Schensul, Jean J; Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts.

  19. Some empirical insights into cultural differences and management practices: the case of Denmark and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprila Cotič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents field research on differences in managers’ practices and behaviour in two EU countries: Denmark and Slovenia. The theoretical foundation of the research is based on cultural dimensions proposed by Hofstede and Hall. We combined the quantitative part of the research, which was based on surveys between Danish and Slovenian managers with semi-structured interviews. We confirmed many significant differences between Danish and Slovenian management practices and values that were predominantly consequence of two of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. The emphasis of the research was on the presumption that these differences are even more articulated in extreme situations, such as the current economic crises. We also implicitly sought the answer to the question of what can Slovenian managers learn from the Danish experience. The main scientific contribution of the research is the methodological platform for further research on the effects of cultural characteristics on management practices and business efficiency within the main clusters of the EU countries.

  20. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…

  1. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…

  2. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

  3. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  4. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--“who sent lfowers to animation, for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industries in the animation industry began to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of animation who sent flowers as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  5. Enhancing pediatric workforce diversity and providing culturally effective pediatric care: implications for practice, education, and policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This policy statement serves to combine and update 2 previously independent but overlapping statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on culturally effective health care (CEHC) and workforce diversity. The AAP has long recognized that with the ever-increasing diversity of the pediatric population in the United States, the health of all children depends on the ability of all pediatricians to practice culturally effective care. CEHC can be defined as the delivery of care within the context of appropriate physician knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of all cultural distinctions, leading to optimal health outcomes. The AAP believes that CEHC is a critical social value and that the knowledge and skills necessary for providing CEHC can be taught and acquired through focused curricula across the spectrum of lifelong learning. This statement also addresses workforce diversity, health disparities, and affirmative action. The discussion of diversity is broadened to include not only race, ethnicity, and language but also cultural attributes such as gender, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and disability, which may affect the quality of health care. The AAP believes that efforts must be supported through health policy and advocacy initiatives to promote the delivery of CEHC and to overcome educational, organizational, and other barriers to improving workforce diversity.

  6. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  7. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Keith [PPPL

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  8. Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and spss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and spss (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding the practical application and implementation of those macros. This paper provides a brief tutorial on the implementation of the Stata and spss macros and discusses practical issues meta-analysts should consider when estimating meta-regression models with robust variance estimates. Two example databases are used in the tutorial to illustrate the use of meta-analysis with robust variance estimates.

  9. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Common identity framework of cultural knowledge and practices of Javanese Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiyono Susilo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous literatures apparently argued that Javanese Islam is characterized by orthodox thought and practice which is still mixed with pre-Islamic traditions. By using approach of the sociology of religion, this article tries to explain contextualization of Islamic universal values in local space. The results showed that synthesis of orthodox thought and practice with pre-Islamic traditions is doubtless as a result of interaction between Islam and pre-Islamic traditions during the Islamization of Java. In addition, this study found the intersection of Islam and Javanese culture in the terms of genealogy of culture, Islamic mysticism, orientation of traditional Islamic teachings, and the conception of the power in Javanese kingdom. Since kejawen practices accordance with Islamic mysticism can be justified by the practice of the Muslims. Thus the typology of the relationship between Islam and Javanese culture are not contradictory but dialectical. Finally, a number of implications and suggestions are discussed Berbagai literatur sebelumnya mengenai studi Islam di Jawa umumnya berpendapat bahwa Islam Jawa ditandai dengan pemikiran dan praktek yang masih tercampur dengan tradisi pra-Islam. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosiologi agama, artikel ini mencoba untuk menjelaskan makna dari kontekstualisasi nilai-nilai universal Islam pada lingkup lokal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintesis pemikiran dan praktek dengan tradisi pra-Islam merupakan hal yang lumrah sebagai hasil interaksi antara Islam dan tradisi praIslam selama periode Islamisasi. Penelitian ini menemukan persamaan identitas antara Islam dan budaya Jawa dalam hal genealogi budaya, mistisisme Islam, orientasi pengajaran Islam tradisional, dan konsepsi kekuasaan di keratonkeraton Jawa. Karena praktek kejawen dapat dijustifikasi sesuai dengan praktek mistisisme Islam, maka tipologi hubungan antara Islam dan budaya Jawa tidak bertentangan tetapi bersifat dialektis.

  11. Axenizing and Culturing Endomigratory Plant-Parasitic Nematodes using Pluronic F127, Including its Effects, on Population Dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, M P; Schmitt, D P; Sipes, B S

    1996-03-01

    A non-chemical technique for surface sterilizing plant-parasitic nematodes for aseptic cultures is described. The method is most applicable to nematodes with active migratory infective stages and requires only a few starting specimens. Rate of achieving a primary aseptic culture with the technique ranged from 60%-100% depending on the conditions of the specimens collected for culturing. Aseptic cultures of species of Meloidogyne, Rotylenchuluz, Pratylenchus, and Radopholus initiated with the method remained contamination-free after 12 months of maintenance in tomato root explant or alfalfa callus cultures. Further studies of Pluronic F127, a polyol gel medium employed in the technique to confine the spread of contaminating bacteria or fungi associated with the nematodes, showed that the polyol gel was a suitable support medium for culturing corn root explant, alfalfa callus tissues, and consequently Pratylenchus species including P. agilis, P. brachyurus, P. scribneri, and P. penetrans. During the course of 10 months, P. penetrans reared in polyol-base medium followed a standard biological growth curve, multiplied to a higher population density, maintained a similar female-to-male ratio, and possessed a similar tendency to reside inside or outside host tissues as did P. penetrans reared in agar-base medium. The percentages of P. penetrans juveniles in the sub-populations residing outside or inside the host tissues reared in polyol-base medium also were similar to and fluctuated temporally in like manner as those reared in agar-base medium. Members of these sub-populations from the polyol- or agar-base were equally infective and reproductive after 9 months of culturing.

  12. Forensic Signature Detection of Yersinia Pestis Culturing Practices Across Institutions Using a Bayesian Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Corley, Courtney D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Clowers, Brian H.; Dowling, Chase P.; Wahl, Karen L.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2014-03-21

    The field of bioforensics is focused on the analysis of evidence from a biocrime. Existing laboratory analyses can identify the specific strain of an organism in the evidence, as well signatures of the specific culture batch of organisms, such as low-frequency contaminants or indicators of growth and processing methods. To link these disparate types of physical data to potential suspects, investigators may need to identify institutions or individuals whose access to strains and culturing practices match those identified from the evidence. In this work we present a Bayesian statistical network to fuse different types of analytical measurements that predict the production environment of a Yersinia pestis sample under investigation with automated test processing of scientific publications to identify institutions with a history of growing Y. pestis under similar conditions. Furthermore, the textual and experimental signatures were evaluated recursively to determine the overall sensitivity of the network across all levels of false positives. We illustrate that institutions associated with several specific culturing practices can be accurately selected based on the experimental signature from only a few analytical measurements. These findings demonstrate that similar Bayesian networks can be generated generically for many organisms of interest and their deployment is not prohibitive due to either computational or experimental factors.

  13. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  14. Workplace learning from a socio-cultural perspective: creating developmental space during the general practice clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, J; Zwietering, P J; Teunissen, P W; van der Vleuten, C P M; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2011-08-01

    Workplace learning in undergraduate medical education has predominantly been studied from a cognitive perspective, despite its complex contextual characteristics, which influence medical students' learning experiences in such a way that explanation in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and single determinants of instructiveness is unlikely to suffice. There is also a paucity of research which, from a perspective other than the cognitive or descriptive one, investigates student learning in general practice settings, which are often characterised as powerful learning environments. In this study we took a socio-cultural perspective to clarify how students learn during a general practice clerkship and to construct a conceptual framework that captures this type of learning. Our analysis of group interviews with 44 fifth-year undergraduate medical students about their learning experiences in general practice showed that students needed developmental space to be able to learn and develop their professional identity. This space results from the intertwinement of workplace context, personal and professional interactions and emotions such as feeling respected and self-confident. These forces framed students' participation in patient consultations, conversations with supervisors about consultations and students' observation of supervisors, thereby determining the opportunities afforded to students to mind their learning. These findings resonate with other conceptual frameworks and learning theories. In order to refine our interpretation, we recommend that further research from a socio-cultural perspective should also explore other aspects of workplace learning in medical education.

  15. Developing a teaching research culture for general practice registrars in Australia: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljakovic Marjan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To ascertain the issues all general practice educators need to understand when educating GP registrars to learn about research. Study Design A review of MEDLINE [1996–2007], six websites and key informants produced 302 publications, which reduced to 35 articles, 7 books, and 9 policy documents. Results Key themes that emerged from a thematic analysis of the literature that GP educators need to consider when teaching registrars about research were [i] the need to understand that learning research is influenced by attitudes; [ii] the need to address organisational constraints on learning research; [iii] the need to identify the educational barriers on learning research; [iv] the need to understand there are gaps in GP research content – especially from GP registrars; And [v] the need to understand the value of research on the GP registrar's educational cycle of learning, which develops in a culture that allows research to flourish. Conclusion Australian GP registrars will observe a research culture only if they encounter clinician-researchers paid to practice and conduct research in their general practice.

