WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultural organization fragments

  1. Cultural Organization: Fragments of a Theory,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    been trying for almost a century to nail down the notion of culture with little success ( Kroeber and Kluckholn, 1952). In fact, Williams (1976) claims...Network Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1982. Kroeber , A. L. and Kluckholn, C. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA

  2. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive aspects. This paper presents considerations diligence activity Culture House "IL Caragiale "in Ploiesti. The mission of this organization is to contribute to the cultural development of the community by initiating projects and cultural programs, offer development programs and services to meet cultural needs, increase public access to diverse cultural life, providing a constant presence institution circuit local, national, European and international level. Conclusions drawn from the analysis shows that in a world of economic globalization, information and culture in a company in constant change, in a competitive market where there is information readily available means and leisure, but not cultural consistency in a social environment where interest in culture of people is declining, the situation of the population is impaired, the remuneration of staff working in the field of cultural education is demotivating, the funds allocated to culture have grown lately effectively lead a cultural institution is a challenge.

  4. Organizations and national culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most important contributions in studying cultural influences on organizations. The interest of social scientists in this topic began in the 1960s, based on the belief that it was necessary to overcome the dominant parochialism of US researchers in organizational theory and practice. Increasing internationalization of business activities, especially in the 1970s, imposed the need for large-scale studies and for finding practical solutions to the completely new problems encountered by multicultural organizations whose number was constantly rising. In spite of numerous and serious difficulties in every cross-cultural organizational study, several decades of development in this field have produced important theoretical and empirical contributions, enabling further advances in this scientific and practical discipline.

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE ORIGINS OF CULTURAL FRAGMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance attributed to the effects of diversity on the stability and prosperity of nations, the origins of the uneven distribution of ethnic and cultural fragmentation across countries have been underexplored. Building on the role of deeply-rooted biogeographical forces in comparative development, this research empirically demonstrates that genetic diversity, predominantly determined during the prehistoric “out of Africa” migration of humans, is an underlying cause of various existing manifestations of ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. Further exploration of this uncharted territory may revolutionize the understanding of the effects of deeply-rooted factors on economic development and the composition of human capital across the globe. PMID:25506084

  6. Cultural Diversity and Civic Education: Two Versions of the Fragmentation Objection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    According to the "fragmentation objection" to multiculturalism, practices of cultural recognition undermine political stability, and this counts as a reason to be sceptical about the public recognition of minority cultures, as well as about multiculturalism construed more broadly as a public policy. Civic education programmes, designed to promote…

  7. Cultural Diversity and Civic Education: Two Versions of the Fragmentation Objection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    According to the "fragmentation objection" to multiculturalism, practices of cultural recognition undermine political stability, and this counts as a reason to be sceptical about the public recognition of minority cultures, as well as about multiculturalism construed more broadly as a public policy. Civic education programmes, designed to promote…

  8. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; Li, Bao; de Waal, Bas F M; Schill, Jurgen; Baker, Matthew B; Bovee, Ralf A A; van Dongen, Joost L J; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Meijer, E W

    2017-09-29

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the pseudo-molecular ions formed by counter-ion adduction, deprotonation and electron-capture, a number of fragment ions were also observed. Charge splitting by fragmentation was found to be a viable route for charge reduction leading to the formation of the observed singly charged fragment ions. Unlike multivalent metal ions, organic ions can rearrange and/or fragment during charge reduction. This fragmentation process will evidently complicate the interpretation of the MALDI MS spectrum. Because MALDI MS is usually considered as a soft ionization technique, the fragment ion peaks can easily be erroneously interpreted as impurities. Therefore, the awareness and understanding of the underlying MALDI-induced fragmentation pathways is essential for a proper interpretation of the corresponding mass spectra. Due to the fragment ions generated during charge reduction, special care should be taken in the MALDI MS analysis of multiply charged ions. In this work, the possible mechanisms by which the organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges fragment are investigated. With an improved understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms, MALDI TOF MS should still be a useful technique for the characterization of organic ions with fixed multiple charges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  10. INTERPRETATION OF CULTURAL PROFILES OF MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shopov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The needs of the real management practice of theoretical and applied knowledge, that allows it methodological properly and methodically right to implement appropriate changes in corporate culture and management-specific behavior of the organization, require a study on the highlights in the new company culture and interpretation of cultural profiles. Current paper outlines some of the basic formulations that describe more fully the concept of "culture" and makes clear in the light of the views of leading authors in this field the term "corporate culture". Corporate culture is viewed as a set of values, assumptions, beliefs and norms that are formed over time from the interaction of all members which subsequently perceive them as personal and at the same time as a very powerful factor that determines the individual and group behavior of people in a business organization. The developed organizational culture is a strategic competitive advantage for organizations. The main conclusions of the analysis show that in the research field that arises in the interpretation of cultural profiles, there are opportunities provided for finding technical and methodological solutions that complement and enrich the empirical search on the usability of the strategy aimed at organizational culture. The joint values enrich the culture of labor and management, thus targeting staff, customers and suppliers with established and appropriate time regulations and management style. The goal set assists and guides people in carrying out their duties within the organization.

  11. Analysis of single hyphal growth and fragmentation in submerged cultures using a population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabben, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    1997-01-01

    Carlo method is shown to be superior with respect to versatility. With measurements of 100 hyphal elements to represent a steady state and using the Monte Carlo method and a statistical test it is shown that one can discriminate between four models of hyphal fragmentation in submerged cultures. (C) 1997......Descriptions of population dynamics in submerged cultures are important when studying the mechanisms of growth and fragmentation of filamentous microorganisms. Population models are traditionally formulated as population balance equations. Population models of filamentous morphology are difficult...... to solve because of random fragmentation, which introduces an integral term into the population balance equations. Balances for the systemic properties, e.g. concentration of hyphal elements, substrate concentration, average total hyphal length, and average number of growing tips, are set up. Based...

  12. Learning Organizations. Developing Cultures for Tomorrow's Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sarita, Ed.; Renesch, John, Ed.

    This anthology contains 32 essays: "Beginner's Mind" (Sarita Chawla);"Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations" (Fred Kofman, Peter Senge); "Managing the Dream" (Charles Handy); "Ahead of the Wave: Valuing Gender Perspective in Learning Cultures" (Marilynne Anderson); "Mastering…

  13. Organizing Cultural Projects Through Legitimising as Cultural Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindkvist, Lars; Hjorth, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper is a study of creating organization in the case of cultural projects; cultural entrepreneurship. This includes taking advantage of opportunities and using ones social capital through networks. It is a case study of Vandalorum which is an Swedish international art- and design...... centre with a strong regional connection. They want to offer close collaborations between artists, designers, and the creative industry. It is located in Värnamo in the south of Sweden and was inaugurated in April 2011 after an establishment process running over fifteen years. Renzo Piano has created...... and Design Centre. Findings The case of Vandalorum shows that organizing a cultural project like Vandalorum is characterized by no well-defined starting and stopping point, but – quite typically for entrepreneurship as an organization-creation process – builds momentum and legitimacy narratively. Originality...

  14. Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Jesse H.; Smith, Jared D.; Che, Dung L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-03-10

    The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C-C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species upon atmospheric oxidation, and hence on the loading of tropospheric organic aerosol. However the branching between these two channels is generally poorly constrained for oxidized organics. Here we determine functionalization/fragmentation branching ratios for organics spanning a range of oxidation levels, using the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane (C30H62) as a model system. Squalane particles are exposed to high concentrations of OH in a flow reactor, and measurements of particle mass and elemental ratios enable the determination of absolute elemental composition (number of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms) of the oxidized particles. At low OH exposures, the oxygen content of the organics increases, indicating that functionalization dominates, whereas at higher exposures the amount of carbon in the particles decreases, indicating the increasing importance of fragmentation processes. Once the organics are moderately oxidized (O/C~;;0.4), fragmentation completely dominates, and the increase in O/C ratio upon further oxidation is due to the loss of carbon rather than the addition of oxygen. These results suggest that fragmentation reactions may be key steps in the atmospheric formation and evolution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA).

  15. Fragments of the organic metaphor in modern political thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. García López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the survival of the organic metaphor in the beginning of Modernity, against the Bobbio’thesis: the organicism disappears with Modernity. From the thought of Hobbes, Rousseau, Beccaria and Sieyès, we show the connection between the old metaphor and the modern immune paradigm.

  16. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture.

  17. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativi......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development.......If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity...

  18. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  19. mRNA fragments in in vitro culture media are associated with bovine preimplantation embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for fragments of mRNA POSTN and VSNL-1, in four additional biological replicates of media. To better understand the mechanisms of mRNA secretion into the media, the expression of a predicted RNA binding protein of POSTN, PUM2, was knocked down using an antisense oligonucleotide gapmer. Supplementation of a PUM2 gapmer significantly reduced blastocyst development and decreased secretion of POSTN mRNA into the media. Overall, differential mRNA expression in the media was repeatable and sets the framework for future study of mRNA biomarkers in in vitro culture media to improve predictability of reproductive performance.

  20. Self-organized mechano-chemical dynamics in amoeboid locomotion of Physarum fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Guy, Robert D.; Lasheras, Juan C.; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of flow-driven amoeboid locomotion in small (∼100 μm) fragments of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. In this model organism, cellular contraction drives intracellular flows, and these flows transport the chemical signals that regulate contraction in the first place. As a consequence of these non-linear interactions, a diversity of migratory behaviors can be observed in migrating Physarum fragments. To study these dynamics, we measure the spatio-temporal distributions of the velocities of the endoplasm and ectoplasm of each migrating fragment, the traction stresses it generates on the substratum, and the concentration of free intracellular calcium. Using these unprecedented experimental data, we classify migrating Physarum fragments according to their dynamics, finding that they often exhibit spontaneously coordinated waves of flow, contractility and chemical signaling. We show that Physarum fragments exhibiting symmetric spatio-temporal patterns of endoplasmic flow migrate significantly slower than fragments with asymmetric patterns. In addition, our joint measurements of ectoplasm velocity and traction stress at the substratum suggest that forward motion of the ectoplasm is enabled by a succession of stick-slip transitions, which we conjecture are also organized in the form of waves. Combining our experiments with a simplified convection-diffusion model, we show that the convective transport of calcium ions may be key for establishing and maintaining the spatio-temporal patterns of calcium concentration that regulate the generation of contractile forces.

  1. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  2. Identifying designs from incomplete, fragmented cultural heritage objects by curve-pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Haozhou; Smith, Karen; Wilder, Colin; Yu, Hongkai; Wang, Song

    2017-01-01

    The study of cultural heritage objects with embellished realistic and abstract designs made up of connected and intertwined curves crosscuts a number of related disciplines, including archaeology, art history, and heritage management. However, many objects, such as pottery sherds found in the archaeological record, are fragmentary, making the underlying complete designs unknowable at the scale of the sherd fragment. The challenge to reconstruct and study complete designs is stymied because (1) most fragmentary cultural heritage objects contain only a small portion of the underlying full design, (2) in the case of a stamping application, the same design may be applied multiple times with spatial overlap on one object, and (3) curve patterns detected on an object are usually incomplete and noisy. As a result, traditional curve-pattern matching algorithms, such as Chamfer matching, may perform poorly in identifying the underlying design. We develop a new partial-to-global curve matching algorithm to address these challenges and better identify the full design from a fragmented cultural heritage object. Specifically, we develop the algorithm to identify the designs of the carved wooden paddles of the Southeastern Woodlands from unearthed pottery sherds. A set of pottery sherds, curated at Georgia Southern University, are used to test the proposed algorithm, with promising results.

  3. Branching between fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the oxidation of atmospheric organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J. H.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Oxidation reactions that affect the volatility of organics are of central importance to the chemistry of the troposphere, as they lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol, and can change the properties or loadings of existing particulate matter via oxidative processing ("aging"). Atmospheric oxidation can decrease the vapor pressure of an organic compound by adding oxygen-containing functional groups (increasing its polarity), or increase vapor pressure by breaking carbon-carbon bonds (decreasing its molecular weight). Despite being a fundamental determinant of the changes to volatilities of atmospheric organics, the functionalization/fragmentation branching ratio is not well-constrained for large atmospheric organics, especially for highly oxidized ones. Here we present laboratory measurements of this branching ratio for the heterogeneous oxidation of particulate organics. Particles of pure squalane (a branched C30 alkane) are sent into a flow reactor and are rapidly oxidized by exposure to high levels of OH; particle size and composition are measured as a function of OH exposure using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Oxidation reactions are found to decrease particle mass, indicating volatilization (from carbon-carbon bond breaking) and also to increase the oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio of the particulate organics, indicating the addition of functional groups. The relative rates of these two processes allows for the determination of the branching ratio between fragmentation and functionalization. Functionalization is found to dominate the oxidation of the pure hydrocarbon, but the importance of fragmentation increases as the organics become increasingly oxidized. Fragmentation pathways appear to dominate for organics with O/C ratios above ~30%.

  4. Davorin Jenko and Stevan st. Mokranjac. Biographical fragments. A contribution to cultural remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the marking of the centenary of the death of two significant composers and conductors - Davorin Jenko (1835-1914 and Stevan St. Mokranjac (1856-1914. Although belonging to different generations, Jenko and Mokranjac were simultaneously active in Serbian culture over the course of almost four decades. This was a very dynamic and fruitful period, marked by historical and political unrests and by the intense processes of searching for Serbian national/ cultural identity. Divided into several fragments, the article identifies the points of intersection in their biographies, examining the delicate nature of their relationship in the context of the discourses of nationalism. Special attention is paid to the facts from the history of the Belgrade Singing Society and the National Theatre, but also to the manifestations by means of which a tradition of cultural remembrance of these two artists is maintained in Serbia in 2014. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  5. Project Organizations and Their Present and Preferred Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos SZABO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several research has investigated organizational culture (Schein, 2010; Alvesson, 2013, less research has been conducted on the comparison of present and preferred cultures in project context. This paper aims to fill this gap by focusing on project managers and on the investigation of the present and the preferred culture profile of their project organizations. Based on Cameron and Quinn's (2011 Competing Values Framework using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument a quantitative survey was conducted. The questionnaire used gathered data from project managers working in various industries and organizations. The sample consisted of 695 respondents. The empirical study by focusing on project organizations hypothesizes that four project organization groups can be revealed based on their dominant cultural orientation. To test this hypothesis cluster analysis was used. The study also hypothesizes that the present and preferred culture profiles of project organizations do not show significant difference. To prove this statement paired samples t-test was chosen. The results showed that instead of four groups of project organizations with one dominant culture type, there are only three project organizations with the domination of one culture type. Continuing the investigation with these three project organizations, the present and preferred project culture profiles were compared. The results showed that in all three project organizations there are differences between the present and preferred project culture profiles. These differences are manifested mainly by the change of the dominant culture type but the remaining culture types determining the culture profile of the project organizations also show differences.

  6. Amplification of a 500-Base-Pair Fragment from Cultured Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Germán; Fissanoti, Juan Carlos; Del Portillo, Patricia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Romano, María Isabel; Cataldi, Angel

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a 500-bp fragment which amplifies a region from the genome of Mycobacterium bovis (J. G. Rodriguez, G. A. Meija, P. Del Portillo, M. E. Patarroyo, and L. A. Murillo, Microbiology 141:2131–2138, 1995) was evaluated by carrying out PCR on 121 M. bovis isolates. The M. bovis strains, previously characterized by culture and biochemical tests, were isolated from cattle in different regions of Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia. Four additional strains isolated from sea lions that belong to the M. tuberculosis complex were also included in the study. All of the isolates tested were PCR positive, rendering the expected 500-bp band and giving a correlation of 100% with previous microbiological characterization. Southern blot analysis revealed a common band of 1,800 bp and a polymorphic high-molecular-mass hybridization pattern. The results show that this assay may be useful for diagnosis and identification of M. bovis in cattle. PMID:10364607

  7. Things fall apart: Fragmentation reactions in the oxidative aging of organic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Wilson, K. R.; Daumit, K. E.; Kessler, S. H.; Lim, C. Y.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds involves a wide array of chemical transformations, including functionalization reactions (addition of polar functional groups to the carbon skeleton), fragmentation reactions (formation of lower carbon-number products via C-C bond scission), and accretion reactions (increases in molecular weight by the combination of two chemical species). Each of these reaction classes can lead to large changes in volatility, and hence can have major implications for atmospheric organic aerosol (OA). For example, the formation of OA is predominantly driven by functionalization and accretion reactions, which generally lead to decreases in volatility. Here we describe a series of laboratory studies of the subsequent organic "aging", the multiday oxidation processes that occur after the initial OA formation and growth. In these studies, the multigenerational oxidation of organic compounds in various phases (the gas phase, the condensed OA phase, and the aqueous phase) is carried out within either an environmental chamber or a flow reactor, and monitored using various high-resolution mass spectrometric techniques. In all cases it is found that fragmentation reactions play a major role in the observed aging chemistry, dominated by the formation of small, volatile oxidation products. These results suggest that multi-day oxidative aging processes do not lead to sustained aerosol growth, but rather may serve as a chemical sink for atmospheric OA.

  8. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    OpenAIRE

    B.R. Bhengu; H.H.M. Uys

    2004-01-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s dec...

  9. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  10. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  11. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural va

  12. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural va

  13. Ontology aided modeling of organic reaction mechanisms with flexible and fragment based XML markup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Aghila, Gnanasekaran

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism models for primary organic reactions encoding the structural fragments undergoing substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangements are developed. In the proposed models, each and every structural component of mechanistic pathways is represented with flexible and fragment based markup technique in XML syntax. A significant feature of the system is the encoding of the electron movements along with the other components like charges, partial charges, half bonded species, lone pair electrons, free radicals, reaction arrows, etc. needed for a complete representation of reaction mechanism. The rendering of reaction schemes described with the proposed methodology is achieved with a concise XML extension language interoperating with the structure markup. The reaction scheme is visualized as 2D graphics in a browser by converting them into SVG documents enabling the desired layouts normally perceived by the chemists conventionally. An automatic representation of the complex patterns of the reaction mechanism is achieved by reusing the knowledge in chemical ontologies and developing artificial intelligence components in terms of axioms.

  14. Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Women's Advancement in Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdo, Linda M.; Dickson, Marcus W.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed female middle managers from organizations in three industries, examining the relationship between organizational culture and women's advancement to management. Results indicated that aspects of organizational culture typically associated with women related to women's progress. Organizational culture practices related to gender equity were…

  15. mRNA Fragments in In-Vitro Culture Media are Associated with Bovine Preimplantation Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna eKropp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro production (IVP systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerated conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for

  16. Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Thuret, G; Carricajo, A.; Chiquet, C.; Vautrin, A C; Celle, N; Boureille, M; Acquart, S; Aubert, G.; Maugery, J; Gain, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium.

  17. Organ culture system as a means to detect celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Libanori, Valerio; De Nitto, Daniela; Saponara, Annarita; Di Tola, Marco; Donato, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies can be produced in vitro by the intestinal mucosa of celiac disease (CD) patients in clinical remission, when the culture is performed in the presence of gliadin peptides. Our aim was to use this organ culture system as a means to detect the pathognomonic antibodies of celiac disease (CD) in the culture supernatants. Organ culture was performed in the presence of three different activators to evaluate which one induced the strongest antibody response in intestinal mucosa from patients in clinical remission of CD. Our data confirm the high efficiency of synthetic peptide 31-43 as a specific immunological activator in CD and demonstrate its capability to stimulate production/secretion of CD-specific antibodies. We envision that this organ culture system may prove to be useful as a new technique for CD diagnosis.

  18. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  19. ORGAN CULTURE OF MID-FACIAL TISSUE AND SECONDARY PALATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Palatal organ culture provides an in vitro model for the study of the formation of the secondary palate, which forms the roof of the mouth in the developing fetus. The protocol describes the steps for culture of the mid-facial region of the fetal mouse or rat. In cult...

  20. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  1. Quantification of contributions of molecular fragments for eye irritation of organic chemicals using QSAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2014-05-01

    The eye irritation potential of chemicals has largely been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test for a very long time. The Draize eye-irritation data on 38 compounds established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has been used in the present quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in order to predict molar-adjusted eye scores (MES) and determine possible structural requisites and attributes that are primarily responsible for the eye irritation caused by the studied solutes. The developed model was rigorously validated internally as well as externally by applying principles of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The test for applicability domain was also carried out in order to check the reliability of the predictions. Important fragments contributing to higher MES values of the solutes were identified through critical analysis and interpretation of the developed model. Considering all the identified structural attributes, one can choose or design safe solutes with low eye irritant properties. The presented approach suggests a model for use in the context of virtual screening of relevant solute libraries. The developed QSAR model can be used to predict existing as well as future chemicals falling within the applicability domain of the model in order to reduce the use of animals.

  2. Temporary fragmentation of a marginal lake and its effects on zooplankton community structure and organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nadai

    Full Text Available A river lateral lake (Coqueiral Lake marginal to Paranapanema River in its mouth zone into Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil presented fragmentation into four small isolated bodies of water during a prolonged drought period, disrupting the link with the river. The aim of this work was to compare the temporal modifications on zooplankton community structure (total abundance, species richness, and diversity in the four water bodies. Zooplankton samplings and abiotic factor measurements were made in two periods - during isolation phase of the lake in relation to river and after re-establishment of hydrologic connectivity. A concentration effect on zooplankton abundance was recorded with drought progression, but without significant modifications in species richness and diversity. When the river inundation pulse occurred, a reduction in total zooplankton density was observed due to the dilution effect and a significant increase in species richness and diversity was recorded. Lateral water influx from the river to the lacustrine environment acts as a temporary disturbance factor on the zooplankton community structure. Zooplankton species composition presented some modifications between the two periods. Zooplankton organism drift in water from the river to the lake, removal of individuals from the aquatic macrophytes, and eclosion of resting eggs from sediment are probable factors that can increase zooplankton species richness immediately after lateral pulse inundation with water by the river.

  3. Temporary fragmentation of a marginal lake and its effects on zooplankton community structure and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadai, R; Henry, R

    2009-08-01

    A river lateral lake (Coqueiral Lake marginal to Paranapanema River in its mouth zone into Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil) presented fragmentation into four small isolated bodies of water during a prolonged drought period, disrupting the link with the river. The aim of this work was to compare the temporal modifications on zooplankton community structure (total abundance, species richness, and diversity) in the four water bodies. Zooplankton samplings and abiotic factor measurements were made in two periods--during isolation phase of the lake in relation to river and after re-establishment of hydrologic connectivity. A concentration effect on zooplankton abundance was recorded with drought progression, but without significant modifications in species richness and diversity. When the river inundation pulse occurred, a reduction in total zooplankton density was observed due to the dilution effect and a significant increase in species richness and diversity was recorded. Lateral water influx from the river to the lacustrine environment acts as a temporary disturbance factor on the zooplankton community structure. Zooplankton species composition presented some modifications between the two periods. Zooplankton organism drift in water from the river to the lake, removal of individuals from the aquatic macrophytes, and eclosion of resting eggs from sediment are probable factors that can increase zooplankton species richness immediately after lateral pulse inundation with water by the river.

  4. Relationships among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Learning Organization Culture in One Korean Private Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taejo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify dynamic relationships among organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and learning organization culture in a Korean private company. Using a sample of 669 employees from five subsidiaries of a Korean conglomerate, this research found that learning organization culture is moderately and positively related…

  5. Relationships among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Learning Organization Culture in One Korean Private Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taejo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify dynamic relationships among organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and learning organization culture in a Korean private company. Using a sample of 669 employees from five subsidiaries of a Korean conglomerate, this research found that learning organization culture is moderately and positively related…

  6. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  7. Staffing the Global Organization: "Cultural Nomads"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ruth; Fisher, Ron; Harvey, Michael; Moeller, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolution of international staffing in an increasingly globalized and hypercompetitive marketplace. As the issue of staff retention becomes critical in global organizations, it is important to understand the types of managers that may be on or assigned to overseas assignments. The purpose of this article is to present a…

  8. A guide to developing a culturally competent organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Larry; Davidhizar, Ruth E; Giger, Joyce Newman; Strickland, Ora L; Fishman, Dorothy; Allison, Dale M

    2011-01-01

    The journey to organizational cultural competence for a health care organization, educational setting, freestanding clinic, or long-term-care organization is a process that requires the collaborative efforts from people at all levels in every department as well as external consumers such as public policy officials, students, and community leaders. Broadly speaking, four main but overlapping areas must be considered in institute activities and strategies to accomplish a comprehensive culturally competent organization. These four areas are (a) administration and governance, (b) orientation and education, (c) language, and (d) staff competencies. This article presents key content areas and activities to consider on the journey to cultural competence. Tables with suggested departmental responsibilities for implementation are included. In some cases, the journey may best be facilitated by a consultant who is well versed in cultural competence and organizational dynamics.

  9. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  10. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  11. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  12. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M

    2004-08-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  13. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  14. Towards a Theory of Urban Fragmentation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Fear, Privatization, and the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setha Low

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore regional and national variations in residential gating and enclosure as a first step in developing an integrated theory of urban fragmentation. Utilizing data from the urban and suburban United States, Latin America and China, a series of dimensions are compared: 1 domestic architecture, 2 urban/suburban settlement pattern, 3 the role of the state, 4 governance, 5 citizenship, 6 cultural meaning, 7 identity, 8 provision of goods and services, 9 taxation, 10 degree of privatization, 11 cultural pattern of social sanction, and 12 fear of crime and others. This comparative analysis locates culturally meaningful and theoretically significant distinctions among the regions and provides data for the development of explanatory models in which each region varies along a dimensional continuum.  At the macro-level of analysis, the impact of globalization and flexible accumulation with increased local heterogeneity, increases in inequality and changes in perceived crime rate emerge as the major underlying factors in the fear of crime and others found in all three regions.  At a micro-level, differences in cultural meanings are explained by local social and political contexts, while provision of goods and services and governance depend on club realm economic explanations.  

  15. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  16. Suppression of MMP activity in bovine cartilage explants cultures has little if any effect on the release of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bijue; Chen, Pingping; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay

    2009-01-01

    - and aggrecanase-derived fragments of aggrecan and type II collagen into the supernatant of bovine cartilage explants cultures using neo-epitope specific immunoassays, and to associate the release of these fragments with the activity of proteolytic enzymes using inhibitors. FINDINGS: Bovine cartilage explants were...... cultured in the presence or absence of the catabolic cytokines oncostatin M (OSM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). In parallel, explants were co-cultured with protease inhibitors such as GM6001, TIMP1, TIMP2 and TIMP3. Fragments released into the supernatant were determined using a range of neo......-epitope specific immunoassays; (1) sandwich (342)FFGVG-G2 ELISA, (2) competition NITEGE(373)ELISA (3) sandwich G1-NITEGE(373 )ELISA (4) competition (374)ARGSV ELISA, and (5) sandwich (374)ARGSV-G2 ELISA all detecting aggrecan fragments, and (6) sandwich CTX-II ELISA, detecting C-telopeptides of type II collagen...

  17. Cultural and psychological dimensions of human organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Daar, A S

    1998-01-01

    Human organ transplantation is practiced in local cultural worlds that shape beliefs about appropriate conduct for its development and application. The psychological response of individuals to the transplant experience mediate and condition its life-changing force in the context of family and community. In this paper, three cases are examined to illustrate the impact of cultural and psychological influences on human organ replacement therapies. First, we explore brain death and its implications for the definition of death and the procurement of organs. A case example from Japan provides the framework for addressing the cultural foundations that contribute to perceptions of personhood and the treatment of the body. Second, we examine marketing incentives for organ donation using a case from India where, until recently, explicit forms of financial incentives have played a role in the development of renal transplantation involving non-related living donors. Third, we focus on the psychological remifications of organ transplantation using a case that demonstrates the profound experience of being the recipient of the "gift of life". Resolution of scientific and ethical challenges in the field of organ transplantation must consider the complex and significant impact of cultural and psychological factors on organ replacement therapies.

  18. Organ culture-cell culture system for studying multistage carcinogenesis in respiratory epithelium. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Vernon E.; Marchok, Ann C.; Nettesheim, Paul

    1977-01-01

    An organ culture-cell culture system was used to demonstrate carcinogen dose-dependent transformation of tracheal epithelial cells in vitro. Tracheal explants were exposed to MNNG (N-methyl-N/sup 1/-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) in organ culture. Outgrowths from these explants provided epithelial cell cultures. The numbers of long term epithelial cell cultures and cell lines that were established per explant increased as MNNG exposure concentration increased. At the present time, more cell lines derived from explants exposed to the highest MNNG concentration have produced palpable tumors than cell lines derived from explants exposed to lower MNNG concentrations. No cell lines were established from primaries derived from control explants. TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate), stimulates DNA synthesis in tracheal epithelium in organ culture in a manner simular to that described for mouse skin. Short exposures to TPA not only stimulated DNA synthesis earlier, but the stimulation was greater than that obtained with continuous exposure. At the present time, exposure of tracheal organ cultures to MNNG followed by TPA has resulted in an enhanced production of morphologically altered cells in primary epithelial cell cultures, than exposure to either agent alone.

  19. Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H; Yoon, Carolyn; Luo, Ting; Feinberg, Fred; Hedden, Trey; Jing, Qicheng; Nisbett, Richard E; Park, Denise C

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young adults. The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. These studies provide support

  20. Car windshield fragments as cheap alternative glass beads for homogenization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Afu Ochang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem which has been compounded by the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistant strains. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually requires homogenization of cultures using 3–5 mm glass beads. In resource limited settings, these important material may either not be readily available in the country as in our case requiring that one orders them from abroad or they may be too expensive. In both situations, this would impact on the usually lean budget. In our centre were we recently introduced tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility testing using the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS technique, we successfully used glass fragments from a broken car windshield obtained from a mechanic workshop to homogenize solid cultures to prepare positive controls. All cultures homogenized with these local beads gave consistent MODS results. The challenge of the limited availability of resources for research in resource limited settings can be met by adapting available materials to achieve results.

  1. PARTICULARITIES OF THE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF GALATI COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on data collected as part of the COMOR Project for the analysis of organizational culture in the Romanian business environment, developed by The Scientific Society of Management from Romania, we have initiated, using Business Intelligence tools, a scan of the characteristics of organizational culture organizational culture for Galati County. The aim of the research is to investigate the particularities of cultural dimensions, based on the Multifocus Model developed by Geert Hofstede, are found in economic organizations in Romania, and, in particular in the business environment of Galati. An important topic of the research is to identify the drivers that influence managerial behavior at the level of the Romanian organizations in order to promote and to guide the change at the level of the microeconomic structures.

  2. Cultures of Work-Life Balance in Higher Education: A Case of Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work-life balance. Research on work-life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways…

  3. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS WAY OF EXPRESSION WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is the role of organizational culture in a company and its way of expression within the organization, for its management, for its employees and for its competition. Organizational culture is undoubtedly one of the fashionable areas of management, with a relatively recent history. Its purpose is to sensitize readers to the importance of organizational culture for the success of an enterprise, and its objectives were: to define organizational culture and its influence factors, as well as to explain the role of its components in the organization as a whole and for its members. Practically, the interest in organizational culture began in the 7th decade, largely due to the performances of Japanese companies, performance explained by their specific culture. Although the concept is increasingly met in international and local literature, the process that prevents its practical implementation is the lack of scientific (theoretical research at a company´s level. The old generation of leaders lead based on knowledge acquired years ago, few are those who really consistently do research and are up to speed with the latest news in management, or in the economic field in general. This paper aims to identify key conditions that determine human activity in an organization and their relationship to the successful implementation of an organizational culture by examplifing great successes of international companies. This is relevant, not only because these companies have huge incomes and recorded notable successes, but also because they enter and develop on the local market, trying to implement their thinking. Thus, local businesses can improve their business by adopting and adapting this way of thinking. The rezults of the research results reflect the fact that despite the concept that people are the main value of an organization, companies continue to ignore their employees, instead seeking the magic formula, the immediate solution

  5. Comparison between terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative culture for analysis of infants' gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Fei; Nowrouzian, Forough; Rangel, Ignacio; Hannoun, Charles; Moore, Edward; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E

    2013-07-01

    The infantile intestinal microbiota is a major stimulus for immune maturation. Both culture and DNA-based methods can be used for microbiota characterization, but few studies have systematically compared their performance for analysis of the gut microbiota. Here, we examined fecal samples obtained on six occasions between one week and 12 months of age from six vaginally delivered infants. After quantitative aerobic and anaerobic culture of the samples on selective and non-selective media, DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and analyzed regarding 16S rRNA gene polymorphism by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). A database was constructed for direct identification of T-RFLP peaks by analysis of pure-culture bacteria and analysis of a limited number of samples by 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing. Bacterial genera present at >10⁶ CFU/g feces, as determined by quantitative culture, were generally readily detected by T-RFLP, while culture on selective media was more sensitive in detecting facultative anaerobes with lower population counts. In contrast, T-RFLP more readily than culture detected several anaerobic species, also taxa that could not be identified using the database. T-RFLP readily identified bacteria to the genus level and also provided some sub-genus discrimination. Both T-RFLP and culture identified Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. among the most common colonizers of the infantile microbiota throughout the first year of life. T-RFLP analysis showed that microbiota complexity was high in the first weeks of life, declined to a minimum at 1-2 months of age, and thereafter increased again. Principal component analysis revealed that early samples (1 week-6 months) chiefly differed between individual infants, while 12-month samples were similar between children, but different from the early samples. Our results indicate that T-RFLP has high sensitivity and adequate taxonomic discrimination capacity for analysis of

  6. Host-Pathogen Interactions : XXIV. Fragments Isolated from Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cell Walls Inhibit the Ability of the Cells to Incorporate [C]Leucine into Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, N; Fry, S C; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P

    1983-07-01

    A bioassay to measure the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into acid-precipitable polymers of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells is described. Using this assay, cell wall fragments solubilized from sycamore cell walls by partial acid hydrolysis are shown to contain components that inhibit the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into the acid-precipitable polymers. This inhibition was not attributable to a suppression of [(14)C]leucine uptake. The effectiveness of the wall fragments in inhibiting [(14)C]leucine incorporation was substantially relieved by plasmolysis of the cells. Fragments released from starch and citrus pectin are shown not to possess such inhibitory activities.

