WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultural political economy

  1. Toward a Carribean cultural political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sheller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Caribbean Postcolonial: Social Equality, Post-Nationalism and Cultural Hybridity. Shalini Puri. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ix + 300 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Miraculous Weapons: Revolutionary Ideology in Caribbean Culture. Joy A.I. Mahabir. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. ix + 167 pp. (Cloth US$ 58.95 The relation between cultural production and political struggle, and between the aesthetic and the material as expressions of social relations, are absolutely central themes within Caribbean studies in all of its disciplinary and interdisciplinary guises. A key question for the field as a whole is what role it might play in generating new approaches to “cultural political economy,” which is emerging as an effective bridging concept at the intersections of anthropology, sociology, economics, political theory, and literary and cultural studies.

  2. Understanding generations: political economy and culture in an ageing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John A

    2005-12-01

    Sociological understanding of generations can be enhanced by avoiding defining them rigidly as chronological cohorts but rather linking people's accounts of their generational experience with an historically informed political economy. It then becomes possible, for example, to understand the complexity of generational politics. This paper uses data on the 'War Generation' taken from the Exeter Politics of Old Age project to link an empirically based political economy of generational inequality with a cultural sociology of generations. The 'War Generation' recognizes itself and is referred to by others in terms of a common identity. It is also an historical generation; its values, attitudes and, above all, sense of national solidarity and mutual obligation were forged in the direct experience of war. But it is also divided by divergent economic interests in property and pension rights based on the historical experience of the life course by successive groups and this segmentation can be observed in political action. The political culture of the War Generation manifests both continuity and change. Understanding these dynamics requires listening to people constructing their worlds, understanding their full range of historical experiences, and analysing the conditions for their conflicts and their cohesion.

  3. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  4. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  5. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Skali, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  6. From ‘no cultural policy’ to ‘centralised market orientation’: The political economy of Hong Kong cultural policy (1997–2015)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Louis

    2017-01-01

    This study examines changes in the cultural policy in Hong Kong amid the transformations of political economy in the 1990s, following the handover in 1997, and under the administration of three Chief Executives (and their teams) up to 2015...

  7. Análise Crítica Semiótica e Economia Política Cultural | Critical semiotic analysis and critical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Jessop

    2010-09-01

    Abstract This article defends the idea of a Cultural Political Economy – CPE, exploring the constitutive role of semiotics in economic and political activities and in the social order in general. This approach is post-disciplinary: it adopts the "cultural turn" in economic and political research, while not ignoring the articulation between semiotics and the interconnected materialities in economics and politics, within broader social formations. This approach is illustrated in the Knowledge-Based Economy – KBE as a master-discourse in accumulation strategies at different scales, state projects and hegemonic views, and diverse functional systems and professions, as well as in civil society. Keywords semiotics; economy and politics; cultural political economy; knowledge economy; cultural turn

  8. Political economy challenges in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Reich, Michael R

    2016-11-05

    Historically, implementing nutrition policy has confronted persistent obstacles, with many of these obstacles arising from political economy sources. While there has been increased global policy attention to improving nutrition in recent years, the difficulty of translating this policy momentum into results remains. We present key political economy themes emanating from the political economy of nutrition literature. Together, these interrelated themes create a complex web of obstacles to moving nutrition policy forward. From these themes, we frame six political economy challenges facing the implementation of nutrition policy today. Building awareness of the broader political and economic issues that shape nutrition actions and adopting a more systematic approach to political economy analysis may help to mitigate these challenges. Improving nutrition will require managing the political economy challenges that persist in the nutrition field at global, national and subnational levels. We argue that a "mindshift" is required to build greater awareness of the broader political economy factors shaping the global nutrition landscape; and to embed systematic political economy analysis into the work of stakeholders navigating this field. This mindshift may help to improve the political feasibility of efforts to reform nutrition policy and implementation-and ensure that historical legacies do not continue to shape the future.

  9. English as a Medium of Instruction in East Asia's Higher Education Sector: A Critical Realist Cultural Political Economy Analysis of Underlying Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…

  10. The Political Economy of Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Pabst, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between constitution, as the set of fundamental normative premises ensuring the cohesion of any given polity, and contract, as the formal covenant agreed upon by the relevant stakeholders in that polity, is central to political economy. This paper outlines a conceptual framework for the political economy of constitution based on the above distinction. Our argument is that constitution in the material sense, that is, as a relatively stable configuration of interests prior to fo...

  11. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SYMBOLS IN THE SOAP OPERA OF TUKANG BUBUR NAIK HAJI AT RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is a very influential media and important tool in capital accumulation. This study aims to reveal the use of Islamic and Betawi ethnic symbols, workers, and also the audiences of Tukang Bubur Naik Haji (TBNH soap opera at RCTI. This research used a political economy of communication perspective. The data were collected by using interview, observation, documentation, and literature study. The result shows that the religious symbols of Islam and Betawi culture have been exploited as comodity to be traded. Those symbols have been commercialized dan manipulated through the use of sensational, provocative, and hyperbole words or sentences to entertain audiences and to attract the advertisers. The hyper-comercialization and politicization of symbols caused the soap opera workers and Moslem audiences have been exploited.

  12. The political economy of regionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); K. Staal (Klaas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the incentives of regions to unite and separate. Separation allows for greater influence over the nature of political decision making while unification allows regions to exploit economies of scale in the provision of government. Our paper explores the influence of size, locati

  13. The Transatlantic Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Potofsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Les relations économiques entre les États‑Unis et la France étaient un enjeu majeur dans le « rêve atlantique » des Lumières et des révolutionnaires français pendant les années 1780. L’espoir était d’approfondir les relations économiques entre les deux nations « régénérées » par le républicanisme d’outre‑atlantique d’une part, et par les réformes menées par la monarchie (pré et post révolutionnaire en France, d’autre part.Cet article examine un facteur négligé dans le récit classique des historiens, celui de l’effondrement des liens idéologiques entre les deux nations à partir de 1787 en raison de la dette américaine envers la France dans le contexte de la prise de conscience du déficit de l’Etat français. De l’annonce de Calonne de l’état catastrophique des finances de l’Etat français jusqu’à « la guerre larvée » de 1798, la dette américaine a joué un rôle croissant dans les déceptions des révolutionnaires français envers la « révolution atlantique ».The economic relations between the United States and France were at the heart of the « Atlantic Dream » of the Enlightenment and of many French Revolutionaries in the 1780s. On both sides of the Atlantic, a desire to deepen economic ties between the two « regenerated » nations was kindled by the ideological potentials of republicanism in the United States and of the « reform monarchy » at the end of the ancien régime and opening years of the Revolution.This article examines an overlooked element in the « master narrative » of historians who have focused on the degradation of the political and economic ties between the two nations after 1787 : the American financial debt toward France grew in significance with the awareness of the proportions of the deficit of the French state. From the announcement by Calonne of the catastrophic state of the French state’s finances until the « Quasi‑War » of

  14. Analytical political economy: a geographical introduction

    OpenAIRE

    T J Barnes

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue on 'space and analytical political economy'. First, the term analytical political economy is defined by an examination of the historical rise of the political economy perspective within economics. Second, three leading variants within the analytical political economic tradition are distinguished and described— neo-Ricardianism, fundamental Marxism, and rational choice Marxism. Last, the consequences of inserting geography into the aspatial th...

  15. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  16. Political Economy: Success or Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Political Economy and Public Choice approaches have promoted the study of interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it begins with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third section of the paper will address studies that take institutions to be endogenous and aims to explain why particular institutions emerge. Finally, the question of whether Political Economy has been a success or a failure will be tackled. While the success in terms of the position it has gained in economic research and teaching is undeniable, a look at one of the most thriving recent areas of economics, happiness research, will reveal that some of its fundamental lessons are all too often disregarded.

  17. Culture, political economy and gender marginalisation: a case of girl child in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punalekar, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses female children and the impact of macro- and micro- economic and cultural aspects of gender neglect and marginalization. Although gender marginalization is a widely accepted theoretical concern, the explanations for women's vulnerability vary. One view holds that changes in relations of production and in the system of property relations will automatically resolve gender issues. Another view holds that cultural factors are responsible for entrenched female inequalities. This paper argues that culture is not one-dimensional. Culture affects the material activity of people and their ideas. Feminists over the past two decades have promoted a generalized consciousness about women and their strategic role in production and reproduction, especially female children. Research inadequately addresses issues affecting the female child. In the domestic or household sphere, evidence suggests that the female child experiences greater child mortality, infanticide, and sex-selective abortion, and lower health status. Female children have greater micronutrient deficiencies, growth retardation, and micronutrient deficiencies. In times of natural disasters or crises, girls were found to suffer more from malnutrition than boys. The enrollment and retention of girls in school is lower than boys. Cultural stereotyping and restrictions on movement subject girls to the authority and control of male children and adult males. Girls are socialized differently and are not encouraged to be autonomous or to use initiative. In the public sphere, girls are used by families to serve household and production needs of the family and other relatives. Working wages for girls are very low, and working conditions are oppressive. The economic status of the household determines allocation of work, access to education, and lifestyle.

  18. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  19. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  20. 7th International Conference of Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin BEKEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, the 7th International Conference of Political Economy in İstanbul was evaluated. This year it  was organized by Marmara University Faculty of Economics and Batman University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences with the cooperation of their international supporters all over the world. These conference series are said to be successful to bring all the scholars, academicians, students, and volunteers who are interested in political economy. Starting from 2009, the contribution of these conference series into the field of political economy is undeniable.Keywords. Political Economy, State, Taxation, Institutions, Poverty.JEL. F50, P16, H20, H70.

  1. Reflexes sobre a economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura no sculo XXI Reflections about the Communications political and cultural economy on 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reunindo textos de autores referenciais de diferentes escolas da economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura (EPCC, esta coletnea apresenta um conjunto de reflexes que visa projetar a EPCC no sculo XXI. Tratando de temas como o conceito de indstrias criativas e dos dilogos tericos e metodolgicos entre a economia poltica e os estudos culturais. Busca-se desenvolver uma renovada agenda poltico-tecnolgica que d conta dos novos desafios para a produo, distribuio e consumo de informao e de bens culturais no capitalismo contemporneo.By gathering texts from referential authors of different schools of political economy of Communication and culture (PECC, this collection presents a set of ideas aimed at projecting the PECC into the 21th century. Addressing issues such as the concept of creative industries, theoretical and methodological dialogue between political economy and cultural studies, the book seeks to develop a renewed political and technological agenda that takes into account the new challenges for the production, circulation and consumption of information and cultural goods in contemporary capitalism.

  2. Malthus and the Philanthropists, 1764–1859: The Cultural Circulation of Political Economy, Botany, and Natural Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marc MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity does not possess a monopoly on mass incarceration, population fears, forced migration, famine, or climatic change. Indeed, contemporary and early modern concerns over these matters have extended interests in Thomas Malthus. Yet, despite extensive research on population issues, little work explicates the genesis of population knowledge production or how the process of intellectual transfer occurred during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper examines the Delessert network’s instrumental role in cultivating, curating, and circulating knowledge that popularized Malthusian population theory, including the theory’s constitutive elements of political economy, philanthropy, industry, agriculture, and botany. I show how deviant, nonconformist groups suffered forced migration for their political philosophy, particularly during the revolutionary 1790s, resulting in their imprisonment and migration to America. A consequence of these social shifts was the diffusion and dissemination of population theory—as a pursuit of scientific knowledge and exploration—across both sides of the Atlantic. By focusing on the Delesserts and their social network, I find that a byproduct of inter and intra continental migration among European elites was a knowledge exchange that stimulated Malthus’s thesis on population and Genevan Augustin Pyramus Candolle’s research on botany, ultimately culminating in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and human evolution.

  3. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    at the expense of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become su¢ ciently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially noncooperative under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cooperative in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...... will be mutually interdependent due to the exchange of goods....

  4. Political [personnel] economy: A political economy perspective to explain different forms of human resource management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nienhüser, Werner

    2004-01-01

    A political economy approach to explaining the existence of different human resource strategies is developed in this article - in short: a political personnel economy. The starting point is a critical analysis of the abstinence of politics and power and the resulting explanation deficiencies of traditional microeconomic approaches and of the transactions cost theory. The Marxian labour process theories also discussed in this article, while certainly 'political', primarily exhibit problems rel...

  5. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    The present paper documents that political stability is positively associated with the extent of domestic trade. In explaining this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare...... of inherently selfish individuals will be mutually independent. As a result, political negotiations, echoing the preferences of the citizens of society, will be dog-eat-dog in nature. Whoever has greater bargaining power will be willing to make decisions that enhance the productivity of his supporters...... at the expense of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become su¢ ciently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially noncooperative under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cooperative in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...

  6. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Key Words: Participatory Governance, Civic Political Culture and Political. Development. Introduction. According to Almond and Verba ..... Philosophy in the Department of Political Science at Brown University,. Providence, Rhode Island.

  7. Political economy of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J.L.

    Over the past decade, acid rain has been transformed from a relatively unnoticed area of scientific inquiry into a major environmental issue of regional, national, and international concern. What is acid rain, why has it acquired such relatively sudden political prominence, and what are the prospects for the adoption of policies addressing this issue. These questions illustrate how the regional cleavages inherent in transboundary air pollution problems have fractured the political coalitions which supported earlier environmental legislation. Understanding the basis for that transformation, which requires information from the natural and physical sciences as well as insights into the economics and politics of the acid rain issue, is central to developing an appreciation of the constraints on policymaking for air-quality management in the United States. 35 references.

  8. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination.......Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...

  9. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... only in the types of jobs that workers find. In line with this idea, the chapter uses a unique new data set from Denmark to document that workers in larger labor markets find jobs for which they are a better match as measured by both previous industry experience and geographical location. They also...

  10. The political economy of legal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production, exchange and use of legal knowledge are subject to a political economy. These processes are governed by a series of rules and principles that determine the conditions allowing the creation, commerce and consumption of legal theories, doctrines and practices. Consequently, this political economy is not neutral; it constructs a specific subject of knowledge that acts within a particular space and time. Thus, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it seeks to describe and analyze the political economy model that dominates our legal and political imagination. As such, it aims at examining the conceptual structure of what I call the free market of legal ideas model. Secondly, this paper aims at describing and analyzing an alternative model of political economy that would best ex- plain the real dynamics that regulate the generation, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. To achieve this objective, the paper highlights the conceptual structures that form what I call the colonial model of the production of legal knowledge. Therefore, the paper seeks to specify the subject of legal knowledge production established by these two models, as well as their concepts of time and space. Likewise, it seeks to specify the precise rules and principles that determine the ways in which these models imagine the production, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. 

  11. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2020-01-01

    obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...... to assert rights or engage with authorities. Two final characteristics are the loss of a perceived moral right to a secure home and a sense of betrayal. In some places, housing conflicts lead to protests and resistance as people perform this sense that political and economic elites have violated or reneged...... capitalism linking social atomisation with a lingering sense of customary obligations....

  12. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  13. The political economy of conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  14. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  15. The Interorganizational Network as a Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J. Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    The interorganizational network may be conceived as a political economy concerned with the distribution of two scarce resources--money and authority. Organizations pursue an adequate supply of these resources. Interactions and sentiments of organizations are dependent on their respective market positions and their power to affect the flow of…

  16. A Political Economy to Examine Brexit

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kui-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This short article shows an political economy analysis on Brexit, pointing out the economic calculations the British voters could have considered. Brexit could be used as an instrument for the next general election. It is argued that Brexit could be an indication on the end of socialist policies and a return of the rightist policies.

  17. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destin

  18. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  19. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  20. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  1. Pull Factors in the Political Economy of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young Nigerian girls recruited to service the sex market in Europe, were .... society and gender based inequities located in cultural practice of primogen- ..... economy not just of unemployment but more broadly of the new inequality.

  2. Rethinking Political Economy: Change and Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen R. Meehan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note This contribution, written by three leading North American representatives of political economy of communication, was published in a complex and conflict-laden context, when this research tradition (again had to provide a solid grounding for its continuing existence and relevance. Attacks on the approach have emerged both from within—i.e., the academia—as well as the wider social context, as it was widely claimed that critical political economy has become an irrelevant and insignificant approach for understanding society. With the victorious march of liberalism and capitalism, the key historical questions have supposedly already been answered. This contribution and its defensive stance—throughout the text, authors offer reasons why political economy should remain important, when everyone is dismissing it, and provide an overview of its key characteristics—must therefore also be read as an answer to these pressures that were neither completely new nor did they emerge for the first time, but were perhaps fiercest during this period. In the era marked by the deep crisis of capitalism and all time-high awareness of the immense growth of inequality, some arguments provided by authors might seem less important today, especially as the postmodern thought has by now been largely discredited. But ideas and arguments that political economy had to confront then remain similar throughout the history of social thought and often reemerge in different shapes and forms, while political economy of communication remains a marginalized approach that needs to continuously reaffirm its position as an indispensable research tradition.

  3. 从文化、意识形态到制文化权:广义虚拟经济理论的政治经济学解读(II)%From Culture, Ideology to Culture-making Power:the Generalized Virtual Economy from a Political Economy Perspective(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关永强; 张丽

    2013-01-01

    The relation between culture and economy has been an important field of political economy, and the theory of ideology is also a vital part of the Marxist theoretical system. As the political economy of con-temporary China, generalized virtual economic theory presents a new interpretation of the above issues from the perspective of today’s world economy. This paper looks into the political economy attribute of general-ized virtual economy within the context of past studies of political economy and related fields, and presents a discussion on culture-making power, a core concept proposed in generalized virtual economy. The paper emphasizes the role of culture-making power in state-building and national identity-building and also holds that the making of culture-making power relies on the consciousness and efforts of government. From this perspective, political economy itself is the making of the culture-making power.%文化与经济的关系是政治经济学的一个重要研究领域,意识形态理论也是马克思主义理论体系极其重要的组成部分。广义虚拟经济理论作为当代的政治经济学,从世界格局的现实出发,对这一问题进行了全新的阐释。本文以政治经济学及相关领域的主要思想为参照,通过广虚经济理论对文化的系统性阐述进行解读;在此基础上,就制文化权思想对民族国家和政府的重要意义和依托展开探讨;最后透过制文化权的视角,指出政治经济学理论本身就有着作为文化和话语权输出的特点。

  4. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  5. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...... to the analysis of the evolution of British merger control provides some important new insights, most notably that the content, form, and scope of merger control in Britain have been deeply transformed in accordance with neoliberal ideas since the 1980s and that this process, which was part of a broader...

  6. The New Political Economy of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    would be adopted widely for courses in Asian studies and political economy.’ – Hal Hill, The Australian National University ‘The different parts of the Southeast Asian puzzle fit better together as a consequence of reading this valuable book, which brings history back in to show how regions learn from...... each other and establish an identity.’ – Alice Amsden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US This well-researched book examines the dramatic transformation of Southeast Asian countries from agricultural and mining economies to industrial nations. In doing so, it explores the effects of development...... policy on a number of interdisciplinary issues, and the emergence of new social and political pressures created by industrialization. These include their heightened vulnerability to complex economic crises, their use of sophisticated instruments in the labour process and increased awareness...

  7. The New Political Economy of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    each other and establish an identity.’ – Alice Amsden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US This well-researched book examines the dramatic transformation of Southeast Asian countries from agricultural and mining economies to industrial nations. In doing so, it explores the effects of development...... would be adopted widely for courses in Asian studies and political economy.’ – Hal Hill, The Australian National University ‘The different parts of the Southeast Asian puzzle fit better together as a consequence of reading this valuable book, which brings history back in to show how regions learn from...... policy on a number of interdisciplinary issues, and the emergence of new social and political pressures created by industrialization. These include their heightened vulnerability to complex economic crises, their use of sophisticated instruments in the labour process and increased awareness...

  8. Sport, biopolitics and critique of political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Milorad Gačević; Tamara Đorđević

    2012-01-01

    In this text we tried to point out the relationship between labour and biopolitical mechanisms of power in the context of the current situation in elite sport. In the first part we present developments inside left-oriented theories of sport, especially the need for critical research based on specific aspects of criticism of political economy. We then review brief the current situation in contemporary sport, mainly about parallel evolution of the capitalist commodification of sport and the eme...

  9. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  10. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting....

  11. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  12. The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    their agreed contribution to global mitigation. These policies are virtually certain to vary dramatically across countries. In short, the world stands at the cusp of an unprecedented era of policy experimentation in driving a clean energy transition. This book steps into this new world of broad......-scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. The chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition with an emphasis on specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. Lead authors contribute a broad diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world...

  13. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  14. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  15. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  16. Policy Ideas, Knowledge Regimes and Comparative Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention to how ideas affect policy making, where these ideas come from is a blind spot in comparative political economy. We show that an important source of policy ideas are knowledge regimes—fields of policy research organizations. We show as well that the organization of knowledge......, France and Germany. Theoretical implications are explored for two literatures in comparative political economy: ideational analysis and the varieties of capitalism....... regimes is heavily influenced by the organization of their surrounding political economies such that knowledge regimes have particular national characters. Furthermore, when people perceive that the utility of their knowledge regime for the rest of the political economy breaks down, they often try...

  17. Heterodox Political Economy and the Degrowth Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Klitgaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition to sustainability will be difficult. Environmental sustainability entails living within the Earth’s limits, yet the majority of scientific studies indicate a condition of overshoot. For mainstream economists sustainability means perpetuating economic growth. Consequently, environmental and economic sustainability are incompatible in the present institutional context. This paper seeks to develop a new theory of sustainability based upon historical and institutional contexts, the role of economic crises, as well as focusing upon energy quality and meaningful work. Mainstream economics, which emphasizes market self-regulation and economic growth, is not a good vehicle for a theory of sustainability. Better insights are to be found in the literature of heterodox political economy and political ecology. Political ecology is based upon the theory of monopoly capital. Monopoly capitalism exhibits a tendency towards stagnation, because the economic surplus cannot be absorbed adequately in the absence of system-wide waste. The Monthly Review School continues this tradition in the context of the metabolic rift, while the Capitalism, Nature and Socialism School develops the idea of a second contradiction of capitalism. The Social Structure of Accumulation school pursues the idea of long swings of economic activity based upon institutional structures that aid or inhibit capital accumulation.

  18. Political economy of love: nurturance gap, disembedded economy and freedom constraints within neoliberal capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Phillip Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically evaluates the forms of love capital being accumulated by people in capitalist economies, through the lens of some of the core general principles of heterodox political economy (HPE. We start by situating love historically in the neoliberal culture and then examine the six main love styles as well as the five critical factors through the process of circular and cumulative causation. We then scrutinise the contradictions of neoliberal capitalism involving the nurturance gap, disembedded economy and freedom constraint which inhibit the generation of holistic love capital. The path dependent nature of love is then linked to relational phases and instabilities, especially involving serial monogamy in the United States. Some of the core principles of HPE provide a vantage point for scrutinising the problems involved in stimulating holistic love capital in the contemporary environment.

  19. An analytical framework for a political economy of football

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wyn

    2007-01-01

    A political economy of football has become more essential as the game has been colonized by elements of the business class. There is a tension between its profit maximizing understanding of football and a more community oriented, democratic vision that seeks to pursue government policy goals. The insights of economics and politics are both necessary to understand the political economy of football, but they should not be hybridized. Economics allows us to understand the distinctive characteris...

  20. Contemporary college students' ideological and political and cultural market economy harmony thinking%当代大学生思想政治与市场经济文化相融的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰

    2015-01-01

    市场经济的产生和发展,本身内含着独特而丰富的人类文化因素.站在唯物辩证法的角度,市场经济存在和发展的矛盾性直接决定了市场经济文化的内部结构组成和外部发展阶段.人们的价值观念、生活方式、行为方式不只是取决于表面的经济饰物,而是内在于经济的强大人文力量.如今,追求个体价值,成为许多大学生的奋斗目标,在个体中形成的"价值真空"现象并不少见.怎样找到开展大学生思想政治教育和市场经济文化的契合点,并且积极引导大学生在市场经济文化背景下树立起正确的人生观、价值观、世界观?这就给高校思想政治教育工作带来历史性及深刻性的挑战.%The emergence and development of market economy, itself contains a unique and rich human and cultural factors. Standing in the point of view of dialectical materialism, the contradiction between existence and development of market economy directly determines the internal structure and external development of market economy and culture. People's values, lifestyle, behavior not only depends on the decorations on the surface of the economy, but the inherent economic powerful cultural forces. Nowadays, the pursuit of individual value, become goals of many college students, the individual in the formation of the "value vacuum" phenomenon is not uncommon. Students' ideological and political education and how to find the correspondency of market economy and culture, and actively guide college students under the background of market economy culture set up the correct outlook on life, values, world view? It brings to the ideological and political education work of historic and profundity of challenge.

  1. Sport, biopolitics and critique of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Gačević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text we tried to point out the relationship between labour and biopolitical mechanisms of power in the context of the current situation in elite sport. In the first part we present developments inside left-oriented theories of sport, especially the need for critical research based on specific aspects of criticism of political economy. We then review brief the current situation in contemporary sport, mainly about parallel evolution of the capitalist commodification of sport and the emergence of the application of biopolitically directed practices, where we have tried to implement a short overview of Foucault’s concepts in the field of sport studies. The third part deals with the connection between Paolo Virno’s biopolitical studies and Marx’s labour power. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of applying Virno’s settings to treat sport practice in the context of its appropriation by capitalism, characterised by the intensification of strategies and techniques for controlling sportsman life. According to Virno’s settings we have tried to show influence to a life of sportsman in the aim of bio-potency, the ability/power to produce a labour force, while this force is treated like labour exchanged in the market in the context of capitalist commodification of modern sport.

  2. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  3. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-util

  4. Development of Chinese Health Care--Political Economy Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树晨

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the economic analysis of the development of China’s health care system based on the methodology of political economy. The paper explores the analysis from three perspectives—the historical context, contemporary crisis and economic challenges.

  5. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  6. Aluminum ore: the political economy of the global bauxite industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gendron, Robin S; Ingulstad, Mats; Storli, Espen

    2013-01-01

    .... But around the world its effects on people and economies varied broadly - for some it meant jobs, progress, or a political advantage over rival nations, but for many others, it meant exploitation...

  7. Nigeria and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the political economy and, in general, the governance of several countries in Africa. ... Data for this study will essentially be gathered from secondary materials. ... for examples of contemporary challenges that have confronted the country, ...