  16. Co-Teaching Partnerships: How Culture of Schools and Classrooms Affect Practices in Co-Planning and Co-Implementing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalo, Cecilia Gray

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how the school and classroom cultures affected practices of inclusion for students with disabilities and how the inclusionary practice of co-teaching was influenced by the school culture. This study sought to investigate school and classroom cultures and their impact on practices of inclusion. It also…

  17. Reforming the Norwegian Police - Cultural Change as a Restoration of Organizational Ideologies, Myths and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig O. Johannessen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper lays out the origins of the organizational culture myth and how ideas from populist movements of cultural change together with organizational control ideologies have come to be adopted as the panacea for the ills of the Norwegian Police. The paper then draws attention to how the above trends can be explored from a process theoretical perspective with a view towards organizational culture as practices emerging from patterns of communication, power, identity and moral ethics. The discussion further deconstructs changes in the mythology of official statements to demonstrate how the changes in the official values are solidifying a fantasy of sectarian unity, which at the same time threatens to collapse the functionality of the police organization. A recent example of whistleblowing demonstrates the antithesis of this development: the importance of breaking the unity in order to avoid organizational collapse and regain constructive functionality by a different understanding of leadership and moral ethics. The paper is a contribution to a broader discussion and a call for deeper knowledge of what organizational and cultural change and reform means both in the Norwegian police and other police organizations undergoing similar processes.

  18. New cultural writing practices, new perspectives of Textual Criticism: towards HyperEditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Nunes Barreiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of computer technology and its developments in the second half of the twentieth century was responsible for a new paradigm for the writing culture, enabling, for the first time, the existence of the text outside a physical surface. It is, therefore, a new condition of texts which has changed the cultural practices, production, circulation and appropriation of the text (Chartier, 2001. Philology is not oblivious to this new socio-cultural context and philologists have taken advantage of the potentialities that information technology and digital media provide for the editing of texts, especially of those that have been written and disseminated within the manuscript and/or printed culture. Jerome McGann (1997 used the term HyperEditing to name the editing that philologists are producing in digital media. This type of editing is a hypermedia which makes it possible to put image, sound and movement together in a same space, and other specific characteristics of computer language. In this article, I intend to discuss how textual criticism is being adapted to this paradigm shift through new editing models. This study is part of the theoretical and methodological framework developed for the pamphlets hyperediting of Eulalio Motta, www.eulaliliomotta.com.br (Barreiros, 2013.

  19. Theoretical and Practical Advances in the Assessment of Cross-Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    region-specific knowledge; (3) attitudinal and motivational dispositions such as ethnocentrism , interest in culture, and motivation to learn; and (4...behavioral competencies is the classic assessment center, this method is costly and time consuming . By including antecedent measurement in the mix

  20. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; James, Susan; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2015-11-10

    Polygyny is cross-culturally common and a topic of considerable academic and policy interest, often deemed a harmful cultural practice serving the interests of men contrary to those of women and children. Supporting this view, large-scale studies of national African demographic surveys consistently demonstrate that poor child health outcomes are concentrated in polygynous households. Negative population-level associations between polygyny and well-being have also been reported, consistent with the hypothesis that modern transitions to socially imposed monogamy are driven by cultural group selection. We challenge the consensus view that polygyny is harmful, drawing on multilevel data from 56 ethnically diverse Tanzanian villages. We first demonstrate the vulnerability of aggregated data to confounding between ecological and individual determinants of health; while across villages polygyny is associated with poor child health and low food security, such relationships are absent or reversed within villages, particularly when children and fathers are coresident. We then provide data indicating that the costs of sharing a husband are offset by greater wealth (land and livestock) of polygynous households. These results are consistent with models of polygyny based on female choice. Finally, we show that village-level negative associations between polygyny prevalence, food security, and child health are fully accounted for by underlying differences in ecological vulnerability (rainfall) and socioeconomic marginalization (access to education). We highlight the need for improved, culturally sensitive measurement tools and appropriate scales of analysis in studies of polygyny and other purportedly harmful practices and discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical accounts of marriage and contemporary population policy.

  1. Converging Recommendations for Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices: Students with Learning Disabilities, English Language Learners, and Socioculturally Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Susan V.; Rao, Shaila; Protacio, Maria Selena

    2015-01-01

    This study examines culturally responsive pedagogy across the fields of special education, multicultural literacy education, and teaching English language learners. A systematic review of recommendations identified culturally responsive practices in five key areas: dialogue, collaboration, visual representation, explicit instruction, and inquiry.…

  2. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...

  3. Neonatal care practices in a tribal community of Odisha, India: a cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Chauhan, Abhimanyu S; Panda, Madhusmita; Swain, Subhashish; Hussain, Mohammad A

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal care practices have been shown to vary across tribal communities. This cross-sectional study was conducted in tribal block in Nabarangpur district of Odisha, India, to measure perinatal and antenatal practices by qualitative inquiries of 55 mothers who had babies aged traditional birth attendants. Reasons for home deliveries were cited as easy availability of traditional birth attendants and family preferences. Application of indigenously made substances on umbilical stump and skin of the baby, bathing baby immediately after birth, late initiation of breast-feeding and 'Budu practices' were common. Cultural issues, decision of family members and traditional beliefs still play a crucial role in shaping neonatal care practice in tribal communities. Awareness on child care, ethnographic understanding of health-seeking behavior of tribal community and mobilization of community by health workers can be useful in improving health status of mothers and newborn babies in tribal population. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. From activity to learning: using cultural historical activity theory to model school library programmes and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meyers

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses on the activity theoretic concepts of 'contradictions' and 'expansive learning' as they relate to the development of best practices. Method. Developmental Work Research was applied as a guiding methodology in an intervention study of six high school libraries in Washington State, USA. Library activity is illustrated from multiple perspectives using a triangulated, qualitative approach. Analysis. contradictions and tensions in the general school library activity system are identified, and an intervention was designed to facilitiate the development of expansive instruments. A case example illustrates a second level of analysis and specific points of intervention. Results. analysis reveals that the tensions and contradictions provide opportunities for expansive learning on the part of the teacher-Librarians. The research team can use practitioners' zones of proximal development to guide the alignment of library programme goals and practices. Conclusion. : some limitations and future promise of the framework and its application are discussed. The proposed activity theory toolkit suggest a new way of exploring the practices of teacher-librarians, incorporating research evidence, professional expertise, and reflective decision making.

  5. In a patient with biclonal Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia only one clone expands in three-dimensional culture and includes putative cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Julia; Thulien, Kyle J; Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2011-02-01

    A small percentage of cases of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) present with biclonality, defined here as the rearrangement of two distinct VDJ gene segments. Here we investigated the expansion of two clones from a patient with WM expressing molecularly detectable clonotypic gene rearrangements, one V(H)3 and one V(H)4. Biclonality was determined in blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). V(H)4 expressing cells but not V(H)3 expressing cells underwent clonal expansion in 3-D culture of reconstructed WM bone marrow. After 3-D culture, secondary culture in a colony forming unit assay, and RQ-PCR, only the V(H)4 clone was shown to harbor a subpopulation with characteristics of cancer stem cells, including proliferative quiescence, self-regeneration, and the ability to generate clonotypic progeny, suggesting that the V(H)4, but not the V(H)3, clone is clinically significant. Enrichment of potential WM stem cells in 3-D cultures holds promise for monitoring their response to treatment and for testing new therapies.

  6. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  7. The Effects of Learning Organization Culture on the Practices of Human Knowledge-Creation: An Empirical Research Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to identify the influence of learning organization culture on the practices of organizational knowledge-creation. Actionable knowledge-creation practices are put forward as a variable in preference to the learning process itself because they may be more closely related to the achievement of individual and/or organizational…

  8. Beginning to Think Critically about Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Practice: An Elementary Education Book Study in Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Charles J.; McCormick, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study student teachers in an elementary education program took part in a book study, "From Rage to Hope", on culturally responsive teaching. Interns critically reflected on their practice and began making changes based on practical strategies from the book. Four themes of learning and change emerged in intern written reflections: Project…

  9. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and Lies

  10. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and

  11. Trainers and Learners Constructing a Community of Practice: Masculine Work Cultures and Learning Safety in the Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Interviews and observations involving 20 coal miners and 7 trainers found the group constructed a community of practice that reinforced the culture of masculinity. Miners learned safety measures through experience and from coworkers. Trainers viewed their work as simulated environments and codified practices, which implicitly devalue experiential…

  12. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and Lies

  13. Cultural order and participatory local development: structure for the occupational therapist practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cultural Order is understood as the expression of a game of interdependencies determinations between local and global social groups, pairs identified by productions, values and behavior that consciously guide the life projects and the expansion of a collective freedom. Based on a Social Science research and with theoretical mark of Nobert Elias and Amartya Sen, this article aims to present a theoretical-practice structure of the approach in participatory local development- PLD to the occupational therapist surround by the construction of collective life projects, in order to operationalize in the practice of the community question, understood as the strengths that singularize the participation. We discuss the use of the PLD approach to the occupational therapist in a flexible structure, aiming to guarantee its domain, the Human Occupation, and the set of interventions, technologies, sustained in the management of the activities of daily living. The approach in participatory local development presents itself as an important structural outline to the community actions, and it is the occupational therapist role to be an articulator of the Local Cultural Order dimensions, to deal with the target population their work processes of continuity in collective life projects and expansion of freedom.