  7. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects on the structu...

  8. Strategies for enhancing monoclonal antibody accumulation in plant cell and organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J M; Doran, P M

    2001-01-01

    Various strategies aimed at improving IgG(1) antibody accumulation in transgenic tobacco cell and organ cultures were tested. The form of tissue had a significant effect on antibody levels; shooty teratomas were less productive than hairy roots or suspended cells. Although there were several disadvantages associated with hairy roots compared with suspensions, such as slower growth, slower antibody production, and formation of a greater number of antibody fragments, the roots exhibited superior long-term culture stability. Antibody accumulation in hairy root cultures was improved by increasing the dissolved oxygen tension to 150% air saturation, indicating the need for effective oxygen transfer in root reactors used for antibody production. Preventing N-linked glycosylation using tunicamycin or inhibition of subsequent glycan processing by castanospermine reduced antibody accumulation in the biomass and/or medium in cell suspensions. Loss of antibody from the cultures after its secretion and release into the medium was identified as a major problem. This effect was minimized by inhibiting protein transport in the secretory pathway using Brefeldin A, resulting in antibody accumulation levels up to 2.7 times those in untreated cells. Strategies for protecting secreted antibody, such as addition of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and periodic harvesting from the medium using hydroxyapatite resin, also increased antibody titers. The mechanisms responsible for the disappearance of antibody from plant culture media were not clearly identified; degradation by proteases and conformational modification of the antibody, such as formation of aggregates, provided an explanation for some but not all the phenomena observed. This work demonstrates that the manipulation and control of culture conditions and metabolic processes in plant tissue cultures can be used to improve the production of foreign proteins. However, loss of secreted antibody from plant culture medium is a significant

  9. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  10. Development of a culture of sustainability in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernardo; West, Daniel J; Costell, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the concept of sustainability in health care organizations and the key managerial competencies and change management strategies needed to implant a culture of sustainability. Competencies and management development strategies needed to engrain this corporate culture of sustainability are analyzed in this document. This paper draws on the experience of the authors as health care executives and educators developing managerial competencies with interdisciplinary and international groups of executives in the last 25 years, using direct observation, interviews, discussions and bibliographic evidence. With a holistic framework for sustainability, health care managers can implement strategies for multidisciplinary teams to respond to the constant change, fine-tune operations and successfully manage quality of care. Managers can mentor students and provide in-service learning experiences that integrate knowledge, skills, and abilities. Further empirical research needs to be conducted on these interrelated innovative topics. Health care organizations around the world are under stakeholders' pressure to provide high quality, cost-effective, accessible and sustainable services. Professional organizations and health care providers can collaborate with university graduate health management education programs to prepare competent managers in all the dimensions of sustainability. The newly designated accountable care organizations represent an opportunity for managers to address the need for sustainability. Sustainability of health care organizations with the holistic approach discussed in this paper is an innovative and practical approach to quality improvement that merits further development.

  11. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding in Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola

    2017-04-01

    Different branches of modern agriculture rely on different cultural patterns of soil understanding; and they are supported by different schools of thought in soil science with their specific values and perspectives. For example, the European branch of organic agriculture, as it developed mainly in the 20th Century, is rooted in specific cultural concepts and was supported by associated minorities, or rather marginalised tendencies, within the soil science community. Some cases: It is about the transformations of living or organic matter, linked with debates on "microbes" and "life particles", "tissues" and macromolecules in the humus-sphere. It is about the "industrialised economical-technical paradigm" versus an "organic" or "ecological paradigm" - whatever both may be. It is about the relevance respectively of the "duties" of control by power, or by relatedness and "intercourse" in agricultural human-nature interaction. It is about the male and female qualities of effective God-images - both in their "religious" as well as their "secular" representations in individuals' and society's relation with nature and when dealing with soil. In today's conceptual and strategic debates and power struggles over how to sustainably feed from the land, we see patterns similar to those from the 19th and 20th Centuries in action. But the threats they pose are not yet sufficiently realised; the opportunities they offer are not yet sufficiently fulfilled. In this presentation, using the example of cultural patterns inside organic agriculture in Europe, some cultural problems and tasks will be highlighted, to which geosciences are of course confronted, being part of human society.

  12. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...

  13. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts.

  14. Vasoinhibin, an N-terminal Prolactin Fragment, Directly Inhibits Cardiac Angiogenesis in Three-dimensional Heart Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryojun; Nakamura, Eri; Harigaya, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Vasoinhibins (Vi) are fragments of the growth hormone/prolactin (PRL) family and have antiangiogenic functions in many species. It is considered that Vi derived from PRL are involved in the pathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). However, the pathogenic mechanism of PPCM, as well as heart angiogenesis, is not yet clear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to clarify whether Vi act directly on angiogenesis inhibition in heart blood vessels. Endothelial cell viability was decreased by Vi treatment in a culture experiment. Furthermore, expression of proangiogenic genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and VE-cadherin, were decreased. On the other hand, apoptotic factor gene, caspase 3, and inflammatory factor genes, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, were increased by Vi treatment. In three-dimensional left ventricular wall angiogenesis assay in mice, Vi treatment also inhibited cell migration, neovessel sprouting, and growth toward collagen gel. These data demonstrate that Vi treatment directly suppresses angiogenesis of the heart and support the hypothesis that Vi induce PPCM. PMID:28163696

  15. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  16. Social and cultural aspects of organ donation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K T

    1992-05-01

    In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.

  17. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy......, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA) were realized. Results show damage within the inorganic and the organic matrix; incorporation of sulfur and nitrogen groups, minor reduction of specific aminoacids and changes in collagen integrity were...

  18. [Removal efficiency of red tide organisms by modified clay and its impacts on cultured organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-hua; Song, Xiu-xian; Yu, Zhi-ming

    2004-09-01

    Removal efficiencies of Prorocentrum donghaiense (Prorocentrum dentatum) by Hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide and organo-clay modified by HDTMA were identified. Moreover the toxicity of the unbound HDTMA and HDTMA plus clay to aquacultural organisms, Penaeus japonicus, was also tested. The results suggested that (1) The unbound HDTMA had an excellent ability to remove the red tide organisms. However, its strong toxicity to Penaeus japonicus would restrict its practical use in red tide control. (2) The toxicity of HDTMA could be remarkably decreased by addition of clay and the organo-clay complex had a good ability to removal red tide organisms. At the same time the availability of organo-clay to remove the red tide of P. donghaiense and Heterosigma akashiwo in the lab-imitated cultures were studied. The results indicated that the organo-clay complex could remove 100% P. donghaiense at the dosage of 0.03 g/L and effectively control H. akashiwo at 0.09 g/L while the survival rate of Penaeus japonicus larvae, which were cultured in the red tide seawater, is kept 100%. According to the results in laboratory, the mesocosm tests (CEPEX) in East China Sea were conducted in April and May of 2003. The removal efficiencies of original clay, organic clay and inorganic clay were compared during the CEPEX tests. The results revealed that both inorganic clay and organic clay could remove red tide organisms more effectively than the original clay.

  19. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  20. Teratological research using in vitro systems. III. Embryonic organs in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitby, K E

    1987-01-01

    A search of literature published through the spring of 1986 yielded approximately 95 citations for the following embryonic organs in culture: kidney, pancreas, skin, palate, craniofacial tissue, tooth, lens, bones, digits, and liver. However, only the in vitro organ culture of the palate and tooth are reviewed in this paper. The other organ culture systems were not reported as teratogenic screens. Although some organs may have the potential for such use, many are currently used for evaluation...

  1. [Analysis of fragments of intergenome spacers of human body observed in chromosomes containing no nuclear organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanova, N S; Nechvolodov, K K; Korsunenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repetitions of rDNA provide so-called nuclear organizations (NOR). On the other hand, rDNA-structures are observed in some NOR chromosomes. It was demonstrated that, in addition to ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli provided a number of functions: cell cycle regulation, stress-induced response, transcription regulation, which often induced cell cascades. The mechanisms of the induction of rDNA segments in NOR chromosomes are obscure and require further research. About 1/3 repetitions are associated with nucleoli and SINE/Alu repetitions, homogeneous repetition, and tandem repetition. Perhaps, relative position of nucleoli and chromosomes may facilitate/prevent interaction of chromosomes with rDNA clusters. The variability of two larger repetitions in the central part of rMGS, LR1, and LR2 similar by -90% and separated by several hundred pairs of bases from each other was studied in our previous works. This work was devoted to the search for the LR1-LR2 segments in other chromosomes, characterization of their terminal tips at rupture points and genome areas of incorporation of the LR1-LR2 segments.

  2. Pavel A. Florenskij. Organization of Space, Art, Culture as Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maccioni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early decades of the 20th century, the reflection about the deyatel’ kul’tury is one of the most important chapters of the russian philosophy: the conception of space and time proposed by Pavel A. Florenskij – as his result in the teatrise Analiz prostranstvennosti i vremeni – is a relevant part of it. Science, philosophy and art find their roots in life, and the study of the space is the start to understand themselves. Deyatel’ kul’tury, according Florenskij, does culture: he assumes the task of planting border’s poles, outlining the shortest paths through a system of isopotential lines. Through references to the debate between Symbolists, in the Analiz we can read in a new way the origin of sculpture, theatre, cinema, paint, poetry: the organization of the space can reach man’s consciousness, but the space already exists, as exists the life itself in which the art has its roots.

  3. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  4. Corneal organ cultures in tyrosinemia release chemotactic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, K M; Hyndiuk, R A; Hatchell, D L; Kurth, C E

    1985-05-01

    Corneal inflammation with subsequent scarring and blindness occurs in the inherited human metabolic disease tyrosinemia type II, yet putative inflammatory mediators in this disorder and in the avascular cornea in general are poorly defined. In a Tyr-fed rat model of tyrosinemia type II, intracellular crystals, presumably Tyr, are hypothesized to be responsible for the increased lysosomal activity observed in corneal epithelial lesions. Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are seen only at the site of these lesions, we used this model to study humoral mediators released from Tyr-fed rat corneal organ cultures. Only Tyr-fed rats developed stromal edema and linear granular opacities in gray edematous corneal epithelium, compatible with a noninfectious keratitis. Electron micrographs confirmed epithelial edema and showed focal epithelial necrosis with PMN invasion of the stroma. Only Tyr-fed rat corneal culture supernatants contained chemotactic activity that was heat labile and moderately trypsin sensitive. Four peaks with varying amounts of chemotactic activity were found on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. Although the identity of these peaks of activity has not yet been established, we suggest that they may be responsible for the PMN infiltration observed in this model of corneal inflammation.

  5. The role of organizational culture in improvement of professional ethics in research organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baqi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture is the soul of an organization, which can cause advance or retrogress of the organization. This paper investigates the role of organizational culture on improvement and effectiveness of organizations. We identify and recognize the role of important components of organizational culture in effectiveness of professional ethics within organizations. The results show that there was a meaningful relationship between organizational interest and commitment, enhancement of stability and compatibility, teamwork moral, giving identity to the staff and the quality of professional ethics. The results obtained from the data analysis also indicate that organizational culture deeply affects the employees' behavior of an organization.

  6. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may...

  7. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may...

  8. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  9. Molecular Organization of Various Collagen Fragments as Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy and Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stötzel, S.; Schurink, M.; Wienk, H.L.J.; Siebler, U.; Burg-Roderfeld, M.; Eckert, T.; Kulik, B.; Wechselberger, R.W.; Sewing, J.; Steinmeyer, J.; Oesser, S.; Boelens, R.; Siebert, H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous mixtures of collagen fragments can be used as nutrition supplement or as key ingredients for ointments with therapeutic relevance in wound healing. Some mixtures of collagen fragments are referred to as collagen hydrolysates owing to the production process with hydrolytic enzymes. Sinc

  10. Organization Culture and Its Development in Private Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskas, Vytolis; Paulauskaite, Alina

    2005-01-01

    The article is intended to discuss the features, structure, functions and developmental peculiarities of organizational culture in private colleges. A summary and conclusions of empirical research into organizational culture in private colleges are presented. (Contains 6 tables and 14 figures.)

  11. INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY AS THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Maksimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the question of information transparency as the quality characteristics of the organizational culture.The author describes the new propertiesof the organizational culture arising in theconditions of informatization of economic relations, the relation between information content and organizational culture, the roleand functions of information transparencyin a modern company. In study elaborated a model of interaction between the components of organizational culture throughinformation transparency.

  12. Do organizations reflect national cultures? A 10-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to cross-validate Hofstede's classification of national cultures. An additional aim was to investigate the relationship between culture as perceived and culture as desired. Over 800 advanced students of economics, business administration and management from 10 coun

  13. Aeroponics for the culture of organisms, tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, P J; Zobel, R W

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of aeroponics are discussed. Contrast is made, where appropriate, with hydroponics and aero-hydroponics as applies to research and commercial applications of nutrient mist technology. Topics include whole plants, plant tissue cultures, cell and microbial cultures, and animal tissue cultures with regard to operational considerations (moisture, temperature, minerals, gaseous atmosphere) and design of apparati.

  14. Culture And Universal Professional Values In Global Organizations: Is There A Divergence Or Convergence Of Cultural Values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nieves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the theory of universal human values, the universal human values of people across cultures, and how culture and values impact organizations. This article reviews the history and research into human values, culture, and behavior, followed by reviews of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Schwartz and Bilky’s Theory of Universal Human Values.A strong connection exists between these theories and their related empirical research, not only chronologically, but also theologically and methodologically. The subjects are presented in a temporal sequence. Thus, the work of Professor Gert Hofstede is presented first; the work of Schwartz, Bilsky, is more recent, but strongly linked to prior research by Hofstede on values and culture. The objective is to improve ones understanding of work-related values, culture, and the impact that values may have on individuals in different cultural environments that are found in international organizations. This study tests to see if there is a difference in individualism scores of Mexican and American engineers when compared to Hofstede’s original study in 1980. This study also looks at the Mexican and American engineer samples to see if their scores on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions show a correlation with the scores on Schwartz’s culture-level dimensions. The study attempts to determine if there is a divergence or convergence of cultural values. Findings of the study are reported.

  15. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  16. Monitoring Educational Organizations' Culture of Sustainable Consumption: Initiating and Evaluating Cultural Change in Schools and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Patterns of consumption are considered as a main driver of unsustainable development. In the debate, education and educational organizations are unisonous considered as a key player to contribute to a more sustainable socialization of young consumers. Both schools and universities are challenged to become places and life-worlds in which sustainable consumption can be learned and experienced. The objective of this paper was to explore how educational organizations can effectively engage their members in bringing about the aspired transformations and monitoring their effects. Approach: The study used a conceptual approach that included three steps. Firstly, the concept of an educational organization’s Culture Of Consumption (COC was adopted as an analytical frame of reference. In a second step, methodological propositions for changing the organizational COC were discussed drawing on the concepts of mode-2 knowledge production and participatory change management. In a third step, existing tools and approaches to sustainability auditing in the educational context were screened and critically discussed against the background of recent innovations in mode-2 approaches to sustainability evaluation. Results: The findings revealed that while existing sets of indicators did adequately account for key consumption-related organizational operations and to some extent for educational goals and aspirations, they failed to tap the realm of underlying and tacit basic assumptions that substantiate the essence of an organizational COC. To remedy this shortcoming, additional indicators and modifications were proposed. As a synthesis, a synoptic framework of a monitoring system for an educational organization’s COC was presented. Conclusion: The study’s results highlighted the need to develop monitoring frameworks that go beyond assessing operative performances and pay greater attention to reflective, interpretative and deliberative

  17. Keeping the Faith: A Model of Cultural Transmission in Formal Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. Richard; Carroll, Glenn R.

    1991-01-01

    Develops a cultural transmission model with the following variables: worker entry and exit rate, organization growth rate, recruiting selectivity, socialization intensity, and the rate that socialization decays if not reinforced. A computer simulation of the model found that cultural systems in organizations are highly robust and reach equilibrium…

  18. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  19. Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

  20. THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE CULTURE OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation and development of corporate culture as the main factor of the successful functioning of medical organization in terms of optimization of activity of the health system. Discusses the importance and main directions of development of corporate culture for personal and organizational development. The authors identified features of the corporate culture of healthcare organizations, the approaches, showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities on the formation, maintenance and development of corporate culture. Emphasized the need for further research and introduction of corporate culture and cultural values in health care organizations. Purpose/ objectives: to Study and evaluate the corporate culture of healthcare organizations to improve institutional management and increase of efficiency activity of medical organizations. Materials and methods: For data collection methods were used: direct observation, interviews, questionnaires. In conducting this study used data from official sources, a literature review, a systematic approach, comparative analysis, historical, sociological, statistical research methods. The results of the study indicate the need for concept development, tools implementation and development of corporate culture in the practice of the medical organizations.Conclusions/Significance: Corporate culture – the system of collectively shared values, symbols, beliefs, standards of behaviour employees of the organization that contributes to the originality and uniqueness of the activities of medical organizations that promote the identification of employees with the organization; Corporate culture is formed with the influence of factors external and internal environment of the organization, solving problems, external adaptation  and internal integration in the environment; Generated and promoted by the corporate culture is an important management tool, creates

  1. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Intensive General Nursing) Knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation. However, the supply of organs does not meet this demand, especially, among the black communities. Literature reviewed associate this imbalance with the few sources of organs, the technique of organ retrieval, discrepancies in the allocation of organs and sociocultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the...

  2. Organization a Culture of Self-Education of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyganova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Yavgildina, Ziliya Mukhtarovna

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the culture of self-education of music teacher as a professionally necessary quality of a modern specialist in the field of music education. The author proposes finalized definitions of basic concepts; consistently reveals the essence, structure, criteria and indicators of self-culture of music teacher; reveals the potential…

  3. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  4. From Three-Dimensional Cell Culture to Organs-on-Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Dongeun; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have recently garnered great attention because they often promote levels of cell differentiation and tissue organization not possible in conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. Here, we review new advances in 3D culture that leverage microfabrication technologies from the microchip industry and microfluidics approaches to create cell culture microenvironments that both support tissue differentiation and recapitulate the tissue-tissue inter...

  5. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  6. Organ explant culture of neonatal rat ventricles: a new model to study gene and cell therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dénise den Haan

    Full Text Available Testing cardiac gene and cell therapies in vitro requires a tissue substrate that survives for several days in culture while maintaining its physiological properties. The purpose of this study was to test whether culture of intact cardiac tissue of neonatal rat ventricles (organ explant culture may be used as a model to study gene and cell therapy. We compared (immuno histology and electrophysiology of organ explant cultures to both freshly isolated neonatal rat ventricular tissue and monolayers. (Immuno histologic studies showed that organ explant cultures retained their fiber orientation, and that expression patterns of α-actinin, connexin-43, and α-smooth muscle actin did not change during culture. Intracellular voltage recordings showed that spontaneous beating was rare in organ explant cultures (20% and freshly isolated tissue (17%, but common (82% in monolayers. Accordingly, resting membrane potential was -83.9±4.4 mV in organ explant cultures, -80.5±3.5 mV in freshly isolated tissue, and -60.9±4.3 mV in monolayers. Conduction velocity, measured by optical mapping, was 18.2±1.0 cm/s in organ explant cultures, 18.0±1.2 cm/s in freshly isolated tissue, and 24.3±0.7 cm/s in monolayers. We found no differences in action potential duration (APD between organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue, while APD of monolayers was prolonged (APD at 70% repolarization 88.8±7.8, 79.1±2.9, and 134.0±4.5 ms, respectively. Organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue could be paced up to frequencies within the normal range for neonatal rat (CL 150 ms, while monolayers could not. Successful lentiviral (LV transduction was shown via Egfp gene transfer. Co-culture of organ explant cultures with spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes increased the occurrence of spontaneous beating activity of organ explant cultures to 86%. We conclude that organ explant cultures of neonatal rat ventricle are structurally and electrophysiologically similar

  7. The Effect of Cultural Intelligence on Employees’ Job Performance in Welfare Organization (the Case of Isfahan\\\\\\'s Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2014-11-01

    The Iranian society is replacing a mechanical integrity with an organic one. Compared to a few decades ago, Iranians interact and communicate with people that belong to diverse cultural background. The migration process has a very effective role in this issue. According to our findings, it appears that metacognitive cultural intelligence (through the improvement of communication management, cognitive cultural intelligence (via respecting clients, motivational cultural intelligence (by means of motivating to intercultural relationships, and behavioral cultural intelligence (by way of increasing adaption all have positive effects on employees’ job performance in Isfahan's Welfare Organization. However, CQ and JP do not have a considerable difference in terms of sex, education, and length of experience. Keywords:

  8. Role of Corporate Culture in Model of Logic Levels of Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya А. Aleksandrova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the level of corporate culture in a model of logic levels of the organization. The modern organization is influenced by the external factors, and therefore it should have the ability to form and accumulate potential for corporate culture in order to ensure a timely response to the external environment and effectively manage the operation and development of numerous elements and subsystems of the organization.

  9. Genotypic identification of some lactic acid bacteria by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and investigation of their potential usage as starter culture combinations in Beyaz cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, A G; Başyiğit Kiliç, G; Kart, A; Sanlidere Aloğlu, H; Oner, Z; Aydemir, S; Erkuş, O; Harsa, S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 2 different starter culture combinations were prepared for cheesemaking. Starter culture combinations were formed from 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (2 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum (5 strains), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 strain) by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effects of these combinations on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Beyaz cheeses were investigated. These cheeses were compared with Beyaz cheeses that were produced with a commercial starter culture containing Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris as control. All cheeses were ripened in brine at 4 degrees C for 90 d. Dry matter, fat in dry matter, titratable acidity, pH, salt in dry matter, total N, water-soluble N, and ripening index were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns of cheeses showed that alpha(S)-casein and beta-casein degraded slightly during the ripening period. Lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast, molds, and coliforms were also counted. All analyses were repeated twice during d 7, 30, 60, and 90. The starter culture combinations were found to be significantly different from the control group in pH, salt content, and lactobacilli, lactococci, and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts, whereas the cheeses were similar in fat, dry matter content, and coliform, yeast, and mold counts. The sensory analysis of cheeses indicated that textural properties of control cheeses presented somewhat lower scores than those of the test groups. The panelists preferred the tastes of treatment cheeses, whereas cheeses with starter culture combinations and control cheeses had similar scores for appearance and flavor. These results indicated that both starter culture combinations are suitable for Beyaz cheese production.

  10. A multiaxial computer-controlled organ culture and biomechanical device for mouse carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R L; Gray, S P; Wilson, E; Humphrey, J D

    2004-12-01

    Much of our understanding of vascular mechanotransduction has come from studies using either cell culture or in vivo animal models, but the recent success of organ culture systems offers an exciting alternative. In studying cell-mediated vascular adaptations to altered loading, organ culture allows one to impose well-controlled mechanical loads and to perform multiaxial mechanical tests on the same vessel throughout the culture period, and thereby to observe cell-mediated vascular adaptations independent of neural and hormonal effects. Here, we present a computer-controlled perfused organ culture and biomechanical testing device designed for small caliber (50-5000 micron) blood vessels. This device can control precisely the pulsatile pressure, luminal flow, and axial load (or stretch) and perform intermittent biaxial (pressure-diameter and axial load-length) and functional tests to quantify adaptations in mechanical behavior and cellular function, respectively. Device capabilities are demonstrated by culturing mouse carotid arteries for 4 days.

  11. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  12. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  13. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may be applied in management, organizational consulting, coaching.

  14. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization......, and sets out to illustrate implications of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. It is argued that the theories on management of cultural diversity should include theories on knowledge and knowledge sharing. The main theoretical argument is that a locally grounded understanding of social aspects...... of knowledge sharing should be the departure point for dealing with cultural diversity in a business context....

  15. Developing a learning culture: twelve tips for individuals, teams and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lynn; Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley

    2006-06-01

    A culture of learning in providing health services and education for health professionals is a constant challenge for individuals, team and organizations. The importance of such a culture was highlighted by the findings of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001). This was discussed in the context of the literature on the Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) at the 2004 Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) conference, and reviewed a year later at the 2005 AMEE conference. This paper outlines twelve tips for educational and health service organizations in facilitating a culture of learning for their members and also offers specific advice to individual students and professionals.

  16. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...... that remained viable, there was an initial phase of degeneration of the surface and crypt cells, later these areas were repopulated in one week, showing well-formed crypts, goblet cells, and ultrastructural features such as extensive lateral interdigitations, microvilli and glycocalyx--typical of colon...

  17. Preservation of human skin structure and function in organ culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varani, J.

    1998-01-01

    Human keratinocytes can be maintained in monolayer culture under serum-free conditions for an extended period of time. Under low ca2+ conditions (e.g., 0.05-0.15 mM), an undifferentiated state is maintained and the cells proliferate optimally. When the ca2+ concentration is raised to approximately 1.0 mM, differentiation occurs and growth slows. Human dermal fibroblasts can also be maintained in monolayer culture under serum-free conditions, but in contrast to ...

  18. Performance measures of cultural competency in mental health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, C; Davis-Chambers, E; Haugland, G; Bank, R; Aponte, C; McCombs, H

    2000-11-01

    The authors utilized numerous documents created by advisory groups, expert panels and multicultural focus groups to develop performance measures for assessing the cultural competency of mental health systems. Competency was measured within three levels of organizational structure: administrative, provider network, and individual caregiver. Indicators, measures and data sources for needs assessment, information exchange, services, human resources, plans and policies, and outcomes were identified. Procedures for selection and implementation of the most critical measures are suggested. The products of this project are broadly applicable to the concerns of all cultural groups.

  19. The effects of legacy organization culture on post-merger integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Terrill L; Carley, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the characteristics of pre-existing organization cultures and post-merger integration dynamics; this study involves examining data produced by computer simulation. Two characteristics of organization culture, its characteristic complexity and its propensity for members' to share information, are controlled in computational experiments. To characterize post-merger integration dynamics, we measure the transfer of information with respect to two types: (a) that which is necessary in performing work tasks, and (b) that which underlies the features of a group's culture. The extent to which this information is common in a group is indicative of task performance and the cultural cohesiveness of its members; leading to the level of performance for the group. We consider cultural knowledge as it pertains to both that of the entire organization and at the work-team level; often times, these can be dissimilar. We find that cultural complexity and exchange motivation vary in their influence on the diffusion of task and cultural knowledge: the more complex the culture, the longer for post-merger integration to complete, while simultaneously task performance suffers. However, the inclination for an organization to energetically share their culture with another group does not immensely impact the diffusion of cultural or task knowledge; moreover, high levels of task focus in a culture can hinder cultural diffusion, though performance is positively correlated with this characteristic. This study has relevance to post-merger integration research and practice by providing a theoretically grounded, quantitative model useful for estimating the post-merger dynamics of cultural awareness and knowledge diffusion for a specific merger situation.

  20. Instituting Cultural Change at a Major Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulek, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development and implementation of a strategic cultural change program from a case study perspective. Initially, the article describes how the program was developed, including an explanation as to how a communication component was integrated into the program from inception. This integration helped reduce the anxiety that…

  1. Pashtun Social Structure: Cultural Perceptions and Segmentary Lineage Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    The Pashtun are an ethnic group that straddles the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, and are the largest group in Afghanistan. Pashtun social structure is...proceeding upward through various levels to an entire ethnic group . These relationships are based on kinship and shared culture. Segmentary lineage

  2. The politics of evaluation: The case of cultural organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.; Piber, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural policy always means to decide how to spend money. This is a problem, as there are usually more useful options to use financial means than money available . Hence a sound evaluation of the proposed results and the predicted outcome as well as to some extent also a comparison of different pro

  3. The politics of evaluation: The case of cultural organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.; Piber, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural policy always means to decide how to spend money. This is a problem, as there are usually more useful options to use financial means than money available . Hence a sound evaluation of the proposed results and the predicted outcome as well as to some extent also a comparison of different

  4. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  5. Enhanced expression of contractile endothelin ET(B) receptors in rat coronary artery after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, E.; Maddahi, A.; Wackenfors, A.;

    2008-01-01

    . In cardiovascular disease and in organ culture in vitro, endothelin ET(B) receptors are up-regulated on smooth muscle cells. The objectives of the present study were to characterise the endothelin receptor-induced vasoconstriction and quantify the endothelin receptor mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in fresh...... but produced significant vasoconstriction after organ culture. The endothelin ET(B) receptor mRNA level and the receptor protein immunoreactivity were increased, whereas the level of endothelin ET(A) receptor mRNA was down-regulated but not its receptor protein immunoreactivity after organ culture...... and cultured rat coronary arteries. We demonstrate that endothelin-1 induces strong and equal concentration-dependent contractions in fresh and cultured segments from the left anterior descending coronary artery. Sarafotoxin 6c, an endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, had negligible effect in fresh arteries...

  6. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Calić-Dragosavac, D; Malenčić, D; Zdravković-Korać, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves.

  7. The Impact of Organization Culture on Satisfaction of Engineers in Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Jerry W.; Takada, Pamela W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In today's technological workplace with the shortage of qualified knowledge workers, the factors that lead to job satisfaction have increasing importance. Several past studies have indicated that knowledge worker job satisfaction increases when Herzberg motivators are present. Other research has indicated that job satisfaction improves as the degree of organic organizational culture increases. After examining the factors that led to knowledge worker job satisfaction, the current study was undertaken. Knowledge workers in varying organizational cultures were surveyed in an effort to determine if there is a relationship between the degree of knowledge worker job satisfaction and the measure of organic organization culture. Two survey instruments, the Organizational Cultural Assessment (OCA) developed by Riegle, and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), were utilized. The OCA delineates degree of organic culture present whereas the MSQ measures job satisfaction. Results of both surveys were statistically analyzed to determine if knowledge workers experience higher satisfaction levels in organic organizational cultures. Once data was analyzed and the hypothesis proven, this could lead companies to move toward an organic culture with emphasis on motivators in an effort to make their organizational culture more conducive to higher employee retention. Through understanding the factors that lead to increased job satisfaction, corporate resources could more efficiently utilized. A total of eight high technology workplaces were surveyed. Five of the eight workplaces yielded statistically significant positive correlation between a positive organizational culture and increased job satisfaction. These initial results indicate the connection between culture and job satisfaction. The relationship will be further analyzed through future surveys of numerous high technology workplaces.

  8. Cultural Meanings Construction: An Analysis of the Organic Grape Juice Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the meanings networks that involve markets, this research aims to analyze cultural meanings production in the organic grape juice market, involving consumers and producers agents. It was adopted a qualitative approach with an interpretative character by interviews with 25 consumers and producers. Cultural meanings construction description and analysis involved the socio-cultural context, interaction between agents (producers and consumers and meanings assigned by each agent. Organics are meant as food for both agents. However, others meanings associated to organics operate in dichotomic levels. It results in a non-homogeneous network between producers and consumers, reflecting the different cultural universe of each agent. These results mainly contribute in understanding the patterns of production and consumption around the food market. The lack of consolidated networks of meanings limit the construction and establishment of organic products market structures.

  9. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  10. The effect of organic nitrogen sources on recombinant glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger in chemostat culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swift, R.J.; Karandikar, A.; Griffen, A.M.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Robson, G.D.; Trinci, A.P.J.; Wiebe, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Aspergillus niger B1, a recombinant strain carrying 20 extra copies of the native glucoamylase gene, was grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures supplemented with various organic nitrogen sources (dilution rate 0.12 ± 0.01 h-1, pH 5.4). In cultures supplemented with L-alanine, L-methionine, casa

  11. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  12. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  13. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  14. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  15. Quantum fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    Phenomenological and theoretical aspects of fragmentation for elementary particles (resp. nuclei) are discussed. It is shown that some concepts of classical fragmentation remain relevant in a microscopic framework, exhibiting non-trivial properties of quantum relativistic field theory (resp. lattice percolation). Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  16. The Serendipity of Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate E.

    , it was the central government’s task to coordinate, steer and control the newly emerged decentralized organizations. This raises questions about the overall design of the public sector at present. Our paper engages with the prevalent public governance phenomenon of fragmentation from a design perspective in order...... form of organizing between networks and formal organization: lacking a single center and featuring multiplex and multifaceted relations within the politico-administrative apparatus and between government and PSOs, high fragmentation, local and robust action, but latent structures of significant formal...

  17. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa.

  18. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...... as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa....

  19. The Possibilities of Using Organization Development Technologies in Thai Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    has been the main dri--ving force in Thai cultural development. Ilach of cl.assical Thai art., particularly architecture, cultura , painting and =arly...progress upward in a public institutiLon, t:he executivqs mus-t indicate a zolding, of attitudes to fit -he particular agency affiliation. Whilst this...curricula are fitted to ci-vi-l service exazination. Possessi-or. of -he hachrelcZ’s degree is reauired for entrance t.o the ssrvics as a thi6r d grade

  20. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  1. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  2. Organics on oxidic metal surfaces: a first-principles DFT study of PMDA and ODA fragments on the pristine and mildly oxidized surfaces of Cu(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hun; Lee, Ji-Hwan; Soon, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic hybrid materials are ubiquitous and a fundamental understanding of the hybrid-interface is key for the development of these hybrid material systems. In this work, using first-principles density-functional theory (including van der Waals (vdW) corrections), we study the fundamental physico-chemical properties of the molecular fragments of pyromellitic dianhydride oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA) on pristine Cu(111), as well as oxidic p4:O/Cu(111) in order to investigate the effect of mild oxidation of the metal substrate on PMDA-ODA adsorption. Firstly, we report the most favorable adsorption geometries amongst the various surface models and correlate the adsorption behavior with the electronic structure of the molecular fragments and the substrate layer. PMDA adsorbs weakly on both the clean and mildly oxidized copper surface via vdW forces while ODA adsorbs much stronger with a significant charge transfer between the substrates. Here, the oxidic layer is found to reduce the adsorption strength of both fragments and in particular, the ODA molecule interacts with the substrate via additional hydrogen bonding. Finally, our simulated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images suggest possible orientations of PMDA and ODA on clean and oxidic Cu surfaces to guide future experiments.