  8. The Political Economy of Global Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note McChesney’s contribution was first published as an introductory chapter in the edited volume entitled Capitalism and the Information Age. In this volume, authors (also those basing their research in areas other than critical communication studies provided, amongst other things, a critique of the celebratory ideas about the revolutionary potentials of the Internet, the new information and, communication technologies, and of the information society, which supposedly brought about a complete discontinuity with the past. The volume presented an original and sorely needed critical insight into these debates, which often hailed new technologies and social changes. It is worth pointing out that this volume also features two chapters by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. In these they rethink the role of propaganda in society and their own “propaganda model”, which was aggressively (but often baselessly criticized. Herman’s chapter is dedicated in its entirety to providing a weighty answer to these critiques. McChesney’s contribution, on the other hand, gives an insight into the history of the approach of political economy of communication, embeds the approach in the context of global capitalism (when the full realization about its role in the world context only started to emerge, while also touching upon the key dilemmas of its time that remain relevant to this day (e.g., market liberalization and the corporate ownership of media industries, growth of monopolization, digitalization and the Internet. This is a timely contribution that also demonstrates McChesney’s activist approach and shows how difficult it is for social scientists to forecast what exactly the future will bring.

  9. Solidarity, community and the political economy of hurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers whether as anti-racist activists we can form a community of solidarity. Critiquing the issue of ‘whiteness’, I consider whether such a community reflects or actually confronts the structures of a political economy of whiteness. Using both academic literature and narrative research I reflect on my own experiences of racism and hurt. These emotional and important issues are then intertwined within the political economy of whiteness.

  10. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing. T

  11. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing. T

  12. The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangler, L.; Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of the formation of international environmental agreements. The survey covers theoretical modelling approaches and empirical studies including experimental work. Central to our survey is the question how the political process impacts

  13. Political Economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota MANOLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trade agreements are usually shaped by political considerations rather than pure welfare estimations. This article aims at discussing the political economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements offered by the European Union to its Eastern partners. It is argued that although the DCFTAs concern trade liberalization and remain a technically complicated elite-driven process, they are widely perceived by engaged partners and beyond as primary evidence of joining the European economic integration project which will fundamentally affect the distribution of wealth and power in Eastern neighbourhood redesigning its political economy map. Using trade jargon, these agreements have served geopolitical goals rather than economic interests.

  14. The Political Economy of Regulatory Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Strausz

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the argument that, in a two–party system with different regulatory objectives, political uncertainty generates regulatory risk. I show that this risk has a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output–expansion effect that benefits one party. Consequently, at least one party dislikes regulatory risk. Moreover, both political parties gain from eliminating regulatory risk when political divergence is small or the winning probability of the regulatory–risk–averse party ...

  15. The political economy of regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the argument that, in a twoparty system with different regulatory objectives, political uncertainty generates regulatory risk. I show that this risk has a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an outputexpansion effect that benefits one party. Consequently, at least one party dislikes regulatory risk. Moreover, both political parties gain from eliminating regulatory risk when political divergence is small or the winning probability of the regulatoryriskaverse party is n...

  16. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-05-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  17. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-06-13

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431

  19. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean

    2015-01-01

    , ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences – in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further...

  20. The political economy of dominant investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2004-01-01

    We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the corporate governance structure and the division of profits between human and financial capital. In a democratic society where financial wealth is concentrated, a political majority may prefer to restrain governance by dispersed eq

  1. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of red

  2. Understanding political behavior: Essays in experimental political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gago Guerreiro de Brito Robalo, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Explaining individual political behavior is one of the big challenges in the social sciences. The work contained in this thesis uses the tools of experimental economics, game theory and decision theory to shed light on political choices. Relaxing the neoclassical assumptions of self-interested prefe

  3. Introduction: The "Global" Economy and "International" Politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    大矢根, 聡

    2008-01-01

    How is international politics changing due to economic globalization? The subject for this special feature is to capture such changes in a multidimensional fashion, and find a theoretical framework for their analysis...

  4. The cultural politics of eating in Shenzhen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, construction in Shenzhen symbolized both the transformation of Chinese socialism and the concomitant integration of Chinese society into global capitalist networks. This article tells the story of Shenzhen from the perspective of this first generation of immigrants, the so-called Old Shenzheners, who use nostalgia about food to define, debate, and ultimately retreat from conversations about what Shenzhen culture was and what it ought to be. Their food nostalgia is part of a larger cultural tradition of Chinese alimentary politics and has allowed Shenzheners to indigenize capitalist globalization to make the city their own. Old Shenzheners' food nostalgia represents an important moment in the Chinese transition to a post socialist political economy, redefining what it means to be both Chinese and global in a post–cold war world order.

  5. Political Economy of Secularism: Rediscovery of India

    OpenAIRE

    Tyabji, Nasir

    1994-01-01

    As it was in Europe, secularism in India is an intrinsic part of the process of the emergence of a modern identity of the people of a multi-language and multi-ethnic society, the necessity for which is being continuously generated by industrialisation and urbanisation.The emergence of this identity, however, has been hampered by the failure at the political level: the inability to evolve political units appropriate for the expression of regional aspirations, to entrench and extend the process...

  6. The Politics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview over the evolution of thinking about "culture" in the work of Raymond Williams. With the introduction of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony culture came to be understood as consisting of not only shared, but contested meanings as well. On the basis of this redefinition by Williams, cultural studies was able to delineate culture as the production, circulation, and consumption of meanings that become embodied and embedded in social practice.

  7. Children's Literature at the Turn of the Century: Toward a Political Economy of the Publishing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxel, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the beginnings of a political economy of the children's literature publishing industry. Focuses on the ways that changes in the ownership and structure of the industry are altering the underlying culture of the book publishing industry and concomitantly, the ways that books are conceived, commissioned, and marketed. (SG)

  8. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lyubimov (Ivan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far

  9. Political economy of Clinton's ambitious energy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-10-01

    Hillary Clinton's campaign has stressed her continuity with Obama's energy policy on key aspects such as decarbonization of the US economy, technological innovation and global cooperation. However, policy reforms to deliver long-term climate goals might be out of reach in a highly divided Congress.

  10. Professional Networks in the International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    Who writes the rules for the governance of the world economy? This paper looks beyond the usual suspects of states, NGOs and firms to attempt to map how ideas and skills travel between professional ecologies to solve long-term socioeconomic problems. The paper identifies professional networks in ...

  11. The death of Irish trade protectionism: a political economy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Michael; Dorgan, James

    2013-01-01

    The decision to abandon protectionism and move to a more open economy is considered one of the most important developments in modern Irish economic history. Drawing on recent work in the field of international political economy, we propose a new explanation for this important policy change based on interest groups’ demands. More specifically, we argue that Irish agriculture’s needs were highly influential in the policy decisions that were taken in the 1950s. Without the threat of exclusion fr...

  12. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  13. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-04-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  14. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  15. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  16. The Political Economy of Capital Reallocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bersem; E. Perotti; E.L. von Thadden

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a positive theory of capital market frictions. We focus on a political conflict that arises between citizens with different vintages of human capital. Once human capital is sunk in a firm- or sector specific technology, stakeholders will resist the emergence of newer sectors

  17. Material and Cultural Restriction of Political Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国祥

    2015-01-01

    Material and culture have a certain influence on the political life. In general, the higher level of economic development of the country, people's political life is more democratic. Culture has some negative effect on the political life. China's traditional cul-ture has restricted the people's political life in some ways.

  18. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  19. Tarzan and the political economy of the name of 'Africa'

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marcelo R. S.

    2009-01-01

    RIBEIRO, Marcelo Rodrigues Souza. Tarzan and the political economy of the name of 'Africa'. In: COUTINHO, Eduardo F.; COCO, Pina. (Org.). Beyond Binarisms: Crossings and Contaminations - Studies in Comparative Literature. Rio de Janeiro: Aeroplano, 2009, v. 2, p. 182-191.

  20. Governance, Globalization, and Political Economy: Perspectives from Canadian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The concept of governance has become increasingly popular over the past 15 years signifying its growing acceptance in a number of key sectors of society. Is governance a neutral term that is merely a synonym for government, or does it signify a shift to neoliberalism? Working from a political-economy perspective, this article will explore the…

  1. Popularising the "New International Political Economy": The ATTAC Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobulescu, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Born in France in 1997, the ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Aid Citizens) movement is popularising IPE (international political economy), the interdisciplinary field of study born in the United Kingdom in the 1970s. The affinity between the ideas and main concerns of ATTAC and IPE can be clearly stated. ATTAC is a…

  2. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1

  3. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher…

  4. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...

  5. The Networks and Niches of International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Young, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the organizational logics of how social clustering operates within International Political Economy (IPE). Using a variety of new data on IPE publishing, teaching, and conference attendance, we use network analysis and community detection to understand social clustering within the field...

  6. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Huysmans, Martijn; Swinnen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we study the political process that governs the creation and size of new Geographical Indications (GIs). Producers can choose to apply for a GI and subsequently go through a bargaining process with the government. We derive the optimal GI area from the point of view of consumers, producers, social welfare, and the government; and we show how bargaining leads to a GI size in between the applicant's optimum and the government's optimum. Under the assumption that the non-GI good ...

  7. Political Parody and Public Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  8. Political Parody and Public Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  9. Globalization and African Political Economy: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderonke Majekodunmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a trend that impacts everyone more and more each day. For centuries, globalization has progressively knitted together the world and created unity out of great diversity. This is a discourse on political economy of globalization and its implication for Africa with particular reference to Nigeria. This study investigates the political economy of globalization in the development process in Nigeria. It examines the impact of globalization on industrialization and the attendant problems of globalization on the Nigerian economy. In light of our findings, we recommend that Nigeria should adopt appropriate policies and strategies similar to other developed countries to compete in the international capitalist system in which we are now an integrated part.

  10. Beyond the current political economy of competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    of learning for work. This opens a new arena of political struggle over the direction of learning processes and the participation of workers in work and society. The socio-economic realities and a new understanding of the interrelationship between knowledge, skills, learning and practice central...... to the competence concept, raises a potential issue about the role of work and the living worker in a capitalist economy. This requires a re-development of the notion of economy based in the value and interest of working people, and enabled by the full development of the competences of the workers themselves....... A notion of the “political economy of working people” is proposed as a framework for investigating the potentials of competence development for enhanced democracy....

  11. Networked Cultures in the Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ecology, sociology, anthropology and cultural theory), the chapter identifies distinct theoretical frameworks to describe the constitution of communities and discusses their relevance to the collaborative economy. These frameworks explain the drivers of communitarian behavior and resource circulation...

  12. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of Turkey’s tourism sector on the economy are increasing with each passing day. To increase tourism revenues that have a positive contribution on Turkey’s current account balance year by year, have a great importance. Therefore, the diversification of tourism types and expansion of deseasonalized cultural tourism applications are necessary. For such purposes within this work, cultural tourism has been introduced by mentioning about the place of the tourism in the economy....

  14. Internet Politics in an Information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that models of the "new" Information economy are in many ways incompatible with the more free wheeling modes of exchange which were part of the traditions of online society. The so called "hacker ethic" built around the prestation of open or free software seems to be under challenge, and not, as Pekka Himanen suggests, the forerunner of a new freer society. Knowledge workers may not be particularly powerful, or part of any kind of democratic vanguard. A contestation over types of property is occurring and apparently being won by the corporate sector. Furthermore it seems the "information society" may favour inaccuracies and certainty in information, rather than a kind of problem solving democracy based on factuality. As a result expectations that the Internet may lead to a revitalisation of democracy, or discussion, are probably over optimistic.

  15. Forthcoming Issue on Game Theory and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Ferguson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Game theory offers a rigorous set of concepts, relationships, and models that invite myriad applications to problems of political economy. Indeed, game theory can serve as a fundamental modeling technique that can bridge microfoundations of political and economic exchanges, with developmental processes and macro implications related to growth and distribution. Applications can range from localized interactions within workplaces, firms, political organizations, and community groups; to intermediate-level market, industry, community, or inter-organizational transactions; to encompassing national, regional, population, or global interactions. At any of these levels, game models can illustrate strategic responses of economic or political actors (individuals or organizations to specifiable conditions concerning any or all of the following: prevailing social context—notably informal institutions (such as social norms and formal institutions (such as mutually understood laws and regulations; available information (complete or not; accessible or strategically manipulated; agents’ motivations (material and/or social; and even levels of rationality—substantive (full cognition or bounded (limited cognition. Applicable models may operate on the basis of given institutional context and preference orientations or may explore associated developmental processes, including adaptive social learning. Of particular interest are representations of one or more of the myriad social dilemmas (or collective-action problems that inhabit political economy, associated exercises or distributions of power, and/or representations of potential resolutions to such dilemmas—perhaps with policy implications. Accordingly, this forthcoming issue of Economies seeks game-theoretic models based on classical, evolutionary, behavioral, or epistemic game theory that can be applied to one or more problems in political economy.

  16. Political economy of the euro area crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadak Casimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For many experts the true motivation behind the introduction of a single currency in Europe is political rather than economic. This view is based on the fact that the euro area does not constitute an optimal currency area and, therefore, the costs of monetary integration are likely to outweigh the benefits. In particular, the loss of control over monetary policy and exchange rates make overcoming asymmetric demand-side shocks very painful. Moreover, the monetary union lacks a common fiscal authority that could help in smoothing out business cycles. The present crisis exposed these vulnerabilities and, unfortunately, so far economic policies adopted in the region have failed to rectify these shortcomings.

  17. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  18. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  19. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005......) Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare. The article argues that, cumulatively, the literatures in economics, politics, sociology and political economy show that human capital policies can be institutional sources of competitive economic advantage. Efficiency can be boosted by strategies aiming both to provide...

  20. Networked Cultures in the Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This chapter charts diverse approaches to conceptualizing the cultures of connection characterizing the collaborative economy. To decode the “we-conomy”, we revisit classic notions of coexistence, collaboration and bonding in communities. Informed by a multidisciplinary review (touching upon human...... ecology, sociology, anthropology and cultural theory), the chapter identifies distinct theoretical frameworks to describe the constitution of communities and discusses their relevance to the collaborative economy. These frameworks explain the drivers of communitarian behavior and resource circulation......, and together open up for multidimensional interpretations of social exchange in the collaborative economy. The chapter concludes with a critical reflection on the challenges of understanding the collaborative economy in tourism, particularly when discourses are dominated by a communitarian logic...

  1. On the Influence of Culture on Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jin-ping; ZHAI Jian-hong

    2005-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants" Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to adequately provide an educated answer to this heartfelt question, this paper attempts to shed light on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western culture.

  2. Political Economy of Privatization in Hungary: A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the political economy of privatization in its second phase in Hungary, the country which, overall, has gone furthest in privatizing public utilities, introducing elements of competition and setting up regulatory mechanisms and institutions to monitor them. The background to Hungary's reform path, the antecedents to privatization, the debate on the issues, the institutional framework and the progress of privatization in Hungary up to late 1993/early 1994 are well-document...

  3. A Political Economy Theory of Government Debt and Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of government debt and social security for the old in a closed-economy, overlapping-generation model. Under the probabilistic voting, the model presents (i) an intergenerational link of resource allocation via debt and social security; (ii) multiple political equilibria; and (iii) a negative cor- relation between tax and debt. These three results are robust to the introduction of public goods as an alternative government expenditure or to the introduction ...

  4. The political economy of local content in African extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Hansen, Michael; Kjær, Mette

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...... in ruling coalitions’ rent-seeking and maintenance activities in the three countries. We discuss the consequences of evolving local content practices for political patronage....

  5. The Political Economy of Local Content in African Extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...... in ruling coalitions’ rent-seeking and maintenance activities in the three countries. We discuss the consequences of evolving local content practices for political patronage....

  6. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequence...

  7. Work, worklessness and the political economy of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that work, and the socioeconomic class polarities it creates, plays a fundamental role in determining inequalities in the distribution of morbidity and mortality. This is by means of uneven exposure to physical hazards and psychosocial risks in the workplace, as well as by inequalities in exclusion from the labour market and the absence of paid work. Furthermore, this essay shows that the relationships between work, worklessness and health inequalities are influenced by the broader political and economic context in the form of welfare state regimes. This leads to the development of a model of the political economy of health inequalities, and how different types of public policy interventions can mitigate these relationships. This model is then applied to the case of work and worklessness. The essay concludes by arguing that politics matters in the aetiology of health inequalities.

  8. Food policy and politics. The political economy of the Public Distribution System in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper discusses the history and political economy of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India. This food distribution programme, which dates from 1939, is meant to increase food security both at the national and the household level. Since its emergence, it has passed t

  9. Cybercultures mediations of community, culture, politics

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Breslow

    2012-01-01

    Cybercultures: Mediations of Community, Culture, Politics , is a collection of essays that critically examine the role that digital media and online cultures play in the rearticulation of contemporary societies, cultures and polities. This volume in

  10. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Bram [Institute of Social Studies, Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-10-15

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected. (author)

  11. Study of Politeness in Cross Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂仁娜; 姜艳

    2012-01-01

      Politeness is a universal linguistic phenomenon but also relative by nature and subject to culture. The politeness in pragmatic study and its cultural specificity in cross cultural communication are explained. Some tactics in cross communication are also suggested.

  12. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  13. Political Economy of US Trade Policy towards China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibo Liang

    2007-01-01

    The trade relationship between China and the USA has become increasingly important to the economies of both countries. The recent trade conflicts and friction between China and the USA constitute obstacles in the way of US-Chinese bilateral trade relationship development, which is of considerable concern to both countries. Through an in-depth analysis of the political process of US trade policy towards China, the present paper identifies the important determinants of US trade policy towards China. The influence of US trade policy on the trade relationship between the USA and China is assessed and implications for the trade relationship between the USA and China are discussed.

  14. The political economy of trade relations between India-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore C. Dash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholarly studies in and outside South Asia suggest the linkage between trade, economic development and peace between India and Pakistan. Despite many tangible political and economic gains of expanded India-Pakistan trade, the level of trade between India and Pakistan has remained anemic over the past six decades. Why hasn’t trade grown between India and Pakistan? What are the prospects of trade expansion between these two countries? Drawing on the growing political economy literature, we have identified four facilitating conditions to explain the growth of trade flows between a given pair of countries: distance, trade complementarity, rivalry, and government strength. In this article, we examine the dynamics and implications of these four conditions for trade relations between India and Pakistan. Following this analysis, we identify several key issues - trade liberalization, market access, energy cooperation, and regional stability - that can provide impetus needed to drive these two countries toward greater trade expansion.

  15. Pragmatics Study of Politeness and Cultural Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岩

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at study the politeness in the pragmatic framework and reviews the main studies of politeness by western and Chinese scholars.Meanwhile,the writer tries to reveal the cultural difference existing in politeness by comparative study of western and Chinese language.

  16. Political science factor in information culture

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G.

    2017-01-01

    The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.

  17. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequences remain highly debated.

  18. Political economy of the US financial crisis 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk Vuković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis of this paper is on the political economy of the subprime mortgage crisis in the United States and how the policy makers contributed to it through their legislation and regulations, made under the rising influence of interest groups and the lobbying activities of the finance industry. The “Great Recession” of 2007-2009 began as a bubble-burst in the mortgage market in the United States that spilled over to the entire financial market of the US, and afterwards to the integrated world financial market. The crisis sprang up over the US real sector and, due to the decline in US aggregate demand, spread consequently to the real economy of the rest of the World. No sound evidence has been given for the publicly proclaimed idea that the causes of the crisis lie within the self-regulating free market. The causes of the crisis lie primarily in the activities of political power, i.e. in the extensive government regulation which has, under the strong influence of interest groups and the lobbying power of financial corporations, led to favouritism in macroeconomic policies and inefficient resource allocation. Regulation was enforced by stimulating affordable housing through government sponsored enterprises, oligopoly of the rating agencies, banking regulation and an increasing connection between government and the finance industry.

  19. Political economy of preferential trade agreement: the case of bilateral asymmetric negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Motta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the political economy of preferential trade agreements based on a sequential non-cooperative Stackelberg political game between a large economy and a small one, in which the political dispute of rival lobby groups defines the unilateral stance of both governments in the first stage; and the Stackelberg "coalition-proof" equilibrium defines the free trade agreement format in the second stage. Finally, a few modifications in the initial game structure are discussed in order to enhance the small economy's negotiation power. The political economy model is applied to FTAA case.

  20. Political economy and social psychology of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Gwang Sik

    2009-03-15

    The contents of this book are consideration on independence of nuclear safety regulations, analysis of trend in internal and external on effectualness of nuclear safety regulations, political psychology of a hard whistle, how to deal with trust and distrust on regulation institute, international trend and domestic trend of nuclear safe culture, policy for building of trust of people on nuclear safety and regulations, measurement and conception of nuclear safety and for who imposes legal controls?.

  1. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  2. THE RATING AGENCIES IN THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelos KOTIOS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of the economy, the integration of national markets for goods, services and capital, the internationalization of production and generally augmentation of international movement of factors of production and the growing economic interdependence in recent decades have caused a rapid increase in the construction and use of indicators for assessing countries. Typically the comparative evaluation of countries is conducting, using simple or complex indicators, based on quantitative and / or qualitative variables. The results of comparative evaluation of counties usually concern the policy makers, markets and public opinion. The concentration of information in an index seems to have a practical significance and facilitate comparison between countries. From the position that a country conceives in the list of evaluation has certain economic and political implications. The different evaluation systems (indicators of countries have however advantages and disadvantages. Many organizations for example publish indicators for the competitiveness of countries. Widely known indicators are competitiveness of World Economic Forum (WEF, Geneva and the Institute for Management Development (IMD, Lausanne. There are also indicators of corruption, bureaucracy and regulations, investment climate, political risks and security risks. Agencies and organizations like the World Bank, IMF, EU and the OECD publish indicators often for a number of specific issues. The indicators and assessment methods of countries are often the basis for empirical economic research, data useful for counseling policy and guide action. For governments evaluation of countries is an important form of information. The advantage is that the indicators reflect complex relationships of world economy. The advantage is at the same time the disadvantage. And this is because they provide only general information. The aim of this article is to evaluate the importance of rating

  3. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.'

  4. Political Economy of Epidemic Kidney Disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoka Bandarage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  5. The neoliberal political economy and erosion of retirement security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen

    2015-04-01

    The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhausen, Rachel; Mukunda, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    What implications might synthetic biology's potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can shift terms of trade and displace producers in developing countries. Governments, however, retain the ability to mitigate negative changes through social safety nets and to foster adaptation to some changes through research, education and investment. We consider the effects the synthetic production of otherwise naturally derived molecules are likely to have on trade and investment, particularly in developing countries. Both rubber in Malaysia and indigo dyes in India provide historical examples of natural molecules that faced market dislocations from synthetic competitors. Natural rubber was able to maintain significant market share, while natural indigo vanished from world markets. These cases demonstrate the two extremes of the impact synthetic biology might have on naturally derived products. If developing countries can cushion the pain of technological changes by providing producers support as they retool or exit, the harmful effects of synthetic biology can be mitigated while its benefits can still be captured.

  7. Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  8. Book Review: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility. Italy in Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Review of F.. Berton, M Richiardi, S. Sacchi: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility: Italy in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press: Bristol, 2012. 190 pp.......Review of F.. Berton, M Richiardi, S. Sacchi: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility: Italy in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press: Bristol, 2012. 190 pp....

  9. The Collapse of Political Economy and the Advent of Unlearning Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Just like the Christian societies at the dawn of the science of political economy, today’s societies are face to face with the fact that their modes of organi¬sation and representation are inadequate when confronted with the consequences of their own, earlier, decisions. The economy and politics...

  10. The political economy of coal subsidies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies

    1995-06-01

    Both the mining and the burning of coal is polluting, so we might expect to observe taxes on coal production and consumption. Yet several countries of Western Europe subsidize coal production, and most East European countries subsidize coal consumption. The first part of this paper shows that those subsidies, which are emulated by other rich and poor countries respectively, have become enormous. Neoclassical political economy is used to examine why governments adopt such inappropriate policies when they are so wasteful of resources and damaging to the environment. Several new and offsetting political forces have been at work in Western Europe in recent years though, causing some countries to dismantle their coal producer subsidies. The paper concludes that these pressures for reform will continue to operate in the new remaining protectionist countries; if coupled with more commercial diplomatic pressure from coal exporting countries, they could be sufficient to see the end of such protection by early next century. A comment by Ewa Rabinowicz follows this article on pages 497-498. 26 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  11. Priority setting in health - a political economy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Maria; Hauck, Katharina; Smith, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Most countries face high demands on their health care systems and have limited resources with which to meet them. Priority setting seeks to address these problems by proposing rules to decide which groups of patients or disease areas should secure favoured access to limited health care resources. The economic approach towards priority setting, particularly in the form of cost-effectiveness analysis, is commonly advocated. However, despite many decades of refinement of the technical and methodological issues arising from the use of economic evaluation in priority setting, decision makers continue to diverge frequently from the principles of economic evaluation. Our approach in this paper is to highlight the potential contribution of models of political economy to understanding what constitutes rational behaviour when agents operate within political and institutional constraints. We argue that there may be potentially greater benefits to be gained from exploration and analysis of priority setting using models based on concepts such as median voter and competing interest groups, than from further efforts to refine the techniques of economic evaluation.

  12. Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there have been few co-ordinated attempts to deal with the causes of the problem through public policy. Drawing upon a range of sources in anthropology, health studies, politics and economics, the paper argues that this a modern social problem rooted in the contingent conjuncture of natural and social causal mechanisms. The key question it raises is: what are the appropriate mechanisms for addressing this problem? This paper develops an analysis rooted in libertarian social theory and argues that both the state and the capitalist market are flawed mechanisms for resolving this problem. There remains a fundamental dilemma for libertarians, however. Whilst the state and the market may well be flawed mechanisms, they are the dominant ones shaping global political economy. To what extent can libertarians work within these structures and remain committed to libertarian goals?

  13. The political economy of the Ganga River: highway of state formation in Mughal India, c.1600-1800

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Murari Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the political economy of the Ganga River during the early modern period. Thematically, the seven chapters of the dissertation may be categorized in three broad divisions. Taking a longue durée perspective, the first two chapters situate the Ganga and its plain in the wider cultural and geographical framework of the Indian subcontinent. While Chapter 1 is concerned with the central role of the Ganga in Indian culture and civilization since the first millennium BC, Ch...