  14. Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health: epistemic communities and the politics of pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2012-07-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) aim to improve the effectiveness of mental health care for diverse populations. However, there are basic tensions between these approaches. The evidence that purports to ground EBP is limited, often in ways that are biased by specific disciplinary, economic or political interests and cultural assumptions. In particular, the paucity of evidence regarding cultural minorities results in standard practices based on data from the majority population that have uncertain relevance for specific cultural groups. As well, research evidence about intervention outcomes tends to focus on individual symptoms and behaviors and may not reflect culturally relevant outcomes. To some extent, these limitations can be addressed by refining and extending current methods of evidence production. However, consideration of culture raises two deeper problems for EBP: 1) The diagnostic and conceptual frameworks used to pose questions, devise interventions, and determine outcomes in EBP are themselves culturally determined and therefore potentially biased or inappropriate; and 2) Cultural communities may have "ways of knowing" that do not rely on the kinds of observational and experimental measures and methods that characterize EBP. Attention to the nature of clinical evidence and to the importance of cultural context in illness and healing can help both EBP and CC move beyond their current limitations and contribute to the evolution of mental health services that respond effectively to cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Where Critical Postmodern Theory Meets Practice: Working in the Intersection of Instrumental, Social, and Cultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a critical postmodern adult education practice that is inclusive of peoples and knowledges and inhabits a dynamic space. Key concepts include identity difference; intersection of power relations; community as a social contract; and conflict, voice, and dialog for transformative learning. (SK)

  16. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  17. Reconciling evidence-based practice and cultural competence in mental health services: introduction to a special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    The calls for evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) represent two increasingly influential mandates within the mental health professions. Advocates of EBP seek to standardize clinical practice by ensuring that only treatment techniques that have demonstrated therapeutic outcomes under scientifically controlled conditions would be adopted and promoted in mental health services. Advocates of CC seek to diversify clinical practice by ensuring that treatment approaches are designed and refined for a multicultural clientele that reflects a wide variety of psychological orientations and life experiences. As these two powerful mandates collide, the fundamental challenge becomes how to accommodate substantive cultural divergences in psychosocial experience using narrowly prescriptive clinical practices and approaches, without trivializing either professional knowledge or cultural difference. In this Introduction to a special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry, the virtue of an interdisciplinary conversation between and among anthropologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social work researchers in addressing these tensions is extolled. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Results by Primary Work Unit, Organizational Work Setting, and Primary Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety culture is critical to the achievement of patient safety. In 2014, a landmark national study was conducted to investigate patient safety culture in nephrology nurse practice settings. In this secondary analysis of data from that study, we report the status of patient safety culture by primary work unit (chronic hemodialysis unit, acute hemodialysis unit, peritoneal dialysis unit) and organizational work setting (for-profit organization, not-for-profit organization), and compare the perceptions of direct care nurses and managers/administrators on components of patient safety culture.

  19. Best practices for the use and evaluation of animal serum as a component of cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nims, Raymond W; Harbell, John W

    2017-07-21

    Animal serum is a common additive for cell culture medium and is often required at 5 to 10% (v/v) for the attachment and growth of primary and continuous anchorage-dependent (monolayer) cultures. The use of animal serum in cell culture medium confers several advantages and also some risks. This article discusses the use of animal serum as a component of cell culture medium. The best practices associated with the sourcing, storage, thawing, testing, and mitigation of risk associated with the use of animal sera are among the topics described in this article.

  20. A systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation: processes, interrelationships, and human culture: presentation of a systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation that emphasizes complex interrelationships among subsystems and includes human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor J; Gómez, Andrés; Porzecanski, Ana L

    2010-12-01

    Historically, views and measurements of biodiversity have had a narrow focus, for instance, characterizing the attributes of observable patterns but affording less attention to processes. Here, we explore the question: how does a systems thinking view - one where the world is seen as elements and processes that connect and interact in dynamic ways to form a whole - affect the way we understand biodiversity and practice conservation? We answer this question by illustrating the systemic properties of biodiversity at multiple levels, and show that biodiversity is a collection of dynamic systems linking seemingly disparate biological and cultural components and requiring an understanding of the system as a whole. We conclude that systems thinking calls traditional views of species, ecosystem function, and human relationships with the rest of biodiversity into question. Finally, we suggest some of the ways in which this view can impact the science and practice of conservation, particularly through affecting our conservation targets and strategies.

  1. [Reform and practice of teaching methods for culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jinping; Zhu, Yuqiu; Liu, Jingjing; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Xinfeng

    2012-02-01

    Culture of pharmaceutical plant is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary theory, which has a long history of application. In order to improve the quality of this course, some reformation schemes have been carried out, including stimulating enthusiasm for learning, refining the basic concepts and theories, promoting the case study, emphasis on latest achievements, enhancing exercise in laboratory and planting base, and guiding students to do scientific and technological innovation. Meanwhile, the authors point out some teaching problems of this course.

  2. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavetti Alexandre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

  3. Supporting transvisibility and gender diversity in nursing practice and education: embracing cultural safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Peter; Fitton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    Many nursing education programs deserve a failing grade with respect to supporting gender diversity in their interactions with their students and in terms of the curricular content directed toward engaging in the safe and supportive nursing care of transgender clients. This situation contributes to transinvisibility in the nursing profession and lays a foundation for nursing practice that does not recognize the role that gender identity plays in the health and well-being of trans-clients and trans-nurses. This article seeks to raise readers' awareness about the problems inherent to transinvisibility and to propose several curricular and structural-level interventions that may serve to gradually increase the recognition of gender diversity in the planning and delivery of nursing education and practice. Contextualized in gender and intersectionality theory, cultural safety is presented as a viable and appropriate framework for engaging in these upstream approaches to addressing gender diversity in nursing education and practice. Among the structural interventions proposed are as follows: inclusive information systems, creation of gender neutral and safe spaces, lobbying for inclusion of competencies that address care of trans-persons in accreditation standards and licensure examinations and engaging in nursing research in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

  5. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Dídac S; Costa Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2010-03-26

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

  6. Global Culture in Practice. A Look at Children and Adolescents in Denmark, France and Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang; Lemish, Dafna; Drotner, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,......Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,...

  7. MODARIA WG5: Towards a practical guidance for including uncertainties in the results of dose assessment of routine releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA (Austria); Al Neaimi, Ahmed [Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation - ENEC (United Arab Emirates); Blixt Buhr, Anna Ma [Vattenfall AB (Sweden); Bonchuk, Iurii [Radiation Protection Institute - RPI (Ukraine); Chouhan, Sohan [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - AECL (Canada); Chyly, Pavol [SE-VYZ (Slovakia); Curti, Adriana R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN (Argentina); Da Costa, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD (Brazil); Duran, Juraj [VUJE Inc (Slovakia); Galeriu, Dan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH (Romania); Haegg, Ann- Christin; Lager, Charlotte [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Heling, Rudie [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG (Netherlands); Ivanis, Goran; Shen, Jige [Ecometrix Incorporated (Canada); Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Krajewski, Pawel M. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection - CLOR (Poland); Marang, Laura; Vermorel, Fabien [Electricite de France - EdF (France); Mourlon, Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Perez, Fabricio F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK (Belgium); Woodruffe, Andrew [Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation - FANR (United Arab Emirates); Zorko, Benjamin [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2014-07-01

    MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) project was launched in 2012 with the aim of improving the capabilities in radiation dose assessment by means of acquisition of improved data for model testing, model testing and comparison, reaching consensus on modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values, development of improved methods and exchange of information. The project focuses on areas where uncertainties remain in the predictive capability of environmental models, emphasizing in reducing associated uncertainties or developing new approaches to strengthen the evaluation of the radiological impact. Within MODARIA, four main areas were defined, one of them devoted to Uncertainty and Variability. In this area four working groups were included, Working Group 5 dealing with the 'uncertainty and variability analysis for assessments of radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides'. Whether doses are estimated by using measurement data, by applying models, or through a combination of measurements and calculations, the variability and uncertainty contribute to a distribution of possible values. The degree of variability and uncertainty is represented by the shape and extent of that distribution. The main objective of WG5 is to explore how to consider uncertainties and variabilities in the results of assessment of doses in planned situations for controlling the impact of routine releases from radioactive and nuclear installations to the environment. The final aim is to produce guidance for the calculation of uncertainties in these exposure situations and for the presentation of such results to the different stakeholders. To achieve that objective the main tasks identified were: to find tools and methods for uncertainty and variability analysis applicable to dose assessments in routine radioactive discharges, to define scenarios where information on uncertainty and variability of parameters is available

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of

  9. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  10. Modernization or cultural maintenance: the practice of consanguineous marriage in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat

    2008-11-01

    Consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in Iran. This paper examines the extent to which education, urbanization and changes in modes of economic production have affected the incidence of consanguineous marriage and attitudes towards consanguineous marriages. The 2002 Iran Fertility Transition Survey conducted in the four provinces of Gilan, Sistan and Baluchistan, Yazd and West Azarbaijan provides information on the degree of relationship of marriage partners from around 6550 ever-married women aged 15-49. Attitudinal data were also obtained. Overall, the level of marriage to biological relatives ranged from 23% in Gilan to 78% in Sistan and Baluchistan. The paper finds that the practice of marriage to biological relatives has remained surprisingly resilient in the face of modernizing influences and that ethnicity, province and area of residence remain important determinants. On the other hand, attitudes have shifted towards marriage with a non-relative. Anthropological research would illuminate the processes of consanguineous marriage in Iran.