  3. Fragmented Authoritarianism or Integrated Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    of these business leaders prompts the question of whether we are seeing the development of distinct interest groups that could challenge Party and state authority and create a fragmented polity. However, through the nomenklatura system the Party has an important instrument of control to wield over business groups...... and the Party-state, I suggest the notion of integrated fragmentation....

  4. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  5. Emergence of small-world anatomical networks in self-organizing clustered neuronal cultures

    CERN Document Server

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Leyva, Inmaculada; Almendral, Juan A; Anava, Sarit; Ayali, Amir; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In vitro primary cultures of dissociated invertebrate neurons from locust ganglia are used to experimentally investigate the morphological evolution of assemblies of living neurons, as they self-organize from collections of separated cells into elaborated, clustered, networks. At all the different stages of the culture's development, identification of neurons' and neurites' location by means of a dedicated software allows to ultimately extract an adjacency matrix from each image of the culture. In turn, a systematic statistical analysis of a group of topological observables grants us the possibility of quantifying and tracking the progression of the main network's characteristics during the self-organization process of the culture. Our results point to the existence of a particular state corresponding to a small-world network configuration, in which several relevant graph's micro- and meso-scale properties emerge. Finally, we identify the main physical processes ruling the culture's morphological transformati...

  6. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  7. An organic lesson for life – transforming food culture in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Joanna; Leech, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This presentation aims to discuss a successful partnership and approach which, in the absence of a government led drive, has nonetheless succeeded in increasing organic food procurement by the public sector. This initiative is the Food for Life Partnership; an attempt to transform food culture and improve public health and wellbeing through organic food and principles.

  8. Impact of Learning Organization Culture on Performance in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuswamy, Indra; Manohar, Hansa Lysander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adapted version of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) was employed to investigate the perception of academic staff on learning organization culture in Indian higher education institutions. The questionnaire was sent to 700 faculty members of different universities using a non-probability purposive…

  9. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  10. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  11. Role of Organization Culture on Kuwait’s Construction Industry Management: An Employee Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdullah Al-Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of stakeholders in construction projects make the construction industry prone to disputes. Communication breakdown, frequently, is the first sign of problems, notably in the relationship between the Contractor and the Consultant. Where, the construction industry in Kuwait is increasing due to market needs, large number of private and public construction projects. The high demands in the market have led to a competition in the construction market. Organization culture has become one of the construction strategies plan to enhance organization management performance and productivity. This present work investigated and analysed the role and impact of organization culture on Kuwaiti construction organization management. This paper represents the first research on this area and contributed to explore and identify cultural-chractersitics that play a role on construction management.

  12. Organ and tissue donation in migrants: advanced course for cross-cultural mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, R; Guermani, A; Grosso, M; Fossarello, L; Fontaneto, C; Casciola, A; Donadio, P P

    2013-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2010 in Piedmont (Italy Northern Region) 1556 brain-death situations were reported, including 113 (7.3%) in migrants as potential organ and tissue donors. The health staff often has to face migrants, who show great cultural differences and language difficulties. The Molinette Hospital Customer Care Service, the Piedmont Regional Tissue and Organ Procurement Coordination Agency (RPC), and the Cross-Cultural Mediators Association (CMA) organized a special course for intercultural mediators, to decrease misunderstandings between the health staff and the migrants' families and to improve professional communication. In 2011, 28 cultural-linguistic mediators representing different groups of migrants in Piemonte took part in a specific course. Over a 5 month period they were informed about emotional and communicative aspects, proper to the moment of death, as well as organ donation as an intercultural field, the professional role of the mediator, the clinical and forensic aspects of brain death and donation, and the psychological aspects of organ donation. The course was organized by cultural-linguistic mediators of the CMA, the staff of the RPC and the teachers at Turin University. The list of the 21 mediators who passed the final exam was given to organ and tissue donation hospital co-ordinators in Piedmont, so that if necessary, they could obtain the cooperation of these qualified people.

  13. Organic manure in maize culture in brejo paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Cardoso Almeida Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of organic fertilizers of animal origin is of fundamental importance for the development and growth of crops cultivated by small producers. In this aspect, the present study evaluated the effect of fertilization with cattle manure and chicken litter rustic on the components of production of maize. The experiment was performed at the Experimental Station of Lagoa Seca, PB, belonging at Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba (Emepa. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments: control, urea to a 5%, cattle manure (10 t ha-1; bed of chicken (4 t ha-1 and 8 t ha-1 in four replications. Were determined the yield of dried ears and dry grain, the average weight of spike, the average weight of cob, the cob/grain and number of spikes per plant. The treatments with chicken litter of 4 and 8 t ha-1 influenced the increased productivity of ears and grain and weight of spike on urea, and the cattle and the control, which showed no statistical difference between them. The fertilization with poultry litter and cattle manure may substantially improve the productivity of maize grown in production system family production in Brejo paraibano.Key-words: Zea mays L., productivity, organic fertilizer.

  14. Organic Chemistry Students' Fragmented Ideas about the Structure and Function of Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: A Concept Map Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with multiple aspects of reaction mechanisms and the curved arrow notation used by organic chemists. Many faculty believe that an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles, among other concepts, is required before students can develop fluency with the electronpushing formalism (EPF). An expert concept map…

  15. Organic Chemistry Students' Fragmented Ideas about the Structure and Function of Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: A Concept Map Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with multiple aspects of reaction mechanisms and the curved arrow notation used by organic chemists. Many faculty believe that an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles, among other concepts, is required before students can develop fluency with the electronpushing formalism (EPF). An expert concept map…

  16. Cultural warrant as a justification in knowledge organization systems: A critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Barité

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory analysis of the "cultural warrant" concept is made with the objective of determining related future research areas. First, the generic notion of "warrant" is reviewed as it has been considered by Knowledge Organization. Different kinds of warrants proposed to legitimate the inclusion of terminology in knowledge organization systems are described. A critical analysis of the "culture" concept is carried out as well as the way in which the various anthropological, sociological and political point of views come together in its epistemological construction. The treatment of the cultural warrant in the relevant literature is reviewed and discussed. Its contribution to the construction of cultural identities through differentiation elements in the interpretation and life experience is valued.The relationship between cultural warrant and local culture is developed in-depth. The insertion of the ethical factor through of the cultural warrant is weighted in the development of classification schemes as well as the classification and indexing processes. The need to explore in greater detail the methodological alternatives which can be based upon this integrative and democratizing conception in the Knowledge Organization field is established among other conclusions

  17. Potentiated adrenomedullin-induced vasorelaxation during hypoxia in organ cultured porcine coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Sheykhzade, Majid; Schifter, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the effect of variable oxygen supply on relaxing responses induced by αCGRP and adrenomedullin (AM) on isolated pig coronary arteries in vitro. Organ culture during normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2) induced a significant leftward shift of the AM concentration.......8 - 7.2), whereas no antagonistic effect was observed in fresh and hyperoxic (95 %) organ cultured vessels. The antagonistic effect exerted by αCGRP8-37 (10 - 10 M) on αCGRP-induced vasodilatation in fresh vessels (derived from Schild plot pA2 = 7.4 ± 0.1) was unaltered during organ culture....... The antagonistic effect exerted by αCGRP8-37 (10M) on AM-induced vasorelaxation in fresh vessels (apparent pKB = 7.4 ± 0.1) was absent during hypoxic organ culture. TheRAMP1/Calcitonin like receptor (CLR) mRNA ratio was reduced and RAMP2/CLR mRNA ratio increased during hypoxic and normoxic organ culture compared...

  18. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed.

  19. Upregulation of endothelin ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in rat coronary artery after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Karen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction occurred in isolated segments of rat coronary arteries during organ culture. Presence of contractile endothelin ET(B) receptors was studied by measuring the change in isometric tension in rings of left anterior...... descending coronary arteries isolated from hearts of rats as response to application of the selective endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin-1. In segments cultured 1 day in serum free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sarafotoxin 6c induced a concentration dependent contraction......(+)-solution was not modified after 1 day in culture medium. The experiments indicate that organ culture of rat coronary arteries upregulate endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction by inducing synthesis of new protein....

  20. Magma Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  1. Cultural Mapping as a Social Practice: A Response to "Mapping the Cultural Boundaries in Schools and Communities: Redefining Spaces Through Organizing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.; Hanif-Shahban, Shenaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Gerald Wood and Elizabeth Lemley's (2015) article entitled "Mapping the Cultural Boundaries in Schools and Communities: Redefining Spaces Through Organizing," this response inquires further into cultural mapping as a social practice. From our perspective, cultural mapping has potential to contribute to place making, as well…

  2. Non-destructive monitoring of viability in an ex vivo organ culture model of osteochondral tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM Elson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organ culture is an increasingly important tool in research, with advantages over monolayer cell culture due to the inherent natural environment of tissues. Successful organ cultures must retain cell viability. The aim of this study was to produce viable and non-viable osteochondral organ cultures, to assess the accumulation of soluble markers in the conditioned medium for predicting tissue viability. Porcine femoral osteochondral plugs were cultured for 20 days, with the addition of Triton X-100 on day 6 (to induce necrosis, camptothecin (to induce apoptosis or no toxic additives. Tissue viability was assessed by the tissue destructive XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide tetrazolium salt assay method and LIVE/DEAD® staining of the cartilage at days 0, 6 and 20. Tissue structure was assessed by histological evaluation using haematoxylin & eosin and safranin O. Conditioned medium was assessed every 3-4 days for glucose depletion, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9. Necrotic cultures immediately showed a reduction in glucose consumption, and an immediate increase in LDH, GAG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Apoptotic cultures showed a delayed reduction in glucose consumption and delayed increase in LDH, a small rise in MMP-2 and MMP-9, but no significant effect on GAGs released into the conditioned medium. The data showed that tissue viability could be monitored by assessing the conditioned medium for the aforementioned markers, negating the need for tissue destructive assays. Physiologically relevant whole- or part-joint organ culture models, necessary for research and pre-clinical assessment of therapies, could be monitored this way, reducing the need to sacrifice tissues to determine viability, and hence reducing the sample numbers necessary.

  3. Hybrid metabolic flux analysis and recombinant protein prediction in Pichia pastoris X-33 cultures expressing a single-chain antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Inês A; Portela, Rui M; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Despite the growing importance of the Pichia pastoris expression system as industrial workhorse, the literature is almost absent in systematic studies on how culture medium composition affects central carbon fluxes and heterologous protein expression. In this study we investigate how 26 variations of the BSM+PTM1 medium impact central carbon fluxes and protein expression in a P. pastoris X-33 strain expressing a single-chain antibody fragment. To achieve this goal, we adopted a hybrid metabolic flux analysis (MFA) methodology, which is a modification of standard MFA to predict the rate of synthesis of recombinant proteins. Hybrid MFA combines the traditional parametric estimation of central carbon fluxes with non-parametric statistical modeling of product-related quantitative or qualitative measurements as a function of central carbon fluxes. It was observed that protein yield variability was 53.6 % (relative standard deviation) among the different experiments. Protein yield is much more sensitive to medium composition than biomass growth, which is mainly determined by the carbon source availability and main salts. Hybrid MFA was able to describe accurately the protein yield with normalized RMSE of 6.3 % over 5 independent experiments. The metabolic state that promotes high protein yields is characterized by high overall metabolic rates through main central carbon pathways concomitantly with a relative shift of carbon flux from biosynthetic towards energy generating pathways.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT IN IT VS NON IT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata KAPUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of business which is considered a 'second industrial revolution' is a trend that makes Cross cultural Human Resource management crucial for all organizations. Multicultural workforce congregations and increasing global interactions in business, finance, culture etc. have become today's workplace realities.Cross-cultural differences are the cause of failed negotiations and interactions, resulting in losses to the firms. This study examines the best practices in managing across a culturally diverse and geographically dispersed workforce in IT and non IT organizations and makes comparative evaluation of these practices and strategies. The results of the comparative analysis study will lead to cross fertilization of ideas as the best practices for IT companies can be imbibed by and applied to the non IT companies and vice versa. This study ellucidates that cross-cultural management will give managers on international assignments the cultural understanding essential to accomplish their tasks leading to a committed workforce thereby resulting in better financial performance of the organization.

  5. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  6. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  7. Organizational culture - a factor of potential positive influence on the collectivities of any organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Andreea MIHALACHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.

  8. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Soil-derived organic particles and their effects on the community of culturable microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrianský, Lukáš; Štofik, Marcel; Gryndler, Milan

    2017-06-19

    Soil microbial community interacts with a range of particulate material in the soil, consisting of both inorganic and organic compounds with different levels of water solubility. Though sparingly water-soluble and insoluble organic compounds in the soil may affect living organisms, they are difficult to introduce into microbiological media. Their biological activity (i.e., their effect on soil microorganisms) thus has been almost neglected in most of the cultivation assays. To fill this gap, we propose the use of fine organic particles prepared from soil organic matter that are introduced into a laboratory medium where microbial community is cultivated. To this purpose, submicrometer particles consisting of sparingly water-soluble or insoluble soil organic matter were obtained from humic horizons of two soils by precipitation of organics dissolved in tetrahydrofuran by addition of water. The particles could then be size fractionated by centrifugation, and coarse fraction obtained from humic horizon formed under spruce forest was tested for effects on complex microbial community developing under laboratory conditions. The results indicate that low concentration (20 mg/L) of the particles is efficient to affect the composition of the bacterial community revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The work contributes to understanding the factors that determine the composition of soil microbial community.

  10. Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Organic Food: Cross-cultural study of Turkey and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Nihan

    2007-01-01

    Organic food market is very challenging in Europe and developing rapidly with different rates between western and eastern part. Consumers have raised great interest to healthy and tasty diet with high nutritional compounds, confidence in food safety, environmental and animal welfare concern and also sustainability. This paper presents cross-cultural results for organic food consumers in Turkey and Germany. Quantitative data is collected by survey method consisting of structured...

  11. Primary culture and plasmid electroporation of the murine organ of Corti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mark; Brugeaud, Aurore; Edge, Albert S B

    2010-02-04

    In all mammals, the sensory epithelium for audition is located along the spiraling organ of Corti that resides within the conch shaped cochlea of the inner ear (fig 1). Hair cells in the developing cochlea, which are the mechanosensory cells of the auditory system, are aligned in one row of inner hair cells and three (in the base and mid-turns) to four (in the apical turn) rows of outer hair cells that span the length of the organ of Corti. Hair cells transduce sound-induced mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane into neural impulses that the brain can interpret. Most cases of sensorineural hearing loss are caused by death or dysfunction of cochlear hair cells. An increasingly essential tool in auditory research is the isolation and in vitro culture of the organ explant. Once isolated, the explants may be utilized in several ways to provide information regarding normative, anomalous, or therapeutic physiology. Gene expression, stereocilia motility, cell and molecular biology, as well as biological approaches for hair cell regeneration are examples of experimental applications of organ of Corti explants. This protocol describes a method for the isolation and culture of the organ of Corti from neonatal mice. The accompanying video includes stepwise directions for the isolation of the temporal bone from mouse pups, and subsequent isolation of the cochlea, spiral ligament, and organ of Corti. Once isolated, the sensory epithelium can be plated and cultured in vitro in its entirety, or as a further dissected micro-isolate that lacks the spiral limbus and spiral ganglion neurons. Using this method, primary explants can be maintained for 7-10 days. As an example of the utility of this procedure, organ of Corti explants will be electroporated with an exogenous DsRed reporter gene. This method provides an improvement over other published methods because it provides reproducible, unambiguous, and stepwise directions for the isolation, microdissection, and primary

  12. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-03-21

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and evaluation of a porcine in vitro colon organ culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Matheus O; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2016-10-01

    The intestinal mucosa comprises a complex assemblage of specialized tissues that interact in numerous ways. In vitro cell culture models are generally focused on recreating a specific characteristic of this organ and do not account for the many interactions between the different tissues. In vitro organ culture (IVOC) methods offer a way to overcome these limitations, but prolonging cell viability is essential. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and optimal conditions for in vitro culture of swine colonic mucosa for use as an enteric pathogen infection model. Explants (n = 168) from commercial pigs (n = 12), aged 5 to 10 wk, were used to assess the impact of various culture protocols on explant viability. Explants were cultured for up to 5 d and formalin fixed at 24-h intervals. Following establishment of the culture protocol, explants (n = 208) from 13 pigs were evaluated at Day 0 and 5 of culture. Assessment of viability was based on histological changes (tissue architecture evaluated by H&E, immunostaining of cell proliferation marker Ki-67) and expression of genes encoding IL-1α, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and e-cadherin. After 5 d in culture, 20% of explants displayed over 80% of epithelial coverage, whereas 31% of explants had more than 50% of their surface covered by columnar epithelium, and 81% had crypts but with a decreased number of Ki-67-positive cells when compared to Day 0. Notably, large variability in explant quality was observed between donor pigs. Best possible explants were obtained from the distal colon of pigs, processed immediately after euthanasia, cultured at the liquid-tissue-gas interface in media supplemented with a mixture of antibiotics and antifungals and an oxygen-rich gas mix.

  14. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  15. cDNA Fragment Cloning of L-Galactono-1,4-Lactone Dehydrogenase and It's Expression in Different Organs of R.roxburghii Tratt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hua-ming; CHEN Li-geng; FAN Wei-guo

    2004-01-01

    A 855 bp cDNA encoding L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH) fragment was cloned from fruit of R. roxburghii Tratt by the method of RT-PCR, on the basis of the homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, cauliflower, sweet potato, strawberry, etc. in GenBank. Sequence analysis showed 79-92% identity in nucleotide sequence and 75-87%identity in amino acid sequence to that of strawberry and Arabidopsis thaliana, etc.Northern blot showed that the expression of GalLDH was significantly different in different organs. The transcription level of GalLDH in fruit was significantly higher than that in leaf, stem and root respectively. Furthermore, this expression mode was highly correlated with AsA levels.

  16. The Effect of Learning Organization Culture on the Relationship between Interpersonal Trust and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hong Min; Kolb, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to assess the effect of learning organization culture on the linkage between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment. The study sample was obtained from employees of two major Korean conglomerates. Online questionnaires were completed by 321 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used…

  17. Enterprise architectures and organizations: Analysing and designing their social and cultural interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Meijer (Sander)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow are social and cultural aspects of public organizations considered by enterprise architects and how are they incorporated by them in their designs? The research objective was to explore this in the context of e-government. The aim of this study was to develop knowledge to enhance the

  18. Development and evaluation of a porcine in vitro colon organ culture technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Matheus O; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa comprises a complex assemblage of specialized tissues that interact in numerous ways. In vitro cell culture models are generally focused on recreating a specific characteristic of this organ and do not account for the many interactions between the different tissues. In vitro

  19. Increased levels of endothelin ETB receptor mRNA in human omental arteries after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, S; Adner, M; Edvinsson, L

    1998-01-01

    1. Using competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in vitro pharmacology, smooth muscle endothelin ETB receptor expression was studied in segments of human omental artery, fresh and after organ culture for 1 and 5 days. 2. The competitive RT-PCR assay used in the pr...

  20. Organizational Culture: Elements in its Portraiture and Some Implications for Organization Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Judi

    1982-01-01

    Charts significant elements of organizational culture centering on four "dimensions of difference": a company's stock of managers, the conceptual job model managers used, significant influences on job performance, and managers' perceptions of freedom. Portrays two organizations in these terms, exploring factors that appear to have influenced their…

  1. The Effectiveness of Popular Culture as an Advance Organizer for Literature in High School Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the following research questions: (1) Will there be a statistically significant difference between the reading achievement scores of eleventh-grade students who received instruction implementing popular culture as an advance organizer for literature and the scores of the students who did not? (2) What are the perceptions of…

  2. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  3. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  4. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  5. Organizational Culture and Discourses: a Case of Change in a Brazilian Public Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Pinto da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the use of the discourse as a strategy for the dissemination of new cultural values in a State Secretary beginning in 1995. For this purpose, discourse analysis was used according to the concept by Fiorin (1997 based on the concepts of figures, themes and ways to manipulate discourses. It is a descriptive and exploratory study. The theoretical discussion was based on the concept of organizational culture in the dimensions of artifacts and cultural values. The analysis was carried out from the documents of the organization, including the projects of modernization, plans of action, reports of strategic planning, laws and decrees. Furthermore, the official journal of the organization from 1998 to 2006 was analyzed. For the years 2007 and 2009, the analysis was conducted based on the organization’s website. The results show that there was deep concern with regard to the theme of organizational culture during the whole process of modernization. They also indicate that the organization used different discourse resources to guide the individual behavior of its members such as seduction, temptation, intimidation and provocation. They also show that the official discourses are not in harmony with the various discourses found in the organization due to the plurality of values that are shared by the organizational actors.

  6. Organisms for Teaching: "Artemia salina": An Easily Cultured Invertebrate Ideally Suited for Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Booth, Kirsty; Reiss, Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper includes a general account of the biology of the brine shrimp, instructions on how the organism may be cultured, the results of some experiments on the ecology and population biology of the species, and some suggestions for further studies. (Author/CW)

  7. Application of ImageJ program to the enumeration of Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritantikorn, Sontana; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Noisakran, Sansanee; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Paris, Daniel H; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    The ImageJ program was applied to the enumeration of Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms in cell culture using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The highest correlation (r=0.984) was observed between manual counting methods and the ImageJ program (MaxEntropy threshold algorithm). This software-based methodology is cheaper, more standardised and better reproducible than a manual-based approach.

  8. Enterprise architectures and organizations: Analysing and designing their social and cultural interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Meijer (Sander)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow are social and cultural aspects of public organizations considered by enterprise architects and how are they incorporated by them in their designs? The research objective was to explore this in the context of e-government. The aim of this study was to develop knowledge to enhance the

  9. Time course and spacial distribution of UV effects on human skin in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Eiichiro; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kitagawa, Kou; Kakei, Saki; Tsujinaka, Daiki; Unno, Megumi; Nishikawa, Shoko; Ohnishi, Ken; Hatoko, Mitsuo; Murata, Norio; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2008-05-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in eliminating cells from populations when cells have been exposed to UV irradiation and damaged. Studies of cells in culture have provided some details of the mechanisms involved when stress response genes act after exposure to UV irradiation and other environmental stresses. However, little is known about the responses of intact sections of human skin growing in organ culture to UV irradiation. In the work reported here, it was found that the response of organ-cultured human skin after exposure to UV irradiation is different than the response of cultured cells. At wavelengths below 300 nm, the action spectrum obtained from organ-cultured skin samples showed a lower sensitivity than that observed at 300 nm, indicating that the overlying stratum corneum and upper epidermal cell layers had probably caused a selective absorption of incident UV radiation at some wavelengths. At 3 hours after UV irradiation, p53 was phosphorylated at Ser 15 and Ser 46, and accumulated in the cell nuclei, notably after exposure to 280-320 nm wavelengths. Accumulations of Bax, active Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were detected in apoptotic cells at 24 hours post-exposure, along with a reduction of Bcl-2 levels, notably after exposure to 300-365 nm light. This difference in apoptotic responses may result from the characteristics of the different irradiation wavelengths used, and from details in the skin's structure. The data obtained in this study using an organ-culture system utilized direct measurements of the biological effects of different wavelengths of UV lights.

  10. Improved Methods to Generate Spheroid Cultures from Tumor Cells, Tumor Cells & Fibroblasts or Tumor-Fragments: Microenvironment, Microvesicles and MiRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lao

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and prognostic indicators are key components to achieve the goal of personalized cancer therapy. Two distinct approaches to this goal include predicting response by genetic analysis and direct testing of possible therapies using cultures derived from biopsy specimens. Optimally, the latter method requires a rapid assessment, but growing xenograft tumors or developing patient-derived cell lines can involve a great deal of time and expense. Furthermore, tumor cells have much different responses when grown in 2D versus 3D tissue environments. Using a modification of existing methods, we show that it is possible to make tumor-fragment (TF spheroids in only 2-3 days. TF spheroids appear to closely model characteristics of the original tumor and may be used to assess critical therapy-modulating features of the microenvironment such as hypoxia. A similar method allows the reproducible development of spheroids from mixed tumor cells and fibroblasts (mixed-cell spheroids. Prior literature reports have shown highly variable development and properties of mixed-cell spheroids and this has hampered the detailed study of how individual tumor-cell components interact. In this study, we illustrate this approach and describe similarities and differences using two tumor models (U87 glioma and SQ20B squamous-cell carcinoma with supporting data from additional cell lines. We show that U87 and SQ20B spheroids predict a key microenvironmental factor in tumors (hypoxia and that SQ20B cells and spheroids generate similar numbers of microvesicles. We also present pilot data for miRNA expression under conditions of cells, tumors, and TF spheroids.

  11. Extending Deacon’s Notion of Teleodynamics to Culture, Language, Organization, Science, Economics and Technology (CLOSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.

  12. [Differences in the expression of prekeratin and vimentin in organ and monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavanova, I D; Bannikov, G A; Troianovskiĭ, S M

    1985-09-01

    Results obtained by the indirect immunofluorescence method employing specific monoclonal antibodies show that during the first 24 hours of cultivation in a monolayer there appears another protein of intermediate filaments--vimentin, which is a characteristic of most mesenchymal cells. At the same time, in the organ liver culture maintained in the same culture medium, no expression of vimentin was observed up to 5-7 days of cultivation. Vimentin was revealed only in cells that migrated from a tissuepiece to collagen. Besides the vimentin expression in these migrating cells and monolayer cultures of hepatocytes, a redistribution of prekeratin filaments took place: the cytoplasmic network appeared instead of thick fibers underlying membranes. The results of the present work suggest that the vimentin expression and the prekeratin filament redistribution in epithelial liver cells in vitro do not depend on the changes of natural humoral factors for the components of culture medium but are due to damages of the intact liver tissue structure.

  13. Effect Of The Use Of Information Technology And Organization Cultural Of The Quality Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The result of the application of effective accounting information system and provide quality and effective accounting information quality. Fundamental rule accounting information systems in an organization is generating accounting information quality through the process of collecting raw data and then processed and then presented in the form of accounting information useful for user information. The purpose of this study was to know how the effect of Use of information technology on the quality of accounting information systems organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems and the quality of accounting information system on the quality of accounting information. Based on the literature of some previous researchers proved that a technology affects the quality of accounting information systems using information system AIS Effectively requires an understanding of the organization management and information technology shaping the system. the use of information technology within an organization intended to provide information to the user. B. Organizational culture affects the quality of AIS at the stage of design and implementation of the system required careful consideration of the information attitude is the main component of the organization information systems can be substantially influenced by the culture of the organization. C accounting information quality influence on information accounting quality is built with the main purpose to process accounting data from various sources into the accounting information needed by a wide range of users to reduce risk when making decisions.

  14. The pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini in ovine and caprine tracheal organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G E; Keir, W A; Gilmour, J S

    1985-10-01

    The effects of M. ovipneumoniae and M. arginini on tracheal organ cultures prepared from a neonatal kid and a foetal lamb were studied. Both organisms were isolated from the cultures throughout the 14 days of observation. M. ovipneumoniae produced ciliostasis and loss of cilia, confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), after 4 days. These effects were sudden and profound in lamb explants, and gradual and less pronounced in kid explants. Clusters of organisms attached to epithelial surfaces and in association with cilia were visible by SEM. M. arginini also induced ciliostasis and cilia loss in both kid and lamb explants, but onset was more rapid, at 2 days, and there was evident recovery after day 6, with apparent regeneration of cilia. No clearly recognizable mycoplasmas were observed by SEM in M. arginini-infected explants.

  15. A Minimal Fragmentation Approach to Real Time Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: A New Tool for Detailed Laboratory Studies of Organic Aerosol Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hanna, S.; Simpson, E.; Robb, D.; Blades, M. W.; Hepburn, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    The study of the atmospheric distribution and chemical processing of both biogenic and anthropogenic organics is one of the oldest and still most enduring challenges in atmospheric chemistry. The large number and structural complexity of many of the compounds as well as the high reactivity of many intermediates makes it hard to design analytical tools that are at the same time sensitive enough as well as being reasonably broad in scope. Despite big advances in techniques to characterize the gaseous phase component, there is still a dearth of instruments capable of doing the same for the organic aerosol component. This is due in part to the type of the compounds present in the aerosol phase, which in general lend themselves less to classical analytical methods such as GC/MS, as well as the inherent problems of any aerosol analysis, namely to transfer the aerosol to a suitable phase for analysis without altering it and while keeping track, at the same time, of the physical properties of the aerosol. Although impaction methods coupled to conventional analysis techniques have some specific advantages, the most widely used approach is the aerosol mass spectrometer. Unlike their predecessors, current aerosol mass spectrometer designs do a reasonably good job of delivering a representative sample of the aerosol phase to the detector while keeping track of the physical properties of the aerosol. However, the ionization step (either multitphoton absorption or electron impact in most cases) still leads to massive fragmentation of all but the most stable organics, making it very difficult to characterize individual compounds beyond establishing their functional groups(Allan et al. 2003; Su et al. 2004). Single photon near threshold ionization has been proposed and used recently (Oktem et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2005), but the challenges of producing coherent VUV radiation has led to a high detection threshold and a still significant amount of fragmentation, since these studies

  16. Ethics and cultural barriers to communication: Net frontiers of the organization in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Chibás Ortiz

    2016-11-01

    This article describes synthetically the importance of ethics since the dawn of humanity to the present times, making emphasis on its importance for management. It presents the concept of cyberculture in the context of contemporary organizations, as well as various definitions of ethics, discussing the affective and intuitive aspects of it and not only rational. It shows the importance of Cultural Barriers to Communication to diagnose the existence of an ethical organizational environment. This study aimed to look at how to manifest some of the various relationships between ethics and Cultural Barriers to Communication in today's digital ecosystem, and to describe some of the contemporary organizational behavior on the Internet considered ethical and unethical through the analysis of cases. We conducted a qualitative theoretical research exploratory, using for this the literature, non-participant observation, as well as cases studies. It is noteworthy that to an ethical review at the present time it takes from a casuistic approach and not just a theoretical definition of ethics. The article tries to answer questions regarding how it manifests ethics in contemporary organizations that use profitable way the new communication technologies and some of them persist Cultural Barriers to Communication, described before in the physical world. The findings indicate that the advent of new communication technologies, is being built a new digital ethics, which involves new principles, rules and behaviors of society, organizations, employees and customers. Diagnosis of Cultural Barriers to Communication helps to see this process

  17. Emergence of small-world anatomical networks in self-organizing clustered neuronal cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santos-Sierra

    Full Text Available In vitro primary cultures of dissociated invertebrate neurons from locust ganglia are used to experimentally investigate the morphological evolution of assemblies of living neurons, as they self-organize from collections of separated cells into elaborated, clustered, networks. At all the different stages of the culture's development, identification of neurons' and neurites' location by means of a dedicated software allows to ultimately extract an adjacency matrix from each image of the culture. In turn, a systematic statistical analysis of a group of topological observables grants us the possibility of quantifying and tracking the progression of the main network's characteristics during the self-organization process of the culture. Our results point to the existence of a particular state corresponding to a small-world network configuration, in which several relevant graph's micro- and meso-scale properties emerge. Finally, we identify the main physical processes ruling the culture's morphological transformations, and embed them into a simplified growth model qualitatively reproducing the overall set of experimental observations.

  18. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ingyu [Hanshin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Giang [Sol Bridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture.

  19. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affects testis histology, epididymal sperm count and induces sperm DNA fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Lindeman, Birgitte; Krogenæs, Anette K; Berntsen, Hanne F; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread throughout the environment and some are suspected to induce reproductive toxicity. As animals and humans are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, it is reasonable to assess how such mixtures could interact with the reproductive system. Our aim is to investigate how maternal exposure to a mixture of 29 different persistent organic pollutants, formulated to mimic the relative POP levels in the food basket of the Scandinavian population, could alter reproductive endpoints. Female mice were exposed via feed from weaning, during pregnancy and lactation in 3 exposure groups (control (C), low (L) and high (H)). Testicular morphometric endpoints, epididymal sperm concentration and sperm DNA integrity were assessed in adult male offspring. We found that the number of tubules, proportion of tubule compartments and epididymal sperm concentration significantly decreased in both POP exposed groups. Epididymal sperm from both POP exposed groups showed increased DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that maternal exposure to a defined POP mixture relevant to human exposure can affect testicular development, sperm production and sperm chromatin integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tailoring microfluidic systems for organ-like cell culture applications using multiphysics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmeyer, Britta; Schütte, Julia; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Stelzle, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Replacing animal testing with in vitro cocultures of human cells is a long-term goal in pre-clinical drug tests used to gain reliable insight into drug-induced cell toxicity. However, current state-of-the-art 2D or 3D cell cultures aiming at mimicking human organs in vitro still lack organ-like morphology and perfusion and thus organ-like functions. To this end, microfluidic systems enable construction of cell culture devices which can be designed to more closely resemble the smallest functional unit of organs. Multiphysics simulations represent a powerful tool to study the various relevant physical phenomena and their impact on functionality inside microfluidic structures. This is particularly useful as it allows for assessment of system functions already during the design stage prior to actual chip fabrication. In the HepaChip®, dielectrophoretic forces are used to assemble human hepatocytes and human endothelial cells in liver sinusoid-like structures. Numerical simulations of flow distribution, shear stress, electrical fields and heat dissipation inside the cell assembly chambers as well as surface wetting and surface tension effects during filling of the microchannel network supported the design of this human-liver-on-chip microfluidic system for cell culture applications. Based on the device design resulting thereof, a prototype chip was injection-moulded in COP (cyclic olefin polymer). Functional hepatocyte and endothelial cell cocultures were established inside the HepaChip® showing excellent metabolic and secretory performance.