  14. "Women's Rights as Human Rights: A Political and Social Economy Approach within a Deep Democratic Framework"

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we offer the social capabilities based approach to women's rights as human rights. We begin with the standard approach and discuss the universal human rights model before developing the social capabilities approach followed throughout the rest of this paper. In this paper by political economy we mean the classical state and civil society and their interactions. By social economy we mean the underlying social basis of the political economy including the family structure. Khan(199...

  15. From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Lauren

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes critical attacks on Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems approach to history and offers new critical evaluations. Wallerstein argued that an emerging capitalist world economy dominated politics and history from the 16th century to the present. Defines two new approaches, institutional analysis and post colonial cultural theory, that…

  16. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power...... cultural politics. Findings – The study points through a conceptual investigation to a new scene for critically debating persuasive technology as digital cultural politics. The cases in question emphasize the relation between microscopic practices and global agendas on the internet, and the study concludes...

  17. The Cultural Politics of Retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the ways in which college retrenchment planning is institution specific and political looks at how four institutions have shaped different retrenchment strategies. Challenges inherent in each strategy are examined, and practical suggestions are made for campus leaders facing retrenchment. (MSE)

  18. Cultural heritage and identity politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    During, R.

    2011-01-01

    ‘As the authors in this fascinating volume point out, both heritage and identity discourse can be instrumentalized, by proponents and opponents of European integration, as they can be commodified, in branding efforts with various implementations. Just as in Macchiavelli’s Europe, political and econo

  19. Cultural heritage and identity politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    During, R.

    2011-01-01

    ‘As the authors in this fascinating volume point out, both heritage and identity discourse can be instrumentalized, by proponents and opponents of European integration, as they can be commodified, in branding efforts with various implementations. Just as in Macchiavelli’s Europe, political and

  20. Political Culture and Covalent Bonding. A Conceptual Model of Political Culture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our class of models aims at explaining the dynamics of political attitude change by means of the dynamic changes in values, beliefs, norms and knowledge with which it is associated. The model constructs a political culture perspective over the relationship between macro and micro levels of a society and polity. The model defines the bonding mechanism as a basic mechanism of the political culture change by taking inspiration from the valence bonding theory in Chemistry, which has inspired the elaboration of the mechanisms and processes underlying the political culture emergence and the political culture control over the relationship between macro-level political entities and the micro-level individual agents. The model introduces operational definitions of the individual agent in political culture terms. The simulation model is used for the study of emergent political culture change phenomena based on individual interactions (emergent or upward causation as well as the ways in which the macro entities and emergent phenomena influence in turn the behaviors of individual agents (downward causation. The model is used in the ongoing research concerning the quality of democracy and political participation of the citizens in the Eastern European societies after the Fall of Berlin Wall. It is particularly aimed at explaining the long-term effect of the communist legacy and of the communist polity concept and organization onto the political mentalities and behaviors of the citizens with respect to democratic institutions and political power. The model has major implications in political socialization, political involvement, political behavior, corruption and polity modeling.

  1. Empowerment and enterprise: the political economy of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the past decades, Australian nursing has made significant advances in the clinical, research, and political arenas. Capitalising on these advances is a critical step in empowering the professions and a sound investment in the health of the nation. There remains a need to energise and empower the professions, to see our work as an enterprise that has value and a sense of worth because of our professional activities as well as for the political and economic contributions we make to health and wellbeing, quality of life and social justice. The contributions made by nurses and midwives need to be articulated in the policy arena, focused in professional decision-making and elaborated in our research agendas. Our professional organisations provide opportunities for solidarity, and the leverage we need to effect change at the bedside, the community and the whole of society. Renewed commitment to primary health care at the global, national and community level provides a timely rallying call to the professions to refine the way we articulate our position in health care, re-commit to culturally appropriate, socially just actions and embolden our professional goals to inspire the next generations of nurses for a more equitable future.

  2. Political “genotype” as a structural element of political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karpova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of genetic foundations of political culture in the context of the socio-political system changes. The author elaborates the concept of “political genotype” as a sustainable structural element of political culture that determines its content and the possibility of permissible variation. In this paper the main forms of existence of political genotype and its functions are also investigated; and “genetic” mechanism of political culture succession is explored.

  3. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-01-01

      While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access...

  4. Back to Basics: A Political Economy of Workplace Change and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Griff

    1999-01-01

    Adult educators must understand the political economy of capitalism, in which work organization involves control of the labor process and extraction of labor surplus. The resulting worker alienation and resistance have a learning dimension. (SK)

  5. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......”, “assembly” and “folksonomy” in order to question the traditional view of persuasive technology as a concept instrumental to, for example, marketing agendas. Targeting the relation between policy and everyday practice, the paper aims to open a discussion of persuasive technology deeply embedded in digital...... cultural politics. Findings – The study points through a conceptual investigation to a new scene for critically debating persuasive technology as digital cultural politics. The cases in question emphasize the relation between microscopic practices and global agendas on the internet, and the study concludes...

  6. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  7. The Political Nature of Digital Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quincy McCrary

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting organizations such as libraries and museums are vehicles for shifting paradigms of knowledge and power. Digital technologies are also implicated with historical transformations in language, society, and culture. To discuss the digital is to engage simultaneously with an impressive array of simulacra, instantaneous communication, ubiquitous media, and global interconnectedness (Cameron & Kenderdine, 2007. Digital cultural heritage can be viewed as a political concept and practice, the relations between communities and heritage institutions as mediated through technologies, the reshaping of social, cultural, and political power in relation to cultural organizations made possible through communication technologies, and the representation and interpretation of digital cultural heritage. The following paper will address each of these concerns, outlining current scholarship on the topic and critically engaging with the content.

  8. Sexual trafficking in women: international political economy and the politics of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, A M

    2000-01-01

    A recent manifestation of the North/South, East/West political-economic divide is the international sex trade in women, of which trafficking in women for purposes of sexual employment is a large subset. Trafficking in humans in general, and women in particular, has taken center stage in many nation-states as an issue of a threat to national security and societal cohesion. This article explores some of the basic facts about trafficking and spotlights it as a truly global phenomenon, with its contemporary origins in the international capitalist market system. Furthermore, it argues that the international political economy of sex not only includes the supply side--the women of the third world, the poor states, or exotic Asian women--but it cannot maintain itself without the demand from the organizers of the trade--the men from industrialized and developing countries. The patriarchal world system hungers for and sustains the international subculture of docile women from underdeveloped nations.

  9. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  10. A Statist Political Economy and High Demand for Education in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Su Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998 academic year, 84 percent of South Korea's high school "leavers" entered a university or college while almost all children went up to high schools. This is to say, South Korea is now moving into a new age of universal higher education. Even so, competition for university entrance remains intense. What is here interesting is South Koreans' unusually high demand for education. In this article, I criticize the existing cultural and socio-economic interpretations of the phenomenon. Instead, I explore a new interpretation by critically referring to the recent political economy debate on South Korea's state-society/market relationship. In my interpretation, the unusually high demand for education is largely due to the powerful South Korean state's losing flexibility in the management of its "developmental" policies. For this, I blame the traditional "personalist ethic" which still prevails as the

  11. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable? A Theory of Capitalist Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Olsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    The present paper documents that political stability is positively associated with the extent of domestic trade. In explaining this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare of inherently selfish individuals will be mutually independent. As a result, political negotiations, echoing the preferences of the citizens of society, will be dog-eat-dog in nature. Whoever has greater ba...

  12. The Political Economy of Sovereign Borrowing: Explaining the Policy Choices of Highly Indebted Governments

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen B. Kaplan; Kaj Thomsson

    2014-01-01

    In newly democratized and developing countries, political economy theory expects politicians to use budget defcits to engineer an election-timed boom, known as the political business cycle. In this paper, we challenge this view by incorporating the Önancial constraints faced by government into an electoral political framework. Debtor governments must often borrow from foreign creditors to fund their domestic spending. Employing a formal model, we show theoretically that the extent of ownershi...

  13. Political culture in Macedonia after the Ohrid Framework Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jonuz Abdullai

    2012-06-01

    • interethnic relations after the Ohrid Framework Agreement. Political culture in South-Eastern European countries has been analysed in different views, especially in the reform process, where it has an important role. Conclusions of this paper are that Macedonia must fulfil the conditions set forth, both political and institutional, based on the political culture for EU integration, since political culture, according to scholar L. Pye represents a “set of basic values, emotions and knowledge shaping and feeding political processes”.

  14. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  15. Designer ecosystems, capitalism, and boom-bust economic cycles: linking political economy and hydroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Rigby, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic premise of the term "anthropocene" is that human practices are becoming a primary force in shaping ecosystems even at the global scale. Ecohydrologists and hydroecologists often consider human effects to be a collective term that is culturally and politically invariant. "Anthropogenic change" is often cited regardless of whether these changes occur in liberal democracies or totalitarian autocracies. Yet there is potential for socio-politically driven variation in basic human impacts on the environment. Analyzing the anthropocene requires considering the rise in global population convolved with dramatically shifting political and economic conditions. How humans affect the environment, and how environmental change feedbacks operate, are likely highly dependent on cultural and political contexts. We posed the question, "Does capitalism leave a distinct signature on the hydroecological landscape?" We analyzed emerging designer ecosystems markets using Mankiw-Whinston free-entry equilibria model coupled with simple species-area curves and tested it with an extensive database of ecosystem service trades in North Carolina. Free-entry leads to a diffusion of small restored ecosystems whereas restricted entry leads to fewer, large sites; the difference in site locations and sizes in turn impact regional species distribution and water quality. We next analyzed the effect of deregulating electricity markets on river flow regimes in North Carolina; market deregulation increases potential profits derived from rapid power production in response to price changes on the spot market to which hydropower is uniquely able to respond. Results showed the potential for increased flow variability associated with price volatility in purely market-driven cases, but additional constraints required of infrastructure (e.g., flood control) restrict purely market-driven flow regimes. Changes in macro-economic conditions may also leave distinct signatures, often reflecting political

  16. Globalization of Tourism and Third World Tourism Development——A Political Economy Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Weibing; LI Xingqun

    2006-01-01

    Globalization, which is characterized by the escalating mobility of capital, people, ideas and information on a universal scale, has become a sweeping theme in the contemporary world. Tourism and its associated economic activities are evidently not immune to such a wider context of the world economy. In the past one or two decades, a stable increase has been witnessed in international tourist flows, inter-regional and inter-organizational alliances, and foreign direct investment. These trends are especially prevalent in the developing world, largely because of their pristine nature, diverse culture, inexpensive goods and services, cheap labours, and other resources. However, it has been cautioned by some scholars, especially those from the Third World countries, that tourism is an industry run by and for the rich, more powerful nations and their corresponding multinational corporations. This article, from the perspective of political economy, supplemented with views from development studies, made a normative analysis on the impacts of the globalization of tourism on the Third World destination countries. Specifically, these impacts have been detailed in terms of economic, sociocultural, and ecological domains. It was demonstrated that without appropriate planning and management, the costs of Third World tourism development may accrue to the extent that its benefits are burned out. To avoid this happening, some suggestions have been made.

  17. Conceptualizing the Role of Culture in Political Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Myron J.

    Using as a point of departure anthropologist Clifford Geertz's study of culture with special emphasis on political change, the paper develops a theoretical framework for studying the relationship between culture and political change. A major objective of this anthropological approach to the study of political culture is to help political…

  18. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

    El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

  19. The political economy of emergency and essential surgery in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Jeremy P; Mock, Charles N; Cherian, Meena N

    2010-09-01

    Emergency and essential surgery (EES) remains a low priority on global health agendas even though a growing body of evidence demonstrates that EES is a cost-effective public health intervention and that it holds the potential to prevent a sizable number of deaths and disabilities. The inferior status of EES should be considered, in part, a political problem and subject to political analysis. This type of political economy examination has been used for other important global health issues but has not been applied to EES. By addressing political concerns and prospects, EES can be better positioned on international agendas, thus improving surgical care delivered to the poor.

  20. The political economy of 'trauma' in Haiti in the democratic era of insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2004-06-01

    This article explores the challenges that emerge at the intersection of economies of compassion and terror: local, national, and international forms of humanitarian assistance; security practices in insecure social and institutional environments; questions of victimization and global reparations; and quests for justice, as revealed through an analysis of political violence and humanitarian interventions in Haiti during and after the 1991-94 coup period. Each domain is constrained by politics and history but can engender "occult economies" that challenge the intended consequences of restitution policies at international, national, and local levels of exchange. 'Trauma' and discourses about traumatic suffering are the hinge around which these economies pivot, generating new forms of political subjectivity for Haitian activists.

  1. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  2. The Political Economy of Colonial Education: Mozambique, 1930-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Under colonial fascism and during the revolutionary period leading to independence, the schooling of the African majority in Mozambique had no direct link with the economy, was more a mechanism of social control than of labor reproduction, and (in contrast to other African colonies) did not produce an African middle class supportive of the…

  3. Political Economy of Agrarian Crisis and Slow Industrialization in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Abraham, Mathew; D'Costa, Anthony

    This paper uses the structuralist framework of agriculture-industry synergy in an economy to discuss the performance of the agricultural and industrial sectors in India. The industry – agriculture relationship is argued to be integral to economic development as the agriculture sector supplies raw...

  4. Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict.

  5. FCJ-138 This is not a Bit-Pipe: A Political Economy of the Substrate Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel O’Dwyer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Critiquing ‘free culture’ as a utopian gesture that fails to engage with the material circuits of cognitive capitalism, this paper proposes a political economy attendant to the circulation of capital at all layers of the communications network. Applying the newly invigorated theories of ‘rent’ to the shifting commons/property dialectics of the information economy, we explore the role of network infrastructure in the extraction of surplus. How is surplus from the digital commons channelled through a material substrate? How is network infrastructure transforming in response to the fluid and fluctuating dynamics of cognitive capitalism? Finally, what possibilities for political engagement and material exploit are emerging?

  6. The Collapse of Political Economy and the Advent of Unlearning Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Just like the Christian societies at the dawn of the science of political economy, today’s societies are face to face with the fact that their modes of organi¬sation and representation are inadequate when confronted with the consequences of their own, earlier, decisions. The economy and politics ...... institutions is called into question by a market-driven manage¬ment approach which inserts its own aims. How can we expect the University to contribute to the understanding of the crisis when everything is done to lock it within the same logic that produces the crisis....

  7. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  8. NORWEGIAN CONVERSATIONAL POLITENESS. BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Horbowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the concept of politeness in the context of Norwegian everyday conversation. Instead of following the widely accepted concept of universality of politeness structures, it refers the theoretical background for considering politeness as realising culturally preconditioned communication patterns. Such patterns consist both of adequate face work, and of obligations connected to speaker/listener role, the latter realised through the system of adjacency pairs. The basic rules prevailing in Norwegian conversations are discussed, such as maintaining a clear and harmonious fl ow of talk or non-imposing on one’s conversational partner. These rules are exemplified on extracts from interethnic dialogues between Poles using Norwegian as a second language, and native speakers of Norwegian. The conclusions of the paper are twofold; it calls for the concept of politeness to be considered on the broader level of discourse rather than the level of single speech acts. Additionally, it stresses the role of ethnic communication pattern in second/foreign language teaching. The realisation of communication patterns allows for a legitimate participation in conversation, which in turn is vital for a successful construction of identity in second/foreign language.

  9. The Demography and Political Economy of Mexican Poverty: Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serron, Luis A.

    To determine whether the poverty which afflicts between 50% and 60% of Mexico's population can be described in an ideologically neutral perspective, the paper formulates ten questions about political and economic issues which are sensitive to both capitalist and Marxist theorists. The questions concern: (1) the balance between food supply and…

  10. The Triumph of Conservative Globalism: The Political Economy of the AKP Era

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş; Ziya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi (AKP), following its third successive electoral victory appears to be far more entrenched than its earlier center-right counterparts in Turkish politics. This article highlights the key political economy fundamentals that have rendered the AKP experience unique within the Turkish context. Accordingly, strong economic performance in context of ""regulatory neo-liberalism"" helped by a favorable global liquidity environment in the early parts of the de...

  11. The European Constitution Project from the Perspective of Constitutional Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Lars P.

    2005-01-01

    Three topics of a European constitution are discussed. First, basic arguments from constitutional political economy that aim at restricting representatives? potential misuse of powers in a European Union with extended competencies are summarized. Since a European demos does not yet exist, an extension of competencies of the Euro¬pean Parliament is not sufficient in order to legitimate political decisions at the EU le¬vel. The introduction of elements of direct democracy in the European cons...

  12. Political and CulturalFoundations of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available My thesis is based on the premise that the change of the political system from socialism to post-socialism was not based on the otherwise branched­ out political education in socialism, but rather, on other factors of which the essential one is the third wave of democracy that swept across the Central, South and East European countries. (Interactive citizenship can de­velop synergistically together with a positive attitude towards one's own country and with a stimulative influence on the citizens; with co-operation among the various (civil groups and with modern education for citizenship (not only as the school subject of Citizenship Education and Ethics as well as with its alternative goals together with the democratic and spiritual political culture. In view of the projected deadline for stability of democracy, which is expected to last 50 to 60 years, both types of culture are only at the initial phase of development in the new Slovenian state.

  13. SHAKESPEARE, CULTURE AND ECONOMIC INTANGIBLES IN KNOWLEDGE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. WEBER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the vexed question of economic intangibles in the knowledge economy using Shakespeare as a locus of inquiry. Shakespeare is particularly suited for this analysis since as England’s widelyacknowledged greatest dramatist, the author possesses considerable cultural capital, but also contributes substantially to the tangible, measurable economy of Great Britain through productions of his works, tourism, and fee-generating activity in universities, museums and heritage sites. In addition, a considerable number of knowledge products (Intellectual Property arise directly from Shakespeare including books, films, instructional materials, and research articles. Due to the large number of peer-reviewed books and articles annually produced by scholars of Early Modern history and literature, academics joke about “the Shakespeare industry.” Drawing on cultural economics, cultural theory, and knowledge economy research, this paper attempts to bridge the gap between quantitative statistical based economic theory and qualitative research into culture, value, and artistic transmission.

  14. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power......”, “assembly” and “folksonomy” in order to question the traditional view of persuasive technology as a concept instrumental to, for example, marketing agendas. Targeting the relation between policy and everyday practice, the paper aims to open a discussion of persuasive technology deeply embedded in digital...

  15. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimationduring the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  16. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimation during the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  17. Globalization: political and economic and sociological analysis of cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Babicheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article the authors examine the political and economic and cultural situation in the world in the context of globalization. Special priority is accorded to the coverage of political and economic situation in the world. Because, the twentieth century has demonstrated the power of supranational military- political blocs, the possibility of coalitions of control groups, continental and regional associations, international organizations. At the end of the twentieth century, the contours of «world government» have outlined (world of the Board: some international organizations started performing important political integration functions. The value of the global division of labor has increased in the economic sphere, the role of transnational corporations has increased, which have become powerful forces in the world economy. Having lost the national roots, such corporations operate globally, using local resources and subsidies. The authors noted that the trend of globalization had its influence on the culture as well .Media unites peoples and continents , informing millions of people about the events in different parts of the world , attracting them to various cultural experiences , traditions and customs of exotic tribes and nationalities .Today, there is no doubt, that the desire to solve global problems that affect interests of the peoples of all continents leads to the formation of the world humanistic consciousness. It is proved that during a long period of time the phenomenon of globalization was considered in socio-political theories mainly from the point of economic centrism. As It is the economic sphere, in which the globalization centrism was mostly discovered. The basic classical concepts developed within the economic centrism: theory of imperialism, dependency theory, world system theory. It was marked that the presented economic-centric pictures of globalization cannot explain the cultural-historical diversity of the

  18. Political economy and stock markets in long-term perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The dissertation finds widespread connections between firms and the parliament in pre- and interwar Germany. It also gives a comprehensive overview of respective firm and party characteristics. Unlike previous work, the sample includes three different periods, representing three distinct political systems. The regime type mattered a lot, since connections did not add value to a firm homogeneously during monarchy, democracy and dictatorship. They proved effective in general only under National...

  19. Building a "National Civilization" at Home and Abroad: International Students and Changing U.S. Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Fanta

    2011-01-01

    The research study examines the relationship of international students to changing U.S. political economy. The research attempts to move international students from the periphery to the center of understanding the changing U.S. political economy in the twenty-first century. I argue that international students play an important role in building a…

  20. Edmund Burke's "Discontents" and the Interpretation of Political Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the rhetorical action of Edmund Burke's classic defense of political parties is its inducement to see that, by interpreting political culture as he does, reader and author collaborate in the recovery of public virtue. (RS)

  1. The Political Economy of the Mexican Farm Labor Program, 1942-64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican Farm Labor Program brought in an unprecedented number of Mexican workers to perform harvesting jobs in U.S. agriculture between 1942 and 1964. A political economy perspective is used to examine the process by which U.S. agriculture has come to depend on Mexican workers.

  2. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  3. Literacy Training and the Brazilian Political Economy. An Essay on Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Philip R.

    An annotated bibliography is presented in essay form of sources concerning Brazil's literacy program for adults, MOBRAL (Movimento Brasileiro de Alfabetizacao), and its implications for the country's economy. General sources on literacy training are followed by works concerning Brazil's political system. Descriptions of the MOBRAL program, mostly…

  4. Beyond political skin : convergent paths to an independent national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thuy, Pham

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the transformation from a colonial into a national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam. It focuses on two intertwined processes of economic decolonization and reconstruction in the two countries after the Second World War, paying special attention to political and institutional fac

  5. Eclipse of the Sun: The Political Economy of Food Dependency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eclipse of the Sun: The Political Economy of Food Dependency in Nigeria. ... The paper is explicated with the aid of dependency theory. The authors take a holistic discourse of food dependency in Nigeria. Epitomizing, the paper opines that current economic realities of food dependency in the country is an albatross to ...

  6. Beyond political skin : convergent paths to an independent national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thuy, Pham

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the transformation from a colonial into a national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam. It focuses on two intertwined processes of economic decolonization and reconstruction in the two countries after the Second World War, paying special attention to political and institutional

  7. Global Citizenship and Marginalisation: Contributions towards a Political Economy of Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The development of a global form of citizenship stands in a rather tense relation with the realities of vast numbers of marginalised citizens across the globe, to the extent that marginality appears to be the hidden other of global citizenship. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of a political economy of global citizenship…

  8. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  9. Putting Higher Education in Its Place in (East Asian) Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article relates changes in higher education (HE) and research in East Asian societies to recent trends in political economy and, in particular, the reorientation of developmental states (DSs) in the region. The DS is oriented to catch-up competitiveness and, as the horizon of development shifts, so do its appropriate institutional forms and…

  10. Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphamontripong, Prachayani

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

  11. Ethics for the New Political Economy: What Can it Mean to be Professionally Responsible? Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this address, the author builds the case that a new political economy of education, dominated by what Pauline Lipman calls the "neo-liberal social imaginary," is changing the moral context in which educators imagine their professional roles. The author argues that educators are placed in relation to others in rather complicated…

  12. Searching for (un)sustainabilty in pangasius aquaculture: A political economy of quality in European retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Duijf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a political economy of food quality, this paper investigates the main sources of uncertainty over the environmental sustainability of Vietnamese pangasius catfish in European markets and how retailers subsequently respond to these uncertainties. Based on media survey and interviews with

  13. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation: empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy formation in ind

  14. Searching for (un)sustainabilty in pangasius aquaculture: A political economy of quality in European retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Duijf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a political economy of food quality, this paper investigates the main sources of uncertainty over the environmental sustainability of Vietnamese pangasius catfish in European markets and how retailers subsequently respond to these uncertainties. Based on media survey and interviews with s

  15. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy formati

  16. Brand Aid and the International Political Economy and Sociology of North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This forum brings together a diverse group of scholars from international relations, international political economy, sociology, geography and development studies, to explore ‘Brand Aid’— a new concept in studies of North-South relations that can be advanced by IPE/IPS scholarship. In Brand Aid...

  17. Political economy, the ‘US School’, and the manifest destiny of everyone else

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Phillips, N.; Weaver, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    B.J. Cohen's "British school" of theories of international political economy has much broader, classical and European origins and is much broader than he portrays. The "US school" identified by Cohen stands isolated in this regard. Yet these very European and classical roots may hold the key to

  18. Powerlessness of older people in Hong Kong: a political economy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Ping-kwong

    2003-01-01

    Gerontologists agree that old age can be associated with an increase in powerlessness both in the personal domain and in the social and political fields. This paper is an attempt to understand the concept of powerlessness in old age within a political economy theoretical framework. The paper argues that the powerlessness of older people is not biologically determined. Rather, it is socially constructed. It has its roots in the social, economic, and political structure of society. For this reason, the paper argues that (a) the capitalist economic system discriminates against and marginalizes older people in the labor market. The current unfavorable economic climate will make the economic situation of older people worse. (b) The residual welfare system does not counteract the unfavorable impact of the economic system. Rather, it deprives older people of the necessary financial resources and social service supports that would enable them to lead independent and dignified lives. (c) The authoritarian political system creates adverse conditions that make it very difficult for older people to participate in the decision-making process on issues that affect their lives, as well as on broader political issues that affect the whole of society. It is the interplay among these economic, social, and political forces in Hong Kong that creates the political economy of powerlessness in old age and prevents older people from using their powers to master and control their lives.

  19. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005...... affordable, high-quality childcare and cognitive as well as behavioral skills in schooling, and to protect valuable asset-specific skill investments. These are important messages for policymakers, and they open up promising avenues for future research on the cognitive, behavioral, and micro-political sources...

  20. Data Science and Political Economy: Application to Financial Regulatory Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn O'Halloran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of computational data science techniques in natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to analyze large and complex textual information opens new avenues for studying the interaction between economics and politics. We apply these techniques to analyze the design of financial regulatory structure in the United States since 1950. The analysis focuses on the delegation of discretionary authority to regulatory agencies in promulgating, implementing, and enforcing financial sector laws and overseeing compliance with them. Combining traditional studies with the new machine learning approaches enables us to go beyond the limitations of both methods and offer a more precise interpretation of the determinants of financial regulatory structure.

  1. The Changing Political Economy of Migration in the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerup, Stine

    Legal migration pathways were severely restricted in the early 2000s amidst popular demands to close borders in western liberal democracies. Simultaneously, significant economic growth in these countries required an increased availability of labour. This dissertation examined how temporary migrat...... political discourse and approach, if we are to experience different outcomes from labour migration in the future. This matters as the ability to attract migrant labour continues to be important, and it matters if global equality is to be enhanced, using migration to foster development...