  11. THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Ovidiu Iliuta

    2014-07-01

    Taking into account the relation between these variables and organizational performance, it is important to retain key employees that are aware of the organizational goals and values. Therefore, the organization should implement practices that increase job security and career development. In this manner, the organization will not only decrease turnover rates, but it would also form a stronger organizational culture by keeping the employees that are already accustomed with the values, beliefs and norms of the corporation. In order to analyze the data collected from the employees working in IT field, regression and correlation statistical analysis have been used. The results show that adaptability is highly correlated to the mission. The implications of my research for the field of organizational behavior is that the models that were developed for developed economies also applies to developing economies, such as the one from Romania.

  12. Promoting cultures of thinking: transforming nursing education to transform nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nursing education is highly invested in the development of the academic, critical, and empirical aspects of education that represent the science of nursing, and concomitantly less attentive to the development of the creative, interpersonal aspects of education typically associated with the art of nursing. This represents a reversal of historic patterns in nursing education, but the pendulum may have swung so far that there could be costs to nursing practice unless the creative, interpersonal aspects of education can be reclaimed and balanced. Ideas and suggestions regarding how nurse educators might foster the creation of cultures of thinking, which represent whole-brain, integrated teaching approaches that are based on emerging neurocognitive evidence, are discussed.

  13. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity: Informing Culturally Appropriate Data-Sharing Practice in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Laura; Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-07-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context.

  14. Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azidah, A K; Shaiful, B I; Rusli, N; Jamil, M Y

    2006-03-01

    This is a cross sectional study to determine the relationship of postnatal depression (PND) and socio-cultural practices post-delivery among women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Four hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened for depression between 36 - 42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 - 6 weeks postpartum using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The women also completed questionnaires on socio-demography, psychosocial support and traditional postnatal care. The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postpartum (p<0.05), worry about the baby (p<0.05), use of traditional medication (p<0.05) and traditional massage (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND.

  15. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF PRINTED CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ESTONIA. STRATEGY. METHODOLOGY. PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimo, Tiiu

    2006-12-01

    (different organisations. For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc.The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by internet. The project is titled DEA (Digitized Estonian Newspapers. The aim of the project Red Book of Estonian publications, 1535–1850 was to create a theoretical basis for elaborating criteria that would enable decision making and determination preservation priorities of the Estonian book heritage. At the moment there is not much collaboration between different types of memory institutions. The joint projects like DEA and Red Bookof Estonian Publications give hope that together difficult problems of preservation can be better solved and users will get better access to Estonian cultural heritage.

  16. Cultural determinants of optimal breastfeeding practices among indigenous Mam-Mayan women in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Hilary M; Solomons, Noel W; Chomat, Anne Marie; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2015-02-01

    Among indigenous Mam-Mayan women, breastfeeding practices may be intertwined with cultural influences during the early postpartum period. Our study explored whether beliefs regarding transmission of emotions through breast milk, the feeding of agüitas or temascal (traditional sauna) use were associated with achievement of the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations and if these cultural practices served as moderators of the relationship between optimal breastfeeding practices and infant anthropometry. We recruited 190 mother-infant dyads at infant age breastfeeding and cultural practices were collected via questionnaire. Infant length, weight, and head circumference were measured and z scores were calculated. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, breastfeeding frequency, breastfeeding exclusivity, and infant weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mothers who delivered at the traditional midwife's house (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5) and those who did not believe in the transmission of susto (fright) through breast milk (OR = 2.4) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum. Higher breastfeeding frequency was observed among mothers who spent more time in the temascal. Initiating early breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum was the sole infant feeding practice positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding and WAZ. Our investigation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala has highlighted the link between cultural practices and beliefs during lactation, breastfeeding practices and infant growth. Public health practitioners need to understand how local cultural practices influence early initiation of breastfeeding to promote adequate infant weight. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  18. Practice what you preach: developing person-centred culture in inpatient mental health settings through strengths-based, transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Paul; Field, John; Molloy, Luke; Yu, Nickolas; Holmes, Douglas; Pile, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The experience of nursing staff and consumers in inpatient mental health wards is often reported as being negative. Efforts to improve culture and practice have had limited success, with ineffective leadership, staff resistance, and unresponsive organisational culture identified as common barriers to change. Practice development has been promoted as an approach to developing person-centred culture that enables professional development through participation, learning and empowerment. For person-centred practice to flourish, organisational leadership at all levels must reflect the same principles. In preparation for the opening of a new integrated mental health service, an inpatient mental health team participated in a practice development project. An action research approach was used to facilitate a series of "away days," initially with the nursing team and then other members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). Transformational leadership principles were adopted in the facilitation of team activities underpinned by strengths and solution-focused practices. Evaluation of the project by staff members was very positive and there was a high level of participation in practice development activities. The project resulted in the creation of a development plan for the ward, which prioritised five key themes: person-centred care, personal recovery, strengths-based principles, and evidence-based and values-based care. The project outcomes highlight the importance of leadership, which parallels the ideals promoted for clinical practice.

  19. Developing effective research-practice partnerships for creating a culture of evidence-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Manuel; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Casey, Susan; Taylor Haynes, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    With growing evidence that treatment as usual may have limited effectiveness in mental health the pressure on service providers to be accountable and produce evidence as to the effectiveness of their services has increased. Measurement Feedback Systems, such as the Contextualized Feedback System (CFS), have the potential to be powerful tools for service providers in assessing their own effectiveness at multiple levels with an organization. These systems represent an amalgamation of the data driven world of science and the experience driven world of clinical practice. However, the synthesis of these two worlds is not without significant challenges as these two very different cultures can easily clash. The key for successful collaboration in developing and implementing Measurement Feedback Systems is a good university-practice partnership that has a strong foundation in common goals and the positive relationships among its members. In addition, the partnership needs to be flexible so that it can adapt to new challenges and continuously grow with each obstacle. These are some of several lessons learned the authors of this article will share as part of their experience with developing and implementing CFS in one of the largest behavioral health service providers in the U.S.

  20. Creating a Culture of Ethical Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton

    2016-09-01

    Undisputedly, the United States' health care system is in the midst of unprecedented complexity and transformation. In 2014 alone there were well over thirty-five million admissions to hospitals in the nation, indicating that there was an extraordinary number of very sick and frail people requiring highly skilled clinicians to manage and coordinate their complex care across multiple care settings. Medical advances give us the ability to send patients home more efficiently than ever before and simultaneously create ethical questions about the balance of benefits and burdens associated with these advances. Every day on every shift, nurses at the bedside feel an intense array of ethical issues. At the same time, administrators, policy-makers, and regulators struggle to balance commitments to patients, families, staff members, and governing boards. Ethical responsibilities and the fiduciary, regulatory, and community service goals of health care institutions are not mutually exclusive; they must go hand in hand. If they do not, our health care system will continue to lose valued professionals to moral distress, risk breaking the public's trust, and potentially undermine patient care. At this critical juncture in health care, we must look to new models, tools, and skills to confront contemporary ethical issues that impact clinical practice. The antidote to the current reality is to create a new health care paradigm grounded in compassion and sustained by a culture of ethical practice.

  1. Developing a Culture to Facilitate Research Capacity Building for Clinical Nurse Consultants in Generalist Paediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wilkes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research capacity building exercise with a group of CNCs practicing in the speciality of paediatrics in New South Wales (NSW, Australia. It explores the first step in building a research culture, through identifying the research priorities of members of the NSW Child Health Networks Paediatric Clinical Nurse Consultant group, and this forms the major focus of this paper. A nominal group technique (NGT was utilised with sixteen members to identify research topics for investigation which were considered a priority for improving children's health care. The group reviewed and prioritised 43 research topics in children's health which were identified in the literature. As a result of conducting this research prioritisation exercise, the group chose two research topics to investigate: reasons for children representing to the Emergency Department and a comparison of the use of high-flow and low-flow nasal prongs in children with bronchiolitis. The research team will continue to mentor the nurses throughout their research projects which resulted from the NGT. One bridge to leadership development in enhancing patient care is translating knowledge to practice and policy development. This study leads the way for a group of CNCs in paediatric nursing to combine their research capacity and influence clinical knowledge.

  2. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature...

  3. Perceptions and practices of commensality and solo-eating among Korean and Japanese university students: A cross-cultural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Wookyoun; Takeda, Wakako; Oh, Yujin; Aiba, Naomi; Lee, Youngmee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Commensality, eating together with others, is a major representation of human sociality. In recent time, environments around commensality have changed significantly due to rapid social changes, and the decline of commensality is perceived as a serious concern in many modern societies. This study employs a cross-cultural analysis of university students in two East Asian countries, and examines cross-cultural variations of perceptions and actual practices of commensality a...

  4. Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark LAMONTAGNE

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning Mark LAMONTAGNE, M.Ed. Canadore College Ontorio, CANADA ABSTRACT With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come together, learn, expand their knowledge, share ideas, and develop passion for their vocation. Emerging models of how communities work, such as Communities of Practice (CoPs are being increasingly used to understand how online communities might grow and develop. Schwen & Hara (2003 outline 4 stages of design necessary to ensure that CoPs are properly designed for an online environment: phase 1 Possible Design Interventions, phase 2 Analysis, phase 3 Design and, phase 4 Evaluation and Revision. Phase 1 and phase 2 of this design model are considered in this study, in light of Etienne Wenger’s (2002 elements of a Community of Practice: domain, community and practice. These elements are considered in order to gauge the degree to which they can be applied in an Arab educational culture. The investigation focuses on College-level education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, and the government-supported Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT system. By analyzing faculty perceptions related to the students’ propensity to adopt Community of Practice elements into their educational culture, we can provide guidance for the design of online learning that supports a cross-cultural Community of Practice, specifically as it relates to phase 1 and phase 2 of Schwen and Hara’s design structure.