  2. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  3. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  4. The Relationship of Organizational Culture and Entrepreneurship with Effectiveness in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kalateh seifari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting organizational effectiveness is organizational culture and entrepreneurship. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of organizational culture and corporate entrepreneurship with effectiveness in offices of sport and youth in Golestan Province. Research method was correlation and the statistical population included all directors and experts of general directorates of sport and youth in Golestan province (N=280. 164 persons were randomly selected as the sample. The required data were collected by using Denison Organizational Culture Survey (DCOS, author-made Corporate Entrepreneurship Questionnaire, and Effectiveness Inventory (Heydari Nejad and Saberi, 2010. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational culture and effectiveness (r=0.457 and also between corporate entrepreneurship and effectiveness (r=0.795. The results also indicated that organizational culture and corporate entrepreneurship are good predictors of organizational effectiveness. Generally, in sport organizations, because of the nature of sport and physical activities, effectiveness would be ideal when teamwork culture, support for initiative and creativity, and flexible structure encourage employees to innovate.

  5. PERSPECTIVES OF THE UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE CULTURAL DIMENSION IN GALATI COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of cultural dimensions is an innovative idea, comparing the scores obtained on the basis of the cultural dimensions makes it possible to analyze the organizational culture level. Based on data collected as part of the COMOR Project for the analysis of organizational culture in the Romanian business environment, developed by The Scientific Society of Management from Romania, we have initiated, using Business Intelligence tools, a scan of the characteristics of organizational culture for Galati County. The study is based on the views of a representative sample of respondents from the business element from Galati in order to assess the current situation and the desired one. The administration of the questionnaires was conducted with the support of the project team of the University "Dunărea de Jos". The proposed aim is, from the analysis of the determined statistical indicators based on the questionnaires from the Galati county, leaving behind the classical linear thinking, to identify new relationships, connections that can be revealed by analyzing the database, obtaining information about organizational culture that highlights the evolution of environmental trends Business in Galati, the practical goal of the research being to provide useful results and conclusions necessary to the local organizational development process. An important topic of the research is to identify the factors that influence managerial behaviour at the level of the Romanian organizations in order to promote and to guide the change at the level of the microeconomic structures.

  6. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination.

  7. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Ph.D. -project Bespoke Fragments seeks to explore and utilise the space emerging between the potentials of digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span, the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual......, the emergence of virtual space is no longer limited to the computer's digital world, but extends into the materials' world. Creation and uncertainty are allowed as virtual parameters in both the digital and reality. Based on this notion the project suggests utilising that exact potential to develop...

  8. Upregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor signaling in coronary arteries after organ culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is a powerful constrictor of coronary arteries and is considered to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of coronary-artery spasm. However, the mechanism of enhancement of coronary-artery constriction to 5-HT during the development of coronary artery disease remains to be elucidated. Organ culture of intact blood-vessel segments has been suggested as a model for the phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells in cardiovascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We wished to characterize 5-HT receptor-induced vasoconstriction and quantify expression of 5-HT receptor signaling in cultured rat coronary arteries. Cumulative application of 5-HT produced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in fresh and 24 h-cultured rat coronary arteries without endothelia. 5-HT induced greater constriction in cultured coronary arteries than in fresh coronary arteries. U46619- and CaCl2-induced constriction in the two groups was comparable. 5-HT stimulates the 5-HT2A receptor and cascade of phospholipase C to induce coronary vasoconstriction. Calcium influx through L-type calcium channels and non-L-type calcium channels contributed to the coronary-artery constrictions induced by 5-HT. The contractions mediated by non-L-type calcium channels were significantly enhanced in cultured coronary arteries compared with fresh coronary arteries. The vasoconstriction induced by thapsigargin was also augmented in cultured coronary arteries. The decrease in Orai1 expression significantly inhibited 5-HT-evoked entry of Ca2+ in coronary artery cells. Expression of the 5-HT2A receptor, Orai1 and STIM1 were augmented in cultured coronary arteries compared with fresh coronary arteries. CONCLUSIONS: An increased contraction in response to 5-HT was mediated by the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors and downstream signaling in cultured coronary arteries.

  9. Improved culture methods for isolation of Salmonella organisms from swine feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Alicja

    2000-01-01

    . Procedure-4 experiments were performed to evaluate the following: 1) diagnostic sensitivity of the selective preenrichment and rapid isolation novel technology (SPRINT) protocol, compared with that of the modified ISO protocol; 2) detection limit of the SPRINT protocol for Salmonella organisms; 3) use...... of preenrichment of samples between the use of UPE broth or BPW. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The SPRINT protocol may provide a faster alternative for isolation of Salmonella organisms from swine fecal samples. Furthermore, the use of TTN broth instead of SC broth may increase the sensitivity of the modified......Objective-To compare 3 alternative culture techniques for the detection of Salmonella organisms in swine feces with a modification of the international Standard Organization (ISO) 6579 standard protocol. Sample Population-Fecal samples from swine herds suspected of having Salmonella infections...

  10. Production of beta-thujaplicin in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures fed with organic acids and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Fujita, K; Sakai, K

    2001-05-01

    Effects of some organic acids and monoterpenes on production of beta-thujaplicin were studied in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures. The fungal elicitor-induced biosynthesis of beta-thujaplicin was promoted by the feedings of malate, pyruvate, fumarate, succinate, and acetate. These results suggest some relationships between acetate/pyruvate metabolism and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, or between tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis. Feedings of C. lusitanica suspension cultures with some monoterpenes inhibited elicitor-triggered beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, but 2-carene and terpinyl acetate feedings significantly improved the beta-thujaplicin production of C. lusitanica suspension cultures. These results indicate a possible involvement of terpinyl acetate and 2-carene in beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, as well as potential uses of these monoterpenes in large-scale beta-thujaplicin production.

  11. Culture, organization, and management in intensive care: construction and validation of a multidimensional questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, Etienne; Dervaux, Benoît; Retbi, Aurélia; Aegerter, Philippe; Boumendil, Ariane; Jars-Guincestre, Marie Claude; Tenaillon, Alain; Guidet, Bertrand

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and validate a questionnaire designed to assess the culture, organization, and management of intensive care units. This is a prospective multicenter study. The study was conducted in 26 intensive care units located in Paris. All personnel were asked to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed in 2 steps: (1) development of a theoretical framework based on organizational theory and (2) testing of the reliability and validity of a comprehensive set of measures. The internal consistency of the items composing each scale was tested by using the Cronbach alpha. Convergent, and discriminant validity was assessed by factor analysis with varimax rotation. The overall completion rate was 74% with 1000 respondents (750 nurses, 26 head nurses, 168 physicians, and 56 medical secretaries). Starting with a 220-item questionnaire, we constructed a short version-conserving metrological characteristics with good reliability and validity. The short questionnaire, entitled Culture, Organization, and Management in Intensive Care, consists of 106 items distributed in 9 dimensions and 22 scales: culture (n = 3), coordination and adaptation to uncertainty (n = 3), communication (n = 3), problem solving and conflict management (n = 2), organizational learning and organizational change (n = 2), skills developed in a patient-caregiver relationship (n = 1), subjective unit performance (n = 3), burnout (n = 3), and job satisfaction and intention to quit (n = 2). All the scales showed good-to-high reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores higher than .7 (with the exception of coordination [.6]). Team satisfaction-oriented culture is positively correlated with good managerial practices and individual well-being. The Culture, Organization, and Management in Intensive Care questionnaire enables staff and managers to assess the organizational performance of their intensive care unit.

  12. Cadmium inhibition of vitamin D-mediated responses in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradino, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When added to the medium, cadmium inhibits 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-mediated responses in the organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum: decreases induction of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP), prevents the elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduces the ability of the tissue to absorb radiocalcium at the mucosal surface. The cadmium effect is clearly not generalized cytotoxicity. These results may be taken as evidence that cadmium can interfere with vitamin D action at the level of the target organ itself and is not necessarily secondary to alteration in vitamin D metabolism.

  13. Information space a framework for learning in organizations, institutions and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Boisot, Max H

    2016-01-01

    In this book the author lays the foundations for a new political economy of information. The information space, or I-Space is the conceptual framework in which organizations, institutions and cultures are being transformed by new information and communication technologies. In the penultimate chapter, the I-Space's usefulness as an explanatory framework is illustrated with an application: a case study of China's modernization. Information Space proposes a radical shift in the way that we approach the emerging information age and the implications it holds for societies, organizations and individuals.

  14. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Ten Particulate Materials in Tracheal Organ Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Tumor Res. 24:37- 47. (4) Mossman, B. T., Craighead, J. E., and MacPherson, B. V. (1980). Asbestos-induced epithelial changes in organ cultures of... mAMA -a- -a- ,’ A.-ft ’a.- ft A, ’MA - S~~U~ - 4 t ,.ML MN>. -. 2 a’ ~ -: ’-A-a * in’K’ 2 , - "A.’ 4A, -~ -. . . -. - - -A ’A’ - ’.’ .- Pt ’-4- -t

  15. Communications as the organizing flowing space in the institutions of cultural and educational activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Анатолійович Примачок

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main features of functional and planning and three-dimensional solutions of contemporary establishments of cultural and educational activities exemplified by the world architectural practice are examined in the article. The value of the communication system in the structure organization of these institutions is investigated. Definition, grading and ways of unified flowing space forming and methods of informing and orienteering of the human flows in this space are considered. 

  16. Viability of mycelial growth of Coprinus Comatus in culture medium based on organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Lais Benes; Sales-Campos,Ceci; Melo de Carvalho, Cristiane Suely; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Nogueira de Andrade, Meire Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mycelial growth of the Coprinus comatus strain CCO 01/01 in culture based on organic residues of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane bagasse), Citrus sinensis (orange bagasse), Ananas comosus (pineapple residues) and Musa sp. (banana leaf), supplemented with wheat bran in the proportions of 0, 10 and 20%, kept at 27 degrees C. The mycelial growth of C. comatus was evaluated daily by measurement of the diameter of the colony during seven days of incu...

  17. THE IMPACT of CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, and POWER, on STAFF MOTIVATION in the CONTEXT of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Erciyes, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of culture, leadership, and power, on staff motivation in selected international organizations (IOs), and develops a theoretical framework to assist with the practice of workforce motivation. The main research question is: “How can supervisors motivate their staff in the context of IOs?” Utilizing critical theory as a paradigm of inquiry, the study’s philosophical perspective leans heavily on “phenomenology”. Conducting this research led to the realization ...

  18. Organ culture bioreactors--platforms to study human intervertebral disc degeneration and regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Chan, Samantha C W; Walser, Jochen; Haglund, Lisbet; Ferguson, Stephen J; Iatridis, James C; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades the application of bioreactors has revolutionized the concept of culturing tissues and organs that require mechanical loading. In intervertebral disc (IVD) research, collaborative efforts of biomedical engineering, biology and mechatronics have led to the innovation of new loading devices that can maintain viable IVD organ explants from large animals and human cadavers in precisely defined nutritional and mechanical environments over extended culture periods. Particularly in spine and IVD research, these organ culture models offer appealing alternatives, as large bipedal animal models with naturally occurring IVD degeneration and a genetic background similar to the human condition do not exist. Latest research has demonstrated important concepts including the potential of homing of mesenchymal stem cells to nutritionally or mechanically stressed IVDs, and the regenerative potential of "smart" biomaterials for nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus repair. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about cell therapy, injection of cytokines and short peptides to rescue the degenerating IVD. We further stress that most bioreactor systems simplify the real in vivo conditions providing a useful proof of concept. Limitations are that certain aspects of the immune host response and pain assessments cannot be addressed with ex vivo systems. Coccygeal animal disc models are commonly used because of their availability and similarity to human IVDs. Although in vitro loading environments are not identical to the human in vivo situation, 3D ex vivo organ culture models of large animal coccygeal and human lumbar IVDs should be seen as valid alternatives for screening and feasibility testing to augment existing small animal, large animal, and human clinical trial experiments.

  19. Elicitation triterpene yield in Alstonia scholaris cell cultures via synergetic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Arıcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell cultures of Alstonia scholaris were treated with homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The impact caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of synergetic organisms on the accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenes was observed. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines doubled the production of those triterpenes. S. cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

  20. Application of ImageJ program to the enumeration of Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The ImageJ program was applied to the enumeration of Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms in cell culture using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The highest correlation (r = 0.984) was observed between manual counting methods and the ImageJ program (MaxEntropy threshold algorithm). This software-based methodology is cheaper, more standardised and better reproducible than a manual-based approach.

  1. Microfluidic devices for cell culture and handling in organ-on-a-chip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Schulz, Ingo; Mosig, Alexander; Jahn, Tobias; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    For many problems in system biology or pharmacology, in-vivo-like models of cell-cell interactions or organ functions are highly sought after. Conventional stationary cell culture in 2D plates quickly reaches its limitations with respect to an in-vivo like expression and function of individual cell types. Microfabrication technologies and microfluidics offer an attractive solution to these problems. The ability to generate flow as well as geometrical conditions for cell culture and manipulation close to the in-vivo situation allows for an improved design of experiments and the modeling of organ-like functionalities. Furthermore, reduced internal volumes lead to a reduction in reagent volumes necessary as well as an increased assay sensitivity. In this paper we present a range of microfluidic devices designed for the co-culturing of a variety of cells. The influence of substrate materials and surface chemistry on the cell morphology and viability for long-term cell culture has been investigated as well as strategies and medium supply for on-chip cell cultivation.

  2. Inductive role of fibroblastic cell lines in development of the mouse thymus anlage in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, M; Amagai, T

    1998-01-10

    Previously, we have shown that embryonic day 12 thymus anlage cultured alone cannot develop into the mature organ but degenerates. In the present study, we investigated the cause of this insufficient organogenesis of embryonic day 12 thymus anlage in organ culture. We cocultured embryonic day 12 thymus anlages with various cell lines as pellets formed by centrifugation. In coculture with fibroblastic cell lines, but not with thymic epithelial cell lines, embryonic day 12 thymus anlages developed to support full T cell differentiation, and expressed mature stromal cell markers, Ia and Kb. By pellet culture of thymus anlages and fibroblastic cell lines transfected with a beta-galactosidase expression vector, we analyzed the distribution of added fibroblastic cells in pellets. The added fibroblastic cells constituted neither thymic capsule nor septa but disappeared after about 2 weeks in culture. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies indicated that added fibroblastic cells were adjacent to mesenchymal cells of thymus anlage. Our results strongly suggest that added fibroblastic cells support the development of the thymus anlage through interaction with its mesenchymal cells.

  3. Ex vivo organ culture of human hair follicles: a model epithelial-neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The development of hair follicle organ culture techniques is a significant milestone in cutaneous biology research. The hair follicle, or more accurately the "pilo-sebaceous unit", encapsulates all the important physiologic processes found in the human body; controlled cell growth/death, interactions between cells of different histologic type, cell differentiation and migration, and hormone responsitivity to name a few. Thus, the value of the hair follicle as a model for biological scientific research goes way beyond its scope for cutaneous biology or dermatology alone. Indeed, the recent and dramatic upturn in interest in hair follicle biology has focused principally on the pursuit of two of biology's holy grails; post-embryonic morphogenesis and control of cyclical tissue activity. The hair follicle organ culture model, pioneered by Philpott and colleagues, ushered in an exceptionally accessible way to assess how cells of epithelial (e.g., keratinocytes), mesenchymal (e.g., fibroblasts), and neuroectodermal (e.g., melanocytes) origin interact in a three-dimensional manner. Moreover, this assay system allows us to assess how various natural and pharmacologic agents affect complex tissues for growth modulation. In this article, I focus on the culture of the human hair follicle mini-organ, discussing both the practical issues involved and some possible research applications of this assay.

  4. Phylogeny of culturable estuarine bacteria catabolizing riverine organic matter in the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisand, Veljo; Cuadros, Rocio; Wikner, Johan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of our study was to isolate and determine the phylogenetic affiliation of culturable estuarine bacteria capable of catabolizing riverine dissolved organic matter (RDOM) under laboratory conditions. Additions of RDOM consistently promoted the growth of estuarine bacteria in carbon-limited dilution cultures, with seasonal variation in growth rates and yields. At least 42 different taxa were culturable on solid agar media and, according to quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations, constituted 32 to 89% of the total bacterial number in the enriched treatments. Five species in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group and one in the gamma-proteobacteria phylogenetic group (Marinomonas sp.) were numerically dominant during the stationary phase of the RDOM-enriched dilution cultures but not in the control cultures. Four of the isolates in Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group were putatively affiliated with the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM: All dominating isolates were determined to be new species based on comparison to the current databases. The same group of species dominated independently of the season investigated, suggesting a low diversity of bacteria catabolizing RDOM in the estuary. It also suggested a broad tolerance of the dominating species to seasonal variation in hydrography, chemistry, and competition with other species. Taken together, our results suggest that a limited group of bacteria, mainly in the Flavobacterium genus, played an important role in introducing new energy and carbon to the marine system in the northern Baltic Sea.

  5. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  6. Bioluminescence-mediated longitudinal monitoring of adipose-derived stem cells in a large mammal ex vivo organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Mirte; van Rijn, Sjoerd; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A; Paul, Cornelis P L; Noske, David P; Vandertop, W Peter; Wurdinger, Thomas; Helder, Marco N

    2015-09-09

    Recently, ex vivo three-dimensional organ culture systems have emerged to study the physiology and pathophysiology of human organs. These systems also have potential as a translational tool in tissue engineering; however, this potential is limited by our ability to longitudinally monitor the fate and action of cells used in regenerative therapies. Therefore, we investigated luciferase-mediated bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as a non-invasive technique to continuously monitor cellular behavior in ex vivo whole organ culture. Goat adipose-derived stem cells (gADSCs) were transduced with either Firefly luciferase (Fluc) or Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) reporter genes and injected in isolated goat intervertebral discs (IVD). Luciferase activity was monitored by BLI for at least seven days of culture. Additionally, possible confounders specific to avascular organ culture were investigated. Gluc imaging proved to be more suitable compared to Fluc in monitoring gADSCs in goat IVDs. We conclude that BLI is a promising tool to monitor spatial and temporal cellular behavior in ex vivo organ culture. Hence, ex vivo organ culture systems allow pre-screening and pre-validation of novel therapeutic concepts prior to in vivo large animal experimentation. Thereby, organ culture systems can reduce animal use, and improve the speed of innovation by overcoming technological, ethical and financial challenges.

  7. Novel organ-slice culturing system to simulate meniscal repair: Proof of concept using a synovium-based pool of meniscoprogenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst B; Lippuner, Kurt; Keel, Marius J B; Shintani, Nahoko

    2016-09-01

    Meniscal injuries can occur secondary to trauma or be instigated by the changes in knee-joint function that are associated with aging, osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, disturbances in gait, and obesity. Sixty percent of persons over 50 years of age manifest signs of meniscal pathology. The surgical and arthroscopic measures that are currently implemented to treat meniscal deficiencies bring only transient relief from pain and effect but a temporary improvement in joint function. Although tissue-engineering-based approaches to meniscal repair are now being pursued, an appropriate in-vitro model has not been conceived. The aim of this study was to develop an organ-slice culturing system to simulate the repair of human meniscal lesions in vitro. The model consists of a ring of bovine meniscus enclosing a chamber that represents the defect and reproduces its sequestered physiological microenvironment. The defect, which is closed with a porous membrane, is filled with fragments of synovial tissue, as a source of meniscoprogenitor cells, and a fibrin-embedded, calcium-phosphate-entrapped depot of the meniscogenic agents BMP-2 and TGF-β1. After culturing for 2 to 6 weeks, the constructs were evaluated histochemically and histomorphometrically, as well as immunohistochemically, for the apoptotic marker caspase 3 and collagen types I and II. Under the defined conditions, the fragments of synovium underwent differentiation into meniscal tissue, which bonded with the parent meniscal wall. Both the parent and the neoformed meniscal tissue survived the duration of the culturing period without significant cell losses. The concept on which the in-vitro system is based was thus validated. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1588-1596, 2016.

  8. Organ donation and culture: a comparison of Asian American and European American beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, D L; Cheung, A H S

    2000-02-01

    The well-known gap between organ-donor supply and demand in the United States is particularly acute for Asian Americans. Lower participation in organ donation programs by Asian Americans has been hypothesized as one explanation for this observation. This study finds that, relative to European Americans, Asian Americans hold more negative attitudes toward and participate less frequently in a large, urban organ-donor program. The study also hypothesizes and test possible reasons for subcultural differences in attitudes toward donation. Two cultural belief constructs hypothesized to more strongly predict Asian American attitudes and behaviors appear to impact both groups equally. Reasons for these results along with public policy implications and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Preparation and culture of precision-cut organ slices from human and animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robyn L; Vickers, Alison E M

    2013-01-01

    1.Human and animal precision-cut organ slices are being widely used to obtain drug metabolism and toxicity profiles in vitro. These data are then used to predict what might be seen in human patients. The accuracy of this prediction and extrapolation of the findings based on human or animal in vitro systems to the findings that occur in vivo is dependent on both the quality of the tissue itself and the quality of the in vitro system. 2.The quality of human organs used in research is dependent on procurement methods, warm ischaemia time, preservation solutions, cold ischaemia time, and donor-specific factors. It is important to confirm that the organs being used are highly viable and fully functional before using them in scientific studies. 3.The optimal preparation and incubation of organ slices is also essential in maintaining slice viability and function. It is important to prepare the slices in a cold preservation solution, to prepare the slices at a correct thickness, and to incubate the slices in a system where the slice rotates in out of the oxygen atmosphere and medium. 4.Meeting the criteria outlined here will lead to successful organ slice cultures for investigating drug-induced mechanisms and organ-specific toxicity.

  10. Immunosensor Incorporating Anti-His (C-term IgG F(ab’ Fragments Attached to Gold Nanorods for Detection of His-Tagged Proteins in Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Wąsowicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunosensors based on gold electrodes (electrochemical or gold discs (optical modified with 1,6-hexanedithiol, gold nanorods and Anti-His (C-term monoclonal antibody F(ab’ fragment are described. The antigen detected by the sensing platform is a recombinant histidine-tagged silk proteinase inhibitor (rSPI2-His6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and surface plasmon resonance (SPR techniques were used as methods for detection of the antigen. This approach allows to detect the antigen protein in concentration of 10 pg per mL (0.13 pM of culture medium. The immunosensor shows good reproducibility due to covalent immobilization of F(ab’ fragments to gold nanorods layer

  11. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  12. Biomechanical regulation of type I collagen gene expression in ACLs in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Adam H; Sah, Robert L; Paul Sung, K L

    2002-03-01

    In this study, an ex vivo organ culture system that allows the application of controlled loads to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was designed and used to characterize the influence of a step input in mechanical load on gene expression. A procedure for isolating bone-ACL-bone (B-ACL-B) complexes from rat knees was developed. After harvest and 24 hour culture, B-ACL-B complexes exhibited percentages of viability similar to that in intact ACLs (approximately 90%). Application of a physiologically relevant load of 5 N (superimposed on a I N tare load) resulted in changes in levels of mRNA encoding type I collagen. While levels of type I collagen mRNA significantly increased 32+/-13% (mean +/- standard errors of the mean (SEM)) over controls within the first hour of loading, levels decreased significantly to 44+/-9% of control after 2 h. Displacements induced by the 5 N load were measured by video dimensional analysis. Calculated axial strains of 0.141+/-0.034 were achieved rapidly during the first hour and remained essentially unchanged thereafter. These results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining ligaments in organ culture and illustrate the time course expression of type I collagen following the application of a mechanical load.

  13. Production of Normal Mammalian Organ Culture Using a Medium Containing Mem-Alpha, Leibovitz L 15, Glucose Galactose Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under micro- gravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel. The medium used for culturing the cells, especially a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells contains a mixture of Mem-alpha and Leibovits L15 supplemented with glucose, galactose and fructose.

  14. Characteristics of TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- thymocytes in fetal thymic organ culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- (TCR+ DN) thymocytes at different developmental periods, i.e. after either 9 or 18 days of culture in the fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) system, were characterized in the properties of phenotype, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The results showed that anti-CD3 mAb significantly promoted proliferation of TCRαβ+ DN cells generated after 18 days of culture in FTOC, whereas the cells generated after 9 days of culture responded to anti-CD3 mAb by proliferation weakly. IL-7 efficiently induced TCRαβ+ DN cells at day 9 of FTOC to differentiate into TCRαβ+CD4+/CD8+ SP cells without detectable transitional stage of TCRαβ+CD4+CD8+ (DP) cells. In contrast, fewer TCRαβ+ DN cells generated after 18 days of FTOC were induced to differentiate into SP cells. The thymic stromal cell line MTEC5 cells synergized with IL-7 to promote the differentiation of TCRαβ+ DN cells. In addition, TCRαβ+ DN cells were shown to be less susceptible to apoptosis compared with the other major thymocyte subsets. Taken together, these data have provided insight into the characteristics of TCRαβ+ DN thymocytes.

  15. Identification of cultured isolates of clinically important yeast species using fluorescent fragment length analysis of the amplified internally transcribed rRNA spacer 2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muylaert An

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with yeast infection has increased during the last years. Also the variety of species of clinical importance has increased. Correct species identification is often important for efficient therapy, but is currently mostly based on phenotypic features and is sometimes time-consuming and depends largely on the expertise of technicians. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of PCR-based amplification of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2, followed by fragment size analysis on the ABI Prism 310 for the identification of clinically important yeasts. Results A rapid DNA-extraction method, based on simple boiling-freezing was introduced. Of the 26 species tested, 22 could be identified unambiguously by scoring the length of the ITS2-region. No distinction could be made between the species Trichosporon asteroides and T. inkin or between T. mucoides and T. ovoides. The two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans (var. neoformans and var. gattii could be differentiated from each other due to a one bp length difference of the ITS2 fragment. The three Cryptococcus laurentii isolates were split into two groups according to their ITS2-fragment lengths, in correspondence with the phylogenetic groups described previously. Since the obtained fragment lengths compare well to those described previously and could be exchanged between two laboratories, an internationally usable library of ITS2 fragment lengths can be constructed. Conclusions The existing ITS2 size based library enables identification of most of the clinically important yeast species within 6 hours starting from a single colony and can be easily updated when new species are described. Data can be exchanged between laboratories.

  16. Volatile organic compounds generated by cultures of bacteria and viruses associated with respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Qader, Amir; Lieberman, David; Shemer Avni, Yonat; Svobodin, Natali; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Sagi, Orli; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory infections (RI) can be viral or bacterial in origin. In either case, the invasion of the pathogen results in production and release of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The present study examines the VOCs released from cultures of five viruses (influenza A, influenza B, adenovirus, respiratory syncitial virus and parainfluenza 1 virus), three bacteria (Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella pneumophila) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated colonies. Our results demonstrate the involvement of inflammation-induced VOCs. Two significant VOCs were identified as associated with infectious bacterial activity, heptane and methylcyclohexane. These two VOCs have been linked in previous studies to oxidative stress effects. In order to distinguish between bacterial and viral positive cultures, we performed principal component analysis including peak identity (retention time) and VOC concentration (i.e. area under the peak) revealing 1-hexanol and 1-heptadecene to be good predictors.

  17. Building Learning Culture Towards A Learning Organization to Empower Employee’s Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani Maryani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the application of knowledge management in PT Unilever to create a learning culture within the organization. Which consists of: knowledge sharing, informal sharing, online sharing and other sources. With the implementation of cultural sharing between employees, the module is already owned by PT Unilever as many as 250 modules. With the application of Knowledge Management PT Unilever awarded a global level, the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE Award in the year 2005-2007 to the level of Indonesia and 2008 for the Asian level. In the end, knowledge-owned companies, creating a good performance by individuals or companies, and will create sustainable growth for the company. Sustainable growth is what is expected by the whole company in running its business activities. 

  18. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  19. BUILDING LEARNING CULTURE TOWARDS A LEARNING ORGANIZATION TO EMPOWER EMPLOYEES KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the application of knowledge management in PT Unilever to create a learning culture within the organization. Which consists of: knowledge sharing, informal sharing, online sharing and other sources. With the implementation of cultural sharing between employees, the module is already owned by PT Unilever as many as 250 modules. With the application of Knowledge Management PT Unilever awarded a global level, the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE Award in the year 2005-2007 to the level of Indonesia and 2008 for the Asian level. In the end, knowledge-owned companies, creating a good performance by individuals or companies, and will create sustainable growth for the company. Sustainable growth is what is expected by the whole company in running its business activities.

  20. Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Michelmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cantet's movie “Vers le sud/ Heading South“ (2005 explores cultural stereotypes and values without being moralizing in a common sense. His drama deals with female sex tourism, political and social violence, power and money in such a way that people are tempted to judge the protagonists: Their desire for young black men is called “embarrassing“, they are seen as corrupting and as actors in a new kind of imperialism. In fact the images in the film organize characters in a certain kind of dualism which leads easily to these argumentations. But having a look at the cultural values that produce the disgust, we see that they are all open to question.

  1. Temporal variation in biodeposit organic content and sinking velocity in long-line shellfish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lihua; Zhang, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    We measured the organic content and sinking velocities of biodeposits from two scallop species ( Chlamys farreri, Patinopecten yessoensis) and abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) that were cultured on suspended long-lines. Measurements were conducted every two months from April 2010 to February 2011. The shellfish were divided into three size groups (small, middle, and big sizes). At each sample point, we assessed biodeposit organic content, average sinking velocity, the frequency distribution of sinking velocities, and the correlation between organic content and sinking velocity. The organic content of biodeposits varied significantly among months ( Pchange varied among species. Sinking velocities varied significantly, ranging from 1.9 cm/s. The sinking velocities of biodeposits from C. farreri and P. yessoensis were 0.5-1.5 cm/s and from H. discus hannai were <0.7 cm/s. The organic content was significantly negatively correlated to the sinking velocity of biodeposits in C. farreri ( P<0.001) and P. yessoensis ( P<0.05).

  2. Impact of temporary hyperthermia on corneal endothelial cell survival during organ culture preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Jan; Ruggeri, Alfredo; Thieme, Hagen; Meltendorf, Christian

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate temporary exposure to hyperthermia for its impact on endothelial cell density of porcine corneas in organ culture medium containing dextran with regards to possible negative influences of high temperatures during the storage and transport of corneal grafts. Four groups of central discs (diameter 8 mm) from the corneas of both eyes in 40 pigs were first organ-cultured (MEM with 6% dextran 500) for 24 h at 32°C. Ten corneas were then exposed to 40°C in group 1, to 42°C in group 2, to 44°C in group 3, and to 50°C in group 4 for 12 h each. The paired corneal discs for all groups were not treated, stored at 32°C and served as controls. After further organ culture of all corneas for 48 h at 32°C to allow regenerative processes, corneal endothelium was stained with Alizarin Red S and examined by light microscopy. The endothelial cell densities were determined on three central images using a system for the automatic estimation of morphometric parameters of corneal endothelium. Exposure for 12 h to 40°C as well as to 42°C induced no endothelial cell loss. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference of the endothelial cell density between corneas exposed to 40°C and 42°C and the control corneas (40°C treatment: 4736 ± 426 cells/mm(2) and control: 4762 ± 344 cells/mm(2), p = 0.74; 42°C treatment: 4240 ± 363 cells/mm(2) and control: 4176 ± 448 cells/mm(2), p = 0.40). Exposure to 44°C and 50°C lead to total necrosis of the endothelial cell layer. Exposure of organ cultured porcine corneas in dextran containing medium up to 42°C for 12 h does not compromise the endothelial cell density in a clinically relevant manner. Temperatures above 42°C, as it might be the case during transports from the cornea bank to the ophthalmic surgeon, must be strictly avoided as they damage the endothelial cell layer.

  3. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  4. Assessment of anti-scarring therapies in ex vivo organ cultured rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Sriniwas; Gibson, Daniel J; Robinson, Paulette; Pi, Liya; Tuli, Sonal; Lewin, Alfred S; Schultz, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a triple combination of siRNAs targeting key scarring genes were assessed using an ex vivo organ culture model of excimer ablated rabbit corneas. The central 6 mm diameter region of fresh rabbit globes was ablated to a depth of 155 microns with an excimer laser. Corneas were excised, cultured at the air-liquid interface in defined culture medium supplemented with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), and treated with either 1% prednisolone acetate or with 22.5 μM cationic nanoparticles complexed with a triple combination of siRNAs (NP-siRNA) targeting TGFB1, TGFB Receptor (TGFBR2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Scar formation was measured using image analysis of digital images and levels of smooth muscle actin (SMA) were assessed in ablated region of corneas using qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Ex vivo cultured corneas developed intense haze-like scar in the wounded areas and levels of mRNAs for pro-fibrotic genes were significantly elevated 3-8 fold in wounded tissue compared to unablated corneas. Treatment with NP-siRNA or steroid significantly reduced quantitative haze levels by 55% and 68%, respectively, and reduced SMA mRNA and immunohistostaining. This ex vivo corneal culture system reproduced key molecular patterns of corneal scarring and haze formation generated in rabbits. Treatment with NP-siRNAs targeting key scarring genes or an anti-inflammatory steroid reduced corneal haze and SMA mRNA and protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  6. Nature and origin of the neointima in whole vessel wall organ culture of the human saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gittenberger - Groot, A.C. de; Munsteren, J.C. van; Huysmans, H.A.; Bockel, J.H. van; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Poelmann, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Intimal proliferation is a characteristic feature of arteriosclerosis. Whole vessel wall organ culture systems have been developed to study the early stages of neointima formation. We have cultured a large number of explants of human saphenous vein specimens for several weeks, and have identified th

  7. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  8. Effect of low-osmolar contrast medium iopromide and iso-osmolar iodixanol on DNA fragmentation in renal tubular cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ulla; Connemann, Julia; Keller, Frieder

    2013-12-01

    Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media continues to be a common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. Accumulating evidence suggests that radiocontrast agent-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with increased oxidative stress, which leads to renal tissue damage with DNA fragmentation. We therefore tested whether an iso-osmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) causes less oxidative DNA damage to renal tubular cells than a low-osmolar contrast medium (iopromide). HK-2 cells (human proximal renal tubular cell line) were incubated at different time points (10 min-2 h) with increasing concentrations (20-120 mg/ml iodine) of iodixanol or of iopromide. Oxidative DNA damage to renal tubular cells was measured by alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). Both iso- and low-osmolar contrast agents induced time- and concentration-dependent DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation was maximal at 2 h with 120 mg/ml iodine for iopromide (32 ± 27 tail moments) and iodixanol (46 ± 41 tail moments); both were significantly different from the control value with 3.15 ± 1.6 tail moments (Student's t test; p DNA fragmentation than iopromide (ANOVA for 1 h p = 0.039 and 2 h p = 0.025, respectively). We were able to demonstrate for the first time that an iso-osmolar contrast medium induced even greater oxidative stress and DNA damage than a low-osmolar agent in HK-2 cells. This could provide an explanation for the nephrotoxicity that also is observed with iodixanol in clinical practice.