  2. The political economy of energy-corporate-urban integration in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economy of South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material progress actually leaves the country in a state of dependent development with environmental degradation and social inequality as necessary, even functional, characteristics of this progress. The central thesis of this study is that the rise to power of what I term a centralized, technicized regime (or CTR) has placed the civil society of South Korea in fundamental conflict with the prevailing institutional conditions of national political and economic order. The interconnected network of energy, corporate and urban systems that have formed since the late 19th century serves as the institutional foundation for South Korea's political economy. This network arranges the society and its resources in a definite political-economic structure that at once gives rise to certain social problems such as inequality, environmental degradation and alienation, the society's search for answers to these problems. Building new energy, industrial and spatial structures compatible with political and economic democracy, cannot be driven by technocratic considerations and the rationalizing norms of conformity and compliance, but by the politically creative energies of a people who place social ends before instrumental means in deciding the shape and structure of the society. A crucial failure of mainstream social thought and practice has been the diversion of creative energies from the development of a critical evaluation of the society's energy-corporate-urban integration. Political conflict will continue because the aims of the CTR and civic society are opposed.

  3. The Political Economy of Schooling. ESA845, The Economy of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, John

    This volume, part of a series of mongraphs that explore the relationship between the economy and schooling, analyzes the economic influences contributing to current pressures for changes in secondary schooling in Australian society with particular attention to the long-term structural collapse of the full-time teenage labor market. After a brief…

  4. The Political Economy of Schooling. ESA845, The Economy of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, John

    This volume, part of a series of mongraphs that explore the relationship between the economy and schooling, analyzes the economic influences contributing to current pressures for changes in secondary schooling in Australian society with particular attention to the long-term structural collapse of the full-time teenage labor market. After a brief…

  5. Cultural Aspects of Secrecy in Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradell-Lopez, Enric; Cavaller, Victor

    The main objective of this paper is to provide greater understanding of the nature of secrecy in firms. It presents an effort to develop some links between management of the secrecy and its relationship with culture. Using measures from Hofstede's work, we have linked some dimensions of national culture with CIS 3 UE survey database. The results show that some attributes of the culture as Masculinity and Uncertainty Avoidance have impact on the tendency of the firms for not to patent and maintain secrecy of their innovations.

  6. Political economy of power liberalization and power transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jung-Min

    2009-12-01

    Since the mid-1980s, power sector liberalization has been embraced at various levels across the world. The dominant rationale underlying such a move is that of efficiency improvement to be purportedly achieved by substituting private for public ownership and markets for regulations. However, the evidence of market-oriented power sector reform has shown environmental unsustainability, economic instability, and centralized technocracy. It is argued here that these problems are due to the continued commitment to the conventional energy paradigm, rather than being the results of operational mismanagement. This dissertation will challenge the adequacy of the efficiency discourse that has been predominant in power sector reform by broadening the scope of the energy discourse to socio-political and environmental dimensions. Instead of power liberalization driven by an energy commodity and centralization paradigm, this dissertation contends that power transformation based on an alternative paradigm of energy commons and decentralization is necessary. Synergistic and neoliberal development of South Korea since the 1960s is critically analyzed using the theoretical framework of energy paradigm. The case study of South Korea attempts to provide an understanding of how the conventional energy paradigm was first established and then expanded, and how it responded to the social, environmental and economic anomalies in a specific political economic context. As an alternative to the power liberalization strategy, this dissertation proposes a local energy regime based on the paradigm of energy commons and decentralization.

  7. Political Economy of Piracy in Somalia: Basis for a Transformative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current wave of piracy off the coast of Somalia in light of political economy framework proposed by Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper. According to these authors, three types of economies flourish in protracted conflicts - combat economy, shadow economy, and coping economy - whose aims are, respectively, to finance combat activities, generate personal profits and provide minimum resources to the subsistence of poor and marginalized people. Based on empirical evidences showing that piracy in Somalia performs these three functions, one argues that the current international intervention against piracy is not sustainable because it does not seek to transform the factors and dynamics that make piracy an economically attractive alternative for local populations. For this reason, one proposes a shift on the Somali piracy agenda by adopting a critical perspective where piracy is no longer treated exclusively as a mere disruption of order at sea. Instead, one suggests a transformative approach where piracy is understood in its political economy dimension taking into account not only the local aspects, but also their regional links.

  8. Political economy of China's trade policy:the evidence from industrial protection in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the political economy of trade policy,combining public choice and neoclassical trade theories,studies the level and pattern of trade intervention from the perspective of policy decision-making process,by stressing on income distribution instead of economic efficiency.The paper attempts to apply such an endogenous trade theory to an empirical study of China.On the basis of a formal revised model of political economy of trade protection,it tests theoretical hypotheses concerning the political and economic determinants of cross-sector trade protection in the Chinese industry at various periods.The results show that trade protection in China fits into China's national development strategy of fast catching-up with the developed world.

  9. A Latin American perspective for the political economy of communications:

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Caballero, Francisco; Bolaños, César; Mastrini, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    In the past few decades, there has been an accelerated and transversal change in the 'techno-information mechanisms' of production and reproduction in modern society. This change belies a new cultural ecosystem whose configuration and organizational logic is clearly unstable and random. This has affected the cultural codes, the methods of configuration, representation of space and time, the habits and forms of interaction and public knowledge, the models of regulation and control of the netwo...

  10. Rational piety and social reform in Glasgow: the life, philosophy and political economy of James Mylne (1757-1839)

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Stephen Graham

    2013-01-01

    The philosopher James Mylne (1757-1839) vindicated the rational powers of humanity against the sceptical and “common sense” philosophies of his Scottish predecessors and earned the trust of his contemporaries for his Whig politics. He and the largely neglected philosophy and political economy classes he taught in Glasgow clearly merited closer study. My thesis thus contains a biography of Mylne and interpretative essays on his lectures on moral philosophy and political economy ...

  11. Innovative Democracy, Political Economy, and the Transition to Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The period 1976-2002 can be regarded as the first phase of renewable energy and conservation (REC) development, as the REC technologies were still a supplement to energy systems mainly based upon fossil fuels (here named FFU technologies). In this first phase of the Danish development, a ”Green...... energy cluster” consisting of renewable energy technologies such as wind power, solar energy, and biomass and energy conservation technologies was developed. This development was implemented despite a systematic resistance from the Ministry of Finance, the industrial establishment and the established...... market actors and existing market conditions was implemented. In this period the development of renewable energy was almost brought to a halt. But in 2008 AFR made a political u-turn, and declared his support to a 100% Renewable Energy future. In 2012 a new center left Government made an energy plan...

  12. Human rights and development - an international political economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lucena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note provides a critical review of the recent literature on the consequences of development and democratization for the protection of human rights. It identifies common lessons and grounds for further research in the field. This literature takes a series of paradoxes that challenge conventional wisdom regarding the relationship between development and democratization as its starting point, on one hand, and the protection of human rights, on the other. To that effect, several unintended adverse consequences of economic development and movements toward democracy for the protection of civil and political rights are identified. The literature focuses on rights to physical integrity, leaving important questions unanswered when it comes to civil liberties and second-generation rights. The article systematizes new knowledge produced by this literature, translates it into recommendations for research and identifies opportunities for new investigations.

  13. The Exploration of Differences on Politeness Between Western and Western and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of contrast.in-dicating that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.

  14. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  15. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  16. Political economy of Maghribi oil: Change and development in Algeria and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewalle, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the wake of rapidly growing oil and natural gas revenues, Algeria and Libya during the 1970s adopted a state capitalist strategy in order to minimize the dislocations caused by continued reliance on the international economy and, in the long run, to move toward more self-reliant local economies. International political economy theories until now have paid relatively little attention to the impact of the state in the development process, assuming that state formation and bureaucratic development go hand in hand. But in Libya and Algeria they remained disjointed. This was further exacerbated by the rentier nature of their economies which allowed for the distribution of assets without real political participation. In Algeria a techno-bureaucratic elite, to which the state quickly lost control during the 1970s, was put in charge of development. By 1976 the inefficiencies of the public sector and the alignment of the techno-bureaucratic elite with an expanding private sector led Algeria back toward a more market-oriented development strategy. In Libya a much smaller population and larger revenues have allowed the Qadhdhafi government to prolong the state capitalists experiment without paying serious attention to either economic or political development.

  17. Cultural Differences between English and Chinese in Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚默

    2014-01-01

    Politeness, as a linguistic phenomenon, pervades almost all the civilized social-cultures and languages, which works as a sort of softening agent to smoothen the course of communication. As people from different cultures may view differently on what politeness is and how to be polite, misunderstandings may arise if cultural differences are neglected in cross-cultural commu-nication. This thesis is intended to make a comparative study of cultural differences in politeness between English and Chinese, first from the disparity in their conceptions of politeness,and then proceeds to discuss the underlying psychological factor. Lastly, based on the awareness of these cultural differences and the knowledge of the cause of the differences, this paper proposes some applicable advice to achieve successful cross-cultural communication.

  18. Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jefferson; Fujita, Yayoi; Ngidang, Dimbab; Peluso, Nancy; Potter, Lesley; Sakuntaladewi, Niken; Sturgeon, Janet; Thomas, David

    2009-06-01

    For centuries swidden was an important farming practice found across the girth of Southeast Asia. Today, however, these systems are changing and sometimes disappearing at a pace never before experienced. In order to explain the demise or transitioning of swidden we need to understand the rapid and massive changes that have and are occurring in the political and economic environment in which these farmers operate. Swidden farming has always been characterized by change, but since the onset of modern independent nation states, governments and markets in Southeast Asia have transformed the terms of swiddeners' everyday lives to a degree that is significantly different from that ever experienced before. In this paper we identified six factors that have contributed to the demise or transformation of swidden systems, and support these arguments with examples from China (Xishuangbanna), Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. These trends include classifying swiddeners as ethnic minorities within nation-states, dividing the landscape into forest and permanent agriculture, expansion of forest departments and the rise of conservation, resettlement, privatization and commoditization of land and land-based production, and expansion of market infrastructure and the promotion of industrial agriculture. In addition we note a growing trend toward a transition from rural to urban livelihoods and expanding urban-labor markets.

  19. CULTURAL POLICY IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. SHCHURKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the new conditions of countries’ development in the post-crisis period. Challenges to the cultural and socio-economic policy during last decade were analyzed. Religious factors are offered to be considered as important mechanisms of solving transition period problems, and at the same time as the causes of many conflicts in the world. It was offered to include those factors as inevitable elements into modern policy making process.

  20. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country.

  1. Political economy analysis for tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Jesse B; Reich, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco is already the world's leading cause of preventable death, claiming over 5 million lives annually, and this toll is rising. Even though effective tobacco control policies are well researched and widely disseminated, they remain largely unimplemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For the most part, control attempts by advocates and government regulators have been frustrated by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and their supporters. One reason tobacco is so difficult to control is that its political economy has yet to be adequately understood and addressed. We conducted a review of the literature on tobacco control in LMICs using the databases PubMed, EconLit, PsychInfo and AGRICOLA. Among the over 2500 papers and reports we identified, very few explicitly applied political economy analysis to tobacco control in an LMIC setting. The vast majority of papers characterized important aspects of the tobacco epidemic, including who smokes, the effects of smoking on health, the effectiveness of advertising bans, and the activities of TTCs and their allies. But the political and economic dynamics of policy adoption and implementation were not discussed in any but a handful of papers. To help control advocates better understand and manage the process of policy implementation, we identify how political economy analysis would differ from the traditional public health approaches that dominate the literature. We focus on five important problem areas: information problems and the risks of smoking; the roles of domestic producers; multinational corporations and trade disputes in consumption; smuggling; the barriers to raising taxes and establishing spatial restrictions on smoking; and incentive conflicts between government branches. We conclude by discussing the political economy of tobacco and its implications for control strategies.

  2. Quetzaltenango's First Mayan Mayor: Transforming Political Culture and the Politics of Belonging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Against the backdrop of ethnic political mobilisation in Latin America, this article examines how, as Quetzaltenango's first Mayan mayor, Rigoberto Quemé Chay transformed two interrelated dimensions of citizenship: political culture and the politics of belonging. It analyses the way in which citizen

  3. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  4. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  5. Political economy of US states and rates of fatal occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Schulman, Michael D; Bailer, A John; Stainback, Kevin; Wheeler, Matthew; Richardson, David B; Marshall, Stephen W

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the extent to which the political economy of US states, including the relative power of organized labor, predicts rates of fatal occupational injury. We described states' political economies with 6 contextual variables measuring social and political conditions: "right-to-work" laws, union membership density, labor grievance rates, state government debt, unemployment rates, and social wage payments. We obtained data on fatal occupational injuries from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality surveillance system and population data from the US national census. We used Poisson regression methods to analyze relationships for the years 1980 and 1995. States differed notably with respect to political-economic characteristics and occupational fatality rates, although these characteristics were more homogeneous within rather than between regions. Industry and workforce composition contributed significantly to differences in state injury rates, but political-economic characteristics of states were also significantly associated with injury rates, after adjustment accounting for those factors. Higher rates of fatal occupational injury were associated with a state policy climate favoring business over labor, with distinct regional clustering of such state policies in the South and Northeast.

  6. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a region characterised by extensive socio-economic underdevelopment. Given water’s key role in social organisation, water allocation, use and management in Southern Africa is embedded in deep historical and structural processes of regional underdevelopment. Gini coefficients of income inequality in several states of the region are the most extreme in the world. Recent data from South Africa shows that Gini coefficients of water inequality vary directly with income inequality. Recent attempts to improve water resources management in the region through IWRM have failed to consider these facts, focusing instead on a mix of institutional, policy and legal reforms. The results of these reforms have been poor. In this essay, I employ a modified version of Allan’s (2003 'water paradigms' framework to locate and assess the positions and interests of actors involved in water resources management in Southern Africa. The essay shows that Southern Africa’s history of underdevelopment has created a dense web of powerful political, economic and social interests linked by a shared technocentric understanding of and approach to water use: i.e. water for 'high modern-style' development, or as labelled by Allen, 'the hydraulic mission'. What is less readily acknowledged is the wide-spread societal support for this mission. For this reason, ecocentric approaches to water management most commonly associated with influential international actors such as the IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature have limited local support and are of minor relevance to Southern African decision-makers. However, actors supportive of an ecocentric perspective demonstrate considerable ability to inhibit water infrastructure development across the region. In the face of abiding poverty and inequality, and vulnerability to water insecurity, widespread societal support for a technocentric approach to resource use offers a pathway toward broad-based social benefits

  7. TOOLS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN POLITICS AND THE ECONOMY, DEPENDING ON THE LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how much can be similar absolutely different areas as politics and economy.Analyzing the approaches to marketing in these areas, you can gather a lot of valuable and useful. The authors discuss the tools of marketing communications, depending on the life cycle of goods and drawa parallel between business and politics. Note that thetools of marketing communications are very numerousand diverse but is most effective at a particular time. Provides specific recommendations on the relevance of tools, aimed at promotion of the goods in the certaintime intervals life cycle.

  8. Weberian versus Pluralistic Legal Forces in the Global Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Gessner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This picture supports a view that modernization processes lead naturally to legal structures similar to what can be observed in Western societies and that also global structures will emerge on the same model. Together with modernization theory another prominent theory often alluded to as justification for legalization is Institutional Economics where rules and institutions are considered mechanisms for effective transaction costs avoidance. My earlier publications compare these and other approaches for explaining the role of law in the economy. A third theory is Max Weber’s legal rationalization, an evolutionary process running from traditional irrational forms to formal, bureaucratic forms of legal domination. Weber’s view that legal rationalization is our “fate” and informal rules and institutions are necessarily outdated will be reconsidered from a historical perspective and confronted with empirical data gathered in the area of the governance of global business transactions. This article will attempt to show that although Weber’s influential approach still helps to explain much of what occurs in domestic models of capitalism it doesn’t seem to grasp the growing complexities of globalized capitalism. Este análisis apoya la opinión de que los procesos de modernización conducen naturalmente a las estructuras jurídicas similares a lo que se observa en las sociedades occidentales y que también las estructuras globales surgirán en el mismo modelo. Junto con la teoría de la modernización, otra teoría prominente a menudo aludida como justificación para la legalización es la Economía Institucional, donde las reglas y las instituciones se consideran mecanismos para evitar los costos de transacción de efectivo. Las publicaciones anteriores del autor comparan estos y otros enfoques para explicar el papel de la ley en la economía. Una tercera teoría es la racionalización jurídica de Max Weber, un proceso evolutivo que va

  9. Political culture in Romania - past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae FRIGIOIU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to tersely present the situation of the political culture in Romania after 1989. The comprehension of the political culture seen as a result of a valorous past full of religious content constitutes the single path that can reveal the imaginary of the Romanian people; moreover, the study has as a purpose to improve the understanding of the political and cultural values which are linked to the consolidation of a democratic system in a similar manner to the connection between the forms and the causes of any social and political change in the country.

  10. The lived political economy of occupational overuse syndrome among New Zealand workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    In New Zealand, as in other industrialised nations, rates of work-related gradual onset injuries increased during the 1980s and 1990s. The perspectives and experiences of workers suffering what became known as occupational overuse injuries in New Zealand offer insights into local lived political economies. Here, we explore the dominant metaphor, 'battling', in participants' narratives. On the face of it, battles were fought over diagnoses, over occupational health and safety in the workplace, and over entitlements to therapy and income compensation. However, participants were also battling to maintain their identities as hard workers, while resisting and challenging normalising technologies of self and morally charged negative identities offered them by employers, state-funded accident and injury insurance agencies, and the medical profession. Inherent in their narratives is a critique of the neo-liberal capitalist political economy that allows workers' bodies to be exploited (and sacrificed) for employers' profits.

  11. Shrouded costs of government: The political economy of state and local public pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Giacomo A.M. Ponzetto

    2012-01-01

    Why are public-sector workers so heavily compensated with pensions and other non-pecuniary benefits? In this paper, we present a political economy model of shrouded compensation in which politicians compete for taxpayers' and public employees' votes by promising compensation packages, but some voters cannot evaluate every aspect of compensation. If pension packages are "shrouded," meaning that public-sector workers better understand their value than ordinary taxpayers, then compensation will ...

  12. Shrouded Costs of Government: Political Economy of State and Local Public Pensions Data

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Giacomo A.M. Ponzetto

    2013-01-01

    Why do public-sector workers receive so much of their compensation in the form of pensions and other benefits? This paper presents a political economy model in which politicians compete for taxpayers' 'and government employees' votes by promising compensation packages, but some voters cannot evaluate every aspect of promised compensation. If pension packages are "shrouded," so that public-sector workers better understand their value than ordinary taxpayers, then compensation will be highly ba...

  13. Countering the Resource Curse: A Comparative Analysis of Political Economy for Chile and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    countries developed very different means to manage commodity market boom and bust cycles. Specifically, Chile has innovated counter-cyclical fiscal...factors. Forecasting is also presented to include possible ramifications from recent changes to the political economy of both countries in light of...governments of both countries developed very different means to manage commodity market boom and bust cycles. Specifically, Chile has innovated counter

  14. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  15. Regimes of Dispossession: Special Economic Zones and the Political Economy of Land in India

    OpenAIRE

    Levien, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to advance a theoretical framework for the comparative study of dispossession by explaining how the political economy of land dispossession has transformed from state-led developmentalism to neoliberalism in India. The dissertation compares the archetypical forms of dispossession in each period and argues that they constitute different regimes of dispossession. A regime of dispossession is an institutionalized way of expropriating landed assets from their curren...

  16. The Women’s Poverty–Empowerment Nexus: Engendering Microfinance in the Global Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonso, Mignon

    2014-01-01

    The creation of the women’s poverty-empowerment nexus in development discourses has legitimized the widespread use of microfinance. Despite the success of microfinance in supplying credit, the evidence to suggest it has substantially reduced poverty and increased women’s empowerment is mixed. This thesis examines the link between trends in the global political economy, microfinance, and gender. To reveal this link, a critical discourse analysis of development discourses and a content analys...

  17. MIND GAMES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: THE FUTURE OF THE NATION STATE AND HEGEMONIC SYSTEM CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Doç.Dr. Fatih

    2015-01-01

    With the Second World War, the world economic order has been changed from the colonial system to the hegemonic system. In this process, many new nation-states had given struggle for survival post-war in the new world order. Today, led to the culmination of globalization has metamorphosed in the structure of the nation-state. Within the framework of game theory, modern nation-state structure shows significant progress strategic moves in terms of political relations and international economy. I...

  18. Vietnam’s political economy: a discussion on the 1986-2016 period

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Being a member of the thriving ASEAN and successfully implementing economic renovation (Doi Moi) have drawn the world's attention on Vietnam around the turn of the millennium. Some even expected a much faster pace of transformation, and renewed economic, AND political, reforms in Vietnam, or Doi Moi II.However, in the recent transition turmoil the Vietnamese economy has experienced some significant setback, and the solution for getting the country out of the downward spiral of low productivit...

  19. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  20. Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures%Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元红

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is universal but culturally specific.h shows different characteristics in different cultures.From the angle of cultural differences, this paper reviews Chinese and Western"Politeness Principles"put forward by Gu Yueguo(顾曰国)and Leech,intends to compare on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western cultures. Understanding the differences can avoid the pragmatic failures and achieve success in cross- cultural communication.h can also help English learners to develop and improve their pragmatic competence.

  1. Resolving the US financial crisis: politics dominates economics in the New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kregel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most economists expected that the "Great Recession" produced by the financial meltdown of 2008 would usher in a resurgence of traditional Keynesian economics and a decline of what has come to be called "market fundamentalism". By contrast, also due to the inadequate size of the 2009 stimulus package, the resurgence of support for Keynesian expenditure policies has been extremely short lived. However, the negative popular and political reaction should not have come as a surprise, at least for three reasons: the design of the Obama stimulus plan and its difference from the expenditure policies of the Roosevelt Administration; the political environment that has eviscerated fiscal policy and placed monetary policy at the centre of economic policy and produced "debt driven" growth; the difference between policies appropriate to treating an income deflation and a debt deflation.

  2. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education.

  3. Political economy of China and India: dealing with air pollution in the two booming economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China e India son dos economías en auge hoy en día, pero ambos sufren de daños al medio ambiente. Para conseguir un desarrollo sostenible, los dos países tienen que prestar más atención a la protección del medio ambiente. Este artículo examina en primer lugar las causas y consecuencias de los problemas de contaminación grave del aire en China e India. A continuación, se describe cómo China y la India tratan el problema de la contaminación del aire y sugiere formas para mejorar. El autor sostiene que el control de la contaminación del aire y de la protección del medio ambiente en general es un proyecto integral que requiere esfuerzos concertados de los gobiernos en todos los niveles, de la comunidad científica, de empresarios, juristas, grupos no gubernamentales y comunitarios, de la comunidad internacional, y de los ciudadanos como individuos. La educación y la estricta aplicación de la ley siguen siendo la clave del éxito. La experiencia de China e India en el control de la contaminación del aire proporcionan algunas lecciones útiles para otros países en desarrollo._____________ABSTRACT:China and India are two booming economies today, but both are suffering from environmental damages. To achieve sustainable develpment, the two countries have to pay more attention to the protection of environment. This article first examines the causes and consequences of the serious air pollution problems in China and India. It then discusses how China and India are dealing with the air pollution problem and suggests ways for improvement. The author argues that air pollution control and environmental protection in general are a comprehensive project that requires concerted efforts by governments at all levels, the scientific communtity, businesses, legal scholars, non-governmental and grass-roots groups, the international community, and individual citizens. Education and stricter law enforcement remain the key to success. China and India

  4. Cultural Economy. The economic impact of the cultural sector from a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Colombo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture is playing an increasingly important role in the economic development of industrialised countries. Thus, the management of large cultural events and the relationship between cultural management and cultural policies will be key elements in the development of the so-called cultural economy. This article looks at the concept of cultural economy, in terms of the appearance of the idea and the different European methodological positions. The case of the Berlin International Film Festival is taken as an example to show the importance of cultural management with regard to economic development of the sector. This case study also allows for the analysis of the increasingly complex forms of cultural management adopted, as well as their effects on the regulation of the cultural market and their links to other basic economic sectors in urban development.

  5. What is culture in «cultural economy»? Defining culture to create measurable models in cultural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of culture is somewhat vague and ambiguous for the formal goals of economics. The aim of this paper is to define the notion of culture better so as to help build economic explanations based on culture and therefore to measure its impact in every activity or beliefs associated with culture. To define culture according to the canonical evolutionary definition, it is any kind of ritualised behaviour that becomes meaningful for a group and that remains more or less constant and is transmitted down through the generations. Economic institutions are founded, implicitly or explicitly, on a worldview of how humans function; culture is an essential part of understanding us as humans, making it necessary to describe what we understand by culture correctly. In this paper we review the literature on evolutionary anthropology and psychology dealing with the concept of culture to warn that economic modelling ignores intangible benefits of culture rendering economics unable to measure certain cultural items in the digital consumer society.

  6. 菲律宾独特的社会政治文化%On the Unique Social and Political Culture in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2004-01-01

    The Philippines' social and political culture is second to none in Southeast Asia and even the whole Asia. It evolves from actions of both internal and external factors, one of which is the intentional transplant and guidance by the US, whose influence is the greatest. To develop economy is the top priority for its social and political stability.

  7. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2016-01-01

    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  8. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2016-01-01

    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  9. The hidden cost of consensus: How coordinated market economies insulate politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ezrow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has argued that while elections motivate parties to respond to public sentiment, global economic ties reduce this responsiveness by redirecting elites from their electorates and toward market actors. In this study, we extend this work to examine the influence of globalization on party responsiveness across different forms of production-welfare regimes. Coordinated market economies (CMEs accommodate economic interdependence by striking corporatist bargains between political elites, trade union representatives, and organized business. Although these consensual relations facilitate economic stability, they also insulate policymakers from voters. Analyses that pair public opinion and party positions across 18 advanced capitalist democracies from 1977 to 2009 show that while CMEs permit political elites a wide room to maneuver under economic globalization, political parties competing in these organized market economies do not respond to public opinion. This is the case regardless of level of exposure to world markets. In CMEs, party position-taking is uninfluenced by external factors (economic globalization and domestic factors (public opinion alike. By examining the consequences for party behavior, our results raise questions about the virtues of coordinated market capitalism for the health of representative democracy.