  5. Influence of culture on dietary practices of children under five years among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chege, Peter M; Kimiywe, Judith O; Ndungu, Zipporah W

    2015-10-08

    Globally, children aged under five years are prone to malnutrition. Maasai are a nomadic community in Kenya still upholding traditional and has a high rate of child undernutrition. Consideration of cultural practices is a pre-condition for ensuring appropriate dietary practices. However, information on the influence of culture on dietary practices among Maasai children is minimal. The possible influence of culture on dietary practices among these children was investigated. Six focus group discussions sessions each consisting of 10 mothers were conducted from two randomly selected villages in Sajiloni location, Kajiado County. Results from this study showed that children mainly consume cereals and legumes. Nomadism makes animal products inaccessible to most children. Livestock are considered a sign of wealth, thus mainly slaughtered on special occasions. Additionally, selling of animals or animal products is not encouraged limiting income that would improve the food basket. Some food taboos prohibit consumption of wild animals, chicken and fish limits the household food diversity. Consumption of vegetables is limited since they are perceived to be livestock feed. The belief that land is only for grazing contributes to low crop production and consumption thus the diets lack diversification. Maasai culture encourages introduction of blood, animal's milk and bitter herbs to infants below six months, which affects exclusive breast feeding. The men are prioritized in food serving leading to less and poor quality food to children. The consumption of raw meat, milk and blood is likely to lead to infections. The practice of milk fermentation improves bioavailability of micronutrients and food safety. Socialism ensures sharing of available food while believe in traditional medicine hinder visit to health facilities thus no access to nutrition education. This study concludes that culture influence the dietary practices among children under five years. It recommended

  6. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND QUALITY CULTURE WITH COMPETITIVENESS OF SAUDI CONTRACTORS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faihan Alotaibi; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam

    2013-01-01

    ... customer satisfaction and product and services quality. Quality culture conditions are strongly linked with project outcomes and hence, initiatives undertaken should be incorporated to the organizational cultural changes...

  7. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  8. Forming insights: assessment of the occupational therapy practice in a cultural context from experience with indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Corrêa de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a reflection process on the issue of occupational therapy and culture through analysis of practical experiences of a extension project. It aimed to increase knowledge and reflections of occupational therapy and its technical actions in cultural contexts from the perspective of ethnicity issues. It is a documental and qualitative research was aiming to report the experience of students and an occupational therapist, obtained through their written reports between 2012 and 2014. Data were analyzed using the categorizations proposed by Bardin. The categories of analysis found are related to technical activities in occupational therapy, namely: cultural and ethnic action. The results showed that, in the experiences with the Guarani community, there are already significant and consolidated actions of occupational therapy in cultural contexts. The technical actions already performed confirm the relevance of the occupational therapist role in the cultural context and in the ethnicity context. These practices are, in turn, relevant for the production of knowledge, the theoretical and methodological scope and professional training in social and cultural contexts of occupational therapy. It is emphasized that technical procedures coherent with the ethnicity issues in a joint relationship, articulated by cultural mediation, can strengthen human doings and identity claims.

  9. How natural is the supernatural? Synthesis of the qualitative literature from low and middle income countries on cultural practices and traditional beliefs influencing the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Nicholls, Rachel; Ritchie, Jan; Razee, Husna; Shafiee, Samaneh

    2016-08-01

    to review qualitative research studies conducted in low resource settings around the perinatal continuum over the past two decades, with particular focus on the cultural realm; to identify common themes in the research-base, in order to provide policy direction for culturally appropriate perinatal interventions. systematic literature search of electronic databases from 1990 to 2014, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms such as traditional beliefs, practices, pregnancy, childbirth; established criteria used to determine quality of studies; and thematic synthesis of the literature enabled by NVivo 10 software. low and middle income countries using the World Bank classification. religious and spiritual beliefs strongly influenced behaviour over the perinatal period. Beliefs in supernatural influences, particularly malevolent forces were widespread, such that pregnancy was concealed in many parts of Africa and Asia. In most low resource settings, pregnancy and childbirth were seen as normal phenomena. Rituals played an important part for women and their infants, reinforced by inter-generational support. Cross-cutting themes that emerged were: (1) the role of women as mothers, demonstrating their'goodness' by bearing pain and suffering; (2) the idea of the 'natural' incorporating the supernatural; and (3) negotiating change across generations. a diverse repertoire of cultural practices influences perinatal well-being across low resource settings. Health practitioners and policy-makers need to acknowledge the primacy of women's reproductive roles, the cultural constructions of motherhood; that supernatural forces are believed to exert powerful influences on the health of mother and infant; that inter-generational tensions result in resisting or embracing change. Public health planners and practitioners need to take culture seriously, not ignore the contribution of culture in shaping women's behaviours and choices throughout the

  10. Unpacking Privilege: Memory, Culture, Gender, Race, and Power in Visual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer-Boyd, Karen; Amburgy, Patricia M.; Knight, Wanda B.

    2007-01-01

    The term "visual culture" includes all manifestations of cultural life that are significantly expressed through visual aspects and interpreted through individual and shared experiences. Visual culture includes art, cultural practices, media images, and other forms. However, teaching visual culture involves more than extending the range of visual…

  11. Food culture in the home environment: family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, John B F; Stok, F Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J; de Ridder, Denise D T; de Vet, Emely; Gaspar, Tania; Johnson, Fiona; Nureeva, Lyliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. Conflicted Heritage: Values, Visions and Practices in the Management and Preservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Kearsley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage has become of great importance in a number of areas, including self-identity, community identity and as an economic sector through cultural tourism. Most definitions of heritage now accept that it is a perceptual construct with many meanings, both for those who identify and manage it and for those who consume it in various ways. Because heritage can be seen in many lights, the potential for conflict between users, managers and those who own heritage is high. This article examines the nature of heritage and heritage landscapes and discusses the many symbolic and economic benefits that can ensue; the changing nature of the markets for heritage is described. The various monetary and opportunity costs of heritage are discussed and the resultant conflicts outlined. The article goes on to examine the contradictions and conflicts inherent in the concept of authenticity and the issues involved in various modes of interpretation. Here the article asks that if heritage is accepted as that which ‘we’ wish to preserve, then who are ‘we’? This question is explored in the context of the impacts of tourism upon heritage in Southern New Zealand, including the impacts of recent development, perceptions of crowding and the nature of wilderness. Inter-cultural perceptions are explained through the differing perceptions of, and attitudes to, the natural world held by Maori and by others. The article concludes by noting that, while much heritage research is still based upon the product and its presentation, future studies will need to learn more on consumers, their attitudes , expectations and values.

  13. CULTURAL-HISTORICAL THEORY AND EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE: SOME RADICAL-LOCAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth David Chaiklin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We emphasize that pedagogical practice was not just a way of validating and testing scientific findings but it has also, to generate new hypotheses and new challenges and research directions. This relationship between research, knowledge, and practice was recognised from the beginning days of the cultural-historical tradition, such as Vygotsky’s focus on practice for resolving the crisis in psychology. In a dialectical conception, pedagogical research should be developed as an interaction between theoretical conceptions in the cultural-historical tradition and the demands and needs of the societal practices. This article illustrates this idea concretely, using the idea of radical-local teaching and learning (HEDEGAARD; CHAIKLIN, 2005. The discussion starts with a brief comment about the dialectical tradition; than we illustrate one way to engage with the idea of full human development, viewing this in terms of personality development. We first explain the general idea of radical-local teaching and learning as a way to address the practical problem, and then show how it embodies the philosophical concerns of the dialectical tradition. The main idea is that core conceptual relations within subject-matter areas have to be related specifically to children’s life situation so that this academic knowledge can become integrated with local knowledge, thereby qualitatively transforming children’s everyday concepts and their possibility to use this knowledge in their local practice. We want to highlight the idea of how working with subject-matter content in a radical-local perspective can provide conditions for children to develop theoretical thinking and motive orientation, which is relevant to personality development, and which can be oriented to their full human development.RESUMO: Enfatizamos que práticas pedagógicas não são somente formas de validação de investigações científicas, mas são também formas de se gerar novas hip

  14. Using qualitative insights to change practice: exploring the culture of antibiotic prescribing and consumption for urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Sinead; Domegan, Christine; Callan, Aoife; Galvin, Sandra; Cormican, Martin; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to explore the culture of antibiotic prescribing and consumption in the community for urinary tract infections (UTI) from the perspective of the general practitioners (GPs) and community member. Design Indepth interviews were conducted with GPs, and focus groups were held with community members. Setting General practice and community setting. Participants 15 GPs practising in rural and urban locations in Ireland participated in the indepth interviews. 6 focus groups (n=42) with participants who had direct or indirect experiences with UTI were also undertaken. Results The decision to prescribe or consume an antibiotic for a UTI is a set of complex processes including need recognition, information search and evaluation processes governed by the relationship and interactions between the GP and the patient. Different GP and patient decision-making profiles emerged emphasising the diversity and variety of general practice in real-life settings. The GP findings showed a requirement for more microbiological information on antibiotic resistance patterns to inform prescribing decisions. Focus group participants wanted a conversation with the GP about their illness and the treatment options available. Conclusions Collectively, this research identified the consultation as a priority intervention environment for stimulating change in relation to antibiotics. This paper demonstrates how qualitative research can identify the interacting processes which are instrumental to the decision to prescribe or consume an antibiotic for a suspected UTI. Qualitative research empowers researchers to investigate the what, how and why of interventions in real-life setting. Qualitative research can play a critical and instrumental role in designing behavioural change strategies with high impact on practice. The results of this research were used to design a complex intervention informed by social marketing. Trial registration number NCT01913860; Pre

  15. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  16. Exploration and implementation for the construction of the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics including teaching, practice, research and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengjuan, Zhou; Wenmei, Xie; Qiang, Wang; Xiaorong, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Medical genetics, the connection between basic and clinical medicine, is a subject with strong applicability and plays important role in modern medical education system. Based on years of teaching experience and during the construction of state-level top quality course, our teaching team has established the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics which includes teaching, practice, research and clinical application. The four elements of the system interpenetrate, complement and reinforce each other. Specifically, classroom teaching is the basics which is further complemented by social practice, improved by research and promoted by clinical application. The quaternary teaching system provides a feasible way to integrate theoretical and clinical courses. After years of implementation, the teaching system has got great effects on the obvious improvement of research ability, social reputation and clinical service capacities of the research team.