  9. Multimodal Microfluidic Platform for Controlled Culture and Analysis of Unicellular Organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Baker, Scott E.; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2017-09-19

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which with further scale-up should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  10. Effectiveness of psychological capital on mistake management culture as a resource for learning in organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Amini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mistake management is rapidly emerging as an important, and can be overlooked, resource for learning in organization. Learning from workplace terminates ways directed to enhancement of skills and capabilities by workaday activities. Since current works almost are very complex that mistakes may not be eluded, organization should see these mistakes as an opportunity for learning that broadcast mistake management culture (MMC.Psychological Capital (PsyCap is one of construct contributes to the formation and dissemination of MMC. Thus this study investigates the effect of PsyCap on MMC. In this regards, it has been paid to how PsyCap factors such as self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency impact on MMC. A test based upon a sample of 207 nurses of four hospitals reveals that PsyCap has positive impacts on MMC.

  11. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  12. Design Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-19

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Applets. 71 Thread field name Demo Applets Internet Applets killme 1 1 engine 1 1 runner 2 4 kicker 1 1 timer 1 0 marcher 0 1 my_thread 0 1 _helloThread 0...demo and internet Applets. Note that the highlighted field names killme, engine, runner, and kicker are found in both the demo Applets and the internet

  13. Knowledge management as an approach to strengthen safety culture in nuclear organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karseka, T.S.; Yanev, Y.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Energy Dept.

    2013-04-15

    In the last 10 years knowledge management (KM) in nuclear organizations has emerged as a powerful strategy to deal with important and frequently critical issues of attrition, generation change and knowledge transfer. Applying KM practices in operating organizations, in technical support organizations and regulatory bodies has proven to be efficient and necessary for maintaining competence and skills for achieving high level of safety and operational performance. The IAEA defines KM as an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, acquiring, transforming, developing, disseminating, using, sharing, and preserving knowledge, relevant to achieving specified objectives. KM focuses on people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge; on processes or methods to find, create, capture and share knowledge; and on technology to store and assimilate knowledge and to make it readily accessible in a manner which will allow people to work together even if they are not located together. A main objective of this paper is to describe constructive actions which can sponsor knowledge sharing and solidarity in safety conscious attitude among all employees. All principles and approaches refer primarily to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operating organizations but are also applicable to other institutions involved into nuclear sector. (orig.)

  14. From cells to organisms: Can we learn about aging from cells in culture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campisi, Judith

    2000-12-21

    Can studying cultured cells inform us about the biology of aging? The idea that this may be was stimulated by the first formal description of replicative senescence. Replicative senescence limits the proliferation of normal human cells in culture, causing them to irreversibly arrest growth and adopt striking changes in cell function. We now know that telomere shortening, which occurs in most somatic cells as a consequence of DNA replication, drives replicative senescence in human cells. However, rodent cells also undergo replicative senescence, despite very long telomeres, and DNA damage,the action of certain oncogenes and changes in chromatin induce a phenotype similar to that of replicatively senescent cells. Thus,replicative senescence is an example of the more general process of cellular senescence, indicating that the telomere hypothesis of aging is a misnomer. Cellular senescence appears to be a response to potentially oncogenic insults, including oxidative stress. The growth arrest almost certainly suppresses tumorigenesis, at least in young organisms, whereas the functional changes may contribute to aging,although this has yet to be critically tested. Thus, cellular senescence may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy.Cross-species comparisons suggest there is a relationship between the senescence of cells in culture and organismal life span, but the relationship is neither quantitative nor direct.

  15. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  16. The Organization Culture In The Public Service At The Regional Secretariat Of Samarinda City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research to analyzing the process of the management of internal integration in an effort to improve public services in the secretariat of the city .In the research results seen that there are culture of bubuhan familial in the management of internal integration in the secretariat of the city of samarinda through a the creation of a language together and conceptual categories in b the distribution of power and status c establishment norms closeness of a working relationship peers and d the application of the award and punishment. In addition to want to answer a desire as well as the need for public service excellence service unit to improve integrated permit handling UPT integrated permit handling services agency one gate BPPTSP capital city of samarinda . In the management of internal integration process in cultural organization that takes the conceptculture of bubuhan must be planned carefully and without prejudice to the rules of law applicable because if not handled wisely can be counter-productive with the vision and mission of Samarinda Government because it can cause a client patron relations which can actually inhibit the organization in achieving its vision and mission.

  17. Expression of XIST sense and antisense in bovine fetal organs and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazmand, Ali; Basrur, Parvathi K; Stranzinger, Gerald; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Reyes, Ed R; King, W Allan

    2004-01-01

    Untranslated RNAs transcribed from sense and antisense strands of a gene referred to as X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) play crucial roles in the genetic inactivation and condensation of one of the two X chromosomes in the somatic cells of female mammals. X inactivation is also thought to occur in mammalian male germ cells mainly based on the formation of a condensed structure referred to as a sex body or XY-body, during spermatogenesis. Molecular identity of the sex body, the roles of sense and antisense XIST RNAs in its formation, and the relevance of the sex body to spermatogenesis are not known. Here we report the results of our strand-specific RT-PCR approach to identify the amplicon detected in fetal bovine testes previously referred to as XIST and to test for sense/antisense expression in male and female organs and cell cultures of different sex chromosome constitution. Our results showed that the transcript detected consistently in male gonads and variably in somatic organs represents XIST antisense RNA and that XIST sense and antisense RNAs are co-expressed in female somatic tissues and cultured cells including cells of sex chromosome aneuploids (XXY and XXX). Our results, which differ from those of other investigators in this area, are discussed in the light of the recently reported differences in the expression pattern of murine Xist/Tsix loci and their structural and functional differences in different mammalian species.

  18. Badanie wzrostu kultur korzeniowych oraz tworzenia i wzrostu in vitro kalusów z różnych organów marchmi odmiany Terfekcja [Growth and callus formation of tissue cultures derived from various carrot organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Domańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The clones of excised roots, leaves, petioles, cotylenods, hypocotyls and root calluses derived from the respective carrot fragments (cv. 'Perfekcja' commonly cultivated in Poland were cultured in vitro. An influence of thiamine concentrations on the growth of root tissue was examined. Several various media were tested for callus cultures. Bee bread extract was also applied. The growth of isolated clones during early and later culture periods was compared.

  19. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Versus Bacterial Culture in Detection of Organisms in Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Balegh H; Hamad, Mostafa S; Mohey, Mervat; Amen, Sameh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare between polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture in detection of Streptococcus Pneumonia and M. Catarrhalis in otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Fifty patients having OME were included in this study between 2003 and 2008. Myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion were done in every patient and the middle ear effusion samples were aspirated. The samples were subjected to bacteriological study in the form of culture and molecular study in the form of PCR using JM201/202-204 primer probe set for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. The results of Bacterial cultures are as follows: five cases (10%) were culture positive for S. pneumonia. Six cases (12%) were culture positive for M. catarrhalis. Only one case (2%) showed positively for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. Polymerase chain reaction test shows that 18 cases (36%) were positive for S. pneumonia, 22 cases (44%) were positive for M. catarrhalis, 6 cases (12%) were positive for both organism and 4 cases (8%) were negative. The difference between the proportion of culture positive and PCR positive specimens for both organisms individually and collectively was significant (P PCR is more accurate than bacterial culture in detection of organisms in middle ear fluid in OME and that M. catarrhalis plays a significant rule in OME as it is the sole organism identified more than the other one by PCR.

  20. Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2013-09-01

    In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research.

  1. Metabolite Profiles in Various Plant Organs of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. and Its in Vitro Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrayoni, Putu; Purwanti, Diah Intan; Wongso, Suwidji; Prajogo, Bambang E W; Indrayanto, Gunawan

    2016-04-13

    Metabolite profiles of plant organs and their in vitro cultures of Justicia gendarussa have been studied by using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Qtof-MS). Samples of leaves, stems, roots, and shoot cultures showed similar patterns of metabolites, while samples of root cultures gave very different profiles. Concentrations of secondary metabolites in shoot cultures were relatively low compared to those in the leaves and roots of the plants. The results suggested that secondary metabolites in J. gendarussa were biosynthetized in the leaves, then transported to the roots.

  2. Responsive hydrogels produced via organic sol-gel chemistry for cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Smruti; Chaudhury, Pulkit; Clarizia, Lisa; McDonald, Melisenda; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Gaines, Peter; Schmidt, Daniel F

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of novel environmentally responsive polyurea hydrogel networks prepared via organic sol-gel chemistry and demonstrate that the networks can stabilize pH while releasing glucose both in simple aqueous media and in mammalian cell culture settings. Hydrogel formulations have been developed based on the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with pH-insensitive amine functional polyether and pH-sensitive poly(ethyleneimine) segments in a minimally toxic solvent suitable for the sol-gel reaction. The polyether component of the polyurea network is sufficiently hydrophilic to give rise to some level of swelling independent of environmental pH, while the poly(ethyleneimine) component contains tertiary amine groups providing pH sensitivity to the network in the form of enhanced swelling and release under acidic conditions. The reaction of these materials to form a network is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant material exhibits the desired pH-responsive swelling behavior and demonstrates its ability to simultaneously neutralize lactic acid and release glucose in both cell-free culture media and mammalian cell culture, with no detectable evidence of cytotoxicity or changes in cell behavior, in the case of either SA-13 human hybridomas or mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, pH is observed to have a clear effect on the rate at which glucose is released from the hydrogel network. Such characteristics promise to maintain a favorable cell culture environment in the absence of human intervention. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of volatile organic compounds in the culture of marine α-proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release halogens in the troposphere and in the stratosphere by photolysis and released halogens catalyze ozone depletion . In the ocean, macroalgae, phytoplankton, and bacteria are considered to be the main producers of VOCs. Recent investigations have shown that marine bacteria produce halomethanes such as chloromethane, bromomethane, and iodomethane. However, knowledge of aquatic VOC production, particularly through bacteria, is lacking. We studied the production of VOCs, including halomethanes, through the bacterium HKF-1. HKF-1 was isolated from brackish water in Sanaru Lake, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. The bacterium belongs to the α-proteobacteria. Bacteria were incubated in marine broth 2216 (Difco) added with KI and KIO3 (each at 0.02 μmol/L) at 25°C. VOCs in the gas phase above the cultured samples was determined using a dynamic headspace (GESTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C) at 0, 4, 7, 10 and 12 incubation days. In addition, the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured during the culture period. Measurement of VOCs showed that chloromethane, bromomethane, iodomethane, isoprene, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were produced in the culture of HKF-1. Dihalomethanes and trihalomethanes, such as dibromomethane, chloroiodomethane, bromoiodomethane, and tribromomethane, were not detected. Given that monohalomethanes and sulfur-containing VOCs were abundant in the culture, HKF-1 is one of the possible candidates as a producer of monohalomethane and sulfur-containing VOCs in marine environment, but not of di- or trihalomethanes.

  4. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...

  5. Leadership, Hermandad (Brother/Sisterhood), and Organizational Culture: Crossing Boundaries to Build Collaborative Relationships among Latino Fraternal Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the identity development and organizational culture of a student organization, the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations council (NALFO) by implementing a community of practice approach at a large, public university in southwestern United States. The objective is to construct a sustainable…

  6. An enrichment and acclimation procedure to obtain photo heterotrophic cultures for H{sub 2} production from organic effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo-Benitez, J. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    Production of H{sub 2} via photo heterotrophic is an attractive alternative, due to the capacity of photo heterotrophic organisms to convert the organic matter of effluents into H{sub 2}. The objective of our work was to develop a protocol for selecting undefined mixed cultures of photo heterotrophic microorganism with the capability of producing of H{sub 2}. (Author)

  7. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  8. Field isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae exhibit distinct cytopathic effects in ovine tracheal organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; DeBey, M C; Niyo, Y; Andrews, J J; Kaeberle, M L

    1998-02-01

    Ovine tracheal ring explants were infected with four different Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and one M. arginini field isolate and their ability to induce cytopathic effects was tested by measuring ciliary activity and intracellular calmodulin release. Infected tracheal rings showed significantly decreased ciliary activity as compared to the non-infected control rings. There were, however, marked differences between isolates in the onset and severity of the effects which correlated with their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Infected tracheal rings released more calmodulin than the non-infected controls. The amount of calmodulin released also varied between isolates, and somewhat reflected the degree of loss of ciliary activity in the corresponding rings induced by the different isolates. Light and electron microscopic examinations of infected tracheal rings revealed disorganisation and sloughing of the epithelium, and association of mycoplasmas only with the cilia. Following repeated in vitro passages, the organisms had reduced ability to inhibit ciliary activity which correlated with decreased hydrogen peroxide production. Addition of catalase to the organ cultures delayed loss of ciliary activity. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced ciliostasis in ovine tracheal ring explants which correlated with hydrogen peroxide production. Furthermore, these M. ovipneumoniae-induced injuries to respiratory epithelial cells could contribute to the role that this organism may play in sheep respiratory disease.

  9. Rickettsia-like organism infection in a freshwater cultured fish Ophiocephalus argus C.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; JIA Weizhang; HAN Xianpu; CAI Taozhen; GONG Xiaoning; SUN Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    From 2001 to 2002,a new and emergent infectious disease of Ophiocephalus argus occurred in a fishery in Hubei Province,China,with an incidence of 60%~70% and a mortality as high as 100%.The diseased fish showed an enlarged abdomen,the millet-like nodules in internal organs,and the swollen kidney which was composed of 5~10 sarcoma-like bodies in cream or gray-white colour or ulcerated into beandregs-like substance.Light microscopic observation revealed the basophilic or acidphilic inclusions in cytoplasm of the cells and the granulomas,a diffusive chronic inflammation in internal organs.Further analysis under an electron microscope indicated that the intracytoplasmic inclusions were rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) that are either spherical or coccoid,with variable size,ranging from 0.5~1.5 μm in diameter,and enclosed within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles.RLO had a central nucleoid region with some fine filamentous structures and an electron-dense granule.Its cytoplasm contained abundant ribosomal bodies.Occasionally,RLO appeared to be divided by binary fission.RLOs were also observed in the homogenized tissue of infected fish.The results suggested that the death of cultured O.Argus was caused by RLO infection.

  10. Self-Organization of Polarized Cerebellar Tissue in 3D Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Muguruma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During cerebellar development, the main portion of the cerebellar plate neuroepithelium gives birth to Purkinje cells and interneurons, whereas the rhombic lip, the germinal zone at its dorsal edge, generates granule cells and cerebellar nuclei neurons. However, it remains elusive how these components cooperate to form the intricate cerebellar structure. Here, we found that a polarized cerebellar structure self-organizes in 3D human embryonic stem cell (ESC culture. The self-organized neuroepithelium differentiates into electrophysiologically functional Purkinje cells. The addition of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 promotes spontaneous generation of dorsoventrally polarized neural-tube-like structures at the level of the cerebellum. Furthermore, addition of SDF1 and FGF19 promotes the generation of a continuous cerebellar plate neuroepithelium with rhombic-lip-like structure at one end and a three-layer cytoarchitecture similar to the embryonic cerebellum. Thus, human-ESC-derived cerebellar progenitors exhibit substantial self-organizing potential for generating a polarized structure reminiscent of the early human cerebellum at the first trimester.

  11. Assessing Cultural Readiness of Organization For Successful Implementation of Knowledge Managment, Appling FMCDM Approach: Case of Central Bank of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Elahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supportive organizational culture for knowledge management can vouch for successful implementation of knowledge management. In the case of lacking this kind of supportive culture, the organizational culture is one of the obstacles which can lead the implementation of knowledge management to full failure and waste of organizational assets. In this research, a framework based on FMCDM was utilized to assess the cultural readiness of organization as the knowledge management implementation prerequisite. This framework has been utilized to assess Central Bank of Iran’s cultural readiness. The methodology of research was descriptive and research data were gathered by questionnaire and were answered by experts and CBI executives. In this term, the cultural readiness of CBI was assessed and in accordance with this assessment, embarking on corrective action was proposed.

  12. Generalized Additive Mixed-Models for Pharmacology Using Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Thomas; Cole, Stephanie; Madren-Whalley, Janna; Booker, Lamont; Dorsey, Russell; Li, Albert; Salem, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IDMOC) is emerging as an in-vitro alternative to in-vivo animal models for pharmacology studies. IDMOC allows dose-response relationships to be investigated at the tissue and organoid levels, yet, these relationships often exhibit responses that are far more complex than the binary responses often measured in whole animals. To accommodate departure from binary endpoints, IDMOC requires an expansion of analytic techniques beyond simple linear probit and logistic models familiar in toxicology. IDMOC dose-responses may be measured at continuous scales, exhibit significant non-linearity such as local maxima or minima, and may include non-independent measures. Generalized additive mixed-modeling (GAMM) provides an alternative description of dose-response that relaxes assumptions of independence and linearity. We compared GAMMs to traditional linear models for describing dose-response in IDMOC pharmacology studies. PMID:27110941

  13. Site of lupanine and sparteine biosynthesis in intact plants and in vitro organ cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wink, M.

    (/sup 14/C)Cadaverine was applied to leaves of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. perennis, L. mutabilis, L. pubescens, and L. hartwegii and it was preferentially incorporated into lupanine. In Lupinus arboreus sparteine was the main labelled alkaloid, in L. hispanicus it was lupanine. A pulse chase experiment with L. angustifolius and L. arboreus showed that the incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine and sparteine was transient with a maximum between 8 and 20 h. Only leaflets and chlorophyllous petioles showed active alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas no incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine was observed in roots. Using in vitro organ cultures of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. succulentus, L. subcarnosus, Cytisus scoparius and Laburnum anagyroides the inactivity of roots was confirmed. Therefore, the green aerial parts are the major site of alkaloid biosynthesis in lupins and in other legumes.

  14. Human benign prostatic hyperplasia in organ culture: studies on iododeoxyuridine uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, J.R.; O' Donoghue, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Prostate tissue architecture and function may be retained in vitro using organ culture. However, the application of the technique is limited due to the lack of simple means for measuring tissue response, for instance to factors controlling cell growth. It is confirmed in this study that measuring the uptake of the radioactive precursor of DNA, 5-(/sup 125/I)-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, is simple, rapid, and reproducible provided the heterogeneity of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is taken into account. Factors affecting the reproducibility (numbers of replicate explants and dishes), specificity (removal of unbound radioactivity and uptake into killed tissue), and sensitivity (radioactive concentration and exposure period) of this technique were investigated. A particular advantage of this approach is that histological assessments are made on the same tissue used for biochemical measurements. Furthermore, the method is sufficiently simple to permit serial investigations chronologically concerning factors, such as hormones, controlling BPH cell growth.

  15. Generalized Additive Mixed-Models for Pharmacology Using Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IDMOC is emerging as an in-vitro alternative to in-vivo animal models for pharmacology studies. IDMOC allows dose-response relationships to be investigated at the tissue and organoid levels, yet, these relationships often exhibit responses that are far more complex than the binary responses often measured in whole animals. To accommodate departure from binary endpoints, IDMOC requires an expansion of analytic techniques beyond simple linear probit and logistic models familiar in toxicology. IDMOC dose-responses may be measured at continuous scales, exhibit significant non-linearity such as local maxima or minima, and may include non-independent measures. Generalized additive mixed-modeling (GAMM provides an alternative description of dose-response that relaxes assumptions of independence and linearity. We compared GAMMs to traditional linear models for describing dose-response in IDMOC pharmacology studies.

  16. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers in Tissue Culture Flasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclose. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  17. Understanding and Supporting a Culture of Public Outreach in Amateur Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, M.; Ames, Z.; Figueiredo, C.; Storksdieck, M.; Stein, J.

    2010-08-01

    What types of resources can best support amateur science-based organizations who share their enthusiasm with the public? For several years the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) and Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), have partnered to conduct research aimed at understanding the culture of public outreach conducted by astronomy clubs and their members. Through this research ILI has conducted studies that yielded three main conclusions: amateurs want educational tools, pedagogical skills, and club organizational support. With these ideas in mind the ASP began working on solutions to the amateurs needs in 2004. Since then the ASP has developed a number of solution approaches with extensive help from amateur astronomers around the country.

  18. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients.

  19. Epidermal DNA synthesis in organ culture explants. A study of hairless mouse ear epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, I L; Iversen, O H; Refsum, S B

    1979-10-01

    Explants of split mouse ear were incubated in organ culture for up to 48 h, and the cell proliferation was studied by the addition of Thymidine-methyl-3-H (3HTdR) to the medium during different time periods, mainly for the first 14 h of incubation. Cultures were started at 0900, 2130 and 2300. In all cases the labelling index remained stable for 6-8 h, and then increased. The mean grain count, however, was falling and so was the epidermal DNA-specific uptake of 3HTdR. Based on the experimental results, calculations can be made of the flux of cells through S. It is concluded that the increasing LI is not due to inherent diurnal variation in cell proliferation, and is not a sign of real growth but caused instead by a complete block of the cell exit from S, probably combined with periods of an increased entrance rate into S. Other methodological factors, however, may also contribute to the increasing LI. Hence, this system is not suited for the measurement of factors that influence epidermal DNA synthesis.

  20. Arteries respond to independent control of circumferential and shear stress in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Brian H; Taylor, W Robert; Rachev, Alexander; Vito, Raymond P

    2008-05-01

    Arteries respond to changes in global mechanical parameters (pressure, flow rate, and longitudinal stretching) by remodeling to restore local parameters (circumferential stress, shear stress, and axial strain) to baseline levels. Because a change in a single global parameter results in changes of multiple local parameters, the effects of individual local parameters on remodeling remain unknown. This study uses a novel approach to study remodeling in organ culture based on independent control of local mechanical parameters. The approach is illustrated by studying the short term effects of circumferential and shear stress on remodeling-related biological markers. Porcine carotid arteries were cultured for 3 days at a circumferential stress of 50 or 150 kPa or, in separate experiments, a shear stress of 0.75 or 2.25 Pa. At high circumferential stress, matrix synthesis, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and cell death are significantly greater, but matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and pro-MMP-2 activity are significantly less. In contrast, biological markers measured were unaffected by shear stress. Applications of the proposed approach for improved understanding of remodeling, optimizing mechanical conditioning of tissue engineered arteries, and selection of experimentally motivated growth laws are discussed.

  1. Growth inhibition of phytoplankton populations cultured in disphotic zone water by insufficient amounts of dissolved organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, T. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    Phytoplankton cultures in disphotic zone water were performed, to examine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a controlling agent of the initial lag period and growth rate. Culture media with various concentrations of DOC were prepared by mixing low DOC disphotic zone water with high DOC surface water. Natural phytoplankton populations exhibited strong correlations to the lag period with DOC concentrations and to the population growth rate. Similar tendencies were also confirmed as to a marine diatom dominating in the disphotic zone by culture experiments. By reducing DOC concentrations in seawater samples through pretreatments with ultraviolet radiation, charcoal adsorption and Amberlite resin adsorption, lag periods of diatom increased. Consequently, it was found that the lag period is prolonged in low DOC water. It was suggested that the essential substance to shorten lag periods of phytoplankton cultured in disphotic zone water is a portion of dissolved organic matter. 35 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  3. Eye extract improves cell migration out of lymphoid organ explants of L. vannamei and viability of the primary cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans

    2015-08-01

    Since no cell line from shrimp has been established up till now, an optimization of the primary cell culture protocol is necessary. In this context, the effect of extracts (supernatant of a 1:50 (w/v) suspension) from different shrimp organs (muscle, brain, ganglia, eyestalk, ovary, and eye) on the performance of primary lymphoid cell cultures was evaluated. Ten percent of eye extract and 3% of ovary extract enhanced maximally the migration and survival of cells of the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei significantly at 48, 96, and 144 h post seeding. Extracts from the eyestalk (10%), muscle (10%), and brain (1%) significantly promoted the migration and survival of cells at 48 and 96 h post seeding but not anymore at 144 h post seeding. In conclusion, it may be advised to add 10% of eye extract or 3% of ovary extract to cells for the maximal health of primary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of L. vannamei.

  4. Leadership and culture in school organizations: a case study on the educational development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents the results of current research in the framework of the master’s SUE Caribbean whose objective is to establish the relationship between the leadership of managers and other institutional aspects of educational organizations, such as its history, power structures, processes of communication and development; having as purpose set the mode in which the leadership affects institutional development, in order to generate a process of construction of plans for institutional developments within the selected educational institutions. All this looking for enriching understanding of the complex reality of the educational institutions, understanding that allows shape routes or routes of transformation and change in the educational institution. The proposed study, seeks to satisfy the need for multiple insight into the reality of 2 educational institutions in the District of Santa Marta, Magdalena Department; therefore play an important role interpretation, it is to understand the institutional dynamic in a reflexive manner. Generated in us the concern of knowing inside to educational institutions as organizations which are generated interactions collective, explore the network of relationships that occur there, culture and leadership that these interactions and networks generate, seeking to find another dimension that explain and will shed light on the reality of our school.   

  5. Improved Production of Paclitaxel from Suspension Culture of Taxus chinensis var.mairei by in situ Extraction with Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    未作君; 元英进; 吴兆亮; 吴金川

    2003-01-01

    The production of paclitaxel from suspension culture of Taxus chinensis var,mairei was improved by in situ extraction with organic solvents to avoid feedback repression and product degradation.Oleic acid and dibutyl phthalate were proved to be suitable solvents .The optimal volumetric percentage of organic solvents in the culture medium was found to be around 8%,and the favorable time for their introduction was at the exponential phase of cell growth,Paclitaxel production with the in situ extraction was ca 3-fold of that without extraction.

  6. Automated detection of micro-organisms in blood cultures by means of the Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D F; Warner, M; Taylor, C E; Warren, R E

    1984-01-01

    A prototype Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser was compared with conventional methods for examining blood cultures in a trial of 651 cultures mostly from patients with haematological malignancy or undergoing haemodialysis or renal transplantation. Of 100 significantly positive cultures, organisms from 82 grew in the conventional aerobic (+ CO2) bottle, 78 in the conventional anaerobic bottle and 71 in the Malthus bottle. The differences were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). The Malthus system detected 83.6% of significantly positive cultures earlier than the comparable conventional bottles while 7.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the conventional system. When use of the Malthus system was restricted to the hours of 09.00 to 17.30 daily 27.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the Malthus system and 16.4% were detected earlier by the conventional system. One of the organisms which grew in the Malthus bottle, a contaminating Staphylococcus epidermidis, was not detected by the Malthus system. Instability of electrodes resulted in 26.9% false positive cultures with the prototype Malthus system. Contamination rates in both the Malthus and conventional anaerobic bottles were lower than in the aerobic bottles.

  7. Realizing good care within a context of cross-cultural diversity: an ethical guideline for healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-09-01

    In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks.

  8. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-. N-S-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycle as End Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Novel stable high-spin molecules possessing three different arranging fashions were designed with -(.) N-S-as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, an aromatic group, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4), pyrazine (5) or triazine (6) as end groups (EG), and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit.The effects of different EG on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of the AM1-CI approach. All the investigated molecules corresponded to the FC and possessed high-spin ground states. The spin on the two atoms of the SC fragment was not in agreement with the delocalization results in the specific stability of -(.) N-S-. In those molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decreased when the distance between the atoms of central SC fragments (-N-) increased. The stabilities of the triplet states of compounds 1a-n, 1b-n and 1c-n, with heterocycles as EG were higher than those of the triplet states of those compounds with phenyl as EG. Furthermore, the stabilities of the triplet states of the compounds with pyrimidine and triazine as EG were higher than those with pyridine, pyridazine or pyrazine as EG.

  9. Marketing Culture. Summary of the conference Marketing culture in modern organization held on 1 June 2001 at Warsaw University.

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Modzelewski

    2001-01-01

    What do we mean when we refer to "marketing"? Are they the same thing as "marketing culture", but in a people context? Is "marketing the same as salels"? How can we find an acceptable balance between the strategy and the tactics? These are important questions, because our answers have important implications.

  10. Marketing Culture. Summary of the conference Marketing culture in modern organization held on 1 June 2001 at Warsaw University.

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Modzelewski

    2001-01-01

    What do we mean when we refer to "marketing"? Are they the same thing as "marketing culture", but in a people context? Is "marketing the same as salels"? How can we find an acceptable balance between the strategy and the tactics? These are important questions, because our answers have important implications.

  11. SOCIAL AND HEALTH-IMPROVING SERVICES AS A FACTOR OF CULTURE HEALTH ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseevna Zaplatina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available At present time mankindis entering upon a new information age, and therefore the foundations of culture health organization is considered as the perspective to distribute intellectual and information resources as ecologically sustainable development and modernizing of Russian society. Great attention in this regard is given to a higher education system, the aim of which is to prepare a specialist with fundamental knowledge, professionally important qualities, environmental culture and culture of health.Though information resources in the sphere of continuous environmental and valeological education, from the point of their socio-philosophical justification, are varied and quite extensional, these trends are just beginning to penetrate in all areas of social life (including the educational environment and are not sufficiently reflected in continuing professional education, especially technical and, as it is know, technical education is preparing professionals of new type, adequate to changing conditions.In this regard, the ecologization аnd valeologization of continuous training acquires the greatest relevance in modernization of higher education. Also one of the urgent tasks is training of specialists, having high level of ecological and valeological consciousness development and ecological thinking; all these determine the functioning of the system «society-production-environment». According to these facts, it is possible to mention the necessity to solve the problems of environmental and valeological education in professional training of specialists, by means of global process modeling directly and indirectly related to this field.Since ecological and valeological education in higher schools must be based on regulatory support, as an important tool, used by the state in order to preserve the national health, as well as balances environmental management, it is necessary to note that at the state level the most important task is to promote

  12. Impact of Organizational Culture Type on Job Satisfaction Level of Employees’ in Different Organizations of Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamaila Gull

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze the impact of organizational culture type on job satisfaction level of employees’ particularly in organizations of Lahore, Pakistan. This research determined the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction, and the relative variance between the types of culture and job satisfaction level. Culture types studied were based on Cameron and Freeman (1990 framework of organizational culture types. A sample of 220 employees was studied and SPSS 19 was used for the analysis of data. One Way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Regression Analysis were performed to measure the hypothesis. The research examined the relationship with respect to four culture types, i.e. Clan, Adhocracy, Hierarchy and Market. Clan and Adhocracy found in a positive relationship with job satisfaction i.e. those who work under these cultures are more satisfied with their jobs, Hierarchy and Market were found to be in a negative relationship with job satisfaction i.e. those who work under these cultures are not satisfied with their jobs.

  13. The Organization Culture: The Network Construction and the Ethical Development the Revenue Department, the Ministry of Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowarin Srichainant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The organization culture should be organized in the form of network as a means of giving contribution to the organization office members. This study aims to investigate (1 The historical background of the organization culture of the revenue department (2 The present condition of the network formation of the etiquette-based organization culture development and (3 The network formation and the etiquette-based development of the revenue department, the ministry of Finance. Approach: The research area was focally conducted in the certain area of Bangkok Metropolitan. The population used included 98 subjects. The instrument used for data gathering consisted of the interview forms, the observation form, the focus group discussions and the participatory workshops. The obtained data were then discretely discriminated into classified group. The data were also examined by means of the triangulation technique which was then discreetly analyzed in accordance with the previously set purposes. To be concise, the analytical results were further presented in descriptive analysis. Results: (1 On account of the historical background of the organization culture of the revenue department actually started from the early age, that was, in the reign of King Rama V. The early age was the time when the leaders entirely applied the leadership of the organization. They, thus, totally assumed ultimate responsibility and also paid much respect to the seniority authorities. The middle age was the time when the organization culture was regarded as the most outstanding performance in the aspects of assuming ultimate responsibility and paying respect to the seniors. However, the organization culture became increasingly reliant on technology especially for the data collection. The present age was the period of time when a greater extent of emphasis had shifted from human reliance to technological reliance and also in terms of providing services from

  14. Critical perspectives on cultural competence as a strategic opportunity for achieving high performance in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, Philippa; Watson, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    * Cultural proficiency is a critical component of diversity competence. Diversity competency attends to issues of cultural proficiency and links cultural competence to issues of diverse representation and organizational inclusivity. * Developing and applying cultural competencies in diagnostic and invasive imaging services provides strategic opportunities to experience better patient cooperation, increase patient satisfaction, reduce medical errors, reduce patient complaints, and improve service recovery. * New Jersey recently passed legislation that requires 16 hours of cultural competency education as a condition of licensure to practice medicine. Four other states have similar legislation pending. The state of Washington passed legislation requiring all state accredited programs to include cultural competency education.

  15. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    A selective study of literature within safety culture, corporate culture and organisational theory have shown that the safety culture approach can benefit from the corporate culture approaches and organisational theory dealing with political processes. The implicit models of organisation within m...... of an organisation as a Multi-cultural Organisation. Second on change processes as political processes where the needed change have to be negotiated and reshaped....... culture approaches.The Concept of a multicultural organisation thus aims at encompassing the multitude of actor positions within an organisation with possible influence on the prevention work. A case study within industry is used to demonstrate the benefits of mobilizing these additional approaches...