  10. A political economy of environmental impact assessment in the Mekong region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wells-Dang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is an issue of concern to governments, organized civil society groups, as well as business actors in the Mekong region. EIA and related forms of environmental assessments are being carried out throughout the region with varying levels of quality, legal frameworks, monitoring and compliance. Through a political economy approach, we seek to understand the interests and incentives among key stakeholders in each of the five Mekong region countries and propose ways that EIA processes can potentially be improved, with reference to hydropower and other infrastructure and development projects. The analysis is based on a collaborative research process carried out under the auspices of the Mekong Partnership for the Environment, a USAID-funded program implemented by Pact that aims to advance regional cooperation on environmental governance. We find that at present, EIA implementation is limited by numerous political economy constraints, some general across the Mekong region, others specific to one or more country contexts. Certain of these constraints can be addressed through a regional cooperative approach, while others will require longer-term changes in social and political dynamics to encourage uptake and impact and avoid possible blockage from entrenched interest groups.

  11. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  12. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  13. Danish Political Culture: Fair Conditions for Inclusion of Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional and discur...

  14. Perceptions of State Political Culture by Education Policy Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Frederick; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The confirmed existence of political culture in the attitudes of education policymakers in six states (Arizona, California, Illinois, Pennsylvania, West Virginai, and Wisconsin) indicates that how education leaders decide about policy may depend less on what resources the states have than how leaders expect the political system to operate. (CB)

  15. Cultural citizenship and real politics : the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomkens, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In the first decade of the twenty-first century, politics and everyday life in the Netherlands became polarized, under the influence of several conservative and populist movements that reflected a growing distrust of government and 'politics as usual', and a xenophobic and cultural conservative atti

  16. Costa Rica as a source of emigrants: a reading from a political economy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gatica López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed.  Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.

  17. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  18. Asynchrony of political culture in the context of modernization of the contemporary Russian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovalov Valery Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a country in which political culture takes in different stages of development. In the social and cultural life are combined two basic forms - the traditional type of political culture and modern political culture. There is asynchrony in the political culture, which creates a serious problem of managing Russian society.

  19. Rural health efforts in the urban-dominated political economy: three Third World examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J M

    1989-06-01

    The theme of this paper is to demonstrate that the urban preference in governmental health delivery programs does exists in capitalist and socialist political economies and that efficient rural health programs exist in capitalist and socialist developing countries. The purpose of the article is to determine strategies to promote accessible rural health care by studying 3 examples. In the State of Kerala, India between 1956-1959, land reforms were carried out, and political parties and agrarian cooperatives involving rural people were organized. rural needs were given top priority in this capitalist economy which resulted in agrarian reform, education, and health delivery. In 1971, food production increased to 5.4 million tons. During this period, the nutritional status rose, the mortality rated declined, and the fertility rates decreased. Thus, the health status for the rural population improved. Bolivia's Montero health program was developed in 1975. This case demonstrates the urban/rural conflict in a capitalist economy with preference given to the urban side. This proposed health program resulted in the urban communities receiving greater resources compared to the rural population. This result is attributed to lack of organization within the rural population. The final case examined was Nicaragua which in 1979 was socialist. The National Unified Health System was established by the Sandinistas and had 4 priorities: revolution defense, economy, education, and health. This movement by the Sandinistas addressed rural health problems and challenged the urban medical organization. Health care workers were trained to deliver more curative and preventative services. The Popular Health Councils in Nicaragua is unique; it provides discussion regarding the urban/rural conflict. A change in the Minister of Health also indicated concern for rural health care delivery. Nicaragua's health status also improved as a result of rural organization. From the 3 cases, it was

  20. 知识经济与《红楼梦》的仕途经济之比较探索%The Knowledge Economy and the Political Economy of"A Dream of Red Mansions"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪娟

    2016-01-01

    当今社会的发展对于知识的运用渗透到社会各个方面,与文化发展相同步的,是知识经济时代下的经济发展模式的变迁。知识经济时代下,社会的主导力量是丰富的知识,先进的技术。但是,在封建社会,主导社会发展的仕途经济却影响了中国上千年的发展历史。本文以《红楼梦》中的仕途经济为研究对象,通过分析古代仕途经济的典型,对比当今社会的知识经济与社会发展之间的关系,分析传统仕途经济的弊端,为当今社会知识经济发展模式的探索提供建议。%The development of today's society for the use of knowledge to infiltrate the social various aspects,and cultural de-velopment phase synchronization,the era of knowledge economy is the economic development mode change.Under the knowl-edge economy era,the dominant force in society is rich in knowledge,advanced technology.But in the feudal society,leading the development of the society political economy has influenced the development of China's thousands of years of history.Based on the political economy of "A Dream of Red Mansions".The research object is through the analysis of the typical of the ancient political economy.Compared to the knowledge economy and social development in today's society,the relationship be-tween the analysis of the disadvantages of traditional political economy,for the exploration of today's society of knowledge econo-my development mode provide advice.

  1. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making.

  2. Political economy of marine reserves: understanding the role of opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N; Wilson, James A

    2010-10-26

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen's behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen's responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves.

  3. Corruption – The Politic and Bureaucratic Shield of the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Pripoaie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conditional manner, corruption is considered the specific behavior for the entity thatrepresents the state and public authority of using public resources for personal profits. Internationalinstitutions for corruption evaluation (the World Bank or Transparency International generallyqualify the phenomenon as“the abuse of public power for private benefit”.Thus, corruption andunderground economy create the condition for the development of group interests, that, thanks to theirinfluence, do not subordinate the national legislation and control the political and economical nationalsystems, giving a perspective on what is known in the professional literature as“state capture”(Hellman & Kaufmann, 2001.

  4. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  5. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    allocation of resources is rooted deeply in regional political economy structures. These results challenge the scholarly debate, but can help to understand why international structural adjustment programs that focused on privatization and trade liberalization only showed limited success in the MENA region....... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  6. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized.

  7. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  8. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  9. Nationalist political culture in the maelstrom of the Great War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Tato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nationalist political culture is based on a transverse and versatile substratum of ideas, beliefs and attitudes that can be combined with different political traditions. During the First World War, some of its basic components burst into the Argentine public debate and were shared and, at the same time, disputed by diverse social and political sectors. Furthermore, they nourished the ideological and political polarizations of the wartime. Through the analysis of these issues, this article aims to contribute to the knowledge of a period scarcely explored in the study of nationalism in Argentina.

  10. From consensus to conflict: the domestic political economy of East-West energy trade policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentleson, B.W.

    Changes in the domestic politics of East-West energy trade policy indicate a more general transformation of the domestic politics of American foreign policy. In the postwar period the basic, consensual pattern of congressional bipartisanship, executive-branch unity, interest-group collaboration, and a supportive public has been replaced by the conflictual pattern of an assertive Congress, a fragmented executive branch, antagonistic interest groups, and a divided public. These contrasting patterns are manifestations of structural changes in the domestic political economy. Along both political and economic dimensions, and differentiated according to whether the locus of pressure was group-specific or more general, what had been basic foundations of consensus became by the early 1970s fissures of conflict. Of particular significance were the weakening of the macropolitical foundations (the basic accord on foreign-policy objectives and strategies) in the wake of both Vietnam and detente and the increased marginal value of the economic costs, both diffuse (macroeconomic) and particularistic (microeconomic), to be paid for economic coercion. In this transformed context, the state's support-building instruments of ideology and economic compensation were insufficient to build consensus. As a result, in this issue area and perhaps more generally, high levels of domestic constraints on the conduct of American foreign policy have become the rule rather than the exception. 98 references, 3 figures.

  11. Theorizing Environmental Governance of the World System: Global Political Economy Theory and Some Applications to Stratospheric Ozone Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates world-systems perspectives into an analysis of global environmental politics, thus adjoining a political economic analysis of scale with studies of global environmental policy. It is the ability of some social groups and institutions to jump scale that determines how global environmental policies are shaped. The United States’ carbon-intensive economy is seen to face larger short-term costs from global environmental agreements than many other countries in the core of the world-system, but what remains unexplored in the environmental politics literature is the question of why the United States sees its long-term economic condition hindered by these agreements. This analysis points to the ways industry actors intervene at multiple scales of global environmental negotiations to affect national policy positions as well as larger discourses about science and risk. The article reviews the methyl bromide controversy in the Montreal Protocol to explain why this agreement has recently failed to live up to expectations in removing ozone-depleting substances. The United States is particularly responsible for this impediment: rather than innovate in response to new information and changing international contexts, industry actors have drawn upon US hegemony to enforce their dominant market positions. As the parties to the Montreal Protocol remain polarized over questions of methyl bromide use, this analysis calls for attention to the ways capital, states, and other social institutions are embedded in international environmental agreements and how they use such arrangements to obstruct successful multilateral agreements. I conclude by suggesting that environmental and other social movements might strategize in two ways: 1 by helping support an emergent ‘green hegemony’ (most apparent in Chinese policy as a counterhegemonic alternative, and 2 by developing strategies that account for the ways industry interests overlap with declining

  12. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  13. A Favorable Turn for the Better in Politics and Economy for Indonesia in 2003%印尼:政局和经济好转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温北炎

    2004-01-01

    After years of political disturbances, the deteriorating economy and social chaos in Indonesia, 2003 wimessed the gradual stability of political situation, recovery of economy beginning to win initial success, gradual improvement of public security and successes of fighting against separatists and terrorism. In 2004, which is a critical one for the country, Indonesia will hold its parliamentary and presidential elections. It is expected that politics and economy will change for the better in the year.

  14. A Cultural Political Economy of School Desegregation in Seattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: School desegregation has been variably conceptualized as a remedy for racial injustice, a means toward urban (economic) revitalization, an opportunity to celebrate human diversity, and an attempt to more equally distribute educational resources. At the center of the debate over the years is the extent to which school…

  15. A Cultural Political Economy of School Desegregation in Seattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: School desegregation has been variably conceptualized as a remedy for racial injustice, a means toward urban (economic) revitalization, an opportunity to celebrate human diversity, and an attempt to more equally distribute educational resources. At the center of the debate over the years is the extent to which school…

  16. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part III. Innovativeness, applications, economy, development scenarios, politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  17. Computational and Simulation Modeling of Political Attitudes: The 'Tiger' Area of Political Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.

  18. Political culture of civil society within synergetic paradigm context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Political culture relates to the development and improvement of human abilities for social life within a community and creates conditions for the realization of these abilities. Typically, it is a state or a particular cultural region within the state. Despite the fact that the political culture of a society cannot and should not be subject to a management, it should be regulated and coordinated through a policy - national, which must be state policy. This paradoxical situation requires the use of specific management approaches. There is some configuration management knowledge, training or life, to work effectively, it is necessary to act at the right time and in the right place. Synergetic paradigm creates a methodological basis for a rather broad and full use of all the cultural, regional and individual diversity. Such use may be appropriate and successful implementa­tion provided competent management and, above all, self, which in turn requires a developed political culture in both the public and the private sector. It is important to understand that social system like any complex system, with not one single and multiple alternative paths of evolution. It should be clearly aware of the existence of different trends of evolution, the ambiguity of the transition to the future. Future states of complex social systems do not just open and predict­able, there are range of possible forms of the future, the field of possible ways forward. Value under the tran­sitional regime elements authoritarian and democratic organization of society is one of the most controversial issues. Between these two forms of political domination exists a close relationship than it may seem at first glance. To determine the influence of civil society in the process of becoming a democratic political regime and democratic political culture, it is necessary to outline the main characteristics of this concept. Without dwelling on the analysis of understanding of civil

  19. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  20. The socio-political economy of nuclear energy in China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Valentine, Scott Victor [Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    This article investigates forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France. This framework posits that (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development, (2) centralization of national energy planning, (3) campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, (5) subordination of challenges to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism are influential factors in supporting development of nuclear power. Accordingly, we seek to verify the causal properties of these six catalysts for nuclear power expansion in two nations - India and China - that are on the brink of becoming major nuclear powers. We validate our framework by confirming the presence of the six catalysts during the initial nuclear power developmental periods in each country. We also apply our framework as a predictive tool by considering how present conditions in the two nations will impact nuclear power development trends. We conclude by highlighting the emergence of a potential seventh catalyst - the influence of greenhouse gas emission abatement policy on nuclear power development. (author)

  1. Political Economy of the Asia-Pacific Free Trade Area: A Dilemma for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific Free Trade Area (FTAAP) has become a topic of focus since the proposal was first raised in 2004. The present paper considers China's policy towards the FTAAP from a political economy perspective by probing the gains, impediments and concerns for China, and makes judgments based on several possible scenarios. The author argues that from an economic perspective, China would benefit from joining the FTAAP both in a static and a dynamic manner because both its main trade partners and trade barriers in export markets are concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region. However, whether the Chinese Government is likely to support the initiative is largely dependent on certain crucial political and diplomatic elements, including the APEC approach, US-Chinese relations, quality of treaty, sensitive sectors, competitive proposal of alternative and membership of Chinese Taipei. Therefore, if the Chinese Government cannot ratify the ideology and terms of the initiative, or issues that are central to China's interests are not addressed, the FTAAP will only remain a proposal possessing economic possibility in the long run, without political feasibility in the near term.

  2. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RESOURCE CURSE AND THE NIGER DELTA CRISIS IN NIGERIA: MATTERS ARISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Dode

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Political economy literature is awash with analyses that attempt to identify the corereasons behind the development and or underdevelopment of different states and zonesof the world. Two major questions that such studies attempt to answer are, “how does astate’s natural resource wealth influence its economic development?” and “How doesnatural resource endowment contribute to political conflict in countries that are soendowed?” For some decades now, the exploitation of natural resources has been adetermining factor in the stability or otherwise of natural resource rich states. Studieshave shown that the exploitation of natural resources like crude oil, columbite anddiamond have contributed to a number of civil wars and internal crises in Africa. InNigeria, it has been a case of armed struggle in the Niger Delta creeks; between militantsand federal forces posted to secure the area. The result is that instead of yielding foreignexchange and prosperity to the citizens of the countries so endowed, the presence of suchresource, constitute a major source of political conflict within nations, resulting in suchcountries being referred to as the poorest of the poor in the world. Some studies indicatethe fact that these problems evolve from politics surrounding ownership, management,and control of natural resources in Africa. It is in the face of this reality that we attemptto situate Nigeria’s Niger Delta crisis in this resource curse matrix and propose thehypothesis that, there is a relationship between the resource curse theory and the NigerDelta crisis in Nigeria. Our findings agree with the core assumption of this paradigm thatinstead of ushering in development, poor management of resources, greed and badgovernance in the third world contribute greatly to her underdevelopment, strife andpoverty, in the midst of abundant natural resources.

  3. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  4. The Changing Position of the State and State Power in Global Affairs - Views from two scholars in International Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marthinus J. Du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of enlightening work has been done since studies in international political economy have become a recognised academic discipline. This has changed our conception of the domain of international politics and economics. Still, there are some scholars who prefer to use old spectacles to view new problems. This review article concentrates on two books, one from each of these camps. Stephen Krasner's Structural Conflict - The World Against Global Liberalism, belongs to the realist camp...

  5. Femicide and colonization: between the politics of exclusion and the culture of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub-Kervorkian, Nadera; Daher-Nashif, Suhad

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the murder of women and girls, which we name it Femicide, among the Palestinian community living in Israel. Specifically, it analyzes how the dialectic interrelationship between informal and formal legal-social systems constructs the murders of Palestinian women. The data revealed that femicide is a crime empowered by the wider context of colonization and the increasing spatial segregation of Palestinian communities. The study confirms the need to move beyond simplistic "cultural" explanations of femicide, and pay closer attention to the ways in which the structure, politics and economy of death function in colonized spaces and contexts.

  6. The political economy of publication: marketing, commodification, and qualitative scholarly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S

    2012-11-01

    The globalized economy, fueled by late capitalism, has pressed forward its necessity for accumulation and expanding growth into the information and knowledge economy. One result has been the privatization of essentially public knowledge, knowledge produced at public universities, often with public, federal dollars. Both the "mania for ranking academic institutions," where universities compete for students, tuition dollars, and external funding, and the incessant creep of the managerial "audit culture" contribute to this situation. Although there is little individual scholars can do to resist globalization and capitalist forces, understanding the context into which their research is circulated can suggest opportunities for sharing research results between the "center" and "periphery" that counter some of the privatization trends.

  7. Political Economy, Alexander Von Humboldt, and Mexico’s 1810 and 1910 Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weiner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is informed by Steve Pincus’ scholarship on revolution, engages in the novelendeavor of comparing Mexico’s 1810 and 1910 Revolutions. The article explores broad parallelsbetween the two upheavals, and highlights significant features of Mexico’s Revolutions thatscholars have ignored. Alexander von Humboldt’s Ensayo político sobre el reino de la NuevaEspaña proved to be influential in both of Mexico’s Revolutions, albeit in distinct ways in eachcase. Conflicts over political economy were also central aspects of each Revolution. Theseeconomic disagreements sometimes pitted revolutionists against traditionalists, and sometimesdivided revolutionists against each other. Even if revolutionists differed in terms of economicvisions, they were all “statists” in the sense that they designated an important role for governmentin fostering economic and social modernization.

  8. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    This book offers a generic explanation of the political economy of the EU, demonstrating in a clear and comprehensive way how the present institutional set-up makes it vulnerable to lobbyism, corruption and the destruction of social capital. Gert Tinggaard Svendsen contends that this 'EU disease......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how...... the current institutional set-up of the EU will determine future economic performance and will adversely affect policy outcomes. He looks at whether fundamental EU policies, such as the CAP, are consistent with economic growth or whether these policies will instead distort markets, leading to economic decline...

  9. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  10. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery has had a number of social and environmental consequences. Based on in-depth fieldwork and historical research, this paper examines the political economy of the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean, with a focus on Sicily. It provides a descriptive history of the changing conditions in this fishery, paying special attention to the modern fishery. This research contributes to the discussions regarding the globalization and industrialization of agri-foodsystems and environmental degradation.

  11. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  12. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-12-15

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  13. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meyer-Clement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  14. The Reform of State-owned Commercial Banks in China: A Political Economy Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYAO; LEI

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the logic of the reform of state-owned commercial banks during 1997-2006 from a political economy perspective, mainly by discussing three fields of the reform: shareholding system reform, marketization, and financial restructuring. It also points out the existing problems in each field. The conclusion is that although the reform is heading in the right direction and has already made great progress, it has largely been conducted at the technical level and the Government has avoided dealing with the core issue of the reform. More importantly, the consequences of the Government’s policy—pursuing short-term objectives, like improving the short-term financial status of banks—puts the entire system in danger by accumulating long-term risks. This paper also provides some policy proposals and points out potential directions for further studies.

  15. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  16. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    This book offers a generic explanation of the political economy of the EU, demonstrating in a clear and comprehensive way how the present institutional set-up makes it vulnerable to lobbyism, corruption and the destruction of social capital. Gert Tinggaard Svendsen contends that this 'EU disease......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique...

  17. Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2009-12-01

    Drawing on published tobacco document research and related sources, this article applies Farnsworth and Holden's conceptual framework for the analysis of corporate power and corporate involvement in social policy (2006) to the transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). An assessment is made of TTCs' structural power, the impact upon their structural position of tobacco control (TC) policies, and their use of agency power. The analysis suggests that, as a result of the growth of TC policies from the 1950s onwards, TTCs have had to rely on political agency to pursue their interests and attempt to reassert their structural position. The collapse of the Eastern bloc and the liberalisation of East Asian economies presented new structural opportunities for TTCs in the 1980s and 1990s, but the development of globally coordinated TC policies facilitated by the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has the potential to constrain these.

  18. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides.

  19. Mutuality of political culture with strategic state priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Shtuka

    2015-09-01

    This article highlighted a number of factors which influence on formation of the strategic priorities of the country. The author concludes that, socio­economic factor is the most important; it creates a political culture and defines development priorities, because welfare is the most accurate indicator, which shows whether people like the steps of government activities and selected areas of future development or no. It is proposed to develop and disseminate the ideology of strategic development that will ensure the effective functioning of the political culture.

  20. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  1. Cross-cultural comparison of political leaders' operational codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirilen-Gumus, Ozlem

    2016-03-04

    This study aims at comparing operational codes (namely, philosophical and instrumental beliefs about the political universe) of political leaders from different cultures. According to Schwartz (2004), cultures can be categorised into 3 dimensions: autonomy-embeddedness, egalitarianism-hierarchy and mastery-harmony. This study draws upon the 1st dimension (akin to the most popular cultural dimension of Hofstede: individualism-collectivism) and focuses on comparing the leaders of autonomous and embedded cultures based on how cooperative/conflictual they are. The main research hypothesis is as follows: the leaders of embedded cultures would be more cooperative than the leaders of autonomous cultures. For this purpose, 3 autonomous cultures (the UK, Canada and Australia) and embedded cultures (Singapore, South Africa and Malaysia) cultures were chosen randomly and the cooperativeness of the correspondent countries' leaders were compared after being profiled by Profiler Plus. The results indicated that the leaders of embedded cultures were significantly more cooperative than autonomous cultures after holding the control variables constant. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  2. The political economy of United States multiutilities: The United States electric power industry and communication services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Christine M.

    This study consists of a political economic analysis of the multiutility industry, the industry located at the confluence of electric utilities, telephone, cable, and Internet markets. The study uses a theoretical framework based in political economy and urban theory. Methodologies used include industrial analysis and instrumental analysis. A discussion of technological convergence establishes the technical means by which multiutilities developed. Refusing technological determinism, however, the study presents a critical analysis of the history, philosophy, and regulation of utilities. Distinctions are made between public and private ownership structures in the electric utility industry. Next, the study embarks on an industrial analysis of the multiutility industry. The industrial analysis includes a discussion of the industry's history, markets, ownership types, and legal struggles. Following the broad industrial overview, two case studies are presented: Hawarden Integrated Technology, Energy and Communications (HITEC), and Con Edison Communications, LLC. HITEC is a public multiutility in the City of Hawarden, Iowa. Con Edison Communications is a private multiutility, based in New York City. The case studies provide a vehicle by which theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, as well as general trends, in the multiutility industry are localized and concretized. Finally, the study draws conclusions about the nature, history, and future of public versus private control of multiutilities' converged communications infrastructures. Questions of democratic control of media infrastructures are raised.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND NEWS PROCESS IN TURKEY FROM THE POLITICAL ECONOMY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Bulut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore how directly or indirectly control policies of Turkish political government towards media besides the ownership relations of the media affect the newsmaking process. After 1980, Turkey experienced media concentration and media commercialism as a result of neoliberal policies. Though media concentration is a global phenomenon, the process has its own characteristics in Turkey. Free market is not supposed to have given rise to the birth of a free press. Intervention in relations and clientelism between the government and the media in history have merged with a rapid commercialism. This study examines the newsmaking process with the political economy approach on the basis of the ownership structure and the relations between the media and the government. The study covers an analysis of 14 digital news portals based on their headlines between the dates 20-26 January 2015 and the hours 8:00 am. -11:00 pm.  The data obtained indicate a similarity between the news portals in terms of topics agendas, and news discourse.

  4. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in Resource Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Neil Adger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate linkages between stakeholders in resource management that occur at different spatial and institutional levels and identify the winners and losers in such interactions. So-called cross-scale interactions emerge because of the benefits to individual stakeholder groups in undertaking them or the high costs of not undertaking them. Hence there are uneven gains from cross-scale interactions that are themselves an integral part of social-ecological system governance. The political economy framework outlined here suggests that the determinants of the emergence of cross-scale interactions are the exercise of relative power between stakeholders and their costs of accessing and creating linkages. Cross-scale interactions by powerful stakeholders have the potential to undermine trust in resource management arrangements. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources from cross-level interactions to reinforce their authority, this often disempowers other stakeholders such as resource users. Offsetting such impacts, some cross-scale interactions can be empowering for local level user groups in creating social and political capital. These issues are illustrated with observations on resource management in a marine protected area in Tobago in the Caribbean. The case study demonstrates that the structure of the cross-scale interplay, in terms of relative winners and losers, determines its contribution to the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  5. Nennu and Shunu: gender, body politics, and the beauty economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes recent discourse on two emerging representations of women in China, "tender" women (nennu) and "ripe" women (shunu), in order to examine the relationships among gender, body politics, and consumerism. The discourse of nennu and shunu suggests that older, ripe women become younger and more tender by consuming fashions, cosmetic surgery technologies, and beauty and health care products and services because tender women represent the ideal active consumership that celebrates beauty, sexuality, and individuality. This discourse serves to enhance consumers' desire for beauty and health and to ensure the continued growth of China's beauty economy and consumer capitalism. Highlighting the role of the female body, feminine beauty, and feminine youth in developing consumerism, this discourse downplays the contributions of millions of beauty and health care providers (predominantly laid-off female workers and rural migrant women) and new forms of gender exploitation. Such an overemphasis on gender masks intensified class division. This essay suggests that women and their bodies become new terrains from which post-Mao China can draw its power and enact consumerism. Gender constitutes both an economic multiplier to boost China's consumer capitalism and a biopolitical strategy to regulate and remold women and their bodies into subjects that are identified with the state's political and economic objectives. Since consumerism has been incorporated into China's nation-building project, gender thus becomes a vital resource for both consumer capitalist development and nation building. This essay shows that both gender and the body are useful analytic categories for the study of postsocialism.

  6. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.