  17. Including Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…

  18. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  19. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    of teaching, supervising, mentoring and studying. We hereby took on the challenge of suggesting a ‘theory and practice didactics’ by turning to creativity research and social learning theory in order to transgress the observed routinized theory and practice relations embedded in the topos practices (Haastrup....... Eikeland, O. (2008). The Ways of Aristotle: Aristotelian Phrónêsis, Aristotelian Philosophy of Dialogue, and Action Research. Bern, Peter Lang. Højrup, T. (2003). State, Culture and Life-Modes. The Foundations of Life-Mode Analysis. Hants, Ashgate Publishing Limited Haastrup, L & Knudsen, L. E. D. (2014...

  20. Trado-Cultural Practices, Situation, Analysis and Epidemiological Factors in the Spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Modupe Olutayo

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempted to look at the Trado-cultural practices in the spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is virus that gradually attack and weaken the body immune system, whose task is to fight off infections and illness. Eventually, the body loses its ability to fight off and defend itself and thereby become…

  1. Practices and Methods for Actualization of the Scientific Information in Art Excursions (Excursions and Cultural Heritage in the Contemporary World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with various practices and methods for actualization of the scientific information in art excursions. The modern society is characterized by commitment to information richness. The range of cultural and historical materials used as the basis for art excursions is really immense. However if to consider the number of excursions with…

  2. Low-Income African American Women's Cultural Models of Work: Implications for Education-for-Work Policies and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Way, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated how African American women from low-income, single-parent female-headed households conceptualize work and transitions to work, and how these conceptualizations relate to the dominant discourse of work underlying policies and practices in education-for-work. The study used the construct of cultural models as a conceptual…

  3. Understanding the Interconnectedness between Language Choices, Cultural Identity Construction and School Practices in the Life of a Latina Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  5. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  6. Enrolment of Newcomers in Expert Cultures: An Analysis of Epistemic Practices in a Legal Education Introductory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karen; Nerland, Monika; Enqvist-Jensen, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    This article focusses on the transformative role of knowledge in student learning, paying particular attention to the mechanisms that facilitate the "enrolment" of students into their prospective expert cultures. It is vital for educational policy and practice to develop an understanding of how students enter a specialised knowledge…

  7. Culturally Responsive Literacy Instruction: An Investigation of Primary Grade Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices with African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Agren, Kathleen J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary grade teachers' attitudes, beliefs and practices concerning Culturally Responsive Literacy Instruction (CRLI) with African American students. Through a mixed methods research design, quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected and analyzed sequentially. The participant school…

  8. Community-Based Financial Literacy Education in a Cultural Context: A Study of Teacher Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Forte, Karin Sprow

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings related to teaching beliefs and pedagogical practices of a study that examined how financial literacy educators educate adults from underserved population groups in community-based settings. The study is theoretically framed in the teaching beliefs and culturally responsive education literature. Findings reveal a…

  9. Review: Karl H. Hörning & Julia Reuter (Eds. (2004. Doing Culture. Neue Positionen zum Verhältnis von Kultur und sozialer Praxis [Doing Culture. New Positions On the Culture-Practice Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Westermayer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the proceedings of the 2003 conference on practice theory in the social sciences, published as "Doing Culture". It especially makes room for the presentation of the theoretically oriented parts of the volume—texts either comparing two different theories or working at the further development of practice theory. An overview is given about the other parts of the volume which present case studies or singular aspects. Concluding the review, open questions from the different texts are put together. "Doing Culture" is helpful if one wants to be informed about the current state of the "practical turn" in German-language sociology of technology and media. The heterogeneity of the volume—typical of congress proceedings—shows, on the one hand, the breadth of the contemporary discussion but shows, on the other hand, that "practice theory" as one singular theory with a widely used vocabulary still does not exist. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602101

  10. Use of Safety Pin on Garments in Pregnancy: A Belief and Cultural Practice with Potential Harmful Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola M Owonikoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culture has been known to influence practices and beliefs of people world over. Several cultural practices have been noted among pregnant women who were passed from one generation to the next with its potential harmful and beneficial effect. The use of safety pin in is one of such cultural practices that are widely practiced by many pregnant Nigerian women. Objective: We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the source of knowledge and motivation behind the use of safety pin on garments during pregnancy as well as explore potential harmful side effects of this cultural practice. Methodology: A total of 419 pregnant women completed questionnaires for a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Safety pin knowledge and motivation for use on garments were assessed using a pre-tested 16 item questionnaire. Consenting women either completed a self-administered structured questionnaire or utilized the help of trained research assistants. Chi-square tests were used to assess relationships between safety pin use on garments and predictor variables. Analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results: Of 419 participants, over half (n = 227 reported safety pin use on garments in pregnancy. About two-thirds (n = 177 of women who use safety pin reported older female relatives as their source of information. The mean age of the participants was 29.1 ± 5.74 (range 16–45 years. Traditional religion worshippers were more likely (81.2% and Christians were least likely to use safety pin (50.7% during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a tertiary education (50.4% were least likely to use safety pin compared with women with no or less than a tertiary level of education. Protection of pregnancy against demons/witchcrafts was the reason given by 129 (56.8% of participants using safety pin in pregnancy. Conclusion: The use of safety pin on garments during pregnancy is a common cultural practice in southwest Nigeria. Our

  11. Using cultural-historical activity theory to analyze social service practices evolving from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects catalyzed innovation in the practices of providing social services that could yield useful insights both within and outside of Norway if analyzed in these two ways: (a) retrospective analysis of the development of individual HUSK projects in light of their cultural-historical contexts, and (b) comparative analysis of the efforts to advance multi-sector collaboration in some of the HUSK projects. Such analyses require a practice-based research approach that takes into account culture and history. In this article the author explains how cultural-historical activity theory provides such an approach, illustrated via several HUSK cases. The author suggests five questions for future analyses of the HUSK projects and argues that insights gleaned from such analyses could contribute significantly to research on-and the provision of-social services.

  12. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  13. The effects of cultural practice methods on fruit orchard rehabilitation after flooding crisis in Songkhla province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaweerawan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To rehabilitate the fruit orchards exposed to flooding crisis that occurred in year 2000 in Songkhla province, an investigation of the effects of cultural practice methods was done in the farmers’ orchards at 2 experimental sites (at Tumbol Kho Hong and Tumbol Kuan Lang, Amphur Hat Yai. The first site, at Tumbol Kho Hong, was mixed cropping (durian, longkong and mangosteen. The second site, at Tumbol Kuan Lang, was a monocrop of pummelo orchard. The experiment was comprised a stratified sampling method with 3 treatments: 1 control, 2 fertilization (15-15-15, 8-24-24 and 13-13-21 and soil improvement with humic acid (S and 3 foliar application (glucose was applied with 16-12-0+micronutrients+extracted seaweed and 7-13-34+12.5Zn+extracted seaweed+Ca-B spraying with fertilization and soil improvement (F+S. The results from the both experimental sites showed that the F+S treatment exhibited the best result. This promoted the plant growth and yield of fruit trees. In addition, the other orchards surrounding the experimental sites were surveyed. It was noticeable that fruit trees grown in raising-beds could recover and exhibit normal fruit bearing. This pointed out that the impact of flooding on fruit orchards would be possibly alleviated by a drainage system.

  14. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  15. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of "cultural discordances" as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical "telescoping" strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on "culture bound syndromes"), are outlined.

  16. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  17. A practical culture technique for enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Anthracophyllum discolor Sp4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Acevedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different growth conditions of Anthracophyllum discolor Sp4 including the effect of agitation, additions of lignocellulosic support, inducer and surfactant were evaluated on the MnP production in Kirk medium using a culture system made up of the tubes containing the glass bead . The highest MnP production (1,354 U/L on day 13 was obtained when the medium was supplemented with wheat grain and 0.25 mM MnSO4 as inducer, under static conditions at 30°C. Two isoenzymes were purified (35 and 38 kDa respectively. MnP presented a maximal activity in the pH range between 4.5 and 5.5, a relatively high temperature tolerance (50ºC and a high catalytic activity for 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  19. We Look More, Listen More, Notice More: Impact of Sustained Professional Development on Head Start Teachers' Inquiry-Based and Culturally-Relevant Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.