  16. Cholesterol does not affect the toxicity of amyloid beta fragment but mimics its effect on MTT formazan exocytosis in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Saito, H

    1999-12-01

    It has recently been reported that methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-solubilized cholesterol protects PC12 cells from amyloid beta protein (Abeta) toxicity. To ask if this is the case in brain neurons, we investigated its effect in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. In basal culture conditions with no addition of Abeta, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-solubilized cholesterol at concentrations of 30-100 microM was toxic to neurons, but at concentrations of 1-10 microM promoted neuronal survival. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-solubilized cholesterol at 1-10 microM was also effective in protecting neurons from toxicity of 20 microM Abeta. However, these effects were all mimicked by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin alone, but not by cholesterol solubilized by dimethylsulfoxide or ethanol. The effects of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-solubilized cholesterol on neuronal survival and Abeta toxicity are probably attributed to the action of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, but not cholesterol. Alternatively, we found that methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-solubilized cholesterol at lower concentrations ( > 10 nM) inhibited cellular reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) by promoting the exocytosis of MTT formazan. This effect was shared by dimethylsulfoxide- or ethanol-solubilized cholesterol, but not by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, supporting that it is attributed to the action of cholesterol. These results suggest that cholesterol does not protect neurons from Abeta toxicity, or rather inhibits cellular MTT reduction in a similar manner to Abeta.

  17. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  18. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in an Organ Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wen Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mechanically active culture systems helps in understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration. Motion segment cultures facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish a culturing method for rabbit IVD motion segments to observe the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Segments were cultured in custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg for 2 weeks. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and matrix gene expression profile were assessed and compared with fresh one. The results showed ex vivo culturing of samples gradually destroyed the morphology. Proteoglycan contents and gene expression were decreased and downregulated obviously. However, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen type II gene expression were significantly enhanced and upregulated. In contrast, these trends were reversed under constant compression. These results indicated short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of type II collagen; however, constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to proteoglycan. Through this study a loading and organ-culturing system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed, which can be used to study the effects of mechanical stimulation on the biology of IVDs and the pathomechanics of IVD degeneration.

  19. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  20. The Effects of Learning Organization Culture on the Practices of Human Knowledge-Creation: An Empirical Research Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to identify the influence of learning organization culture on the practices of organizational knowledge-creation. Actionable knowledge-creation practices are put forward as a variable in preference to the learning process itself because they may be more closely related to the achievement of individual and/or organizational…

  1. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective.

  2. Understanding the Role of Culture and Communication in Implementing Planned Organizational Change: The Case of Compstat in Police Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of planned change efforts, the failure rates of implementation are as high as 50 to 70 percent (Lewis & Seibold, 1998). While these efforts are affected by technical issues, the organizations' approach to change, structure, technological capabilities, and organizational culture and communication practices are…

  3. A Study on Relationship among Leadership, Organizational Culture, the Operation of Learning Organization and Employees' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Chao; Lee, Ming-Shing

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research design was employed. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were mailed out and received 134 valid replies.…

  4. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  5. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  6. Selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors during organ culture of cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoel, N L; Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is thought to be involved in migraine headache and the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Previous data show that organ culture induces a phenotypic change in cerebral vessels. Therefore we investigated if these changes also applied for the vasoconstrictive 5-HT...

  7. An Efficacious Measurement of Learning Initiatives: E-Learning Systems, Learning-Organization Culture, Knowledge Creation, and Innovativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundhoefer, Raymie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is twofold: (a) develop a validated measure for learning initiatives based on knowledge-creation theory and (b) conduct a quantitative study to investigate the relationships between electronic learning systems, learning-organization culture, efficacious knowledge creation (EKC), and innovativeness. Although Cheng-Chang…

  8. Managerial capacity and adoption of culturally competent practices in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2010-12-01

    The field of cultural competence is shifting its primary emphasis from enhancement of counselors' skills to management, organizational policy, and processes of care. This study examined managers' characteristics associated with adoption of culturally competent practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment field. Findings indicate that in 1995, supervisors' cultural sensitivity played the most significant role in adopting practices, such as matching counselors and clients based on race and offering bilingual services. Staff's exposure to cross-cultural training increased from 1995 to 2005. In this period, positive associations were found between managers' cultural sensitivity and connection with the community and staff receiving cross-cultural training and the number of training hours completed. However, exposure to and investment in this training were negatively correlated with managers' formal education. Health administration policy should consider the extent to which the decision makers' education, community involvement, and cultural sensitivity contribute to building culturally responsive systems of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THE CULTURE OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATION: THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE REMANING MENTALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jianu Eugenia; Pandelica Amalia; Pandelica Ionut

    2010-01-01

    After 20 years of transition, the culture of Romanian companies is still dominated by some remaining block culture mentalities proper to Eastern and Central European countries. Although, from a technical point of view the transition may be regarded as an ended process, it is certain that there is still a communist inheritance strongly integrated in this culture in series of remaining mentalities. Such mentalities are to be found in the culture of Romanian companies framed into a vicious circl...

  10. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  11. The use of Endo-Porter to deliver morpholinos in kidney organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, George N; Adams, Tamara L; Adams, Derek; Oxburgh, Leif; Prudovsky, Igor; Verdi, Joseph M

    2008-04-01

    Cellular interactions in development of the kidney are used as a model of reciprocal inductive events between epithelium and mesenchyme. Time- and labor-intensive methods have been developed to study this phenomenon. For example, in mice, the targeted disruption of genes in vivo has been used to modify the genetic program directing kidney development. However, gene targeting is a resource-intensive approach and alternative strategies for gene and protein modification in the kidney need to be developed. Herein, we have developed an efficient system for the delivery of antisense morpholino to alter normal protein expression. We describe the use of Endo-Porter to effectively deliver morpholinos to all parts and regions of the kidney explant. Also, we definitively show via confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis that the use of Endo-Porter in delivering antisense morpholinos is robust throughout the entire kidney explant, providing efficient suppression of protein expression. This method saves time and cost when compared with targeted disruption and is an improvement upon previous kidney organ culture methods.

  12. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization's Culture: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth T. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction professionals have identified public contract law and bureaucratic procurement/contract offices as a source of problems in the construction industry. The culture within the United State's Federal Government Acquisitions is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs and its interpretation, often placing organizations/agencies in the price-based environment and continuously resulting in poor performance. The United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM (approximately $100 M in construction renovation awards per year attempted to overcome this obstacle through a partnership with the Performance-Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG at Arizona State University. The MEDCOM implemented the information environment portion of the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS into Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ contracts through the specifications. Without controlling the various contract/procurement processes, the developed information environment stimulated an atmosphere of accountability to all parties involved, while reducing the client's internal bureaucratic resistance. The concept has met with preliminary success, minimizing construction management issues by over 50%, raising owner satisfaction by 9%, resulting in 99% of projects ending with no contractor-generated change orders, and assisting MEDCOM leadership in measuring the performance of their infrastructure revitalization program.

  13. Organic and inorganic lead inhibit neurite growth in vertebrate and invertebrate neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Shugarts, D; Nelson, G; Przekwas, J

    1989-12-01

    Neurons from brains of chick embryos and pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) were cultured for 3 to 4 d in the presence of no toxins, inorganic lead (PbCl2), or organic lead (triethyl lead chloride). In chick neurons, inorganic lead reduced the percentage of cells that grew neurites (IC50 = 270 microM total lead, approximately 70 nM free Pb2+) but did not reduce the number of neurites per cell or the mean neurite length. Triethyl lead reduced the percentage of cells that grew neurites (IC50 = 0.24 microM) and the mean neurite length (extrapolated IC50 = 3.6 microM) but did not reduce the number of neurites per cell. In Lymnaea neurons, inorganic lead reduced the percentage of cells that grew neurites (IC50 = 13 microM total lead; approximately 10 nM free Pb2+). Triethyl lead reduced the percentage of cells that grew neurites (IC50 = 0.4 microM) and exerted significant toxicity at 0.2 microM. The two forms of lead affected neurite growth in qualitatively different ways, which suggests that their mechanisms of action are different.

  14. Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    This book reveals: * The unexamined rules behind the thoughts and emotions of people of different cultures * Ways in which cultures differ in the areas of collectivism/individualism, assertiveness/modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * How organizational cultures differ f

  15. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-·N-N-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycles as an End Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU De-Qing; WANG Li-Min; ZHANG Jing-Ping; WANG Rong-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Novel stable high spin molecules possessing three different arranged fashions are designed with -·N-N< as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, various aromatic, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4),pyrazine (5), triazine (6) as end groups (EG) and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit. The effects of a different end groups on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of AM1-CI approach. It has been found that the spin densities on the two atoms of the SC fragment are different from delocalization resulting in the specific stability of -·N-N<. In these molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decrease when the distance between the atoms of central SC (-N-) increases. The orders of the stability of triplet states for 1an, 1bn, 1cn [They are isomers in which SC is connected with FC in different way (1an, NiNNN1; 1bn,N1N NiN; 1cn, NN1N1N) and six heterocycles are EG] show that the tability of triplet states with heterocycles as end groups is higher than that with phenyl as end groups, and in the order: triazine (EG)>pyrimidine, pyrazine>pyridine, pyridazine.

  16. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  17. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death.

  18. Assessing cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and otoprotection in whole organ culture of the mouse inner ear in simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropitzsch, Anke; Arnold, Heinz; Bassiouni, Mohamed; Müller, Andrea; Eckhard, Andreas; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2014-06-16

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. Ototoxicity is a major dose-limiting side-effect. A reproducible mammalian in-vitro model of cisplatin ototoxicity is required to screen and validate otoprotective drug candidates. We utilized a whole organ culture system of the postnatal mouse inner ear in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor under "simulated microgravity" culture conditions. As previously described this system allows whole organ culture of the inner ear and quantitative assessment of ototoxic effects of aminoglycoside induced hair cell loss. Here we demonstrate that this model is also applicable to the assessment of cisplatin induced ototoxicity. In this model cisplatin induced hair cell loss was dose and time dependent. Increasing exposure time of cisplatin led to decreasing EC50 concentrations. Outer hair cells were more susceptible than inner hair cells, and hair cells in the cochlear base were more susceptible than hair cells in the cochlear apex. Initial cisplatin dose determined the final extent of hair cell loss irrespective if the drug was withdrawn or continued. Dose dependant otoprotection was demonstrated by co-administration of the antioxidant agent N-acetyl l-cysteine. The results support the use of this inner ear organ culture system as an in vitro assay and validation platform for inner ear toxicology and the search for otoprotective compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Labelling indices after /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation during organ culture of duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L. (Bergen Univ. (Norway))

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine during organ culture of duodenal biopsy specimens from 34 coeliac and 10 non-coeliac patients was studied by autoradiography. High labelling indices were found in flat, coeliac mucosas. Gluten fractions, which provoked histological deterioration during culture, induced labelling of a greater proportion of crypt cells and higher migration rate than parallelly cultured specimens on gluten-free medium. No influence on clypt cell kinetics could be observed after culture with gluten fractions incapable of producing histological damage or with alpha-lactalbumin. In coeliac remission mucosas, labelling indices were at the same level as in non-coeliac biopsis, and no significant effects of gluten were observed. Autoradiography seems to be a fairly sensitive and reliable determinant of gluten toxicity by organ culture in coeliac desease and should supplement the histological appraisal of the biopsies. The increment of labelling indices provoked by gluten exposure seemed not merely to be a concequence of increased desquamation of cells from the biopsy surface but could imply a direct influence of gluten on crypt cell kinetics in coeliac disease.

  20. Characteristics of plasma in culture medium generated by positive pulse voltage and effects of organic compounds on its characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Sato, T.; Yoshino, D.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a positive pulse voltage method for generating plasma in culture medium with a composition similar to biological fluids. We also describe the plasma’s characteristics, liquid quality, and the effect of organic compounds in the culture medium on the plasma characteristics through comparisons to a solution containing inorganic salts at the same concentrations as in the culture medium. Light emission with Na and OH spectra was observed within a vapor bubble produced by Joule heating at the tip of the electrode. A downward thermal flow and shock wave were caused by the behavior of the vapor bubble. The culture medium pH gradually increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the discharge time of 300 s. H2O2 was generated 1.1 mg l-1 in the culture medium after discharge for 300 s, and this value was 0.5 mg l-1 lower than the inorganic salts solution which does not contain organic compounds. This study provides important data that will help facilitate more widespread application of plasma medicine.

  1. Approche morphologique de la fragmentation de l'ADN radio-induite par immunomarquage anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymérase (PARP) : étude de cultures d'oligodendrogliomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, P.; Beuvon, F.; Cervera, P.; Averbeck, D.; Daumas-Duport, C.

    1998-04-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme encompassing two zinc finger motifs which specifically binds to radiation induced DNA strand breaks. We develop a new immuno-labelling of poly ADP-ribose which coupled together with the immunodetection of cells in cycle with MIB1, permits to detect and quantify the DNA fragmentation induced by radiations (Cesium137). This method, applied to organotypical cultures of human oligodendroglioma, submitted to radiation, a dose dependant nuclear signal. This one increased significantly in the presence of a radiosensitizer like iododeoxyuridine (IUDR 5 g/ml). This poly ADP-ribose immunodetection can be useful, to detect furtherly the individual radiosensitivity of human glioma. Les protéases “ICE-like" ou caspases, sont les homologues humaines du produit du gène ced-3 du ver Caenorhabditis elegans et sont activées lors des étapes précoces de l'apoptose. L'objectif de ce travail vise à déterminer dans quelle mesure l'inhibition de l'une d'entre elles, la caspase-3 est susceptible de modifier la sensibilité des cellules vis-à-vis de l'apoptose radioinduite. Des lymphocytes spléniques murins irradiés en présence de Ac-DVED-CHO un inhibiteur spécifique de la caspase-3 présentent un taux de particules hypodiploïdes radioinduites bien inférieur à celui des contrôles et une diminution drastique de la fragmentation internucléosomale de l'ADN. Toutefois, ni l'externalisation des phospholipides anioniques, autre marqueur spécifique de l'apoptose, ni la viabilité ne sont affectées.

  2. Lycopene overproduction and in situ extraction in organic-aqueous culture systems using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Jara, Julia; de Diego, Teresa; Del Real, Álvaro; Écija-Conesa, Ana; Manjón, Arturo; Cánovas, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Lycopene is an import ant compound with an increasing industrial value. However, there is still no biotechnological process to obtain it. In this study, a semi-continuous system for lycopene extraction from recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 cells is proposed. A two-phase culture mode using organic solvents was found to maximize lycopene production through in situ extraction from cells. Within the reactor, three phases were formed during the process: an aqueous phase containing the recombinant E. coli, an interphase, and an organic phase. Lycopene was extracted from the cells to both the interphase and the organic phase and, consequently, thus enhancing its production. Maximum lycopene production (74.71 ± 3.74 mg L(-1)) was obtained for an octane-aqueous culture system using the E. coli BL21LF strain, a process that doubled the level obtained in the control aqueous culture. Study of the interphase by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the proteo-lipidic nature and the high storage capacity of lycopene. Moreover, a cell viability test by flow cytometry (CF) after 24 h of culture indicated that 24 % of the population could be re-used. Therefore, a batch series reactor was designed for semi-continuous lycopene extraction. After five cycles of operation (120 h), lycopene production was similar to that obtained in the control aqueous medium. A final specific lycopene yield of up to 49.70 ± 2.48 mg g(-1) was reached at 24 h, which represents to the highest titer to date. In conclusion, the aqueous-organic semi-continuous culture system proposed is the first designed for lycopene extraction, representing an important breakthrough in the development of a competitive biotechnological process for lycopene production and extraction.

  3. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  4. THE CULTURE OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATION: THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE REMANING MENTALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianu Eugenia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available After 20 years of transition, the culture of Romanian companies is still dominated by some remaining block culture mentalities proper to Eastern and Central European countries. Although, from a technical point of view the transition may be regarded as an ended process, it is certain that there is still a communist inheritance strongly integrated in this culture in series of remaining mentalities. Such mentalities are to be found in the culture of Romanian companies framed into a vicious circle of inertia representing significant change resisting structures. Thus, this paper displays the results of a pilot study meant to establish the diagnosis of the dominant values of Romanian companies culture. The results reveal the fact that although some reminiscences of the communist period are still integrated in the culture of Romanian companies some of those mentalities have been overcome.

  5. PRADO MUSEUM - SUCCESSFUL MODEL FOR RAISING COMPETITIVENESS IN THE ROMANIAN CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-Andrei CORBOȘ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the conceptual delimitation of the competitiveness of cultural organizations, as well as in identifying the sources of its growth, has increased in recent years due to the need to diversify the funding sources of this type of organization, urban development and the willingness to adapt to the requirements of customers who are more numerous and have diverse expectations. Practice shows that cultural organizations that have adopted a competitive economy vision and have applied specific management tools for increasing the organizational competitiveness, have achieved a good performance, becoming, this way, an example of managerial success story in the field. The experience of Prado Museum, one of the emblems of Madrid, falls in this direction. The substantial increase in the number of tourists, the decrease in state funding combined with the increase of proprietary financing resources, the enhancement of the national and international reputation, are just some of the positive results that prove the quality of used management. This paper presents and analysis these effects and the causes that have generated them, thus providing some possible suggestions for action for Romanian cultural organizations in order to increase their competitiveness.

  6. Cytokines and growth factors modify the upregulation of contractile endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in rat cerebral arteries after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, H; Stenman, E; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Experimental cerebral ischaemia and organ culture of cerebral arteries induce an increased endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether cytokines and growth factors, known to be activated in ischaemia, can influence the expression and function...... of endothelin receptors after organ culture....

  7. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  8. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  9. Contribution to Cultural Organization, Working Motivation and Job Satisfaction on the Performance of Primary School Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtedjo; Suharningsih

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) describes the performance of the teacher, organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction; (2) determine whether there is a significant direct relationship between organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of primary school teachers. Through the study of the…

  10. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence...... of ROC SC obtained at different cultivation times (7, 14 and 21days at the air-liquid interface) was connected with an increase in structural order of the SC lipids in SAXS measurements: Already cultivation for 14days at the air-liquid interface resulted overall in a competent SC permeability barrier...

  11. Establishment of a 2-week canine skin organ culture model and its pharmacological modulation by epidermal growth factor and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Francesca; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Vannozzi, Iacopo; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miragliotta, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Although canine skin models are already available as either monocellular or organotypic cultures, they only partly recapitulate normal skin morphological features and function. The objective of this study was to establish a canine serum-free skin organ culture model and verify whether dexamethasone could rescue epidermal growth factor-induced changes. The study of morphological changes as a response to pharmacological substances may indeed help to investigate skin physiology and pathology. Normal skin was obtained from five client-owned dogs subjected to surgical procedures unrelated to dermatological conditions. Two experimental designs were performed: (i) two-week viability of the skin culture; (ii) dexamethasone (DMS) inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced effects. Serum-free submerged organ cultures were established in Williams' E medium supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin, insulin, hydrocortisone and l-glutamine. General morphological features of skin anatomical structures were well maintained up to day 14, scattered pyknotic nuclei were visible in the epidermis from day 7. Normal keratinocyte differentiation was confirmed by cytokeratin (K) 10, K14 and loricrin immunostaining. Epidermal thickness did not decrease throughout the study. A decrease in keratinocyte proliferation was observed at day 7 and 14. Treatment with EGF induced both keratinocyte proliferation and thickening of the epidermis; both responses were counteracted by DMS. Treatment with EGF increased the length of epithelial tongues at the edge of the skin explants; this effect was further enhanced by DMS supplementation. Our findings demonstrate the potential use of a full-thickness canine skin organ culture model for the study of skin physiology and pharmacological response to exogenous compounds, especially in the field of re-epithelialisation and keratinization disorders.

  12. Survey of Effect of Merger in Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organizations on Tourism destinations Competitiveness Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Sohrabi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization mergers, integration of activities in two or more organizations, have always attracted the attention of policy makers as well as decision makers. The merger of the three organizations of Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts into one organization named the Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts organization which took place in two stages between 2003 and 2005, is among the biggest mergers of the past few years in our country. This paper analyzes the effects of this merger on the competitiveness of tourism destinations. The model proposed by Ritchie and Crouch (2003, which is the most comprehensive model in this area is used. This model considers five main factors: core resources and attractors, destination management, destination policy, planning and development, qualifying and amplifying determinants, and supporting factors and resources. The effects of the merger on these factors were studied using two questionnaires verified by experts in the field. 47 of the total 62 questions were put in the first questionnaire and the other 15 were put in the second. Since the merger was completed in 2005, the statistical population is comprised of managers and staff at the Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts organization in the province of Hamedan who had worked in one of the three separate organizations prior to the merger and tourists who had made a visit to the province then. 74 participants i.e. employees with over seven years of experience on the job responded to the first questionnaire and 219 responded to the second questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software package and single or multi-variant t-test. The results indicate that by considering 3 as the significance level all the hypotheses will be proven wrong. However, by considering 2 as the significance level all the hypotheses will be proven. This shows that not many changes may have taken place after the merger and it has only had a fair

  13. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  14. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  15. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Alépée, N.; Bahinski, A.; Daneshian, M.; B. de Wever; Fritsche, E.; Goldberg, A.; Hansmann, J.; Hartung, T; Haycock, J; Hogberg, H.; Hoelting, L.; Kelm, J M; Kadereit, S.; McVey, E.; Landsiedel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. An important building block of this strategy that has emerged during the last years are threedimensional (3D) cell culture models. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ ...

  16. Lycopene overproduction and in situ extraction in organic-aqueous culture systems using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Jara, Julia; de Diego, Teresa; del Real, Álvaro; Écija-Conesa, Ana; Manjón, Arturo; Cánovas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene is an import ant compound with an increasing industrial value. However, there is still no biotechnological process to obtain it. In this study, a semi-continuous system for lycopene extraction from recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 cells is proposed. A two-phase culture mode using organic solvents was found to maximize lycopene production through in situ extraction from cells. Within the reactor, three phases were formed during the process: an aqueous phase containing the recombinant...

  17. Addressing Challenges to Enhance the Bioactives of Withania somnifera through Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field.

  18. Human cornea wound healing in organ culture after Er:YAG laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Hui; Joos, Karen M.; Robinson, Richard D.; Shetlar, Debra J.; O'Day, Denis M.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: To study the healing process in cultured human corneas after Er:YAG laser ablation. Methods: Human cadaver corneas within 24 hours post mortem were ablated with a Q- switched Er:YAG laser at 2.94 micrometer wavelength. The radiant exposure was 500 mJ/cm2. The cornea was cultured on a tissue supporting frame immediately after the ablation. Culture media consisted of 92% minimum essential media, 8% fetal bovine serum, 0.125% HEPES buffer solution, 0.125% gentamicin, and 0.05% fungizone. The entire tissue frame and media container were kept in an incubator at 37 degrees Celsius and 5% CO2. Serial macroscopic photographs of the cultured corneas were taken during the healing process. Histology was performed after 30 days of culture. Results: A clear ablated crater into the stroma was observed immediately after the ablation. The thickness of thermal damage ranges between 1 and 25 micrometer. Haze development within the crater varies from the third day to the fourteenth day according to the depth and the roughness of the crater. Histologic sections of the cultured cornea showed complete re- epithelization of the lased area. Loose fibrous tissue is observed filling the ablated space beneath the epithelium. The endothelium appeared unaffected. Conclusions: The intensity and time of haze development appears dependent upon the depth of the ablation. Cultured human corneas may provide useful information regarding the healing process following laser ablation.

  19. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  20. Mechanisms in Impact Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittel, Falk K.; Carmona, Humberto A.; Kun, Ferenc; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The brittle fragmentation of spheres is studied numerically by a 3D Discrete Element Model. Large scale computer simulations are performed with models that consist of agglomerates of many spherical particles, interconnected by beam-truss elements. We focus on a detailed description of the fragmentation process and study several fragmentation mechanisms involved. The evolution of meridional cracks is studied in detail. These cracks are found to initiate in the inside of the specimen with quasi...

  1. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Schröder-Braunstein

    Full Text Available Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Bispecific antibody fragments with CD20 X CD28 specificity allow effective autologous and allogeneic T-cell activation against malignant cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow cultures from patients with B-cell lineage leukemia and lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M; Grosse-Hovest, L; Holler, E; Kolb, H J; Jung, G

    1999-08-01

    Bispecific antibodies directed against tumor-associated target antigens and to surface receptors mediating T-cell activation, such as the TCR/CD3 complex and the costimulatory receptor CD28, are capable of mediating T-cell activation resulting in tumor cell killing. In this study, we used the B-cell-associated antigens CD19 and CD20 as target structures on human leukemic cells. We found that a combination of bispecific antibody fragments (bsFab2) with target x CD3 and target x CD28 specificity induces vigorous autologous T-cell activation and killing of malignant cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow cultures from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma. The bsFab2 targeting CD20 were considerably more effective than those binding to CD19. The colony-forming capacity of treated bone marrow was impaired due to large amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha produced during bsFab2-induced T-cell activation. Neutralizing tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies were found to reverse this negative effect without affecting T-cell activation and tumor cell killing. CD20 x CD28 bsFab2, when used alone rather than in combination, markedly improved the recognition of leukemic cells by allogeneic T cells. Therefore, these reagents may be capable of enhancing the immunogenicity of leukemic cells in general and, in particular, of increasing the antileukemic activity of allogeneic donor buffy coat cells in relapsed bone marrow transplanted patients.

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel angiotensin binding site in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that is specific for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II, angiotensin IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K L; Hanesworth, J M; Ball, A E; Felgenhauer, G P; Hosick, H L; Harding, J W

    1993-03-19

    This study demonstrates the existence of a previously unrecognized class of angiotensin binding sites on vascular smooth muscle that exhibit high affinity and specificity for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II (AngIV). Binding of [125I]AngIV is saturable, reversible and describes a pharmacologic profile that is distinct and separate from the classic AT1 or AT2 angiotensin receptors. Saturation binding studies utilizing cultured vascular smooth muscle cells obtained from bovine aorta (BVSM) revealed that [125I]AngIV bound to a single high affinity site with an associated Hill coefficient of 0.99 +/- 0.003, exhibiting a KD = 1.85 +/- 0.45 nM and a corresponding Bmax = 960 +/- 100 fmol mg-1 protein. Competition binding curves in BVSM demonstrated the following rank order effectiveness: AngIV > AngII(3-7) > AngIII > Sar1,Ile8 AngII > AngII > AngII(1-7) > AngII(4-8), DuP 753, PD123177. The presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP gamma S, had no effect on [125I]AngIV binding affinity in BVSM. The presence of this novel angiotensin binding site on smooth muscle in high concentration suggests the possibility that this system may play an important, yet unrecognized role in vascular control.

  4. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  5. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  6. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  7. Cultural diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of cultural diversity has emerged as an influential one having impact on multiple policy and legal instruments especially following the adoption of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005. The discussions on its appropriate implementation are however profoundly fragmented and often laden with political considerations. The present brief paper offers some thoughts on the meaning of cultural diversity and its implementati...

  8. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in Ex vivo Organ Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Guo Zhu; Min-Shan Feng; Jia-Wen Zhan; Ping Zhang; Jie Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background:The development of mechanically active culture systems helps increase the understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration.Motion segment cultures allow for preservation of the native IVD structure,and adjacent vertebral bodies facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads.The purpose of this study was to establish loading and organ culture methods for rabbit IVD motion segments to study the effect of static load on the whole disc organ.Methods:IVD motion segments were harvested from rabbit lumbar spines and cultured in no-loading 6-well plates (control conditions) or custom-made apparatuses under a constant,compressive load (3 kg,0.5 MPa) for up to 14 days.Tissue integrity,matrix synthesis,and the matrix gene expression profile were assessed after 3,7,and 14 days of culturing and compared with those of fresh tissues.Results:The results showed that ex vivo culturing of motion segments preserved tissue integrity under no-loading conditions for 14 days whereas the static load gradually destroyed the morphology after 3 days.Proteoglycan contents were decreased under both conditions,with a more obvious decrease under static load,and proteoglycan gene expression was also downregulated.However,under static load,immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen Type Ⅱ alpha 1 (COL2A 1) gene expression were significantly enhanced (61.54 ± 5.91,P =0.035) and upregulated (1.195 ± 0.040,P =0.000),respectively,compared with those in the controls (P < 0.05).In contrast,under constant compression,these trends were reversed.Our initial results indicated that short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of collagen Type Ⅱ alpha l;however,sustained constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to a decreased proteoglycan content.Conclusions:A loading and organ culture system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed.Using this system,we were able to study the effects of

  9. Mechanical stress-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in organ-cultured mouse intervertebral discs: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Kenta; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Nakase, Takanobu; Hosono, Noboru; Okuda, Shin'ya; Meng, Wenxiang; Tamura, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2003-07-15

    Various amounts of static mechanical load were applied to mouse intervertebral discs in organ cultures. The apoptosis then was examined using nick end labeling. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors were added to the medium. To establish an experimental model for detecting factors regulating chondrocyte apoptosis induced by mechanical stress, and to determine the role of MAPK and p38 in the stress-induced apoptotic pathway of endplate chondrocytes. The cause of degenerative change in the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) remains unclear. The authors' previous findings using a mouse model suggested that apoptosis in the cartilaginous endplate may play a role in intervertebral disc degeneration, and that mechanical stress may induce apoptosis. If apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes is involved in the cascade of intervertebral disc degeneration, then how apoptosis is induced by mechanical stress should be important in preventing disc degeneration. However, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by mechanical stress remains unclear. Mouse coccygeal discs were harvested and organ cultured. Various static compression loads (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 MPa) were applied on intervertebral discs placed in culture bottles for 24 hours. Paraffin-embedded sections of the harvested discs were stained using Safranin-O and the nick end labeling procedure. The apoptotic cells were counted in the cartilaginous endplate and junctional anulus fibrosus of each intervertebral disc. In addition, U0126 (MAPK inhibitor) and SB202190 (p38 inhibitor) were added to the culture medium to determine their regulatory roles in the apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes induced by mechanical load. Histologically, loaded discs became bulged, and the disc space became narrow. Apoptosis was absent in discs without load, but was particularly noticeable in loaded discs (load weight, 1.0 MPa). The number of apoptotic cells increased depending on the weight of the load. The two MAPK inhibitors

  10. Culture of the causative organism of donovanosis (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) in HEp-2 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Carter; Hutton, S.; Sriprakash, K. S.; Kemp, D J; Lum, G; Savage, J.; Bowden, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    We report successful culture of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis by standard cell culture methods. Swabs were obtained from lesions in three patients with a clinical diagnosis of donovanosis. For two patients, there was histological confirmation of the disease (i.e., the presence of Donovan bodies in Giemsa-stained smears). Specimens were inoculated onto cycloheximide-treated HEp-2 cell monolayers in RPMI 1640 medium (supplemented with fetal calf serum, NaHCO3, vancomycin hydrochloride, and be...

  11. A multi-organ chip co-culture of neurospheres and liver equivalents for long-term substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, Eva-Maria; Ramme, Anja Patricia; Terrasso, Ana Paula; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2015-07-10

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, often do not accurately predict drug toxicity, leading to high attrition rates in clinical studies (Paul et al., 2010). The phylogenetic distance between humans and laboratory animals is enormous, this affects the transferability of animal data on the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. Therefore, many neuroprotective treatments that have shown promise in animals have not been successful when transferred to humans (Dragunow, 2008; Gibbons and Dragunow, 2010). We present a multi-organ chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from various cell sources in a combined media circuit which bridges the gap in systemic and human tests. A steady state co-culture of human artificial liver microtissues and human neurospheres exposed to fluid flow over two weeks in the multi-organ chip has successfully proven its long-term performance. Daily lactate dehydrogenase activity measurements of the medium and immunofluorescence end-point staining proved the viability of the tissues and the maintenance of differentiated cellular phenotypes. Moreover, the lactate production and glucose consumption values of the tissues cultured indicated that a stable steady-state was achieved after 6 days of co-cultivation. The neurospheres remained differentiated neurons over the two-week cultivation in the multi-organ chip, proven by qPCR and immunofluorescence of the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein-2. Additionally, a two-week toxicity assay with a repeated substance exposure to the neurotoxic 2,5-hexanedione in two different concentrations induced high apoptosis within the neurospheres and liver microtissues, as shown by a strong increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the medium. The principal finding of the exposure of the co-culture to 2,5-hexanedione was that not only toxicity profiles of two different doses

  12. Cultura organizacional em organizações públicas no Brasil Organizational culture in Brazilian public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calixto de Souza Pires

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute conceitos e abordagens que contribuem para a compreensão de aspectos e traços relacionados à cultura organizacional de organizações públicas no Brasil. Inicialmente, são tratados os conceitos e diferentes abordagens de cultura e cultura organizacional, especificamente de Fleury, Frost, Schein e Hofstede. A seguir, o artigo aborda a cultura de organizações públicas, apresentando um pequeno histórico das organizações públicas no Brasil, bem como seus conceitos e características, entre as quais se destacam a burocracia, o autoritarismo centralizado, o paternalismo, a descontinuidade e a ingerência política. Essas características interferem no modo como os trabalhadores atuam nessas organizações, observando-se o apego às regras e rotinas, a supervalorização da hierarquia, o paternalismo nas relações e o apego ao poder. Isso é importante na definição dos processos internos, na relação com inovações e mudança, na formação dos valores e crenças organizacionais e nas políticas de recursos humanos. Na conclusão, o artigo salienta os aspectos fundamentais a serem considerados ao se lidar com a cultura de organizações públicas no Brasil.This article presents and discusses concepts and views that help understand features and peculiarities of the organizational culture in public organizations in Brazil. It begins by discussing the concepts and different approaches to culture and organizational culture, specifically by Fleury, Frost, Schein, and Hofstede. It then deals with the culture of public organizations, presenting a brief history of these organizations in Brazil, as well as their concepts and features, among which bureaucracy, centralized authoritarianism, patronizing, lack of continuity, and political interference stand out. Such characteristics interfere with the way people work in these organizations, where attachment to rules and routines, hierarchy overrating, patronizing

  13. HCMV-infection in a human arterial organ culture model: effects on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rössler Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of infections with the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV for the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis is still unclear. Both a clear correlation and no correlation at all have been reported in clinical, mostly serological studies. In our study we employed a human non-injury ex vivo organ culture model to investigate the effect of an in vitro permissive HCMV-infection on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia for a period of 56 days. Results During routine-nephrectomies parts of renal arteries from 71 patients were obtained and prepared as human organ cultures. Cell free HCMV infection was performed with the fibroblast adapted HCMV strain AD169, the endotheliotropic strain TB40E, and a clinical isolate (AN 365. After 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 56 days in culture staining of HCMV-antigens was carried out and reactive cell proliferation and neointimal thickening were analysed. Successful HCMV-infection was accomplished with all three virus strains studied. During the first 21 days in organ culture no cell proliferation or neointimal hyperplasia was detected. At day 35 and day 56 moderate cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia was found both in HCMV-infected segments and mock infected controls. Neointimal hyperplasia in productively HCMV-infected segments was lower than in non infected at day 35 and day 56, but relatively higher after infection with the endotheliotropic TB40E in comparison with the two other strains. Conclusion The data do not support the hypothesis that HCMV-infection triggers restenosis via a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in comparison to non infected controls. Interestingly however, even after lytic infection, a virus strain specific difference was observed.