  7. A Critical Perspective on Large Class Teaching: The Political Economy of Massification and the Sociology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Large classes have increasingly become a feature in many countries around the world. This paper presents a two-pronged analysis of this phenomenon, drawing on the political economy of higher education as well as the sociology of knowledge to contribute to a principled discussion about why we have large classes, and when a large class is too large.…

  8. The political economy of the Ganga River : highway of state formation in Mughal India, c.1600-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jha, Murari Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the political economy of the Ganga River during the early modern period. Thematically, the seven chapters of the dissertation may be categorized in three broad divisions. Taking a longue durée perspective, the first two chapters situate the Ganga and its plain in the wider

  9. From Infantile Citizens to Infantile Institutions: The Metaphoric Transformation of Political Economy in the 2008 Housing Market Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The logic of political economy depends on a domestic metaphor, using the "oikos" or household as a model for the "polis." Historically, this metaphor has imagined citizens as the children of a paternal state. However during the 2008 housing crisis, this metaphor was turned upside down, depicting citizens as the parents of infantile state…

  10. A Critical Perspective on Large Class Teaching: The Political Economy of Massification and the Sociology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Large classes have increasingly become a feature in many countries around the world. This paper presents a two-pronged analysis of this phenomenon, drawing on the political economy of higher education as well as the sociology of knowledge to contribute to a principled discussion about why we have large classes, and when a large class is too large.…

  11. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  12. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  13. Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad

  14. The political economy of exchange rate policy in Brazil: an empirical assessment

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    Marco Bonomo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether political economy factors contribute to explain the exchange rate policy in Brazil from 1964 to 1997. An analytical framework presents the tradeoff between the positive effect of a depreciated exchange rate on the balance of payments and its negative effect on inflation as driving force affecting exchange rate policy. The exchange rate policy resulting from this tradeoff depends on the political environment. We test our hypotheses by modeling the exchange rate disequilibrium level as a Markov switching model with time varying transition probabilities, and the influence of political economy variables on the transition probabilities is tested. The results support partially the predictions of our analytical framework. According to our statistical results there is an election cycle: the probability of having an overvalued exchange rate is higher in the months preceding elections, while the probability of having an undervalued exchange rate is higher in the months succeeding elections.Este artigo investiga se fatores de economia política ajudam a explicar a política cambial no Brasil entre 1964 e 1997. Uma estrutura analítica aponta o tradeoff entre o efeito positivo de uma desvalorização cambial sobre o balanço de pagamentos e o seu efeito negativo sobre a inflação como o principal fator na escolha da política cambial. A política cambial resultante desse tradeoff depende do ambiente político. Nossas hipóteses são testadas modelando o nível de desequilíbrio da taxa de câmbio como um modelo de Markov switching com probabilidades de transição variáveis no tempo, sendo testada a influência de variáveis de política econômica sobre a probabilidade de mudança de regime. Os resultados sustentam parcialmente as previsões de estrutura analítica. De acordo com os nossos resultados estatísticos, há um ciclo em torno das eleições: a probabilidade de a taxa de câmbio estar valorizada é maior nos

  15. The socio-political economy of nuclear power development in Japan and South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor [Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Tokyo, 616 Administration Bureau Building No. 2, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    This paper analyzes the socio-cultural, political and economic conditions prevalent during the inception of nuclear power programs in Japan and South Korea in order to identify commonalities which support nuclear power program expansion. The study identifies six factors as having a clear influence on supporting nuclear power development: (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development; (2) centralization of national energy policymaking and planning; (3) campaigns to link technological progress with national revitalization; (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions; (5) subordination of challenges to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism. The paper postulates that insights from this study can be used to assess the propensity of nations which have the emergent capacity to support nuclear power development to actually embark on such programs. (author)

  16. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  17. Cultural Politics and Transboundary Resource Governance in the Salish Sea

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    Emma S. Norman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cultural politics of water governance through the analysis of a new governing body created by indigenous leaders in the Pacific Northwest of North America – The Coast Salish Aboriginal Council. This paper investigates how the administrative structures and physical boundaries of water governance are both socially constructed and politically mobilised. The key moments explored in this article are closely linked to the power dynamics constituted through postcolonial constructions of space. Inclusion of cultural politics of scale will, arguably, provide a more nuanced approach to the study of transboundary environmental governance. This has important implications for the study of natural resource management for indigenous communities, whose traditional homelands are often bifurcated by contemporary border constructions.

  18. Anticapitalism and culture: radical theory and popular politics

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert , Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    What does 'anticapitalism' really mean for the politics and culture of the twenty-first century? Anticapitalism is an idea which, despite going global, remains rooted in the local, persisting as a loose collection of grassroots movements and actions. Anticapitalism needs to develop a coherent and cohering philosophy, something which cultural theory and the intellectual legacy of the New Left can help to provide, notably through the work of key radical thinkers, such as Ernesto Laclau, Stua...

  19. Prosocial Behaviour and Political Culture among Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which forms of prosocial behaviour and values of social responsibility are related to various domains of political culture among Australian youth. Using data from a survey of 1311 senior secondary students from the ACT and South Australia, it was found that 14 per cent had participated in one or more volunteer…

  20. From cultural industries to creative economy: The popular culture within the public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomka Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, creative industries have become an extremely popular concept in cultural policies across the globe. For many, it came as a surprise. However, the idea of merging culture and arts with industrial production has been slowly evolving during the 20th century, thus there is not much space for a surprise. The aim of this paper is to position creative industries in a broader historical and theoretical framework. The paper is looking at the interplay of popular culture and public (cultural policies: from the post-war critical theory of the Frankfurt school and UNESCO's early debate on cultural industries to the recent policies and theories on creative economy and creative industries.

  1. Caribbean Popular Culture: Everyday Lives, Racial Politics and Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Martens

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age, by Lara Putman. Chapell Hill: University of Carolina Press, 2013.Remixing Reggaetón: The Cultural Politics of Race in Puerto Rico, by Petra R. Rivera-Rideau. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2015.Roy Cape: A Life on the Calypso and Soca Bandstand, by Joycelyne Guilbault and Roy Cape. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2014. Broadcasting Modernity: Cuban Commercial Television, 1950-1960, by Yeidy M. Rivero. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2015.

  2. Tinker, Tory, Wobbler, why? The political economy of electricity restructuring in Ontario, 1995--2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles Francis James

    The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario. For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power? It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special, strategic staple, this thesis uses a pro-state, pro-staples industry political economy approach to discern how and why the Tory government sought to restructure the electricity sector. Essentially, it posits that the onslaught of neoliberalism, the emergence of novel generating technology, and the faltering of OH's nuclear wing all had a huge part to play in provoking the Tory government to initiate its reforms. Their reforms, though, proved too hasty, haughty, and

  3. The Political Economy of Sunni-Shi’ah Conflict in Sampang Madura

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    Masdar Hilmy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many overlooked the fact that politico-economic factors played an important role behind the 2011 and 2012 Sunni-Shi’ah conflict in Sampang Madura. Some, however, argue that the Sunni-Shi’ah conflict was merely driven by theological factors. The major roots of the conflict thus were therefore the internal dimensions of religious beliefs as contained in its doctrines. As a result, the conflict can only be explained in terms of religious and theological framework. This assumption is commonly shared by the majority of Madurese Muslims by arguing that the island of Madura cannot host the believers of non-Sunni. In the aftermath of the conflict, the community of Shi’ah has been forced to seek refuge outside of the land of Madura. By doing so, many observers and the Madurese Muslims tends to have treated political and economic factors as peripheral that exacerbated the escalation of conflict. This article, however, argues vice-versa that it is not theology, but politics and economy, which mainly steered the conflict. Theology played a role in exacerbating the escalation of conflict. During the conflict, religious and theological arguments were deployed as a mobilizing force in order to justify the conflict. Furthermore, the existence of Shi’ah community in Sampang is regarded by the mainstream Sunni community as a threat to their long domination over the socio-political structure in that region. The paper, thus, perceives the conflict as the way the local elites maintain the established mode of production. This paper is qualitative research that employs political-economy as its main approach in analyzing the data. [Para pengamat banyak tidak melihat aktor politik dan ekonomi di balik konflik Sunni dan Syiah 2011 dan 2012 di Sampang Madura. Para peneliti bahkan beranggapan bahwa konflik Sunni-Syiah itu dilatari oleh faktor teologis. Ini artinya bahwa tiap kelompok memegang sistem kepercayaan yang berbeda. Akar utama dari konflik itu pada

  4. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  5. Interlinks of Cultural and Creative Economies Through Creative Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on contemporary creative cultural economy concepts and presents formation background and confrontational points of view discussed by variety of authors. The scope of the creative economy is determined by creative industries exponent. If culture is perceptible in the anthropological or functional sense, one might use the concept of the cultural product. An alternative definition of creative products and services originates from a created value type: one might say these produc...

  6. The political economy of women’s professional basketball in the United States: A structure-conduct-performance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel ANTHONY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the political economy of women’s professional basketball in the United States, including both the American Basketball League (ABL and the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA. To do so, we employ the structure-conductperformance paradigm (hereafter SCP from industrial organization. In addition to the importance of television revenues and corporate sponsorships to the success of the leagues, we find evidence of economies of scope, bilateral monopoly issues, and reverse causality in the SCP paradigm as applied to women’s professional basketball in the United States.

  7. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  8. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  9. The Sociology of Agriculture in Transition: The Political Economy of Agriculture after Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pechlaner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a global food crisis brought the topic of agriculture back into the public eye, and retriggered debates about the ability of agricultural industrialization to feed the world. As a nature-based process and an exception to capitalist industrialization, agriculture trends are difficult to assess. One of the more productive attempts to do so has developed conceptual tools that account for the distinction from typical capital accumulation patterns, notably Goodman,Sorj, and Wilkinson’s (1987 classic concepts of “appropriationism” and “substitutionism.” Agricultural biotechnologies are testing the limits of even these more refined conceptualizations, as the technologies’ associated proprietary framework — including seed saving restrictions, grower contracts, and patent infringement litigation — is reorganizing many traditional agricultural practices. Drawing on case studies in Mississippi, U.S. and Saskatchewan, Canada, thispaper argues that these trends suggest a need for a new concept in political economy of agriculture theory, which I term "expropriationism.” This concept identifies several aspects of an agricultural reorganization premised on legal means to enhance capital accumulation and on separating corporate ownership from liability. This accumulation strategy has important implications given the highsalience that agriculture has for society.

  10. Whither the TPP? Political Economy of Ratification and Effect on Trade Architecture in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-il Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the race for establishing trading architecture consistent with new landscape of the global economy, the US is ahead of the game by concluding the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement with 11 countries. To make it reality, the ratification is essential. In the battle for ratification in the US, declining globalism confronts rising protectionism. This paper models the ratification process as contest between globalism and protectionism, and analyzes the optimal timing for ratification. Based on this framework, various ratification scenarios are analyzed. The paper argues less likelihood for the lame-duck session passage and more likelihood for prolonged and protracted delay, due to changing political dynamics and declining intellectual support for globalism. Hence, the future of Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement may prove different, compared to the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement, both of which were renegotiated and ratified eventually. Then, the US would lose the first move advantage. The paper also discusses strategic implications of delayed ratification on the evolution of trading architecture in East Asia.

  11. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  12. The political economy of health promotion: part 2, national provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Governmental authorities of wealthy developed nations differ in their professed commitments and activity related to the provision of the prerequisites of health through public policy action. Part 1 of this article showed how nations identified as social democratic or liberal welfare states were those where such commitments are present. Nations identified as conservative or Latin welfare states were less likely to express such commitments. However, the political economy literature suggests that despite their expressed commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare states fare rather poorly in implementing these commitments. The opposite is seen for conservative welfare states. Social democratic welfare states show both commitments and public policy consistent with this objective. Part 2 of this article documents the extent to which public policy activity that provides the prerequisites of health through public policy action differs among varying welfare state regimes. Despite extensive rhetoric concerning the prerequisites of health, nations identified as liberal welfare states do a rather poor job of meeting these goals and show evidence of adverse health outcomes. In contrast, social democratic welfare states fare better in providing such prerequisites--consistent with their rhetorical statements--with better health outcomes. Interestingly, conservative--and to a lesser extent Latin--nations fare well in providing the prerequisites of health despite their lack of explicit commitment to such concepts. Findings suggest that health promoters have to concern themselves with the broad strokes of public policymaking whether or not these policy activities are identified as health promotion activities.

  13. International Political Economy and the Crises of the 1970s: The Real 'Transatlantic Divide'

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    Julian Germann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the intellectual history of InternationalPolitical Economy (IPE. However, framed in terms of a growing divergence between an‘American’ and a ‘British’ school, the debate has done little more than rehash well-knownontological, epistemological, and methodological differences between problem-solvingand critical theory. This essay contends that situating the emergence of the field in thecontext of the crisis of the 1970s can do more to advance a critical review of the discipline.Conceived in a moment of crisis, IPE set out to address the fundamental question of howfar global capitalism could be collectively managed. Looking back to the 1930s, however,IPE failed to explain how the crisis of the 1970s would lead to the acceleration, ratherthan disruption, of capitalist globalisation. I argue that the neglect of this foundationalpuzzle undermines the ability of IPE to offer an integrated analysis of internationalcooperation and conflict. In light of the current crisis, this essay concludes, there is a moresignificant ‘transatlantic divide’ to pursue than the obvious epistemic divisions betweenAmerican and British IPE: namely, the strategic tensions between the United States andits European allies that emerged during the crisis years of the 1970s, and set the capitalistheartland on a path of deepening integration and multilaterally coordinated expansion.

  14. The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.

  15. The political economy of petroleum investments and land acquisition standards in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Kweka, Opportuna

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to community–investor relations in the petroleum sector in Africa, typically emphasising the responsibility of oil companies from the Global North to accommodate community interests. Empirical research that includes the role of the state actors in shaping these relati......Much attention has been paid to community–investor relations in the petroleum sector in Africa, typically emphasising the responsibility of oil companies from the Global North to accommodate community interests. Empirical research that includes the role of the state actors in shaping...... these relations is limited. Based on empirical field research in mainland Tanzania, this article inscribes itself into an emerging body of literature that seeks to unpack land acquisition processes as a way to analyse relations among all the main actors. By focusing on struggles over the standards...... for the compulsory acquisition of land for petroleum investments, it points out that the political economy of land is decisive in determining the extent to which existing rights to land are accommodated. In this, the role of state authorities should not be underestimated. Their interactions with three ideal types...

  16. The classic political economy and the cyberculture. The chat market as exchange of goods and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marilyn Ortiz Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an important part of the doctoral thesis topics “Configuration of the semiotics of the chat: a multimodal view”, in which the reflection on the media and the means of production ownership is proposed, from the relationship between the users of electronic devices and the virtual – real ownership consequences, bearing in mind that the cloud production relation and the electronic interaction bring about a series of epistemological implications characterized by the virtuality whose market and process of interaction is the web. This interaction allows a straight relationship with the research about the chat in a cyberculture world and specifically the chat as an emergent language, since the relationship between the language and the culture, the language and the knowledge and the most relevant one, the language and the economy, from a production system point of view, are a way to understand the symbolic products of the current society

  17. The Nigerian Economy in the Face of Socio-Political Challenges: A Retrospective View and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomola M Obamuyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.

  18. PERSON, POLITICS AND CULTURE FORMATION: THOUGHT AND EXPERIENCE DEFEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio Giovinazzo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed some reflections concerning to the predominant cultural formation models in the contemporary society, which is marked by instrumental rationality and technique. By means of the presentation of some Herbert Marcuse and Theodor W. Adorno conceptions on history, dialectic, reason and experience, it is distinguished the necessity to review the political performance patterns, in view of the conservative nature of delayed capitalism. In this direction, it is suggested the reevaluation of the Marxist dialectic, according determined negation and determined choice concepts, and the consideration of the historical process as field of possibilities, from the continuity-rupture binomial. It is also analyzed the consequences of the type of rationality predominant at the time current, where the false necessities prevail, that is, those imposed; as well as the thought and experience split, that is in action in the cultural formation of the persons, in order to hinder the autonomy, what, consequently, reverberates on the political action.

  19. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  20. On the Culture Factor in the Translation of Political Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镇球

    2001-01-01

    @@ As in many other types of translation, culture plays an important part in the translation of political writings. This is of course a very general statement. And according to Edmund Keeley, professor of English and creative writing at Princeton University, "any discussion of translation in broad terms is dangerous" ① Let's then avoid generalizations and get down to specifics by citing a couple of examples.

  1. Peak Politics: Resource Scarcity and Libertarian Political Culture in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew

    My dissertation uses the "peak oil" movement as a lens to analyze the convergence of apocalyptic environmental thinking and libertarian political culture in the recent United States. The "peak oil" movement was a twenty-first century American social movement of Americans who came to believe that oil depletion and other environmental problems would lead to the imminent collapse of global industrial society. Dedicated adherents developed a rich subculture, primarily online, and prepared themselves for the "post-carbon" future by conserving energy, changing occupations, and even purchasing land. Drawing on surveys of over 1,500 participants, ethnographic research, discourse analysis of peak oil websites and literary analysis of subcultural fiction, my research reveals a group of mostly white, male, liberal Americans struggling with the perceived threat of economic, environmental and geopolitical decline while the country undergoes a broad shift in political culture: the continued rise of libertarian ideals, accelerated by the influence of Internet technology. I view this apocalyptic subculture in the context of petroleum dependence, eco-apocalyptic discourses, the environmental discourse of "limits to growth," white masculinity, climate change, and the influence of conservative individualism on American political culture.

  2. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some

  3. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some pol

  4. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Help for Small Businesses The government will stop charging administrative fees for sole proprietorships and individual market vendors as of September 1, according to a joint circular recently issued by the Ministry of Finance, National Development and Reform Commission and the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. This move is designed to cut costs for individual business owners as part of the government’s efforts to aid the private economy and increase employment.

  5. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stock Exchange Ties The Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE) of Israel signed a memorandum of understanding onNovember 10 to facilitate cooperation between them.They agreed to mutual visits by stock exchange personnel to increase their respective knowledge of and interest in each other’s bourses, according to a news release. It ishoped that the visits will encourage invest-ments and cooperation in various aspects oftheir respective markets and economies, the statement said.

  6. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  7. Dealing with the 2007/08 global food price crisis: The political economy of food price policy in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chirwa, Ephraim; Chinsinga, Blessings

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the underlying political economy motivations of the government's policy responses to food price increases in 2007/08 focusing particularly on maize as the main staple crop. The main government policy responses to the food price spikes in 2007/08 were price control, bans on domestic and international trade. We argue that although there has been increased openness in policy debates and dialogue relating to the question of food security since the transition to democracy in May...

  8. Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

    2006-01-01

    The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

  9. The political economy of emissions trading; L'economie politique des marches de permis d'emissions negociables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoteau, J

    2004-06-15

    This thesis is a positive analysis of emissions trading systems' implementation. We explain why allowances are generally granted for free even though normative economic analysis recommends their sale. We show empirically that free tradable permits, source of windfall profit, motivate rent seeking behaviours. The study focuses on the US market for SO{sub 2} emissions allowances. The initial allocation rule resulted from parliamentary discussions that looked like a zero sum game. We formalize it as an endogenous sharing rule, function of lobbying effort, and we test it using political (money) contributions.We analyse theoretically the behaviour of an influenced regulator that has chosen to organize a market for permits and that must still decide on two policy variables: the whole quantity of permits and the way to allocate them initially. We formalize this decisions making process with the common agency model of politics.We show that the choice of an initial allocation rule is not neutral in presence of political market failures (lobbying). The decision to sell the permits or to grant them for free modifies the shareholders' incentive, in a polluting industry, to pressure for or against the reduction of legal emissions.Then, we analyse the public arbitration between the two policy variables when several industrial lobbies play a partially cooperative game for the free permits. The regulator chooses in priority to grant the rights for free rather than to manipulate their quantity, and this constitutes an efficient answer to the political influence. (author)

  10. Characteristic and Cultural Study of the Politeness in Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席晓

    2008-01-01

    s This paper shows that people lays special emphasis on difference aspects of politeness principle in the light of their own culture in cross-communication. And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language us-ing in Pragmatic are, and why? It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  11. WHY THE SUDDEN CHANGE OF THE POLITICAL REGIME IS DETERMINING RISK IN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian MEHEDINTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to gather an in-depth understanding of the evolution of manking throughout the history and its political regimes, and in the same time are analizing and determining the components of the social function that exercised a great influence on the stability and dynamics of the production and consumption, pointing out that any social organization that wants to remain rational should have as a primary objective the happiness of the people, that so called,“general happiness”, that could only be achieved through education, culture, raising people's moral and intellectual knowledge. Since any political system does not seek the general good, but the one of some persons or a specific group of people, there is only very little communion between them and the people or is entirely missing and for these reasons their reign won’t be long, because the people are always wanting a political change. This "social problem" occurred because of some significant social movements, socialist doctrines whose effects still persist in present times. The efforts of the profound thinkers and mankind throughout the history, with all the positive developments did not materialize in achieving a society in which wealth is equitably distributed, where the contributions of the people in getting them is equally shared that could satisfy the requirements and the needs of the majority members of the society. In all the transformations and society changes or the political regime of the state, the human being represented the base, with its unlimited evolution and thinking, and all of these were achieved in time and were given by a certain social environment. The human being can not be separated from its social environment. He is born to live in the society, but the freedom can not be unlimited of course. The history has shown that all the hasty attempts suffered the same fate and the only sustainable progress made by the people were those who came out

  12. Watching Politics: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Impact of Visual Cultures on Politics, University of Warwick, 31 May 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gallimore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jointly hosted by the Institute of Advanced Study and the Department of Film and Television Studies at the University of Warwick, the Watching Politics symposium brought together a range of disciplines to explore the social, cultural, aesthetic, historical, theoretical and political impacts of visual cultures on politics - and vice versa.  With such a wide remit, it was interesting to identify how links between the various papers were established, frequently relating to this interdependence of influence and transmission between the two systems.  Devoting attention across a diverse range of contemporary and past media, culture and politics opened up the event to consider a variety of interdisciplinary approaches and methodologies, encouraging a more holistic view of the relationship between visual cultures and politics.

  13. POLITICAL PARTY “UNITED RUSSIA” IN 2003-2014: CREATING OF NEW POLITICAL SPACE AND MODERNIZATION OF ECONOMY, BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Poletaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the activities of the political party «United Russia» in the sphere of development and implementation of programs of socio-economic modernization, and reveals the essential role of the political party «United Russia» in the formation of mechanisms of interaction between government and business-community of Russia in 2003-2014. The author on the basis of the study notes that the political party «United Russia» in the period under review, highest priority attention to the formation in Russian Federation of a new political and business consciousness that is the key to further successful development of Russian innovative economy and business. The importance of the party «United Russia» gives the implementation of social programs of support, which aims to improve the social fabric of society, to promote training of highly qualified personnel, young specialists – managers, entrepreneurs, scientists, business managers, etc. a Special attention of the political party «United Russia» pays the elaboration of the strategy of innovative development, introduction in manufacture of nanotechnology, the development of fundamental science as a basis for future modernization breakthrough. The leadership of the party «United Russia» called for increased dialogue between government and business, strengthens constructive corporate engagement of business organizations and party structures in order to intensify the modernization process in the field of business and economics as well as to solve the strategic task – creation of innovative economy and knowledge-based business, modernization of Russia in the XXI century.

  14. Some Thoughts on "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gentry, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    To view giftedness research in a global context is an important and desirable attempt. Roland S. Persson (2012a), in the target article entitled Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Cultural-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness, delivers thought-provoking views in the cultural influences…

  15. Some Thoughts on "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gentry, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    To view giftedness research in a global context is an important and desirable attempt. Roland S. Persson (2012a), in the target article entitled Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Cultural-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness, delivers thought-provoking views in the cultural influences…

  16. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.

  17. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  18. The political economy of a public health case management program's transition into medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele

    2015-11-01

    Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent.

  19. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  20. The Making of Antisemitism as a Political Movement. Political History as Cultural History (1879-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bergmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The new dimension of antisemitism in contrast to the traditional religious animosity towards Jews, was in first instance not so much its racist orientation but the fact that this hostility assumed the form of a political or social movement. The reason for its emergence must be seen in the larger transformations taking place in 19th century Europe, in the social conflicts, economic upheavals, cultural dislocations and social-moral crises. Antisemitism, therefore, was not caused by religious conflicts; on the contrary this new kind of hatred against Jews originated from the “great transformation,” the upheaval of the whole way of living in the formation of the industrial world. This transformation led to a ‘clash of economic mentalities,” and parts of the middle classes and of the peasant population adhered to the “moral economy” of the traditional world.5 Unable to grasp the new capitalist mentality, they accused the Jews of being responsible for this transformation. The religious tradition of animosity towards Jews in this context served as legitimacy for the new antisemitic rage. Moreover Catholic, Protestant as well as Orthodox clergyman, fearing the cultural upheaval, accused the Jews of being responsible for the social and political conflicts of the 19th Century. Paradoxically, in this way, the Christian Churches played an important part in the making of the new non religious and secular political movement of antisemitism

  1. TALKING POLITICS ONLINE WITHIN SPACES OF POPULAR CULTURE : THE CASE OF THE BIG BROTHER FORUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Talking politics online is not bound to spaces dedicated to politics, particularly the everyday political talk crucial to the public sphere. The aim of this article is to move beyond such spaces by examining political talk within a space dedicated to popular culture. The purpose is to see whether a

  2. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  3. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  4. A Comparative Study of Face and Politeness in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng-fang

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a comparative study of the Chinese and western attitudes towards“face”and“politeness”. When concerning the standards of politeness, western cultures focus more on the creation of individual ’s private space; while Chinese culture, as a typical collectivist culture, shows more stress on harmony and group identity. But some euphemisms and cultural rit-uals show the generosity of being polite in both cultures. After this comparative study of face and politeness in two cultures, there will be a better understanding of politeness between Chinese and western communication.

  5. "Fear of a Black Planet": Rap Music and Black Cultural Politics in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tricia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the exercise of institutional and ideological power over rap music and fans, how artists and fans respond to that context, and the complex relationships between rap's political economy and the sociologically based crime discourse that frames it. Rap's poetic voice is a political expression of the Black experience. (JB)

  6. Music Education in Shanghai from 1895 to 1945: The Cultural Politics of Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the development of music education in China and the integration of cultural politics and nationalism, using Shanghai, twentieth-century China's most developed city, as a case study; it examines the historical and political processes in Shanghai's music education to show what is cultural about politics and what is political…

  7. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe: Interest groups and political institutions in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Esben Bergmann; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    by establishing dispersed political institutions, that can raise the price on rent-seeking. In Russia the centralized political institutions of the past were not replaced. Hence, Russia inherited both interest groups and political institutions of the late communist era - an unfortunate starting point for carrying...

  8. The Impact of the Black Death on the Golden Horde: Politics, Economy, Society, Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Schamiloglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives and materials: This essay offers an overview of the political, economic, social, and cultural consequences of the Black Death (the epidemic of bubonic plague cause by the bacteria Yersinia pestis in the territories of the Golden Horde in the 14th–15th centuries. It considers the framework which has been developed for medieval Europe and the Middle East. It considers whether there was a medieval growth in population in the Golden Horde prior to the arrival of the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It considers the level of depopulation and how it led to political instability. It notes how bubonic plague was used as a weapon by the Mongol armies. It considers economic consequences such as the decline in certain professions and crafts, the threat to the food supply, and the rising cost of labor which led to inflation. It also considers the social crisis brought about by the sudden death of substantial portions of the population. Results and novelty of the research: The rise in urbanization in the 13th to mid-14th century was followed by a collapse in the population and decline in urban centers beginning in the second half of the 14th century. The Black Death also led to population pressure as most sedentary centers declined, while at the same time certain sedentary areas escaped the plague, as could many nomadic populations who were less susceptible to disease. It also examines the decline in literary languages and the growth in religiosity. Finally, it considers the recovery in the population beginning in the mid-15th century.