  20. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, N.J.; Langelaan, M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagner, C.; Zwart, D.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting A three-arm cluster randomised trial was

  1. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Singh, Parlo; Li, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and…

  2. Educating Gerontologists for Cultural Proficiency in End-of-Life Care Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gary L.; Sherman, Patricia A.; Bullock, Karen

    2009-01-01

    An educational program was developed to train practitioners to provide care for patients and families that are responsive to cultural concerns. The aim was to increase knowledge and improve attitudes toward providing culturally proficient and culturally sensitive care for patients and families facing life-threatening illnesses. The program…

  3. From Empire to "Filmi:" A Fusion of Western and Indian Cultural Practices in Australian Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    During the 19th and 20th centuries, Indian culture was represented in Australia as part of celebrations of the British Empire. Children were presented with stereotypic representations of Indian culture, which provide a snapshot of contemporary perceptions. Such representations were rarely authentic. By removing music from one culture and…

  4. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of…

  5. Enacting Culture in Gaming: A Video Gamer's Literacy Experiences and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Aaron Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Video games are growing as a subject for scholarly analysis (Gee, 2003; Selfe & Hawisher 2004; Selfe & Hawisher 2004, 2007): This discussion argues that video games are another simulacra for postmodern cultural critique. Video games do cultural work by allowing gamers to play out socially constructed hopes and fears. As cultural products mediated…

  6. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  7. Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instruction: Narrowing Gaps between Best Pedagogical Practices Benefiting All Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Lorri J.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Because of its special education association, differentiated instruction (DI) is a topic of concern for many educators working with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners, whereby bilingual, multicultural, and culturally responsive teaching (CRT) is considered more appropriate for responding to cultural and…

  8. Evaluation of culturally appropriate health counselling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and its modification for practical use as the new ABC model of culturally appropriate counselling for Japanese public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Tamura, Sugako; Miyazaki, Misako; Amamiya, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates culturally appropriate health counselling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and suggests modifications of the method for practical use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 public health nurses (PHNs) in seven cities with different cultural backgrounds. Data were analysed qualitatively with the following research questions: Do we need to add other cultural factors to the previous six categories or to improve their expression for practical use? Are the methods for using cultural factors valid and expressed in appropriate language for practical use? The original factors were re-categorized into three classifications-Values, Styles and Relationships-using colloquial expressions. The original methods of using cultural factors were re-categorized and modified into five phases: Assessment, Acceptance, Awareness, Balance and Connection. The names of the methods were also modified. Modified culturally appropriate health counselling is easily understandable by any PHN and highlights the unique Japanese culture and style of public health nurses.

  9. "Good Practice" School Advisors in Greek Education: The Difficulty in Linking Collaborative Networks, Communities of Practice and Quality Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelos, Georgios; Bartzakli, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Quality in education is considered to be a central aim as far as the formation and the implementation of educational policy worldwide is concerned. The basic prerequisite for it, though, is quality culture. Collaborative networks between school advisors and primary school teachers are examined to reveal how they can affect the formation of…

  10. "Good Practice" School Advisors in Greek Education: The Difficulty in Linking Collaborative Networks, Communities of Practice and Quality Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelos, Georgios; Bartzakli, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Quality in education is considered to be a central aim as far as the formation and the implementation of educational policy worldwide is concerned. The basic prerequisite for it, though, is quality culture. Collaborative networks between school advisors and primary school teachers are examined to reveal how they can affect the formation of…

  11. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.

  12. Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John

    2016-09-01

    The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health-related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Cross-sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1-week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Great Britain, 2009-11. A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start-time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The use of management controls in different cultural regions: An empirical study of Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Nordic practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmi, Teemu; Ax, Christian; Bedford, David

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses cultural differences in management control practices in Anglo-Saxon (Australia, Canada), Germanic (Austria, parts of Belgium, Germany), and Nordic firms (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden). Unique data is collected by structured interviews from 688 SBUs in these countries. Anglo...... targets more in Anglo than in Germanic SBUs. Reward and compensation in Anglo SBUs is more subjective, individual based and relies also on non-financial rewards to a larger extent than in Germanic and Nordic SBUs. Regarding cultural controls, Anglo SBUs value recruitment within organization more highly...

  14. "Listening to the silence quietly": investigating the value of cultural immersion and remote experiential learning in preparing midwifery students for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2014-10-02

    Cultural immersion programs are increasingly offered to medical and health science students in an effort to provide experiential learning opportunities that focus on 'the self' as well as 'the other'. Immersion programs encourage self-reflection on attitudes towards cultural differences, provide opportunities to build relationships and work with community members, and allow students to apply knowledge and skills learned in training programs in a supervised practice setting. The aim of this paper is to describe midwifery students' reflections on a remote Aboriginal clinical placement that has been offered at a Western Australian university since 2010. Interviews were conducted over a period of 15 months with the first seven participants who completed the program. At the time of interview, four participants were in the final year of their undergraduate degree and three were practicing midwives. In addition, access was given to a detailed journal kept by one participant during the placement. Interviews also were conducted with midwifery staff at the university and practice setting, although the focus of this paper is upon the student experience. Student selection, preparation and learning experiences as well as implications of the placement for midwifery practice are described. The remote clinical placement was highly valued by all students and recommended to others as a profound learning experience. Highlights centred on connections made with community members and cultural knowledge learned experientially, while challenges included geographic and professional isolation and the complexities of health care delivery in remote settings, especially to pregnant and birthing Aboriginal women. All students recognised the transferability of the knowledge and skills acquired to urban settings, and some had already incorporated these learnings into clinical practice. Cultural immersion programs have the potential to provide students with rich learning experiences that cannot be

  15. Trends and Ontology of Artistic Practices of the Dorset Culture 800 BC - 1300 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardenberg, Mari

    individual beings/agents that shared the same environment and formed the daily basis of economic and social frameworks including material products that were integral to the human condition. The carvings are depicted in realistic forms of expression both in attitude and movement. They exhibit different...... the Late Dorset period the human subject becomes highly important to display. The changes in the focus of the subject matter seem to suggest that ideological and social engagements and practices important to Dorset people shifted through time. The systematically collected data of the carvings...... in Dorset social life. To consider the role of people, things and other beings that may be said to play as actors in interdependent entanglements of actions, the agency/actornetwork theory is employed. From this theoretical review an interpretation of social life as created by the ways people interact...

  16. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  17. Trails, Hiking, The cultural trails layer represents various cultural/historical/senic trials within the City of Baltimore. Including Charles street, Falls road, Government center, Gwynns Falls trail, and others. The layer is restricted to the City of Baltimore, and ma, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, City of Baltimore Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Trails, Hiking dataset current as of 2007. The cultural trails layer represents various cultural/historical/senic trials within the City of Baltimore. Including...

  18. School Leadership Practice and Preparation: Comparative Perspectives on Organizational Learning (OL), Instructional Leadership (IL) and Culturally Responsive Practices (CRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylimaki, Rose; Jacobson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to utilize successful leadership practices drawn from seven nations to improve leadership preparation. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a case study approach to gain a contextualized understanding of successful leadership across seven nations. Data sources primarily featured interviews with principals,…

  19. Relation between creative teaching and sustainable practices in cultural heritage tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Rašperić Ružica; Lekić Romana; Fištrek Lidija

    2016-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with alternative teaching methodologies. Creative teaching methodologies place the student at the center of the learning process. This paper is a case study of 'Orion - promotion of the Vučedol culture' project as a self-sustainable cultural product. The primary goal of the project is the promotion of heritage through cultural tourism. The 'Orion' project was launched in cooperation with third year undergraduate students at the Department of Tourism of VERN U...

  20. Influence of Culture and Communication Practices in Team Functioning : Case Studies on Japanese and Philippine Financial Project Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Andaya, Arleigh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper was aimed at analysing the influence of culture and communication practices in team functioning.  The scope of the study was limited to the project teams in the financial sector in Japan and the Philippines. The study was a qualitative research through the application of case studies whilst the primary data were gathered from semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study revealed that the project teams were collectivist with a noticeable degree of power distance, b...

  1. Influence of Culture and Communication Practices in Team Functioning : Case Studies on Japanese and Philippine Financial Project Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Andaya, Arleigh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper was aimed at analysing the influence of culture and communication practices in team functioning.  The scope of the study was limited to the project teams in the financial sector in Japan and the Philippines. The study was a qualitative research through the application of case studies whilst the primary data were gathered from semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study revealed that the project teams were collectivist with a noticeable degree of power distance, b...

  2. Counteracting Educational Injustice with Applied Critical Leadership: Culturally Responsive Practices Promoting Sustainable Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Lorri J.; Santamaría, Andrés P.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution considers educational leadership practice to promote and sustain diversity. Comparative case studies are presented featuring educational leaders in the United States and New Zealand who counter injustice in their practice. The leaders' leadership practices responsive to the diversity presented in their schools offer…

  3. Negotiating Culture, Economics and Community Politics: The Practice of Lei Yue Mun Tourism in Postcolonial Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hing Chan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an on-going research project that examines how tourism is constructed in Hong Kong by using the specific tourist spot, Lei Yue Mun, as a case study. The article’s aim is to demonstrate how the local agents of a small, squatter-based community with a distinctive history and cultural traditions may, without making any claim to indigenousness or aboriginality, manage a local economy and engage in cultural negotiation at the metropolitan, national and global levels. Their economic practices lead the authors to enquire whether preservationism or invoking historical traditions from the margins is the most significant form or strategy of cultural tourism.