  14. Biological Effects of Clinically Relevant CoCr Nanoparticles in the Dura Mater: An Organ Culture Study

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    Iraklis Papageorgiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical interventions for the treatment of spinal disc degeneration include total disc replacement and fusion devices. There are, however, concerns regarding the generation of wear particles by these devices, the majority of which are in the nanometre sized range with the potential to cause adverse biological effects in the surrounding tissues. The aims of this study were to develop an organ culture model of the porcine dura mater and to investigate the biological effects of CoCr nanoparticles in this model. A range of histological techniques were used to analyse the structure of the tissue in the organ culture. The biological effects of the CoCr wear particles and the subsequent structural changes were assessed using tissue viability assays, cytokine assays, histology, immunohistochemistry, and TEM imaging. The physiological structure of the dura mater remained unchanged during the seven days of in vitro culture. There was no significant loss of cell viability. After exposure of the organ culture to CoCr nanoparticles, there was significant loosening of the epithelial layer, as well as the underlying collagen matrix. TEM imaging confirmed these structural alterations. These structural alterations were attributed to the production of MMP-1, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-1. ELISA analysis revealed that there was significant release of cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, ECP and also the matrix protein, tenascin-C. This study suggested that CoCr nanoparticles did not cause cytotoxicity in the dura mater but they caused significant alterations to its structural integrity that could lead to significant secondary effects due to nanoparticle penetration, such as inflammation to the local neural tissue.

  15. The Safety Organizing Scale: development and validation of a behavioral measure of safety culture in hospital nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogus, Timothy J; Sutcliffe, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that medical error is a systemic problem requiring systemic solutions continues to expand. Developing a "safety culture" is one potential strategy toward improving patient safety. A reliable and valid self-report measure of safety culture is needed that is both grounded in concrete behaviors and is positively related to patient safety. We sought to develop and test a self-report measure of safety organizing that captures the behaviors theorized to underlie a safety culture and demonstrates use for potentially improving patient safety as evidenced by fewer reported medication errors and patient falls. A total of 1685 registered nurses from 125 nursing units in 13 hospitals in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, and Ohio completed questionnaires between December 2003 and June 2004. The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of factor structure, dimensionality, and construct validity. The Safety Organizing Scale (SOS), a 9-item unidimensional measure of self-reported behaviors enabling a safety culture, was found to have high internal reliability and reflect theoretically derived and empirically observed content domains. The measure was shown to discriminate between related concepts like organizational commitment and trust, vary significantly within hospitals, and was negatively associated with reported medication errors and patient falls in the subsequent 6-month period. The SOS not only provides meaningful, behavioral insight into the enactment of a safety culture, but because of the association between SOS scores and reported medication errors and patient falls, it also provides information that may be useful to registered nurses, nurse managers, hospital administrators, and governmental agencies.

  16. Inhibitory effect of organic acids on arcobacters in culture and their use for control of Arcobacter butzleri on chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skřivanová, Eva; Molatová, Zuzana; Matěnová, Michaela; Houf, Kurt; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-05

    The inhibitory effects of 17 organic acids (C₂-C₁₆ fatty acids, sorbic, benzoic, phenylacetic, fumaric, succinic, lactic, malic and citric) on Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus and Arcobacter skirrowii were investigated by determining their IC₅₀ values, defined as the concentration of acid at which the target DNA sequence was expressed at 50% of the positive control level in cultures incubated at 30°C for 24 h. DNA was analysed by real-time PCR. The Arcobacter strains tested were inhibited by all the organic acids, with the sensitivities in the order A. skirrowii > A. cryaerophilus > A. butzleri. Eight acids with IC₅₀ values of arcobacters on Muller-Hinton agar. All eight tested acids suppressed bacterial proliferation. The highest inhibitory activities were observed for benzoic, citric, malic and sorbic acids. Subsequent sensory analysis revealed benzoic acid to be the most suitable organic acid for chicken skin treatment.

  17. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  18. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  19. Cell viability studies and operation in cellular culture medium of n-type organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, M.; Viggiano, D.; Di Capua, R.; Di Girolamo, F.; Santoro, F.; Taglialatela, M.; Cassinese, A.

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of the fabrication of organic devices suitable to be applied in bio-sensing fields depends largely on the availability of organic compounds displaying robust electrical properties even in aqueous solutions and effective biocompatibility features. In this paper, we report about the good cellular biocompatibility and the electrical response stability in an ionic medium of n-type organic transistors based on the recently developed PDI-8CN2 oligomer. The biocompatibility has been tested by analyzing the adhesion and viability of two different cell lines, human epithelial HeLa cells and murine neuronal F11 cells, on PDI-8CN2 films grown by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) on SiO2 substrates. The effect of film thickness on cell attachment was also tested. Uncoated SiO2 substrates were used as control surfaces and sexithiophene (T6) as device testing control. Moreover, the possible toxicity of -CN groups of PDI-8CN2 was tested on HeLa cell cultures, using PDI-8 and T6 molecules as controls. Results showed that, although at high concentration these organic compounds are toxic in solution, if they are presented in form of film, cell lines can attach and grow on them. The electrical response stability of PDI-8CN2 transistors in a cellular culture medium characterized by high concentrations of ionic species has been also investigated. For this purpose, low-voltage operation devices with VGS ranging from -5 V to 5 V, able to strongly reduce the influence of Faradaic currents coming from the electrical operation in an highly ionic environment, have been fabricated on 35 nm thick SiO2 layers and electrically characterized. These results are useful to experimentally define the main critical issues to be further addressed for the fabrication of reliable bio-sensors based on organic transistors.

  20. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research.

  1. The Relations of Women Employees’ Career Barriers and Organization Culture: A Research in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir AKGEMCI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the number of literate and educated women is increasing, and in parallel with this the number of women employees is growing too. Despite this rise, women are facing a number of career barriers in their business life. Women do not have equal share in business environments compared to men in terms of facing a variety of problems in career steps, not having the right to speak, not being involved in important decision-making processes and being excluded from managerial positions due to men presence. This research is consisted of 3 sections. In the first section, culture and organizational culture terms were researched. In the second section, career barriers and the relationship between career barriers and organizational culture were studied. Moreover in this section, glass ceiling syndrome was examined in terms of conceptual meaning. In the last section, which is the application part of this research, in light of the findings based on literature review, a questionnaire was conducted with 75 women employees working in Konya city and it continue to find out more about their career barriers and organizational culture. Collected data was analyzed through SPSS software program. According to analysis results, questions regarding women employee’s organizational culture and career barriers were evaluated.

  2. Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Na; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Carpenter, Victoria K; Vulcan, Julia; Bailey, C Donovan; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Li, Yiyi; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-08-19

    The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production. The fat body culture process begins with the preparation of solutions and reagents, including amino acid stock solutions, Aedes physiological saline salt stock solution (APS), calcium stock solution, and fat body culture medium. The process continues with fat body dissection, followed by an experimental treatment. After treatment, a variety of different analyses can be performed, including RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), qPCR, Western blots, proteomics, and metabolomics. In our example experiment, we demonstrate the protocol through the excision and culture of fat bodies from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. RNA from fat bodies cultured under a physiological condition known to upregulate yolk proteins versus the control were subject to RNA-Seq analysis to demonstrate the potential utility of this procedure for investigations of gene expression.

  3. CULTURE AND AFRODESCENDÊNCIA: BLACK ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR STRATEGIES EDUCATION IN PORTO ALEGRE (1872-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regina Brito Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research investigates and interprets the construction of educational strategies by afro-descendents implemented by several afro organizations in Porto Alegre, RS, from the end of the XIX century, over the First Republic, the New State and the respective re-democratizing processes until the year 2002. Over this period, the afro organizations had different configurations according to their contexts, their forms of composition and their claims arise from the conditions or from their lack, coming from a broader society. Such organizations, either of religious nature, mutual aid, cultural or, under the current perspective, of non-governmental organizations, comprise a common feature that is translated into the preservation of the identity and into the claims for the establishment of fair survival conditions for the afro-descendents. Due to the absence of documentation of the historical-educational trajectory of the afro population in the official means of divulgation, statistics and in the traditional historiography, this investigation aims at registering this history through specific publications and reports from reference people, what allows recovering the performance profile of these organizations and setting the memory of what respects their constructions and historical and educational claims. Keywords: Afro Organizations – History –– Education of Afro People – Identity -

  4. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in endothelin ETB receptor up-regulation after organ culture of rat mesenteric artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddman, Erik; Henriksson, Marie; Eskesen, Karen

    2003-01-01

    after organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries. Western blot and selective antibodies towards constitutional and phosphorylated MAPKs revealed the appearance of phosphorylated MAPK of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 type at 3 h of organ culture. The functional ET(B) receptor and its...... Western blot nor myograph or mRNA analysis showed involvement of the other MAPKs studied. Our results suggest that the ERK1/2 MAPKs are involved in the endothelin ET(B) receptor up-regulation following organ culture....

  5. Organization Complexity and Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Quality Improvement Culture Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation.

  6. Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples.

  7. Evaluating the effect of organization culture on the successful execution of strategies: Case study of Payam-e-Noor university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Monzavi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use Hofstede method and Noble’s framework in strategy execution to evaluate the effect of organization culture on the successful implementation of strategies in a case study of Payam-e-Noor University of Iran. Data Collection is performed with the standard Hofstede survey, an evaluation tool for organization culture, and researchers’ survey tool to evaluate the effective implementation of strategies. The reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.846 using the Cronbach alpha. The target population includes 600 senior managers of Payam-e-Noor university of Iran at the time of data collection Cochran formula was used to calculate the required sample number of 120 individuals. The results show that according to the Hofstede dimensions, the dominant cultural aspects of high power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and femininity were identified. The first two have a direct influence on effectiveness of strategies. While individualism is known to have an invert effect on effectiveness of strategies, no connection was identified between masculinity and effectiveness of strategies, and thus, this theory was not confirmed in this research.

  8. Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV, which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.

  9. Implementing CRM System in a Global Organization National vs. Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frygell, Linda; Hedman, Jonas; Carlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a longitudinal case study of a multi-national company’s Customer Relationship Management implementation in China, Poland, Russia, Middle East, Dubai, Pakistan, Iran, Korea and Japan. Although the cooperation has extensive experience in implementing systems in its different...... global subsidiaries, and has planned the implementation well, the implementation was not a complete success. The study has identified that the cultural factor are important, but not stressed enough in the current CRM literature. Understanding the difference between the organizational culture in which...

  10. Implementing CRM System in a Global Organization National vs. Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frygell, Linda; Hedman, Jonas; Carlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a longitudinal case study of a multi-national company’s Customer Relationship Management implementation in China, Poland, Russia, Middle East, Dubai, Pakistan, Iran, Korea and Japan. Although the cooperation has extensive experience in implementing systems in its different...... global subsidiaries, and has planned the implementation well, the implementation was not a complete success. The study has identified that the cultural factor are important, but not stressed enough in the current CRM literature. Understanding the difference between the organizational culture in which...

  11. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  12. Making rural development work cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations : the Adja case in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodouhe, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of

  13. Making rural development work: cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations. The Adja case in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodouhê, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of farmers' org

  14. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation.

  15. Effect Of Leadership Function And Organization Cultural On The Performance Of Employees In The Field Of Academic University Ichsan Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchri Abdussamad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the level of influence the function of leadership and organizational culture on employee performance in academic areas at the University of Gorontalo Ichsan either simultaneously or partially. The analytical method used is multiple linear regression. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sample that is making the subject based on their specific purpose and techniques of data collection through questionnaire observation interview. The results showed that the leadership function variable X1 significantly influence employee performance dependent variable Y to the direction of a positive coefficient of 0.298. The value of each additional 1 meaningful leadership function the performance of employees increased by 0.298 or 29.80. Variable organizational culture X2 significantly influence employee performance dependent variable Y to the direction of a positive coefficient of 0.530. The value of each additional 1 means the culture of the organization the performance of employees increased by 0.530 or 53.00. testing the R2 value of 0.586 58.60 indicated that the contribution of independent variables consisting of a leadership function and organizational culture on employee performance.

  16. Culture Positivity of CVCs Used for TPN: Investigation of an Association with Catheter-Related Infection and Comparison of Causative Organisms between ICU and Non-ICU CVCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criona Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between central venous catheter (CVC tip colonisation and catheter-related blood-stream infection (CRBSI has been suggested. We examined culture positivity of CVC tips (colonised and infected CVCs in a total parenteral nutrition (TPN population. Our aims were to define the relationship between culture positivity and CRBSI, and to compare causative organisms between culture positive and CRBSI CVCS, and between ward and ICU CVCs. All patients receiving TPN via non-tunnelled CVCs during the study (1997–2009 were included. All CVC tips were analysed. Data were collated contemporaneously. A TPN audit committee determined whether CVC tip culture positivity reflected colonisation/CRBSI using CDC criteria. 1,392 patients received TPN via 2,565 CVCs over 15,397 CVC days. 25.4% of CVCs tips were culture positive, of these 32% developed CRBSI. There was a nonsignificant trend of higher Gram negative Bacilli isolation in ICU CVCs (=0.1, ward CVCs were associated with higher rates of staphylococcal isolation (=0.01. A similar pattern of organisms were cultured from CRBSI and culture positive CVCs. The consistent relationship between CRBSI and culture positive CVCs, and similar pattern of causative organisms further supports an aetiological relationship between culture positive CVC tips and CRBSI, supporting the contention that CVC culture-positivity may be a useful surrogate marker for CRBSI rates.

  17. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  18. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  19. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  20. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments associated with ‘floral bud distortion’ in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASHANT B. KALE; PRAVIN V. JADHAV; RACHANA S. WAKEKAR; M. P. MOHARIL; A. G. DESHMUKH; M. S. DUDHARE; R. S. NANDANWAR; S. S. MANE; J. G. MANJAYA; R. G. DANI

    2016-12-01

    An attempt was made to understand the ‘floral bud distortion’ (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cytological behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derivedfragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried out. Pollens in asymptomatic plants do not have defects in number, size, shape and function. However, in symptomatic plant, pollens were found nonviable, abnormalin shape and with reduced germination ability. Here, we employed a computational approach, exploring invaluable resources. The tissue-specific transcript profile of symptomatic and asymptomatic sources was compared to determine differentiallyexpressed TDFs associated with FBD to improve its basic understanding. A total of 60 decamer primers produced 197 scorable amplicons, ranged 162–1130 bp, of which 171 were monomorphic and 26 were differentially regulated. Reproducible TDFs were sequenced and characterized for their homology analysis, annotation, protein–protein interaction, subcellular localization and their physical mapping. Homology-based annotation of TDFs in soybean revealed presence of two characterized and seven uncharacterized hits. Annotation of characterized sequences showed presence of genes, namely auxin response factor 9(ARF9) and forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, which are directly involved in plant development through various pathways, such as hormonal regulation, plant morphology, embryogenesis and DNA repair.

  1. Influence of growth factors and medium composition on benzo[a]pyrene- and vitamin A-induced cell proliferation and differentiation in hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Ciotti, M.A.L.T.; Schoevers, E.J.; Roggeband, R.; Baan, R.A.; Feron, V.J.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Tracheal organ cultures and isolated tracheal epithelial cells are frequently used to study effects of carcinogens and retinoids on both proliferation and differentiation of respiratory tract epithelial cells. For each of these in vitro models, optimal culture conditions have been established,

  2. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  3. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  4. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  5. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  6. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  7. Organization of the advanced study of students of physical culture faculties of higher pedagogical institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods are considered teaching, stimulant independent creative and scientific work of students. The analysis of 10-years-old teaching work is conducted on the faculty of physical education on organization of the advanced study of students. Methods, arousal cognitive activity of students and their capacity for independent creative work, are offered. Analysable methods touch the features of presentation of printing phototypograph development of visual aids, methods of organization of the advanced study of students as integral system of institute of higher.

  8. Relationship of health workers with their organization and work: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes-Baldó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We analyzed the differences, by Student’s t-test and ANOVA, between nurses and physicians from Portugal, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom regarding their relationship with their work and organization. In total, 1,401 professionals answered the HSA-QHPR questionnaire. There are different levels of connection between physicians and nurses. The United Kingdom has the lowest levels of connection with the work while Portugal has the highest levels of relationship with the organization. The results provide guidelines for the development of policies and differential strategies aimed at improving the quality of healthcare service.

  9. Abundance of anemone fishes in North Bay Island and mass culture of live food organisms for their larval rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram Rajendran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transect survey for abundance of anemone fishes and other living organisms is important to asses reef associated fish diversity in North Bay island. The percentage distribution of 10 different substratum from the disturbed, semi-disturbed and undisturbed areas was recorded during the survey in North Bay islands during November 2009 to April 2010. The survey observations reveal that the fishes were the dominant groups followed by mollusks, lobsters and octopus. There are 5 different anemone fishes were collected during the transect survey and their distribution is more in undisturbed area. We are standardizing the different mass culture techniques for production of phytoplankton and zooplankton for the nutritional source for the anemone fish larvae. Monitoring the water quality parameters and culture the phytoplankton and zooplankton used in different culture media with 2 adjustment studies like with and without salinity adjustment. The results of this experiment indicate that zooplankton was rich in protein and fat content and it will be used as high nutritional source for feeding fish larvae.

  10. Embryonic tongue morphogenesis in an organ culture model of mouse mandibular arches: blocking Sonic hedgehog signaling leads to microglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Daisuke; Soeno, Yuuichi; Fujita, Kazuya; Sato, Kaori; Aoba, Takaaki; Taya, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Mouse tongue development is initiated with the formation of lateral lingual swellings just before fusion between the mediodorsal surfaces of the mandibular arches at around embryonic day 11.0. Here, we investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in embryonic mouse tongue morphogenesis. For this, we used an organ culture model of the mandibular arches from mouse embryos at embryonic day 10.5. When the Shh signaling inhibitor jervine was added to the culture medium for 24-96 h, the formation of lateral lingual swellings and subsequent epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme were impaired markedly, leading to a hypoplastic tongue with an incomplete oral sulcus. Notably, jervine treatment reduced the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells at the onset of forming the lateral lingual swellings, whereas it did not affect the proliferation and differentiation of a myogenic cell lineage, which created a cell community at the central circumferential region of the lateral lingual swellings as seen in vivo and in control cultures lacking the inhibitor. Thus, epithelium-derived Shh signaling stimulates the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells essential for forming lateral lingual swellings and contributes to epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme during early tongue development.

  11. Optimization and comparison of two different 3D culture methods to prepare cell aggregates as a bioink for organ printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Rana; Hojjati Emami, Shahriar; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Sharifi, Ali M

    2012-04-01

    The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to design and fabricate functional human tissues that are similar to natural cells and are capable of regeneration. Preparation of cell aggregates is one of the important steps in 3D tissue engineering technology, particularly in organ printing. Two simple methods, hanging drop (HD) and conical tube (CT) were utilized to prepare cell aggregates. The size and viability of the aggregates obtained at different initial cell densities and pre-culture duration were compared. The proliferative ability of the cell aggregates and their ability to spread in culture plates were also investigated. In both methods, the optimum average size of the aggregates was less than 500 microm. CT aggregates were smaller than HD aggregates. 5,000 cells per drop HD aggregates showed a marked ability to attach and spread on the culture surface. The proliferative ability reduced when the initial cell density was increased. Comparing these methods, we found that the HD method having better size controlling ability as well as enhanced ability to maintain higher rates of viability, spreading, and proliferation. In conclusion, smaller HD aggregates might be a suitable choice as building blocks for making bioink particles in bioprinting technique.

  12. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50–64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application. PMID:26217348

  13. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50-64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application.

  14. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye eXia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and 5 phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50%-64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application.

  15. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    twice gently with the buffer. Then 300 ul of trypsin from bovine pancreas (Signa, Cat. No. T-8253) (1.0 mg/ml in 0.1 M Tris-EC1 (pH 7.6)) was added to...and plaaminogen activator from LLC- 1P cultures ( porcine ) by the synthetic substrate 3-benayloxycarbonyl-glycyl- glycyl-arginyl-4-methoxy-2-naphthyl...escerases and lipases of mononuclear and poly- norphonuclear cells and erythrocytes. J Cell Biol 1964, a_: 1-13. 37 11. Rojas-Espinose 0, Arce-Paredez P

  16. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely...... sequenced. The cDNA clone comprised 1194 bp and encodes a 30 residue signal peptide and a 305 residue mature protein (Mr 31,966). The sequence of the mature protein is 95% identical to the well-characterized horseradish peroxidase HRP A2 and has therefore been designated ATP A2. Three introns at positions...

  17. Understanding Information Security Culture in an Organization: An Interpretive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Donald Arlo

    2012-01-01

    Information systems are considered to be a critical and strategic part of most organizations today. Because of this it has become increasingly important to ensure that there is an effective information security program in place protecting those information systems. It has been well established by researchers that the success of an information…

  18. Multi-Cultural Awareness Project, the Organization and Implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Stanley G.

    This proposal describes the organization and implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble" as a strategy to solve the problems of low minority academic achievement, high minority discipline incidents, and minority isolationism. The drum ensemble studied and performed music from Caribbean, Hispanic, and African heritages in a middle…

  19. Change in police organizations : A study of commitment, communication, culture, leadership and participiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiest, S.E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies empirically test the impact of change context, process and individual characteristics on employee commitment. The first study highlights the significance of an involvement-oriented climate when changing an organization. The results show that such a climate increases quality change comm

  20. Towards a playful organization ideal-type: Values of a playful organizational culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, H.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous organizations have embarked on playful endeavors such as serious gaming (playing games with a learning/training purpose) and ‘gamification’ (applying game technology and principles to make existing practices more game-like). One could consequently theorize about the dawn of playful or aniza

  1. Mixed Culture Chain Elongation (MCCE) - A Novel Biotechnology for Renewable Biochemical Production from Organic Residual Streams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Roghair, M.; Triana Mecerreyes, D.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Kroeze, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    MCCE is a novel biotechnology that has potential to produce biochemicals from organic residual streams in a clean, renewable and economically viable way. A pilot plant has been established by ChainCraft in Amsterdam, Netherlands to process supermarket waste into value added biochemicals. Ongoing and

  2. Leading and Managing Disparate Generations in Cross-Cultural Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin; Thomas, Gimol

    2005-01-01

    The enclosed literature focuses on learning about the various generations of the workforce and techniques that employers can utilize to organize collaborative teams in today's multigenerational and multicultural workplaces. Trainers and teachers can use this material to provide effective skills for managers that deal with a multi-generation of…

  3. Change in police organizations : A study of commitment, communication, culture, leadership and participiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiest, S.E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies empirically test the impact of change context, process and individual characteristics on employee commitment. The first study highlights the significance of an involvement-oriented climate when changing an organization. The results show that such a climate increases quality change

  4. Understanding Information Security Culture in an Organization: An Interpretive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Donald Arlo

    2012-01-01

    Information systems are considered to be a critical and strategic part of most organizations today. Because of this it has become increasingly important to ensure that there is an effective information security program in place protecting those information systems. It has been well established by researchers that the success of an information…

  5. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  6. A dynamic multi-organ-chip for long-term cultivation and substance testing proven by 3D human liver and skin tissue co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ilka; Materne, Eva-Maria; Brincker, Sven; Süssbier, Ute; Frädrich, Caroline; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Trushkin, Evgeny V; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, to accurately predict drug toxicity. In this study, we present a multi-organ-chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from cell lines, primary cells and biopsies of various human organs. We designed a multi-organ-chip with co-cultures of human artificial liver microtissues and skin biopsies, each a (1)/100,000 of the biomass of their original human organ counterparts, and have successfully proven its long-term performance. The system supports two different culture modes: i) tissue exposed to the fluid flow, or ii) tissue shielded from the underlying fluid flow by standard Transwell® cultures. Crosstalk between the two tissues was observed in 14-day co-cultures exposed to fluid flow. Applying the same culture mode, liver microtissues showed sensitivity at different molecular levels to the toxic substance troglitazone during a 6-day exposure. Finally, an astonishingly stable long-term performance of the Transwell®-based co-cultures could be observed over a 28-day period. This mode facilitates exposure of skin at the air-liquid interface. Thus, we provide here a potential new tool for systemic substance testing.

  7. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in Ex vivo Organ Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Guo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Methods: IVD motion segments were harvested from rabbit lumbar spines and cultured in no-loading 6-well plates (control conditions or custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg, 0.5 MPa for up to 14 days. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and the matrix gene expression profile were assessed after 3, 7, and 14 days of culturing and compared with those of fresh tissues. Results: The results showed that ex vivo culturing of motion segments preserved tissue integrity under no-loading conditions for 14 days whereas the static load gradually destroyed the morphology after 3 days. Proteoglycan contents were decreased under both conditions, with a more obvious decrease under static load, and proteoglycan gene expression was also downregulated. However, under static load, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen Type II alpha 1 (COL2A1 gene expression were significantly enhanced (61.54 ± 5.91, P = 0.035 and upregulated (1.195 ± 0.040, P = 0.000, respectively, compared with those in the controls (P < 0.05. In contrast, under constant compression, these trends were reversed. Our initial results indicated that short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of collagen Type II alpha 1; however, sustained constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to a decreased proteoglycan content. Conclusions: A loading and organ culture system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed. Using this system, we were able to study the effects of mechanical stimulation on the biology of IVDs, as well as the pathomechanics of IVD degeneration.

  8. How can service organizations improve the customer orientation of frontline employees? : a cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Even Meek; Sky, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Frontline employees, the employees with customer contact, are the face of service organizations and play a critical role in determining customer satisfaction. Service quality is greatly improved when these employees are customer oriented. Customer orientation refers to an individual’s commitment to delivering great customer service. While some research exists, the antecedents to customer orientation are insufficiently studied. Answering a call for new insights into this importa...

  9. Quality management techniques in public sector organizations: the role of managerial autonomy and organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Demuzere, Sara; Verhoest, Koen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2008-01-01

    According to NPM, more effective and efficient public services can be delivered if public sector organizations are granted more managerial autonomy and if they use various (private sector) management techniques. To date, only very limited attention has been paid to the link between managerial autonomy and the use of management techniques. With this study, we seek to fill this gap in the extensive NPM literature by examining the extent to which managerial autonomy has an effect on the use of m...

  10. Cultural and linguistic influence on brain organization for language and possible consequences for dyslexia: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Barbro

    2006-01-01

    Current neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have substantially increased our possibilities to study processes related to various language functions in the intact human brain. Learning to read and write influences the functional organization of the brain. What is universal and what is specific in the languages of the world are important issues. Most studies on healthy bilinguals indicate that essentially the same neural mechanisms are used for first and second languages, albeit with s...

  11. Sense of community, psychological empowerment, and civic participation inworkers of cultural organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evalute the sense of community, psychological empowerment, and communityparticipation of 120 workers of performing arts organizations in Andalusia. By means of three concurrentregression models we show that the sense of community and psychological empowerment are stronglyrelated, while social participation is not significantly associated to the other two processes. Cluster analysisbased on the three dimensions of interest classify participants in three different groups. In half of theparticipants a positive, mutual association between participation, empowerment, and a sense ofcommunity is observed. In addition, we have documented a passive profile, with low levels of participation,and a paradoxical profile, in which social participation seems to occur regardless of involvement in theorganization of reference. The three profiles differ in commitment to the organization and evaluation oflabor issues. The positive profile is also more likely to occur in smaller organizations. Finally, we discuss therelationship between the organizational dynamics of the performing arts groups and their potential to beinvolved in the community.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF CONCOMITANT APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND CULTURED INVERTEBRATES FOR INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY IN NURSERY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the fisheries and biological indicators of young-of-the-year carp when applying fertilizer in ponds, introducing stock cultures of Daphnia magna (Straus and feeding of young-of-the-year with cultured zooplankton organisms and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for enhancing the provision of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds. Methodology. Stock culture of Daphnia magna was added into experimental ponds, 65 kg/ha of zooplankton, which were cultured in a pond-cultivator and cages installed in experimental ponds were used for feeding young-of-the-years in July and August. For study of nutrition and growth of young-of-the-year carp, samples were taken during regular control fish seining. Parameters of young-of-the-year carp growing and economic efficiency of measures aimed at increasing the supply of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds were determined. Findings. Average seasonal zooplankton biomass in experimental ponds was 3,9 – 4,8 times higher than the biomass in the control pond. Natural food in the stomach content of carps from experimental ponds in June was 64,7 – 71,3 %, in July it decreased to 48.0 %, in August ― to 15,0 – 2,0 %. Natural food part in young-of-the-year diet in June was 9,3 %, in July ― 20,6 – 2,1%, in August ― 1,1 – 0,4 %. Fish productivity in experimental ponds was higher by 35,2 – 4,5% than that in the control pond. Expenditure of grain feeds for the growth of young-of-the-year carp in the control pond was 3,2 units, in the experiment it was 12,5 – 15,6 % lower. Profit from growing young-of-the-year carp in experimental ponds was 2,9 – 3,7 times higher than in the control and was 3955,2 – 5153,0 UAH/ha. Profitability of growing young-of-the-year with the use of intensification measures was 2,6 – 3,2 times higher than that in the control pond. Originality. For the first time we studied fisheries and biological indicators when growing young-of-the-year carp with

  13. Fluctuations of fragment observables

    CERN Document Server

    Gulminelli, F

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a review of our present theoretical as well as experimental knowledge of different fluctuation observables relevant to nuclear multifragmentation. The possible connection between the presence of a fluctuation peak and the occurrence of a phase transition or a critical phenomenon is critically analyzed. Many different phenomena can lead both to the creation and to the suppression of a fluctuation peak. In particular, the role of constraints due to conservation laws and to data sorting is shown to be essential. From the experimental point of view, a comparison of the available fragmentation data reveals that there is a good agreement between different data sets of basic fluctuation observables, if the fragmenting source is of comparable size. This compatibility suggests that the fragmentation process is largely independent of the reaction mechanism (central versus peripheral collisions, symmetric versus asymmetric systems, light ions versus heavy ion induced reactions). Configurationa...

  14. Communicating Corporate Community Involvement: Partnership, sponsorship, or donation? A study of companies’ relationships with sports, culture and non-profit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Clementsen, Margrethe Tombre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies how companies communicate their corporate community involvement (CCI), and how consumers’ respond to various communication strategies in this regard. Companies’ CCI may entail relationships with different organizations in the community. It is common for companies to have relationships with different organizations within sports and culture, as well as non-profit organizations. These relationships may vary according to the scope of activities and the company’s involvement. S...

  15. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...

  16. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  17. Evaluation of a microarray-based assay for rapid identification of Gram-positive organisms and resistance markers in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj P; Tibbetts, Robert J; Agotesku, Adam; Fey, Margaret; Hensley, Rhonda; Meier, Frederick A

    2013-04-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures can play a major role in reducing patient mortality rates. We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL) for detection of commonly isolated Gram-positive organisms as well as associated resistance markers from positive blood cultures. Positive blood cultures (VersaTREK; Trek Diagnostic Systems, Independence, OH) from 203 patients with Gram-positive organism infections were analyzed using the BC-GP assay within 12 h for the detection of 12 different organisms, including staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, as well as for the presence of 3 resistance markers (mecA, vanA, and vanB). Results were compared to those of routine laboratory methods for identification and susceptibility testing. For identification of organisms and detection of resistance markers in 178 monomicrobial positive blood cultures, the BC-GP assay showed 94% and 97% concordance, respectively, with routine methods. After 25 polymicrobial cultures were included, the results showed 92% and 96% agreement for identification and resistance markers, respectively, for a total of 203 positive cultures. In 6/25 polymicrobial cultures, at least 1 isolate was not detected. Concordance levels for detection of major pathogens such Staphylococcus aureus (n = 45) and enterococci (n = 19) were 98% and 95%, respectively. Agreement levels for detection of resistance markers such as mecA and vanA/B were 92% and 100%, respectively. The BC-GP assay is capable of providing rapid identification of Gram-positive cocci as well as detection of resistance markers directly from positive blood cultures at least 24 to 48 h earlier than conventional methods.

  18. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 + 2.1 and 22.3 + 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 + 0.1 and 12.6 + 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  19. DNA fragmentation status in patients with necrozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Sonia; Jellad, Sonia; Ibala, Samira; Saad, Ali; Mehdi, Meriem

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and necrospermia in infertile men. Semen samples obtained from 70 men consulting for infertility evaluation were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa: normozoospermia (80%; n = 20). DNA fragmentation was detected by the terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was 9.28 ± 2.98% in patients with a normal level of necrotic spermatozoa, 20.25 ± 3.21% in patients with moderate necrozoospermia, and 35.31 ± 5.25% in patients with severe necrozoospermia. There was a statistically significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the necrozoospermic group (P DNA fragmentation. We concluded that patients with necrozoospermia showed a high level of DNA fragmentation compared to normozoospermic men. Severe necrozoospermia (>80%) is a predictive factor for increased sperm DNA damage.