  9. Construction of Hong-dae cultural district : cultural place, cultural policy and cultural politics

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Mihye

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the process of creating the "Hong-dae cultural district" in Seoul has involved the mobilisation of various social groups and triggered the (re)institutionalisation of the meaning of "the cultural". It seeks to explicate how a cultural policy project can stimulate the emergence of social groups, which challenge existing policy provisions and laws and lead to the (re)institutionalisation of "Hong-dae culture". In so doing, the author will be able to simultaneously...

  10. A Comparison between China and America’s Political Cultures on the Perspective of Value Orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卓航

    2015-01-01

    <正>How do we define political culture and how do we understand Chinese political culture and American culture?Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as"the set of attitudes,beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".Such kind of attitudes,beliefs and sentiments can be seen as the reflection of culture.A political culture is the result of both the collective history of a political system and the life histories of the members of the system and thus it is rooted equally in public events and private

  11. Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

    1985-01-01

    Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

  12. Culture Industry Development and Regional Economy - Case Study of Tianjin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-sheng, Li

    Cultural industry is one of the fastest growing industries and the added value of culture industry is almost more than 10% of GDP in developed countries. This paper first introduced the boundaries of cultural industries and the development of that in Tianjin. Then the logistic growth model was used to detect the stage of the life cycle of culture industry in Tianjin. We draw the conclusion that culture industry is in the rapid growth stage in Tianjin, and we must take scientific development, increasing innovation through structural reform, technological advances, personnel training and other measures to promote the cultural industry development in Tianjin by leaps.

  13. Public opinion on renewable energy: The nexus of climate, politics, and economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Hazboun, Shawn K.

    Increased use of renewable energy sources in the generation of electricity is a crucial component of transitioning to a less polluting energy system in the United States. Technologies like solar photovoltaic cells and wind turbines are being deployed at a rapid rate around the country, which means that an increasing portion of the public is becoming aware of renewable energy systems. The construction of these new industrial facilities has resulted in a variety of public reactions, positive and negative. Citizen opposition has been widely observed toward a variety of renewable energy facilities, and citizen groups can influence policy-making at the national, state, and local levels. Further research is needed to understand under what circumstances the public may take oppositional stances. To examine this topic, I analyze public perceptions of renewable energy using three different datasets. First, I used data from a survey conducted in 2014 in five communities in Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho experiencing renewable energy development (n=906). This dataset allowed me to untangle what factors help explain both individual as well as community-level variation in support for renewable energy. Second, I employed nationally representative survey data (n=13, 322) collected from 2008 to 2015 to examine the influence of a number of factors hypothesized to shape individuals' level of support for renewable energy policies including socio-demographic characteristics, political beliefs, belief in anthropogenic climate change, and nearby extractive industry activities. Last, I analyzed discourse about renewable energy in sixty-one semi-structured interviews with individuals representing various community sectors in three energy-producing rural communities in Utah. My research findings, on a whole, suggest that several place-based factors are significant in shaping public opinion about renewable energy, including community experience with renewable energy and local economic reliance on

  14. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18(th) of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  15. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  16. The political economy of the introduction of Western medicine in India and preexisting health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Debabar

    2009-01-01

    In India, by the second century B.C., Ayurvedic medicine had already taken the momentous step of becoming rational therapeutics. Physicians created a methodology based on the supreme importance of direct observation of natural phenomena and the technique of rational processing of empirical data. However, over the long history of the country, Ayurvedic medicine underwent severe erosion of its knowledge and practice because of profound political, cultural, social, and economic changes. Nevertheless, it was used by the poor because access to Western medicine was denied by the ruling classes. Alarm bells started to ring with the declaration of self-reliance and self-determination by the poor at Alma-Ata in 1978. A syndicate of the rich countries, with active support of India's ruling elite, mobilized the enormous influence and resources of organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, UNICEF, and World Bank to promote their unconcealed agenda of promoting the private health sector and further decimating the public sector.

  17. Political Economy of the Public Forest Certification in the Gunungkidul Regency, DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyaningsih

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Public forests, particularly the ones in Java island, were developed in the 1930s by Dutch colonial government although the government’s policy did not fully recognize and legitimate them as state forests. Nevertheless, the contribution of the forests to local communities cannot be denied, because the existence of community forest can be lifesaving. That public forest after deforestation becomes an alternative solution can be seen in changes in the timber industry, in that demand for wood is increasing. The change resulted could be seen in the cultural change of this industry on the management of public forest in Java, especially in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta. The demand and pressure of international market that set requirements on the wood sold to be of high quality and accompanied with legal documents of public forets is an absolute condition to have the logs be accepted, recognized and marketed in international market. In political economical context, forest certification in Gunungkidul regency needs the intervention of the State to protect the marketing of timber from public forests.

  18. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  19. The political economy of AIDS leadership in developing countries: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    The commitment of high-level government leaders is widely recognized as a key factor in curbing national AIDS epidemics. But where does such leadership come from? This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the determinants of AIDS leadership in 54 developing countries, using the 2003 AIDS Program Effort Index "political support" score as an indicator of political commitment. Explanatory variables include measures of political institutions as well as economic development and integration. Models developed in the analysis explain over half of the variation in commitment across the countries in the sample. In particular, press freedoms, income equality, and HIV prevalence stand out as determinants of political commitment.

  20. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Christianity, Islam, and Political Culture: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Robert A.

    Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…

  2. Eighteenth-century Gujarat : the dynamics of its political economy, 1750-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadri, Ghulam Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the political and economic dynamics of eighteenth-century Gujarat. The aspects of the interpenetration of trade and politics and the complex nature of relationship among rulers, merchants and producers have been analysed mainly on the basis of information culle

  3. The Political Economy of Financial Systems : Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Lambert, T.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncert

  4. Eighteenth-century Gujarat : the dynamics of its political economy, 1750-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadri, Ghulam Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the political and economic dynamics of eighteenth-century Gujarat. The aspects of the interpenetration of trade and politics and the complex nature of relationship among rulers, merchants and producers have been analysed mainly on the basis of information

  5. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  6. Cultural Economy, Capitalism and the Logic of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp.......Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp....

  7. Principles of Managing the Corporate Culture of an Enterprise in the Unstable Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov Andriy A.

    2013-01-01

    The article systemises groups of principles by the content of the corporate culture and directions of managing it. It offers the author’s definition of the “principle of managing corporate culture” term. It forms own system of principles of managing corporate culture in the unstable economy. It formulates the essence of 13 principles of managing corporate culture (intelligence, individuality, integrity, realism, indirect actions, interexchange, dynamism, alarmism, adaptation, inevitability, s...

  8. 海洋经济视角下大学生思想政治教育创新研究--以北部湾区域经济为例%College Students' Ideological and Political Educational Innovation Research under the perspective of Marine Economy--Take Beibu Gulf Regional Economy for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海凤; 赖燕

    2014-01-01

    The development and Opening-up of marine economy opens up new research field and topic for university’s ideological and political education. Guangxi marine economy has unique geographical environment, cultural environment and national culture, providing potential resources for the ideological and political education. There is still much work to be done to utilize the development of Guangxi marine economy to reform the ideological and political education in universities of Guangxi.%海洋经济的发展和开放,不断为高校思想政治教育开辟新的领域,提出新的课题。广西海洋经济有独特的地理环境、人文环境和民族文化,为思想政治教育提供了潜在的资源。分析广西海洋经济的发展状况,认识高校大学生的海洋意识水平,利用广西海洋经济的发展改革思想政治教育,还需要做好多个方面的工作。

  9. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-07-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care.

  10. The Interplay between Social and Environmental Degradation in the Development of the International Political Economy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Biel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers capitalism as a dissipative system, developing at the expense of exporting disorder into two sorts of ‘environment’: the physical ecosystem; and a subordinate area of society which serves to nourish mainstream order without experiencing its benefits. Particularly significant is the relationship between the two forms of dissipation. The paper begins by assessing the dangers of translating systems theory into social relations, concluding that the project is nevertheless worthwhile, provided that exploitation and struggle are constantly borne in mind. Exploring the concepts of ‘core’ and ‘periphery,’ the paper highlights the contradictory nature of an attribute of chaos which is both ascribed to the out-group, and also really exported to it. If the core’s growth merely destroyed peripheral order, the entropy of capitalism would be starkly exposed in the form of an exhaustion of future room for maneuver. This problem can be kept at bay by maintaining a self-reproducing ‘low’ order within the subordinate social system; however the fundamental entropy is still there, and will sooner or later manifest itself in the shape of threats to the sustainability of that subordinate system. At the level of the international political economy (IPE, this dialectic unfolds against the background of a ‘lumpy’ development whereby (following structural crises order can be reconstituted, but at a cost which must be absorbed somewhere. In the case of the post-World War II reordering, this cost was massively exported to the physical environment. Since a high level of ecological depletion now appears permanently embedded within the capitalist IPE, future major efforts of order-building cannot rely on this dimension to the same degree, and must instead access some new forms of dissipative relationship with the social environment. The paper argues that this is the fundamental significance of the ‘sustainable development’ discourse: it

  11. Education and development projects in Brazil (1932-2004: political economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Stuhlberger Wjuniski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the long-run history of education policies in Brazil. It is suggested that the main reason for the educational backwardness was the existence of strong political interests over education. It is also defended that these interests can be empirically observed in the allocation of public resources between the different levels of education, with political choices favouring specific groups in society. It was not a matter of lack of investment in education, but of inadequate allocation of resources. This pattern of political-based policies created a strong negative path dependence of misallocation of resources in education in Brazil, particularly with significant underinvestment in secondary education.

  12. Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternati...

  13. Bridging political economy analysis and critical institutionalism: an approach to help analyse institutional change for rural water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen David Jones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that approaches to understanding local institutionsfor natural resource management based on “critical institutionalism” (Cleaver2012, which emphasises the importance of improvisation and adaptationacross different scales, can be placed within broader political economy analysisframeworks for assessing challenges in public services delivery from national tolocal levels. The paper uses such an extended political economy analysis approachto understand the role of the international NGO WaterAid and its partners in Mali inrelation to institutions for financing rural water services, drawing on collaborativeresearch undertaken in 2010 and 2011. The case study shows that WaterAid’sapproach can be understood through elements of both mainstream and criticalinstitutionalist thinking. At local government level, WaterAid primarily promotesformal institutional arrangements, which exhibit the challenge of “reforms assignals” (Andrews 2013, where institutional reforms appear to happen but lackthe intended function. However, the work of WaterAid’s partners at communitylevel supports processes of “institutional bricolage” through which they try togradually work with local actors to find ways of ‘best fit’ for financing rural waterservices which adapt existing local practices into new arrangements.

  14. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  15. Exercising Freedom over Time: Political and Cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixon David Reyes Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paper addresses, in an essay format, the topic of the emergence of a culture that includes the redeeming recreation of important elements such as freedom and responsibility from a practical point of view, as a collective life project, consistent with humanitarian ideals and values. This is an analytical paper based on questions pertaining to categories and assumptions such as leisure time, work, and capitalism, among others. The objective of this analysis is the deconstruction of myths that, in the light of the theory and the political philosophies resulting from the industrial revolution, subsume recreation as an activity. Myths do not only do this but limit recreation to time specificity, thwarting the possibility of happiness and the liberation of consciousness from a dehumanizing and dehumanized ideology.

  16. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  17. The Influence of Culture on Expressions of Politeness between Chinese and Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2013-01-01

    Language is an important carrier of culture, and culture finds a better representation through language use. As Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis holds that there is a correlation between language and culture, different nations have different cultural back⁃grounds, which means that their ways of showing politeness are not the same. And this kind of difference will definitely be em⁃bodied in language. Politeness principles can apply to all languages, but it may have different representations in different cultures. Recognizing these differences may help us improve intercultural communication and behave more polite in intercultural commu⁃nication.

  18. Translation in the global cultural economy: asymmetries, difference and identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Barbosa de Vasconcellos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While globalization per se (and the related topic of global cultural homogeneity does not in and of itself exhaust the range of relevant questions about translation in the contemporary world, it is here argued that a focus on globalization is a promising route to the reflection on issues of asymmetries, difference and identity in translation. One of such issues would be the role of translation in responding to the march of the overall globalization process toward the making of the entire world into a single space. Within this context, this paper (i interrogates Appadurai’s (1990 framework for the cultural study of globalization so as to problematize the metaphor of the “fractals” for global cultural interactions by exploring what this metaphor leaves in the dark; (ii draws on Asad’s (1986 comments on “The Inequality of Languages and on Jacquemond’s (1992 view of the inequality in the global translation flux; and, finally, (iii makes the connection of these views with translation as the central issue in all communication and sociopolitical interaction between the ‘first’ and the ‘third’ worlds, suggesting that questions dealing with the relative power and prestige of cultures – with matters of dominance, submission and resistance – might profitably move center stage in translating, in translation teaching and in the analysis of translations. The questions informing the reflections are: To what extent does globalization exhibit the effects of domination by the power centers of global culture? To what extent can globalization be said to impact upon translation as regards “the asymmetrical power relationship between the various local vernaculars and the one master-language of our post-colonial world, English”?

  19. The Passions of Learning in Tight Circumstances: Toward a Political Economy of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Economies make their demands, and by necessity, people adjust, learn, and survive. People adjust to tight circumstances with passion and ingenuity. Necessity and its passions are the stuff of reality and generally more than schools or educational research can handle. Mainstream theories of learning have captured economic constraints only…

  20. The Comparison of Politeness Strategies in Chinese Culture and in Eng-lish Speaking Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龄

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society, as the development of globalization a growing tendency of how to communication effective⁃ly between different culture and languages has becoming a matter of fact. Even though a great number of communication strate⁃gies used to reduce the culture shock, obstacles in cultural exchanges still remains due to the culture differences. Politeness theory, as an important communication strategy, is still the most important and influential theory for cross-cultural communication. While there still has a few controversial arguments being conducted. It results in the issue of this article:Is there different compar⁃ing Chinese culture with English Speaking Culture in Terms of Politeness Strategies? In this paper, I will present a general review of classic politeness theories including Brown&Levinson, Leech’s research in English speaking culture and Gu and Xu’s findings in Chinese culture. Among their theories some specific politeness strategies such as face-saving strategy, politeness principle and its maxims will be used to give an image of the difference between Chinese culture and English speaking culture in terms of po⁃liteness strategies. In the definition of‘politeness’, two characteristics are worth mentioning:universality as well as culture-specif⁃ic. Therefore the article concludes by the arguing that, in spite of a few similarities, there are differences between in Chinese cul⁃ture and in English speaking context in politeness.

  1. Understanding the conviction of Binayak Sen: Neocolonialism, political violence and the political economy of health in the central Indian tribal belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan J; King, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The health of adivasis' (Scheduled Tribes or indigenous peoples) is far worse than the general Indian population. Binayak Sen, a renowned Indian public health practitioner, has worked with adivasis in central India for over thirty years. On Christmas Eve 2010 Sen was convicted of involvement with Maoist insurgents and sentenced to life in prison. Sen's conviction has been condemned by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and medical journals such as The Lancet and the British Medical Journal are campaigning for his release. This short report addresses the apparently vexing question of how such a miscarriage of justice could happen to a well-reputed physician in a country that is widely referred to as 'the world's largest democracy'. Both Sen's conviction and the health crisis among adivasis in central India are symptoms of what Paul Farmer (2005) refers to as 'deeper pathologies of power'; specifically, the neocolonial political economy in which the state is very active in dispossessing adivasis but inactive in providing benevolent functions. Thus, the case demonstrates the manner in which public health is intimately related to social, economic and political processes.

  2. Migrants and Democratization: The Political Economy of Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Hok-Wui Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that immigrants can serve as staunch support of the conservative incumbents of a regime, due to a self-selection effect; immigrants are more likely to accept the political status quo and be less sympathetic to the opposition who might demand progressive changes. Based on Asian Barometer survey data in Hong Kong, we showed that Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong are more pro-establishment and supportive of pro-government parties. With China’s huge population, this implies a strategic importance of Chinese migrants, whose inflow to other Asian states can significantly skew the politics of neighbouring states in destined directions.

  3. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  4. The political economy of urban climate adaptation and development planning in Surat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chu

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for a political economic approach to understanding climate change adaptation and development planning in an urban context. Based on field research conducted in Surat, India, across a period of two years, I illustrate how climate adaptation is rooted in preexisting and contextually

  5. The Political Economy of Boomerang Aid in China’s Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines how rapid growth in the Tibetan areas of West China since the mid-1990s has been a key factor exacerbating the unresolved contestations of Chinese rule in these areas. Amidst the continued political disempowerment of Tibetan locals, Beijing has used recent developme

  6. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  7. The Political Economy of Rhetorical Style: Hugh Blair's Response to the Civic-Commercial Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Recent scholarship treats Hugh Blair's "Lectures" on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) as an effort to endorse either the liberal or the civic political traditions in eighteenth-century Scotland. This essay questions this orthodoxy by reading the "Lectures", and in particular Blair's attention to considerations of rhetorical…

  8. Political Economy and the NCLB Regime: Accountability, Standards, and High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Focus and institutional policy under the No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB] (U.S. Department of Education 2001) has prioritized the individualistic, market-driven agenda. The NCLB regime has gained hegemony over the political space of public education, and the value and effectiveness of the educational process has become subject to the fetishism of…

  9. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

  10. The Political Economy of Open-Source Software in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The debate about the impact of information and communication technology has tended to focus on either its economic or its political aspects. The growing centrality of this technology to life in the 21st century, however, raises important questions about social ownership and control that necessitate a broader and more holistic analysis. Central to…

  11. International and domestic constraints on political business cycles in OECD economies : A comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, E; Maier, P

    2002-01-01

    We attempt to assess the effect of monetary policy in a panel model for 16 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). To answer the question of whether central banks actively create political business cycles, we focus on the short-term interest rate as a pr

  12. The Political Economy of Rhetorical Style: Hugh Blair's Response to the Civic-Commercial Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Recent scholarship treats Hugh Blair's "Lectures" on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) as an effort to endorse either the liberal or the civic political traditions in eighteenth-century Scotland. This essay questions this orthodoxy by reading the "Lectures", and in particular Blair's attention to considerations of rhetorical style, against their…

  13. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

  14. The political economy of the fisheries sector in Uganda: ruling elites, implementation costs and industry interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    to support the establishment of effective hygiene and testing procedures. This helped the fishing industry succeed to an extent that helped create interests in the status quo. Fishermen, their dependents, and the fish processors all wanted to maintain a high level of fish catches. It was politically costly...

  15. Mass Media Public Policy Implications of the Political Economy of Rawls and Nozick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    The political economic ideas of philosophers John Rawls and Robert Nozick are compared in this paper, and their implications for mass media public policy are explored. The paper first examines the position of each philosopher, noting the major principles set forth in their works, historical antecedents for their ideas, and possible applications to…

  16. Does cultural exposure partially explain the association between personality and political orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowen; Mar, Raymond A; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-11-01

    Differences in political orientation are partly rooted in personality, with liberalism predicted by Openness to Experience and conservatism by Conscientiousness. Since Openness is positively associated with intellectual and creative activities, these may help shape political orientation. We examined whether exposure to cultural activities and historical knowledge mediates the relationship between personality and political orientation. Specifically, we examined the mediational role of print exposure (Study 1), film exposure (Study 2), and knowledge of American history (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that print and film exposure mediated the relationships Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness have with political orientation. In Study 3, knowledge of American history mediated the relationship between Openness and political orientation, but not the association between Conscientiousness and political orientation. Exposure to culture, and a corollary of this exposure in the form of acquiring knowledge, can therefore partially explain the associations between personality and political orientation.

  17. The Nordic approach to the Experience Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bille, Trine

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities. In the Nordic countries the experience economy has been developed in a political context and it is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. This p...

  18. Social goal-objective formation, democracy and national interest a theory of political economy under fuzzy rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the development of a theory of social goal-objective formation and its relationship to national interest and social vision under a democratic decision-choice system with imperfect information structure. It provides a framework for the application of fuzzy logic and its mathematics to the analysis in resolving conflicts in individual preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence. The book demonstrates how to use fuzzy logic and its mathematics in the study of economics, social sciences and other complex systems. It also presents the use of collaborative tools of opposites, duality, polarity, continuum in fuzzy paradigm with its logic, laws of thought and mathematics in developing a new approach to the theory of political economy in order to enhance the constructs of social decision-choice theory.

  19. To the last drop. About oil's political economy; Til siste draape. Om oljens politiske oekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryggvik, Helge

    2009-07-01

    This book sets the last few years dramatic oil news into a context which until now has been missing in the Norwegian debate. The starting point is an analysis of what the classical economists - from Smith and Ricardo to Marx and George - would have called the oil companies special political economy. The book shows that which is good for the new Statoil, nearly never will be good for Norway and the rest of the world. It shows how a small elite has secured a good grip on straws into the great oil wealth, how the foundation, in international context presented as a successful Norwegian oil policy, is about to break down and how the great internationalization project which lay behind, will change Norway's relationship to the world - forever. (AG)

  20. The political economy of health policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Cynthia T; Kalu, Kelechi

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the health status of Sub-Saharan Africa focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases, HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, famine, and political instability. Its contention is that Africa is stuck in the second stage of the demographic transition (high birth rate, low death rate) and the first stage of the epidemiological transition (deaths related to pestilence, famine, and war). Africa's lack of sustainable development is attributed to ineffective governmental policy and leadership. The prognosis is that the health and well-being of Africa's most vulnerable population, women and children, will improve when government shifts its attention from external funding and affairs to internal and concentrates on retaining Africa's 'talented tenth'; that the 'brain drain' and political instability has robbed Africa of its most talented young people, medical and science professionals, who are needed to provide primary care and development to a region with a high mortality rate, a low life expectancy, and a low per capita income.

  1. The Political Economy of the United States Military Market: 1963-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    performance in the ’execution phase’ of the military market. The U.S. Political Environment and National Defense The word democracy is derived from the Greek ...the years. As Table 1 shows, the military has increasingly eliminated barriers to military service for blacks, women and homosexuals , although some...harassment was unacceptable conduct). 1981 DOD issued a policy that banned homosexuals from military service. 1985 Air Force assigned the first women

  2. Liberal market economies, business, and political finance: Britain under New Labour

    OpenAIRE

    McMenamin, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The extent and nature of business financing of parties is an important feature of political finance. Britain’s transparent and permissive regulatory system provides an excellent opportunity to study business financing of parties. Business donations have been very important to the Conservative party over the last decade, and of only marginal importance to Labour. Unlike other Conservative contributors, business donors are more likely to contribute when the party is popular. In contrast to ...

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND NEWS PROCESS IN TURKEY FROM THE POLITICAL ECONOMY PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Bulut; Serpil Karlidag

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore how directly or indirectly control policies of Turkish political government towards media besides the ownership relations of the media affect the newsmaking process. After 1980, Turkey experienced media concentration and media commercialism as a result of neoliberal policies. Though media concentration is a global phenomenon, the process has its own characteristics in Turkey. Free market is not supposed to have given rise to the birth of a free press. Intervention i...

  4. Centralized versus Decentralized Provision of Local Public Goods: a Political Economy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Coate, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper takes a fresh look at the trade-off between centralized and decentralized provision of local public goods. The point of departure is to model a centralized system as one in which public spending is financed by general taxation, but districts can receive different levels of local public goods. In a world of benevolent governments, the disadvantages of centralization stressed in the existing literature disappear, suggesting that the case for decentralization must be driven by politic...

  5. The Political Economy of Workers' Compensation Benefit Levels, 1910-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Fishback, Price V.; Shawn Everett Kantor

    1996-01-01

    Although workers, employers, and insurance companies by 1910 supported the adoption of workers' compensation, they fiercely debated the specific features of the legislation. In this paper we examine how workers' compensation benefit levels were determined in the political process of forging compromises across interest groups, and even within individual groups. A quantitative analysis of the benefit levels in each state between the time of adoption and 1930 shows several important trends. Empl...

  6. The Political Economy of Poverty and Social Inequality:The Case of Montería

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Montes, Jorge Eliécer; Valencia-Jiménez, Nydia Ninna; Restrepo-Valencia, Marleny

    2013-01-01

    This text is the result of an investigation about the current state of poverty and social inequality in the city of Monteria. The information is presented based on the main theories that support social public policy and the Political Constitution of Colombia. At the same time, the text emphasizes the theories on human capacities proposed by Amartya Sen. The target population includes all the social class levels of the urban population of Monteria (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). A probabilistic, strat...

  7. China, Republic of Korea and Japan in the Arctic: politics, economy, security

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    China, South Korea and Japan are actively pursuing scientific, economic and political activities for the development of the Arctic, the Arctic resources, ensure security in it, seeking to increase its role in the Arctic Council, cooperating and competing-Rui with other countries. The paper stresses that China is in the final stage of preparation of its Arctic strategy, however, it is noted that the Arctic is important for China, but not a top priority of its foreign policy. The priorities of ...

  8. Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Panel Data Analysis of Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Beşkaya, Ahmet; Havanur ERGÜN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of economic and political factors on the choice of exchange rate regimes. In order to achieve this goal, we apply for Binary Choice Panel Probit Model to examine the relationships between exchange rate regimes and financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democracy. Our data covers the period of 1980-2013 for the selected EU countries, namely, Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Denmark, England, Sweden and Italy. Estimation res...

  9. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    A selective study of literature within safety culture, corporate culture and organisational theory have shown that the safety culture approach can benefit from the corporate culture approaches and organisational theory dealing with political processes. The implicit models of organisation within m...... of an organisation as a Multi-cultural Organisation. Second on change processes as political processes where the needed change have to be negotiated and reshaped....... culture approaches.The Concept of a multicultural organisation thus aims at encompassing the multitude of actor positions within an organisation with possible influence on the prevention work. A case study within industry is used to demonstrate the benefits of mobilizing these additional approaches...

  10. THE NEED OF CONNECTING THE TECHNOLOGY, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Merdzhanovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the need of connecting the technology, political and cultural system in the right way to achieve the companies’ goals in terms of globalization and changes. The leaders have the main role in realizing the company’s strategy. They must be strategy focused and they are responsible for connecting the employees, processes and technologies. In the beginning of the paper, the characteristics of strategy focused leadership are analyzed. The available tools of strategy focused leadership through the model are presented. The matrix of strategy management can be used like a manual which helps the management in connecting systems with managerial instruments: mission and strategy, organization structure and management of human resources. The goal of the paper is to show that with professional approach, the strategy focused leaders play the main role in connecting and changing the existing systems in companies. This is the way of reaching the best performance of companies and surviving at the global world market.