  4. Cultural care practices among mothers of nurslings with respiratory infection - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.s13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the cultural practices of care among mothers of infants with respiratory infection in a pediatric outpatient clinic, from the recognition of the importance of the use of traditional medicine in Brazil. Methods: We applied a descriptive and exploratory study, qualitative, with twenty-eight mothers of infants with respiratory infection seen at a referral center in the city of Barbalha - CE, Brazil. Data were collected between the months of November and December of 2010 through semi-structured interview with a tape recorder. The speeches were analyzed by thematic-categorical analysis, which allowed the creation of four themes: cultural practices of care among mothers, sources of information on medicinal plants, modes of preparation of medicinal herbs and plants used by mothers. To ensure anonymity of participants, they received enumeration following the order of interviews. Results: The study showed that mothers make use of folk medicine, through the preparation of home remedies in order to treat and cure respiratory infections of their children; the leaking tea and herbal medicine are worth mentioning. Mothers place great confidence and give real meaning to the use of homemade preparations. It was observed that this knowledge comes from their mothers, grandparents, relatives and neighbors. Conclusion: Mothers attach great importance to popular practice, the traditional knowledge of relevant cultural value, as it is transmitted from generation to generation and has been rebuilt over time.

  5. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Christopher J; Karner, Charlotta

    2013-04-30

    Traditionally inhaled treatment for asthma has used separate preventer and reliever therapies. The combination of formoterol and budesonide in one inhaler has made possible a single inhaler for both prevention and relief of symptoms (single inhaler therapy or SiT). To assess the efficacy and safety of budesonide and formoterol in a single inhaler for maintenance and reliever therapy in asthma compared with maintenance with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (alone or as part of current best practice) and any reliever therapy. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register in February 2013. Parallel, randomised controlled trials of 12 weeks or longer in adults and children with chronic asthma. Studies had to assess the combination of formoterol and budesonide as SiT, against a control group that received inhaled steroids and a separate reliever inhaler. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 trials involving 13,152 adults and one of the trials also involved 224 children (which have been separately reported). All studies were sponsored by the manufacturer of the SiT inhaler. We considered the nine studies assessing SiT against best practice to be at a low risk of selection bias, but a high risk of detection bias as they were unblinded.In adults whose asthma was not well-controlled on ICS, the reduction in hospital admission with SiT did not reach statistical significance (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 1.44, eight trials, N = 8841, low quality evidence due to risk of detection bias in open studies and imprecision). The rates of hospital admission were low; for every 1000 people treated with current best practice six would experience a hospital admission over six months compared with between three and eight treated with SiT. The odds of experiencing exacerbations needing treatment with oral steroids were lower with SiT compared with control (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0

  6. Theories of practices: Agency, technology, and culture. Exploring the relevance of practice theories for the governance of sustainable consumption practices in the new world-order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.

    2011-01-01

    Within the environmental social sciences, theories of practices are used by an increasing number of authors to analyze the greening of consumption in the new, global order of reflexive modernity. The use of practices as key methodological units for research and governance is suggested as a way to av

  7. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining in fish cell lines and primary cultures from several tissues and species, including rainbow trout coelomic fluid and milt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Lee, Lucy E J; Pham, Phuc H; Bols, Niels C

    2015-04-01

    Cell lines and primary cultures from several teleost tissues and species were stained for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-Gal), revealing four general outcomes. (1) For long-standing fish cell lines that can be considered immortal, little or no SA β-Gal staining was observed, regardless of the culture conditions. (2) For a new walleye cell line from the bulbus arteriosus (WEBA), most cells stained for SA β-Gal even after 40 passages. This suggested that high SA β-Gal activity was a unique property of WEBA, perhaps reflecting their endothelial character, rather than cellular senescence. (3) For cell lines developed from the walleye caudal fin and from somatic cells in rainbow trout coelomic fluid, no SA β-Gal staining was observed in the earliest cultures to over 70 passages later. This suggested that cells from these anatomical sites do not undergo senescence in vitro. (4) By contrast, for cell lines developed from the walleye brain and from somatic cells in rainbow trout milt, most cells in the early-stage cultures stained for SA β-Gal, but as these were developed into cell lines, SA β-Gal-negative cells became dominant. This suggested that if cellular senescence occurred in vitro, this happened early in these cultures and subsequently a few SA β-Gal-negative cells went onto to form the cell line. Overall, the presence of SA β-Gal-positive cells in cultures could be interpreted in several ways, whereas their absence predicted that in these cultures, cells would proliferate indefinitely.

  8. Formative Assessment as a Vehicle for Changing Classroom Practice in a Specific Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…

  9. Creative Partnerships? Cultural Policy and Inclusive Arts Practice in One Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christine; Thomson, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the "cultural turn" in UK educational policy through an analysis of the Creative Partnerships policy (New Labour's "flagship programme in the cultural education field") and a consideration of an arts project funded under this initiative in one primary school. It argues that current educational policy…

  10. Cultural Competence and Social Work Education: Moving toward Assessment of Practice Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Jayshree S.; Osteen, Philip; Shipe, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Social work educators are responsible for ensuring that future practitioners are culturally competent and have the ability to work effectively with people from different backgrounds. The purpose of this article is to address the current limitations in measuring cultural competence and to report the results of a qualitative study examining…

  11. Popular Music Memories : Places and Practices of Popular Music Heritage, Memory and Cultural Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract __ Ever since the late 1950s, people have grown up with popular music as an important element of their daily lives. This dissertation explores the connections between popular music memories, cultural identity and cultural heritage, looking at the different ways in

  12. Perceptions and Practices of Culturally Relevant Science Teaching in American Indian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…

  13. Popular Music Memories : Places and Practices of Popular Music Heritage, Memory and Cultural Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract __ Ever since the late 1950s, people have grown up with popular music as an important element of their daily lives. This dissertation explores the connections between popular music memories, cultural identity and cultural heritage, looking at the different ways in which

  14. A Study of the Effect of Organizational Culture On Leadership Practices Within Defense Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    example of organizational inefficiency. One way to combat this image is to closely examine the relationship between organizational culture , military...involved filtering interactions through their own narrow perspectives. This research paper examines the close relationship between organizational culture , military leadership, and bureaucracy.

  15. Cultural transfer in reading groups: From theory to practice and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, Sandra; Visser, Saskia; den Toonder, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    People who discuss books in reading groups are playing a role in transferring cultural values, norms and ideas about themes present in the literature they read. How this cultural transfer takes place, and in which ways the process can be enhanced,has to date not been examined. Therefore, the Univers

  16. The influence of the cultural climate of the training environment on physicians' self-perception of competence and preparedness for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskiet Fred D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In current supervisory practice, the learning environment in which the training of specialist registrars (SpRs takes place is important. Examples of such learning environments are the hospital settings and/or geographical locations where training occurs. Our objective was to investigate whether the cultural climate of different learning environments influences physicians' perceived level of competence and preparedness for practice. Methods An electronic questionnaire was sent to an equal group of paediatricians who had trained in clinical settings located in Europe and the Caribbean. 30 items (Likert scale 1–4 = totally disagree-totally agree were used to measure the level of preparedness of the respondents in 7 physician competencies. Results 42 participants were included for analysis. The distribution of participants in both groups was comparable. The overall perception of preparedness in the Caribbean group was 2.93 (SD = 0.47 and 2.86 (SD = 0.72 in the European group. The European group felt less prepared in the competency as manager 1.81 (SD = 1.06 compared to their Caribbean counterparts 2.72 (SD = 0.66. The difference was significant (p = 0.006. Conclusion The training in the different environments was perceived as adequate and comparable in effect. The learning environment's cultural climate appeared to influence the physician's perception of their competencies and preparedness for clinical practice.

  17. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--Taking animation“the white tiger legend”as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industry in the animation industries, it begins to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of the animation white tiger legend as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture influences in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  18. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642

  19. Risk of Mortality (Including Sudden Cardiac Death and Major Cardiovascular Events in Atypical and Typical Antipsychotic Users: A Study with the General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarita Murray-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD, all-cause mortality (excluding suicide, coronary heart disease (CHD, and ventricular arrhythmias (VA. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical, 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64–1.87; cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42–2.07; SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90–11.45; SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64–2.81; CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94–1.44; and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.31. aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.85; cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55–1.04. Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.

  20. Prácticas culturales y gestión del riesgo sísmico: la cultura de las buenas costumbres / Cultural practices and seismic risk management: culture of good habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina A. Zambrano-Hernández

    2015-10-01

    qualitative research, based on micro-ethnography and qualitative analysis, assuming that these type of research focuses in a analysis on the historical and cultural context of communities. Results: cultural practices related to risk management are creations with meaning since a particular model of cultural internalization about the seismic phenomenon. This process is supported in the community, learning from family values and moral conventions adopted it for an ideology of prevention and survival, that is legitimate for the community. On the other hand, the non-symbolic appropriation of knowledge of technical-scientific situation creates community resistance to the appropriation of new content, because they don’t feel a real respect and inclusion of their cultural Conclusion: that risk management is not just to reducing the risk, it necessary to understand the social understanding of cultural practices, behaviors and lifestyles (including ideologies and perspectives of the world, of life, of religion, in social terms, it requires the participation of various strata and sectors of interest representative groups, and thus recognize how risk management is built collectively as a culture of good habits