  11. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  12. The Political Economy of World Heavyweight Boxing during the Great Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to show how boxing managed to remain an affordable and consumable good for the USAmerican citizens in the times of the Great Depression of 1929-1933, when industrial production was closing. Moreover, while other economic activities faced problems, boxing continued to produce money. The research analyzes the economic market of professional heavyweight boxing, presenting some of the tools that helped promoters produce and sell the fight shows to the consumers – like price discrimination and cartel agreements, for example, and, thus, helped generating incomes and assured money circulation in the economy.

  13. The discovery of the political economy of New Granada at the of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the biography and thinking of Camilo Torres, who belonged to one of the impoverished aristocratic families of Popayan at the end of the XVIII century, this article studies the way, in which the enlightened inhabitants of New Granada, mostly clerics and engineers, army officers and merchants - were worried about the economy mainly motivated by the rhetoric of the Illustration and botanical studies. Many undertook the founding of companies that had poor commercial success, even though their main objective, was to methodically take advantage of the natural resources. That they believed to be unlimited to generate export agricultural products.

  14. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  15. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  16. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) ag

  17. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  18. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)

  19. A Comparative Study of Politeness Principle in Chinese and English Lan-guage and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙康

    2014-01-01

    Politeness is the badge of human civilization, and a significant criterion to human society activity;politeness, as a social phenomenon, is the imperative tool and method to maintain human relation in perfect harmony;politeness is a kind of social con-ventions, it lays certain restraints on all the social members. From ancient to modern times, either in East or West, people always attach great importance to politeness. To save face of the speaker or the hearer, politeness is of considerable practical significance in the conversation. As a matter of fact, its value can never be underestimated. However, due to different historical, lingual and cultural backgrounds, different societies may have different criteria to politeness. And this leads to some problems such as misun-derstandings and embarrassments in cross-cultural or intercultural communication. In order to solve these problems, many schol-ars and linguists at home and abroad have proposed different principles of politeness so far. The author aims to make a comparative study on politeness principles between Chinese and English language and cultures. Analyzing the differences can help to remove the communicative barrier encountered by people who come from different countries with different cultural backgrounds and ef-fectively promote further mutual understanding and cross-cultural communication.

  20. The spatiality of specialty coffee bars and the cognitive-cultural economy in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaker Ardekani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic restructuring has led to the emergence of new socio-economic arrangements in cities based on the cognitive-cultural economy. Furthermore, the arrival of new middle classes in inner-cities has contributed to a renaissance of interest in urban culture and new consumption spaces. Focusing on specialty coffee bars (SCBs, the study explores their spatial patterns and spatial distributions in Amsterdam in order to find the spatial correlations between new urban consumption spaces and their locational economic strategies in terms of the cognitive-cultural opportunities. By employing geographic information system (GIS, the findings suggest a positive spatial correlation between urban areas involved in the cognitive-cultural economy and the concentration of SCBs. Although the argued correlation does not imply causation, it provides distinct insights related to the interconnectedness of new urban consumption spaces and their contextual urban economy. The paper also slightly touches upon some of the capabilities of GIS in the field of urban studies and poses some questions for further investigations.

  1. Jane Kelsey, Serving Whose Interests? The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Irish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serving Whose Interests is an examination of the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS] since its inception in 1995, with several case studies that discuss services trade in specific applications around the world. The scholarship i s extensive and detailed. Jane Kelsey, law professor at the University of Auckland, has criticized the pro-market services trade regime i n her role as a political activist. In this book, her goals are to make the technicalities of trade rules accessible and to show their effects on people and communities.

  2. Legitimizing the shameful: end-of-life ethics and the political economy of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores one of the most politically sensitive and intellectually neglected issues in bioethics--the interface between the history of contemporary end-of-life ethics and the economics of life and death. It suggests that contrary to general belief, economic impulses have increasingly become part of the conditions in which contemporary end-of-life ethics continues to evolve. Although this conclusion does not refute the philosophical justifications provided by the ethics for itself, it may cast new light upon its social role.

  3. Trade, Tarsands and Treaties: The Political Economy Context of Community Energy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. MacArthur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments today are increasingly looking to non-state and bottom up community actors to help achieve climate change mitigation targets. Canada is a resource rich state with one of the highest per capita greenhouse gas footprints in the world. It is also a state where issues of political will, geographic scale and incumbent industries contribute to a challenging context for broad community participation. Despite this, a long history of co-operative and municipal activity exists in the energy sector, exhibited in diverse ways across its provinces and territories. Provincial variation in energy sources and actors illustrates a far more nuanced picture than exists at the national level, providing a case rich with both promising and cautionary tales for the community energy sector. This article examines the emergence of community energy in the context of broader energy sector moves towards increasingly powerful trade agreements, privatization, and conflicts over Indigenous rights in Canada. It argues that significant potential exists to strengthen the role of local actors in Canadian energy governance, but that macro-level political and economic developments have also created significant challenges for widespread community energy transitions.

  4. Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB.

  5. Anger and Political Culture: A Time for Outrage!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of political anger in democracy. It reviews the work of Stephane Hessel before examining the role and reception of anger in classical and modern thought. The author identifies two main traditions within which the concept of political anger can be located: revolutionary violence of the Marxist tradition and the…

  6. Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment Re-Visiting Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIDALGO-CAPITÁN, Antonio Luis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have tried to answer to the question ‘why some economies are developed and othereconomies are underdeveloped?’ For this, we have enacted an explanation which is inspired on the ideasof Dependence Theory authors and which is based on three premises: both phenomena have commoncauses; both phenomena have opposite and symmetric causes; and both phenomena are the result ofhistoric process which arrive to ours days.Then we have identified like underdevelopment causes: the colonial exploitation; the trade exploitation;the financial exploitation; the plenty curse; the heritage dual social structure; the no-permanentpresence of Social Rule of Law; and the global apartheid. And the development causes will be: the colonialexploitation; the trade exploitation; the financial exploitation; the scant resources distribution; the pluralsocial structure; the permanent presence of Social Rule of Law; and the global apartheid.

  7. MULTI ACTOR-BASED APPROACH TO PLANNING DECISIONS FOR CULTURAL INDUSTRIES IN NEW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur MENGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the new economy, the competitive advantage of cities is now derived from management of their cultural productions. However, pottery making as cultural industry including ceramic and other earthenware products, currently suffers from many difficulties as inefficient role of government, environmental problems, and the lack of promotion and marketing strategies and falls behind the recent urban development trends. Menemen-Izmir/Turkey has been selected as case area, where the pottery making inherited for five generations. The aim of this study is to suggest a model to tackle with the current difficulties of and also to develop cultural production. The data have been collected via questionnaire and interviews with the pottery masters and Pottery Makers Association. The research proposes the multi actor-based approach through statistically analyses and maps to manage cultural industries and integrate various actors related to the cultural production into the decision making process of urban planning.

  8. The Disciplines of Political Science: Studying the Culture of Rational Choice as a Case in Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, Ian S.

    1997-01-01

    Extrapolates some of the basic epistemological and philosophical arguments of area studies supporters and their detractors within political science. Discusses a possible study of traditional political science "culture" by the area studies proponents. Concludes with a call for both disciplines to work together. (MJP)

  9. Contrastive analysis of politeness between Chinese and western in cross-cultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪荟瑾

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contrastive study on politeness principles and politeness strategies between western and Chinese which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining social harmony. This thesis aims to discuss the cultural differences between western and Chinese which will enhance our intercultural awareness and communicative competence.

  10. The Relationship between Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Employing Political Culture as an Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Emre

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade the agenda of local and global politics is heavily marked by the encounter of two powerful currents, namely democracy and political Islam. On the one hand Islam as a religion itself is facing a cultural dialectic between a modern and an authentic form, producing a synthesis which is only to be criticized again by a new…

  11. Deaf Culture and the Cochlear Implant Debate: Cyborg Politics and the Identity of People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the potential benefits and limitations of cyborg politics. Explores depictions of cyborgs in science fiction stories and examines the deaf culture's arguments in the cochlear-implant debate. Investigates the current viability of cyborg politics as a mode of advocacy for people with disabilities. (SC)

  12. The smart economy: cultural and creative industries in Greece. Can they be a way out of the crisis? (in Greek)

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Lazaretou

    2014-01-01

    The cultural and creative economy is an area increasingly attracting research attention in the last ten years or so and has been at the heart of discussions underway, in advanced (post-industrial) economies and emerging economies alike, on the design of a development and growth strategy. In the European context, the sector has shown remarkable resilience during the current debt crisis and recession. Building on this positive development, and in line with the new international growth model whe...

  13. A material political economy: Automated Trading Desk and price prediction in high-frequency trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Donald

    2017-04-01

    This article contains the first detailed historical study of one of the new high-frequency trading (HFT) firms that have transformed many of the world's financial markets. The study, of Automated Trading Desk (ATD), one of the earliest and most important such firms, focuses on how ATD's algorithms predicted share price changes. The article argues that political-economic struggles are integral to the existence of some of the 'pockets' of predictable structure in the otherwise random movements of prices, to the availability of the data that allow algorithms to identify these pockets, and to the capacity of algorithms to use these predictions to trade profitably. The article also examines the role of HFT algorithms such as ATD's in the epochal, fiercely contested shift in US share trading from 'fixed-role' markets towards 'all-to-all' markets.

  14. Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Panel Data Analysis of Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BEŞKAYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of economic and political factors on the choice of exchange rate regimes. In order to achieve this goal, we apply for Binary Choice Panel Probit Model to examine the relationships between exchange rate regimes and financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democracy. Our data covers the period of 1980-2013 for the selected EU countries, namely, Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Denmark, England, Sweden and Italy. Estimation results demonstrates that the choice of fixed exchange rate regime become disadvantageous and flexible exchange rate turn out to be the right choice as financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democratization increases.

  15. A Comparative Study of Comparative and Politeness Principles between Chinese and English Cultures(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席晓

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that people lay special emphasis on difference aspects of"Comparative principle"or"politeness principle"in the light of their own culture in cross-culture communication.And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language using in Pragmatic are,and why?It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  16. A Comparative Study of Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xi

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that people lay special emphasis on differenee aspects of "cooperative principle" or "politeness principle" in thelight of their own culture in cross-culture communication. And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language using in Pragmatic are, and why?It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  17. The cultural politics of colorblind TV casting, by Kristen J. Warner [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambi Haggins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kristen Warner, The Cultural Politics of Colorblind TV Casting. New York: Routledge, 2015, hardcover $140 (170p ISBN 978-1138018303, e-book $54.95 (748 KB ASIN B00YY64066.

  18. Orientalism and the geoculture of the World System: Discursive othering, political economy and the cameralist division of labor in Habsburg Central Europe (1713-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Kaps

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of to what degree the concept of geoculture can be brought in line with research on Orientalist stereotypes and imaginary. Following Said’s original definition of orientalism discourses of the 18th-century political economy are reassessed by focusing on their perception of spatial hierarchies in Eastern Europe. This article reconsiders these discourses as an active factor in the struggle for power and a tool in the hands of the geopolitical interests of absolutist monarchs in Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy, and Russia in the age of mercantilism, as demonstrated by the Partitions of Poland-Lithuania. By focusing on the Habsburg Monarchy between the Spanish War of Succession and the Congress of Vienna, it is demonstrated here that, territorial landlocked empires within Europe used a similar language as colonial maritime empires in order to justify their geopolitical expansion and territorial domination of Eastern Europe. In a second step, it is shown that this discourse was part of the geopolitical culture of the World System and was instrumental in setting ideological conditions for cameralist-driven institutional transformations in favor of the core regions within the Habsburg dominions in Central Europe.

  19. The political economy of abortion in India: cost and expenditure patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2004-11-01

    Access to abortion services is not difficult in India, even in remote areas. Providers of abortion range from traditional birth attendants to auxiliary nurse midwives and pharmacists, unqualified and qualified private doctors, to gynaecologists. Despite a well-defined law, there is a lack of regulation of abortion services or providers, and the cost to women is determined by supply side economics. The state is not a leading provider of abortions; services remain predominantly in the private sector. Abortions in the public sector are free only if the woman accepts some form of contraception; other fees may also be charged. The cost of abortion varies considerably, depending on the number of weeks of pregnancy, the woman's marital status, the method used, type of anaesthesia, whether it is a sex-selective abortion, whether diagnostic tests are carried out, whether the provider is registered and whether hospitalisation is required. A review of existing studies indicates that abortions cost a substantial amount--first trimester abortion averages Rs.500- 1000 and second trimester abortion Rs.2000-3000. Given the number of unqualified providers and with 15-20% of maternal deaths due to unsafe abortions, the costs of unsafe abortions must also be counted. It is imperative for the state to regulate the abortion economy in India, both to rationalise costs and assure safe abortions for women.

  20. The Political Economy of Pension Reforms in Croatia 1991-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Guardiancich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of ex-Yugoslavia, Croatia inherited a ‘premature’ socialist pay-asyou-go pension system. During the early 1990s, it was used more extensively than elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe to ease the pains of the country’s transition to a market economy, thereby leaving Croatian pensions in dire nee of reforms. This article will try to meticulously describe the reform process during the period 1991-2006, which was characterised by three relatively independent phases: the first, a retrenchment phase, which condemned a majority of pensioners to old-age poverty; the second, a restructuring phase, which led, under the aegis of international financial institutions, to the legislation of radical reforms; and the third, a populist phase, which undid most of the previous efforts. The article will conclude that this concoction of poverty, agency capture and crony capitalism had a common denominator, that is the struggle for power during the country’s democratic consolidation.

  1. The Political Economy of the Water Footprint: A Cross-National Analysis of Ecologically Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fitzgerald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an important social and ecological issue that is becoming increasingly problematic with the onset of climate change. This study explores the extent to which water resources in developing countries are affected by the vertical flow of exports to high-income countries. In examining this question, the authors engage the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange, which argues that high-income countries are able to partially externalize the environmental costs of their consumption to lower-income countries. The authors use a relatively new and underutilized measure of water usage, the water footprint, which quantifies the amount of water used in the entire production process. Ordinary least squares (OLS and robust regression techniques are employed in the cross-national analysis of 138 countries. The results provide partial support of the propositions of ecologically unequal exchange theory. In particular, the results highlight the importance of structural position in the global economy for understanding the effects of trade on water resources.

  2. A Survey on Power and Political Culture in Kalile va Demne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dehghanian

    2011-04-01

    Postmodernist thinkers, especially Michel Foucault, make it clear that power and political culture are so complicated and affect private and social life. It is possible to claim that there is a meaningful relationship between people’s deed and power in each society. In this article, we take a look at political culture and power in Kalile va Demne and will analyze its effects on people’s thoughts and deeds.

  3. Mediation in political conflicts – Soft power or counter culture?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book is essential reading for mediators employing alternative, non- conventional ... Realist, Western-biased, state-centred politics of a bygone age. He sets out .... constructivist, pluralist school of international relations theory. Unlike their.

  4. Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics After Neoliberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Couldry, Nick

    2010-01-01

    For more than thirty years neoliberalism has declared that market functioning trumps all other social, political and economic values. In this book, Nick Couldry passionately argues for voice, the effective opportunity for people to speak and be heard on what affects their lives, as the only value that can truly challenge neoliberal politics. But having voice is not enough: we need to know our voice matters. Insisting that the answer goes much deeper than simply calling for 'more voices', whet...

  5. China, Republic of Korea and Japan in the Arctic: politics, economy, security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy P. Zhuravel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China, South Korea and Japan are actively pursuing scientific, economic and political activities for the development of the Arctic, the Arctic resources, ensure security in it, seeking to increase its role in the Arctic Council, cooperating and competing-Rui with other countries. The paper stresses that China is in the final stage of preparation of its Arctic strategy, however, it is noted that the Arctic is important for China, but not a top priority of its foreign policy. The priorities of the Republic of Korea in the development and exploration of the Arctic, as shown by the analysis conducted by, yavlyutsya: research, the use of the Northern Sea Route for the transportation, receipt of orders from Arctic countries for Korean shipyards for the construction of offshore oil platforms, special vessels and icebreakers; development of relations with Russia. Japan is a growing interest in the Northern Sea Route, scientific research in the Arctic. We consider Japan's attempts to resolve the territorial issue with Russia. Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports the establishment of a new international structure in the Arctic, which was formed not on a geographical basis, and by the presence of economic interests in the region. Seoul supports the establishment, together with Russia a regional mechanism of multilateral cooperation in the Arctic, with the code name “Asia-Pacific Arctic Council”.

  6. FILTERED VIOLENCE: PROPAGANDA MODEL AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Rasul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, distribution, and consumption of cinematic violence raises several questions of academic import. Despite a plethora of research studies exploring the nature of screen violence and its effects on viewers, a serious debate on the influence of state machinery on the production of sanitized violence in movies is still wanting. Likewise, Bollywood’s role in advancing the Indian government’s agenda in war and peace times has been paid petite attention in academic discourses dealing with media-state interconnection. This article explores the relevance of Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model as a framework for analysis and analyzes Bollywood’s movies based on stories of violence in war and peace times. The article discusses the connections with the Indian state apparatus that influences production processes in the Indian film industry by providing financial assistance and applying multifarious political, social, economic, and ideological pressures (filters. The findings suggest that the Bollywood movies support diplomatic initiatives of the Indian government through cinematic narratives of sanitized violence.

  7. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF KNOWLEDGE: Shari`ah and Saudi Scholarship in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajang Jahroni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how the Saudi regime uses sponsorship to support its educational system in Indonesia. The article focuses its analysis on LIPIA (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Islam dan Arab, Institute for the Knowledge of Islam and Arab. LIPIA is an Islamic institution consistent using traditional Islamic scholarship especially those of the Hanbalite schools of thought. This is reflected in the entire curriculum the LIPIA has for its students. The writer argues that the relationship between the sponsor, i.e. the Saudi state, and the sponsorship beneficiaries, i.e. students, is patron-client. Nevertheless, it involves a wide range of actors thereby allowing the diversity of knowledge reproduction. Over the last three decades, it has made a big investment on the field of education by building Islamic schools and institutes, distributing scholarship for Indonesian students, and channeling aid for Muslim organizations. It is becoming obvious that Saudi uses education as a political strategy to maintain its influences over Indonesia.

  8. Consumers, industrialists and the political economy of green taxation: CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, G.T.; Daugbjerg, C.; Hjoellund, L.; Pedersen, A.B. [Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus (Denmark). Dept. of Applied Economics, Centre for Social Science and Environment

    2001-05-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is six times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Even when tax revenue is fully refunded to industry, the potential losers (energy-intensive firms) will lobby harder against it than the potential winners (labor-intensive firms) due to small-groups advantages. The Norwegian case, described in some detail, confirms these arguments. It is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to households, because they tend to be badly organized. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Crisis of the Existing Global Paradigm of Governance and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to underline the central challenges to world order that are outcomes of our current system of global, social, power and constitutional processes. The article outlines these major problems which it is suggested represent a crisis for the future trajectory of human survival and well-being. The paper then uses the problem of the emergence of transnational criminal activity in order to underline the limits of the current global paradigm of governance. In effect, in the criminal law context the jurisdiction of sovereign states to attack the problem of transnational crime is hedged with severe limitations. The most important of these limitations is the fact that the jurisdiction over crimes by sovereigns is limited by the territorial character of the definition of sovereignty. Thus a sovereign has a limited capacity to control and police criminal activity whose main locus of operation is generated outside of the territorial reach of the sovereign state. This essentially means that the element of global governance generates a juridical vacuum which permits organized crime to flourish outside of the boundaries of the state but at the same time, having the capacity to penetrate and corrupt the social, political and juridical processes of the sovereign state. The article explores the effort of the UN to provide some form of response to this crisis in the form of an international agreement.

  10. Sharing Economy vs Sharing Cultures? Designing for social, economic and environmental good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Light

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the story behind a crowdfunding service as an example of sharing technology. Research in a small neighborhood of London showed how locally-developed initiatives can differ in tone, scale, ambition and practice to those getting attention in the so-called sharing economy. In local accounts, we see an emphasis on organizing together to create shared spaces for collaborative use of resources and joint ownership of projects and places. Whereas, many global business models feature significant elements of renting, leasing and hiring and focus only on resource management, sometimes at the expense of community growth. The service we discuss is based in the area we studied and has a collective model of sharing, but hopes to be part of the new global movement. We use this hybridity to problematize issues of culture, place and scalability in developing sharing resources and addressing sustainability concerns. We relate this to the motivation, rhetoric and design choices of other local sharing enterprises and other global sharing economy initiatives, arguing, in conclusion, that there is no sharing economy, but a variety of new cultures being fostered.

  11. Transformation of conceptual basis of political science under cultural and historical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Tokovenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science.  It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity

  12. Analysis on the Cultivation of Modern Chinese Farmers’ Values from the Perspective of Traditional Political Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen; Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Farmers in traditional China have formed the cultural psychology of being reluctant to move from native land and hate to change during the long- term closed production and life. This has exerted negative effect on the values cultivation of farmers today,who possess weak democratic consciousness,low legal spirit and cultural quality as well as strong antagonistic psychology. Measures should be carried out to cultivate their modern values. Firstly,construction of villagers’ self-governance system should be stressed. Secondly,political socialization should be perfected to improve farmers’ political culture. Furthermore,channels of political participation should be widened in order to gradually promote the ordered political participation of farmers.

  13. Power-Sharing in the English Lowlands? The Political Economy of Farmer Participation and Cooperation in Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Whaley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Participatory and cooperative forms of water governance have become regular features of government discourse and stated policy objectives in England. We consider this aspiration from the perspective of farmers in the English lowlands, by analysing the current power dynamic that exists among these farmers, and between them and the key stakeholders involved in water management. To do this we undertake a political economy analysis that places lowland farming and water governance within the evolution of historical processes that, over time, have influenced the ability of farmers to participate in the governance of their water environment. These historical developments are interpreted through the lens of the Power Cube, an analytical tool for thinking about the interplay between different forms of power operating in different types of spaces and at different levels of governance. Our findings reveal that, despite there being a number of structural changes that provide lowland farmers with the opportunity to participate and cooperate in water governance, three distinct barriers stand in the way. These relate to the power 'within' these farmers, which continues to align with a productivist ideology founded on individualism and competition, often at the expense of the environment; the power that government water managers still exercise 'over' farmers instead of 'with' them; and the relationship between lowland farming and environmental interests, where historically the two sides’ power 'to' act has been diametrically opposed. The findings point to the importance of developing suitable programmes designed to support and incentivize farmer participation and cooperation.

  14. The political economy of health promotion: part 1, national commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Canada is a leader in developing health promotion concepts of providing the prerequisites of health through health-promoting public policy. But Canada is clearly a laggard in implementing these concepts. In contrast, France is seen as a nation in which health promotion concepts have failed to gain much traction yet evidence exists that France does far better than Canada in providing these health prerequisites. Such findings suggest that it is the political economy--or form of the welfare state--of a nation rather than its explicit commitments to health promotion concepts--that shape provision of the prerequisites of health. Part 1 of this article examines how health promotion rhetoric specifically concerned with provision of the prerequisites of health differs among nations identified as being either liberal, social democratic, conservative or Latin welfare states. Governing authorities of nations that are liberal or social democratic welfare states are more likely to make explicit rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, the conservative and Latin states less so. Part 2 of this article provides evidence however, that despite their rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare state nations fall well behind not only the social democratic nations, but also the conservative welfare states in implementing public policies that provide the prerequisites of health. The Latin welfare states express little commitment to provision of the prerequisites of health and rather limited public policy activity towards meeting this aim.

  15. Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the concept of hegemony to leadership theory, which has developed mainly as a critique of hegemonic stability theory. We argue that it makes sense to combine the two theories by introducing the concept of 'size' into neoliberal thinking about International Political Economy. We accept the neo-institutional hypothesis that a hegemon is not needed to provide public goods, and demonstrate with non-cooperative games how multiple leaders may jointly provide public goods. A game-theoretic model is developed illustrating with Nash equilibria the conditions under which a hegemon rationally switches from hegemony to leadership. It also shows why followers rationally switch from free-riding in their consumption of the public goods to taking part in leading, in the sense of contributing to covering the cost of the production of the public goods. The emergence of joint leadership leads to multiple equilibria in the sense of allowing for multiple stable leadership constellations. The actors are in a mixed-motive or coordination game where they have different preferences for the equilibria, and thus different preferences for which strategies to choose, and for who is to take part in covering the cost of the production of the public goods. Two aspects of joint leadership 'after hegemony' are treated, namely coercive and benevolent leadership on the one hand, and collective action in the sense of joint leadership on the other hand. Finally, future leadership constellations and the quest for international order are discussed.

  16. Multinational corporations, the politics of the world economy, and their effects on women's health in the developing world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippert, Christine

    2002-12-01

    Presently, globalization and the world economy maintain power relations that hamper the economic integrity and the political autonomy of the developing world. My paper addresses specific economic conditions that perpetuate poverty and poor health. I examine multinational corporations and their effects on women's health, particularly in Mexico and parts of Asia. The advent of multinational corporate business in Mexico, Malaysia, Philippines, India, and Indonesia has led to increased poverty and human rights abuses. Women bear the brunt of this because of specific international economic arrangements and their low social status, both locally and globally. As a result, their physical, mental, and emotional health is suffering. Solutions to these health problems have been proposed on multiple levels: international top-down approaches (i.e., employing international protectionist regulatory standards, exposing multinationals who infringe on their workers' human rights), as well as local grassroots organizational campaigns (i.e., conducting informational human rights workshops for factory workers). Ultimately, the answers lie in holding corporations accountable to their laborers while developing countries maintain their comparative advantage; this is the only way women's health will improve and the developing world can entice corporate investment.

  17. Academic Responsibility: Toward a Cultural Politics of Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Almeida, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors consider how globalisation has fundamentally reshaped education. The assumption that in a knowledge economy workers need to be better educated has led to the belief that education is a private good. What the authors define as "responsibilisation" frames a radically different vision of public life from that of the past. The…

  18. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    . In the Nordic countries the experience economy has been developed in a political context and it is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. This paper discusses the Nordic definition of experience economy and questions if it makes any sense. The definition......This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  19. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions.

  20. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.