  20. Genetic mutations in live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses following single or dual in vitro infection of tracheal organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Bennett, Sarah; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-12-01

    Despite regular co-vaccination of two different strains of live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses, little is known about possible mutations in these viruses following vaccination. As an alternative to chicks, this study used an in vitro infection model to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the part-S1 gene of two live infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strains (793B and Massachusetts) following single or dual inoculation onto tracheal organ cultures. Results indicate that viral titres reduced over the duration of the study; conversely, the amount of detected infectious bronchitis virus genome increased. Results demonstrate a greater number of non-synonymous SNPs in both vaccine strains when they are co-inoculated, compared with the single inoculations. The influence of the increased SNP and hydrophobic properties of the translated proteins on the vaccine viruses' virulence is unknown.

  1. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    by exploring how different types of fragmentation create meanings. This is done by studying the work stories of job and personnel consultants and by drawing on the results of a narrative, ethnographic study of a consultancy. The analysis demonstrates how work stories are social practices negotiated, retold...

  2. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  3. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  4. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pcoral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pcoral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (Pcoral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pcoral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  6. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  7. Rate of change in central corneal thickness: a viability indicator for conventional drainage tissues in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Z; Brigatti, L; Ranger-Moore, J; Ethier, C R; Stamer, W D

    2006-06-01

    Organ culture of human anterior segments is a powerful tool for understanding trabecular meshwork biology. However, data from a significant percentage of cultured anterior segments are unusable because tissues fail to meet quality control requirements, such as having adequate trabecular meshwork histology. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a novel, real time method for assessing the viability of conventional drainage tissues in the human anterior segment perfusion model. Twenty-two human anterior segments were perfusion cultured using standard techniques for one week while measuring outflow facility and central corneal thickness (CCT). After perfusion-fixation, toludine blue-stained histological sections of drainage tissues from all four quadrants of each anterior segment were graded and endothelial cell nuclei from cornea centers were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and counted. We found that most anterior segments with a stable outflow facility had a CCT that decreased over time, while anterior segments with an unstable outflow facility had CCT measurements that failed to decrease over time (P<0.01). When comparing CCT measurements to histological appearance of outflow tissues, we found that in 11/11 cases, anterior segments with an acceptable histological score had a negative CCT slope (P<0.01). Conversely in 3/4 instances, anterior segments with an unacceptable histological score had a positive CCT slope. Lastly, we observed a significant relationship between CCT measurements and corneal endothelial density (P<0.01). Thus, the simple procedure of measuring CCT during anterior segment perfusion provides a second useful measure to assess the viability of the anterior segment during the perfusion process.

  8. Degenerative effects of cobalt-chloride treatment on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S; Hurst, J; Rensinghoff, F; Tsai, T; Grauthoff, S; Satgunarajah, Y; Dick, H B; Schnichels, S; Joachim, S C

    2017-02-01

    In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h. After four and eight days, CoCl2 induced a strong degeneration of the porcine retina, starting at 300 μM. A loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, Brn-3a), amacrine cells (calretinin) and bipolar cells (PKCα) was observed. Additionally, a high expression of hypoxia induced factor-1a (HIF-1a) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was noted at both points in time. Also, the Caspase 3 protein was activated and P21 expression was induced. However, only at day four, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was increased. The effect of CoCl2 was not restricted to neurons. CoCl2 concentrations reduced the microglia amount (Iba1) and activity (Iba1 + Fcγ-Receptor) at both points in time. These damaging effects on microglia were surprising, since CoCl2 causes hypoxia and a pro-inflammatory environment. However, high concentrations of CoCl2 also seem to be toxic to these cells. Similar degenerative mechanisms as in comparison to retinal ischemia animal models were observed. In summary, an effective and reproducible hypoxia-mimicking organotypic model for retinal degeneration was established, which is easy to handle and ready for drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. L-mimosine increases the production of vascular endothelial growth factor in human tooth slice organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, K; Cvikl, B; Müller, H-D; Nürnberger, S; Gruber, R; Moritz, A; Agis, H

    2015-03-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory capacity of the dentine-pulp complex in response to the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor L-mimosine in a tooth slice organ culture model. Human teeth were sectioned transversely into 600-μm-thick slices and cultured in medium supplemented with serum and antibiotics. Then, pulps were stimulated for 48 h with L-mimosine. Pulps were subjected to viability measurements based on formazan formation in MTT assays. In addition, histological evaluation of pulps was performed based on haematoxylin and eosin staining. Culture supernatants were subjected to immunoassays for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to determine the pro-angiogenic capacity and to immunoassays for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 to assess the pro-inflammatory response. Interleukin-1 served as pro-inflammatory control. Echinomycin was used to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha activity. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Pulps within tooth slices remained vital upon L-mimosine stimulation as indicated by formazan formation and histological evaluation. L-mimosine increased VEGF production when normalized to formazan formation in the pulp tissue of the tooth slices (P  0.05), whilst treatment with IL-1, which served as positive control, increased IL-6 (P model whilst inducing no prominent increase in IL-6 and IL-8. Pre-clinical studies will reveal if these in vitro effects translate into dental pulp regeneration. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV.

  11. The microenvironment determines the breast cancer cells' phenotype: organization of MCF7 cells in 3D cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal-epithelial interactions mediate breast development, and the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we developed 3-dimensional (3D in vitro models to study breast cancer tissue organization and the role of the microenvironment in phenotypic determination. Methods The human breast cancer MCF7 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with primary human breast fibroblasts. Cells were embedded in matrices containing either type I collagen or a combination of reconstituted basement membrane proteins and type I collagen. The cultures were carried out for up to 6 weeks. For every time point (1-6 weeks, the gels were fixed and processed for histology, and whole-mounted for confocal microscopy evaluation. The epithelial structures were characterized utilizing immunohistochemical techniques; their area and proliferation index were measured using computerized morphometric analysis. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA, Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test and chi-square. Results Most of the MCF7 cells grown alone within a collagen matrix died during the first two weeks; those that survived organized into large, round and solid clusters. The presence of fibroblasts in collagen gels reduced MCF7 cell death, induced cell polarity, and the formation of round and elongated epithelial structures containing a lumen. The addition of reconstituted basement membrane to collagen gels by itself had also survival and organizational effects on the MCF7 cells. Regardless of the presence of fibroblasts, the MCF7 cells both polarized and formed a lumen. The addition of fibroblasts to the gel containing reconstituted basement membrane and collagen induced the formation of elongated structures. Conclusions Our results indicate that a matrix containing both type I collagen and reconstituted basement membrane, and the presence of normal breast fibroblasts constitute the minimal permissive microenvironment to

  12. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  13. Combining culture-dependent and -independent methodologies for estimation of richness of estuarine bacterioplankton consuming riverine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisand, Veljo; Wikner, Johan

    2003-06-01

    Three different methods for analyzing natural microbial community diversity were combined to maximize an estimate of the richness of bacterioplankton catabolizing riverine dissolved organic matter (RDOM). We also evaluated the ability of culture-dependent quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization, a 16S rRNA gene clone library, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to detect bacterial taxa in the same sample. Forty-two different cultivatable strains were isolated from rich and poor solid media. In addition, 50 unique clones were obtained by cloning of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplified by PCR from the community DNA into an Escherichia coli vector. Twenty-three unique bands were sequenced from 12 DGGE profiles, excluding a composite fuzzy band of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group. The different methods gave similar distributions of taxa at the genus level and higher. However, the match at the species level among the methods was poor, and only one species was identified by all three methods. Consequently, all three methods identified unique subsets of bacterial species, amounting to a total richness of 97 operational taxonomic units in the experimental system. The confidence in the results was, however, dependent on the current precision of the phylogenetic determination and definition of the species. Bacterial consumers of RDOM in the studied estuary were primarily both cultivatable and uncultivable taxa of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, a concordant result among the methods applied. Culture-independent methods also suggested several not-yet-cultivated beta-proteobacteria to be RDOM consumers.

  14. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Gasca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  15. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.

  16. Transforming communication and safety culture in intrapartum care: a multi-organization blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Johnson, M Christina; Bingham, Debra; Napolitano, Peter G; Joseph, Gerald; Maxfield, David G; O'Keeffe, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Effective, patient-centered communication facilitates interception and correction of potentially harmful conditions and errors. All team members, including women, their families, physicians, midwives, nurses, and support staff, have roles in identifying the potential for harm during labor and birth. However, the results of collaborative research studies conducted by organizations that represent professionals who care for women during labor and birth indicate that health care providers may frequently witness, but may not always report, problems with safety or clinical performance. Some of these health care providers felt resigned to the continuation of such problems and fearful of retribution if they tried to address them. Speaking up to address safety and quality concerns is a dynamic social process. Every team member must feel empowered to speak up about concerns without fear of put-downs, retribution, or receiving poor-quality care. Patient safety requires mutual accountability: individuals, teams, health care facilities, and professional associations have a shared responsibility for creating and sustaining environments of mutual respect and engaging in highly reliable perinatal care. Defects in human factors, communication, and leadership have been the leading contributors to sentinel events in perinatal care for more than a decade. Organizational commitment and executive leadership are essential to creating an environment that proactively supports safety and quality. The problem is well-known; the time for action is now.

  17. Short communication: Viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to monitor the survival during refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in cultured dairy foods made from camel and, for comparison, cow milks supplemented with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) honey and fermented by an acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type culture. Two liters of dromedary camel milk and 2 L of cow milk were heated to 90 °C and held for 10 min, then cooled to 40 °C. One half of both types of milk was fortified with black locust honey at the rate of 5.0% (wt/vol), whereas the other half was devoid of honey and served as a control. The camel and cow milks with and without honey were subsequently inoculated with ABT-5 culture and were fermented at 37 °C until a pH value of 4.6 was reached. Thereafter, the probiotic fermented milks were cooled to 15 °C in ice water and were each separated into 18 fractions that were transferred in sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes. After 24 h of cooling at 8 °C (d 0), the samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Three tubes of all 4 products (i.e., fermented camel and cow milks with and without honey) were taken at each sampling time (i.e., following 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d of storage), and the counts of characteristic microorganisms and those of certain spoilage microbes (yeasts, molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli) were enumerated. The entire experimental program was repeated twice. The results showed that addition of black locust honey at 5% to heat-treated camel and cow milks did not influence the growth and survival of starter streptococci during production and subsequent refrigerated storage of fermented ABT milks. In contrast, honey improved retention of viability of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in the camel milk-based product during storage at 4 °C up to 5 wk. No spoilage organisms were detected in any of the samples tested

  18. Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms and Cadmium Accumulation in Festuca ovina Hydroponic Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Małgorzata; Słomka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microbiological, biochemical and physiological aspects of phytoremediation of soil and water environments polluted to different degrees with heavy metals has very important theoretical and practical implications. In this study, a comparison was made between total cadmium concentration in root and shoot tissues as well as concentrations of particular fractions of Cd immobilized by roots of Festuca ovina (Sheep’s fescue) hydroponically cultivated in nutrient solutions supplemented with 1 μg Cd ml(–1) and those cultivated at 10 μg Cd ml(–1). After three weeks of F. ovina cultivation, the number of bacterial CFU and the amounts of organic chelators, siderophores, proteins and reducing sugars in the growth medium and on the root surface were higher at 10 than at 1 μg Cd ml(–1). The grass also reacted to the high Cd concentration by a decrease in plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in root tissues. The concentration of Cd determined in fractions bound with different strength in roots was significantly dependent on Cd concentration in the growth medium. When the plants were grown at 1 μg Cd ml(–1), 9% of the immobilized cadmium was loosely bound to the root surface, 20% was exchangeable adsorbed, and 28% was bound by chelation; at 10 μg Cd ml(–1), the respective values were 12%, 25%, and 20%. About 43% of the immobilized cadmium remained in roots after sequential extraction, and bioaccumulation factors in shoots had the same values independently of Cd concentration. At both Cd concentrations, the cadmium translocation index for F. ovina was low (< 1), which is why this grass can be recommended for phytostabilization of the metal under study.

  19. Globalization and cultural heritage: rebuilding local identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rotman

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available New articulations are outlined actually instead of globalization process. In this setting, the concept "national" adopts a new preeminence and it is expressed through specific cultural ways. Paradoxically, in a globalizated context, countries suffer an outdoors process of homogeneization and an inner fragmentation one. In this context, a revitalization process of "national identity" arises strongly. These happens in our research, in periodical events organized by the national state. This cultural phenomena are based on the recovery and rebuilding of "national identity" Our case study is the "Traditional Handicrafts and Popular Traditions Fair" in Mataderos neighborhood in Buenos Aires city.

  20. Longitudinal changes in the structure and inflammatory response of the intervertebral disc due to stab injury in a murine organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adam C; Liu, Jennifer W; Tang, Simon Y

    2016-08-01

    Despite the significant public health impact of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and low back pain, it remains challenging to investigate the multifactorial molecular mechanisms that drive the degenerative cascade. Organ culture model systems offer the advantage of allowing cells to live and interact with their native extracellular matrix, while simultaneously reducing the amount of biological variation and complexity present at the organismal level. Murine organ cultures in particular also allow the use of widely available genetically modified animals with molecular level reporters that would reveal insights on the degenerative cascade. Here, we utilize an organ culture system of murine lumbar functional spinal units where we are able to maintain the cellular, metabolic, and structural, and mechanical stability of the whole organ over a 21-day period. Furthermore, we describe a novel approach in organ culture by using tissues from animals with an NF-κB-luc reporter in combination with a mechanical injury model, and are able to show that proinflammatory factors and cytokines such as NF-κB and IL-6 produced by IVD cells can be monitored longitudinally during culture in a stab injury model. Taken together, we utilize a murine organ culture system that maintains the cellular and tissue level behavior of the intervertebral disc and apply it to transgenic animals that allow the monitoring of the inflammatory profile of IVDs. This approach could provide important insights on the molecular and metabolic mediators that regulate the homeostasis of the IVD. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1431-1438, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lymphoid organ cell culture system from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) as a platform for white spot syndrome virus and shrimp immune-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, S; Jayesh, P; Sudheer, N S; Poulose, G; Mohandas, A; Philip, R; Singh, I S Bright

    2012-05-01

    Shrimp cell lines are yet to be reported and this restricts the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, development of primary cell cultures from lymphoid organs was standardized. Poly-l-lysine-coated culture vessels enhanced growth of lymphoid cells, while the application of vertebrate growth factors did not, except insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Susceptibility of the lymphoid cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using monoclonal antibody against the 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. Expression of viral and immune-related genes in WSSV-infected lymphoid cultures could be demonstrated by RT-PCR. This emphasizes the utility of lymphoid primary cell culture as a platform for research in virus-cell interaction, virus morphogenesis, up and downregulation of shrimp immune-related genes, and also for the discovery of novel drugs to combat WSSV in shrimp culture.

  2. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Adele

    2014-01-01

    An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  3. The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vitetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients

  4. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele De Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  5. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-02-23

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials.

  6. Electroeluting DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa-Alvarez, Ana L; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M

    2010-09-05

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification kits. Thus, selecting a method will depend mostly of what is available in the laboratory. The electroelution procedure allows one to purify very clean DNA to be used in a large number of applications (sequencing, radiolabeling, enzymatic restriction, enzymatic modification, cloning etc). This procedure consists in placing DNA band-containing agarose or acrylamide slices into sample wells of the electroeluter, then applying current will make the DNA fragment to leave the agarose and thus be trapped in a cushion salt to be recovered later by ethanol precipitation.

  7. Workforce Perceptions of Hospital Safety Culture: Development and Validation of the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara; Meterko, Mark; Baker, Laurence; Gaba, David; Falwell, Alyson; Rosen, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of an instrument for assessing workforce perceptions of hospital safety culture and to assess its reliability and validity. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected between March 2004 and May 2005. Personnel from 105 U.S. hospitals completed a 38-item paper and pencil survey. We received 21,496 completed questionnaires, representing a 51 percent response rate. Study Design Based on review of existing safety climate surveys, we developed a list of key topics pertinent to maintaining a culture of safety in high-reliability organizations. We developed a draft questionnaire to address these topics and pilot tested it in four preliminary studies of hospital personnel. We modified the questionnaire based on experience and respondent feedback, and distributed the revised version to 42,249 hospital workers. Data Collection We randomly divided respondents into derivation and validation samples. We applied exploratory factor analysis to responses in the derivation sample. We used those results to create scales in the validation sample, which we subjected to multitrait analysis (MTA). Principal Findings We identified nine constructs, three organizational factors, two unit factors, three individual factors, and one additional factor. Constructs demonstrated substantial convergent and discriminant validity in the MTA. Cronbach's α coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.89. Conclusions It is possible to measure key salient features of hospital safety climate using a valid and reliable 38-item survey and appropriate hospital sample sizes. This instrument may be used in further studies to better understand the impact of safety climate on patient safety outcomes. PMID:17850530

  8. Degenerative and regenerative changes in epidermal organ culture: a morphological study with reference to membrane-coating granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S J; Vickers, C F

    1988-11-01

    Membrane-coating granules (MCG) are poorly understood lamellate organelles unique to keratinized epithelia. This study provides data on a skin model for future in vitro investigations of MCG. Porcine ear epidermal organ cultures were used under standard cell culture conditions. This system was selected because it is easily established and, following a degenerative period in which MCG are lost, regenerates to form a highly differentiated epidermis. The epidermis appeared healthy during the first 2 d in vitro and contained MCG but lost keratohyalin granules (KHG). Overt degenerative changes were evident in the upper epidermis on Day 3, and MCG were now bloated. By Day 4 only one to three layers of viable undifferentiated cells remained. In the overlying necrotic epidermis MCG were rare, presumably due to the bursting of bloated MCG. Epidermal regeneration began around Day 5 and by Day 7 there were 8 to 13 layers, including a rudimentary parakeratotic stratum corneum (up to 4 layers). The stratum granulosum (two to three layers) now contained immature KHG and poorly lamellate MCG, but only amorphous material extracellularly. By Day 11 there were three to four layers of granular cells as in vivo, and an orthokeratotic stratum corneum (two to four layers). Improved cornification coincided with an increased number of mature KHG and cross-banded MCG, and lamellate MCG contents extracellularly. This model of epidermal regeneration will facilitate studies into the role played by MCG in keratinization because the epithelium initially lacked MCG but later expressed all the major morphologic features of epidermis. Furthermore the mechanisms by which MCG translocation and extrusion are effected may be probed by the inclusion of such agents as antimicrotubular drugs and calcium ionophores.

  9. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Härkönen Pirkko

    2006-10-01

    hormonal treatments. Conclusion Organ culture system provides a model for studying the direct effects of steroid hormones and their analogues on postmenopausal human breast tissue. Addition of E2 or MPA or E2+MPA to breast explants caused characteristic changes in morphology, stimulated epithelial proliferation, lowered apoptosis ratio and decreased the relative number of epithelial cells expressing ERα, ERβ and PR.

  10. Effect of Fouling Organisms on Food Uptake and Nutrient Release of Scallop (Chlamys nobilis, Reeve) Cultured in Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling is an important factor that affects the bivalve farming industry. Fouling organisms may reduce growth and survival rate of the cultured species. Fouler are often filter feeders, so they are potential competitors for food resource with the cultured species. The present study was conducted to measure the impact of fouling on food uptake and nutrient release in April and June, 2006 in Daya Bay near Guangzhou, China. Results showed that fouling organisms had significant effect on food uptake and nutrient release. The chlorophyll a uptake rate of fouled scallops was 7.53Lh-1±1.416Lh-1 and 11.94Lh-1±2.497Lh-1 in April and June, respectively, significantly higher than those of cleaned scallops, i.e., 4.23 Lh-1 ±2.744Lh-1 and 2.57Lh-1± 1.832 Lh-1 respectively.The consumption of total particulate matter by fouled scallops in April and June was 5.52Lh-1±0.818Lh-1 and 3.07Lh-1±0.971 Lh-1,respectively; the corresponding results for cleaned scallops are 2.49Lh-1 ±0.614Lh-1 and 2.37± 1.214Lh-1, respectively. Fouling increased ammonia release significantly. The ammonia release rate of fouled scallops was 33.81Lh-1±7.699Lh-1 and 76.39Lh-1 ±9.251Lh-1 in April and June, while cleaned scallops released 2.46Lh-1± 0.5 1 1Lh-1 and 7.23Lh-1± 1.026Lh-1 ammonia, respectively. Phosphate release of fouled scallops was 22.72Lh-1 ± 9.978 Lh-1 in June and cleaned scallops released phosphate 6.01Lh-1 ±0.876 Lh-1 in April. Therefore, fouling contributed much to food reduction and concentration increase of ammonia and phosphate in water.

  11. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  12. SCALING AND 4-QUARK FRAGMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O; BOSVELD, GD

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed- The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  13. LA CULTURA COMO MECANISMO DE GOBIERNO Y CONTROL EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES COOPERATIVAS/THE CULTURE LIKE MECHANISM OF GOVERNMENT AND CONTROL IN THE COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús HERNÁNDEZ ÓRTIZ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo identifica la cultura como una de las piezas básicas del comportamiento organizativo en una cooperativa pues integra el conjunto de normas sociales, valores, principios y conductas comunes a los individuos que conforman la organización. El objetivo que perseguimos es estudiar el papel de la cultura en la sociedad cooperativa, como proyecto de personas que aspiran a crear riqueza social sobre una base democrática. Nos planteamos como cuestiones clave si realmente podemos referirnos a una cultura cooperativa como elemento diferenciador de este tipo de organizaciones, si realmente existen rasgos culturales propios y distintos a otras formas empresariales, así como conocer qué función desempeña esta cultura en el ámbito del gobierno de las organizaciones cooperativas./In this paper we try to define the culture as a Basic piece in the organizational behavior in a cooperative. This culture includes a group of social norms, values, principles and common behaviors of people which define the organization. The objective of this paper is to study the role of the culture in the cooperative, as a people project who try to create social wealth in a democratic group of people. We try to explain questions such as the culture as a different element of these organizations, the existence of different and specific cultural characteristic and the function of this culture in the cooperative government.

  14. Fresh muscle fiber fragments on a scaffold in rats-a new concept in urogynecology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair.......To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair....

  15. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli D; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2009-03-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). In descending frequency, organisms demonstrated resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. Human and animal pathogens resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine were cultured. Escherichia coli (E. coli) more often was resistant in IRL dolphins. Three cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found at CHS. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is not confined to humans. Bottlenose dolphins may serve as sentinels for transfer of resistance from humans and animals or indicate that antibiotics are reaching the marine environment and causing resistance to emerge through selective pressure and genetic adaptation.

  16. Picking Up (On Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Ellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative potential to re-think and re-examine past media historical events through a media archaeological approach to reenactment. The article contains images and links to videos from the final reenactment artworks as well as from rehearsals in Vienna and Bradford.

  17. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  18. A new take on an old story: chick limb organ culture for skeletal niche development and regenerative medicine evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Smith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and progress, particularly in the drug discovery and regenerative medicine fields, is typically dependent on suitable animal models to develop new and improved clinical therapies for injuries and diseases. In vivo model systems are frequently utilised, but these models are expensive, highly complex and pose a number of ethical considerations leading to the development and use of a number of alternative ex vivo model systems. The ex vivo embryonic chick long bone and limb bud models have been utilised in the scientific research field as a model to understand skeletal development for over eighty years. The rapid development of avian skeletal tissues, coupled with the ease of experimental manipulation, availability of genome sequence and the presence of multiple cell and tissue types has seen such model systems gain significant research interest in the last few years in the tissue engineering field. The models have been explored both as systems for understanding the developmental bone niche and as potential testing tools for tissue engineering strategies for bone repair and regeneration. This review details the evolution of the chick limb organ culture system and presents recent innovative developments and emerging techniques and technologies applied to these models that are aiding our understanding of skeletal developmental and regenerative medicine research and application.

  19. Influence of two types of organic matter on interaction of CeO2 nanoparticles with plants in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Franziska; Schulin, Rainer; Limbach, Ludwig K; Stark, Wendelin; Bürge, Diane; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    An important aspect in risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is to understand their environmental interactions. We used hydroponic plant cultures to study nanoparticle-plant-root interaction and translocation and exposed wheat and pumpkin to suspensions of uncoated CeO2-NP for 8d (primary particle size 17-100 nm, 100 mg L(-1)) in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) and gum arabic (GA) as representatives of different types of natural organic matter. The behavior of CeO2-NPs in the hydroponic solution was monitored regarding agglomeration, sedimentation, particle size distribution, surface charge, amounts of root association, and translocation into shoots. NP-dispersions were stable over 8d in the presence of FA or GA, but with growing plants, changes in pH, particle agglomeration rate, and hydrodynamic diameter were observed. None of the plants exhibited reduced growth or any toxic response during the experiment. We found that CeO2-NPs translocated into pumpkin shoots, whereas this did not occur in wheat plants. The presence of FA and GA affected the amount of CeO2 associated with roots (pure>FA>GA) but did not affect the translocation factor. Additionally, we could confirm via TEM and SEM that CeO2-NPs adhered strongly to root surfaces of both plant species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Cervical Mucosa in Transmission Bottleneck during Acute HIV-1 Infection Using a Cervical Tissue-Based Organ Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengli; Ding, Ming; Ratner, Deena; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Chen, Yue; Gupta, Phalguni

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there are different strains of HIV-1 in a chronically infected individual, only one or limited virus strains are successfully transmitted to a new individual. The reason for this “transmission bottleneck” is as yet unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings A human cervical explant model was used to measure HIV-1 transmission efficiency of viral strains from chronic infections, and transmitter/founder variants. We also evaluated the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 variants in the inoculums compared to those transmitted across the cervical mucosa. Eight different HIV-1 isolates were used in this study, six chronic isolates and two transmitter/founder viruses. The transmission efficiency of the chronic and transmitter/founder virus isolates and the viral diversity of chronic isolates before and after viral transmission were assessed. The results indicate that transmitter/founder viruses did not display higher transmission efficiency than chronic HIV-1 isolates. Furthermore, no evidence for a difference in diversity was found between the inoculums and transmitted virus strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of variants in the inoculums and those present in transmitted virus intermingled irrespective of co-receptor usage. In addition, the inoculum and transmitted variants had a similar pairwise distance distribution. Conclusion There was no selection of a single or limited number of viral variants during HIV-1 transmission across the cervical mucosa in the organ culture model, indicating that the cervical mucosa alone may not produce the transmission bottleneck of HIV-1 infection observed in vivo. PMID:22412886

  1. Toxicological Characterization of the Inorganic and Organic Arsenic Metabolite Thio-DMAV in Cultured Human Lung Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bartel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesised and toxicologically characterised the arsenic metabolite thiodimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMAV. Successful synthesis of highly pure thio-DMAV was confirmed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques including H1-NMR, HPLC-FTMS, and HPLC-ICPMS. Toxicological characterization was carried out in comparison to arsenite and its well-known trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites. It comprised cellular bioavailability as well as different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity end points in cultured human A549 lung cells. Of all arsenicals investigated, thio-DMAV exerted the strongest cytotoxicity. Moreover, thio-DMAV did not induce DNA strand breaks and an increased induction of both micronuclei and multinucleated cells occurred only at beginning cytotoxic concentrations, indicating that thio-DMAV does not act via a genotoxic mode of action. Finally, to assess potential implications of thio-DMAV for human health, further mechanistic studies are urgently necessary to identify the toxic mode of action of this highly toxic, unusual pentavalent organic arsenical.

  2. Generic behaviours in impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-02-15

    From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)

  3. Exploring the Effects of Cultural Variables in the Implementation of Behavior-Based Safety in Two Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Alaina; Boyce, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The present case study examines how culture can influence behavior-based safety in different organizational settings and how behavior-based safety can impact different organizational cultures. Behavior-based safety processes implemented in two culturally diverse work settings are described. Specifically, despite identical implementation plans,…

  4. Optimization of cooperation modern public child-youth organizations and schools in the national-patriotic education by means of physical culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischenko O.O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the problem of interaction between school and community organizations in the modern conditions of development of civil society. We consider the optimization of content and institutional framework of the interaction of public associations, and schools by means of physical culture, and also provide information about the place the team in the national-patriotic education of teenagers. The experiment involved children from schools in which the present operation of public children's and youth organizations and activities of these organizations was not detected.

  5. Osmolarity affects matrix synthesis in the nucleus pulposus associated with the involvement of MAPK pathways: A study of ex vivo disc organ culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Gan, Yibo; Xu, Yuan; Li, Songtao; Song, Lei; Li, Sukai; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Matrix homeostasis within the nucleus pulposus (NP) is important for disc function. Unfortunately, the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis in a disc organ culture system and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study was to investigate the effects of different osmolarity modes (constant and cyclic) and osmolarity levels (hypo-, iso-, and hyper-) on NP matrix synthesis using a disc organ culture system and determine whether ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway has a role in this process. Porcine discs were cultured for 7 days in various osmotic media, including constant hypo-, iso-, hyper-osmolarity (330, 430, and 550 mOsm/kg, respectively) and cyclic-osmolarity (430 mOsm/kg for 8 h, followed by 550 mOsm/kg for 16 h). The role of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways were determined by their inhibitors U0126 and SB202190 respectively. The expression of SOX9 and downstream aggrecan and collagen II, biochemical content, and histology were used to assess NP matrix synthesis. The findings revealed that NP matrix synthesis was promoted in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures compared to hypo- or hyper-osmolarity culture although the level of matrix synthesis in cyclic-osmolarity culture did not reach that in iso-osmolarity culture. Further analysis suggested that inhibition of the ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures reduced NP matrix production. Therefore, we concluded that the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis depend on osmolarity level (hypo-, iso-, or hyper-) and osmolarity mode (constant or cyclic), and the ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways may participate in this process. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1092-1100, 2016.

  6. Sociological Assessment of Job Alienation and its Impacts on Organizational Culture in Educational Organizations (the Case of Educational Staff in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydon Vahida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sociologists believe the existence of corporations is necessary for society so that different roles can be assigned to people, facilitating social interactions and transactions. These roles help people control their social action and leads to relational cooperation. On the other hand, studies on culture are very significant in sociology, in which culture can be seen as a social pattern in society, involving values and believes, which produce a commonsense that leads to stability in social system. Numerous definitions are provided for culture, but one agreed definition comes from Habermas approach, in which culture is seen as a combination of beliefs and values under the name of common knowledge. Organizational culture (OC includes the combination of patterns that direct staff behavior in organization and motivate their action for goal achievement. One of the important issues in organizational studies is OC, because it is identified as a key factor in organizational success. As a collection of assumptions that determines organizational values and norms, OC also helps in defining organizational goals. Different cultural, social and historical factors can impact OC, and OC itself can impact staff performance, creativity, job satisfaction and commitment. So recognizing the factors that impact OC is important because it has a great deal of influence on organizational outputs. Job alienation is one of the important factors that can impact OC. It leads to conflict between actions and value. In this research, OC is based on Denison model which divides it into 4 component: involvement, adaptation, mission, and integration. Using this model, the present study aims at explaining the impact of job alienation on organizational culture among educational staffs of Mashhad Country in 2013.     Methods & Material s   This is a survey study with descriptive and explanatory elements. Research instrument includes Denison's (2008 questionnaire of organizational

  7. A four-organ-chip for interconnected long-term co-culture of human intestine, liver, skin and kidney equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Lorenz, Alexandra K; Schimek, Katharina; Hasenberg, Tobias; Ramme, Anja P; Hübner, Juliane; Lindner, Marcus; Drewell, Christopher; Bauer, Sophie; Thomas, Alexander; Sambo, Naomia Sisoli; Sonntag, Frank; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2015-06-21

    Systemic absorption and metabolism of drugs in the small intestine, metabolism by the liver as well as excretion by the kidney are key determinants of efficacy and safety for therapeutic candidates. However, these systemic responses of applied substances lack in most in vitro assays. In this study, a microphysiological system maintaining the functionality of four organs over 28 days in co-culture has been established at a minute but standardized microsystem scale. Preformed human intestine and skin models have been integrated into the four-organ-chip on standard cell culture inserts at a size 100,000-fold smaller than their human counterpart organs. A 3D-based spheroid, equivalent to ten liver lobules, mimics liver function. Finally, a barrier segregating the media flow through the organs from fluids excreted by the kidney has been generated by a polymeric membrane covered by a monolayer of human proximal tubule epithelial cells. A peristaltic on-chip micropump ensures pulsatile media flow interconnecting the four tissue culture compartments through microfluidic channels. A second microfluidic circuit ensures drainage of the fluid excreted through the kidney epithelial cell layer. This four-organ-chip system assures near to physiological fluid-to-tissue ratios. In-depth metabolic and gene analysis revealed the establishment of reproducible homeostasis among the co-cultures within two to four days, sustainable over at least 28 days independent of the individual human cell line or tissue donor background used for each organ equivalent. Lastly, 3D imaging two-photon microscopy visualised details of spatiotemporal segregation of the two microfluidic flows by proximal tubule epithelia. To our knowledge, this study is the first approach to establish a system for in vitro microfluidic ADME profiling and repeated dose systemic toxicity testing of drug candidates over 28 days.

  8. Youth Subcultures: From Deviation to Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Smolík

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical text introduces the issue of youth subcultures and tries to define particular basic concepts that are essential for the study of this issue in context of social pedagogy and sociology. These terms include culture, dominant culture, subculture, counterculture, scene, etc. The article also deals with the basic definition of youth subcultures; it discusses this category on the basis of current debates and then introduces various sociological schools which have dealt with this issue for a long time. These are the Chicago school of sociology, Center for the Study of Popular Culture and the post-subculture approaches. Finally, it is noted that in the last two decades there has occurred a fragmentation of particular styles, which led to the gradual replacement of sociological term subculture.

  9. Organic food labels as a signal of sensory quality-insights from a cross-cultural consumer survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmerling, Sarah; Obermowe, Tim; Canavari, Maurizio; Sidali, Katia Laura; Stolz, Hanna; Spiller, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Organic food labels are promising tools to transmit the positive image of organic products to consumers. Besides health-related aspects and environmental concerns, declaration of organic quality may have a positive impact on consumers’ taste perception. Many studies have proven the positive image of organic products, but very few have considered the link between labeling a product as organic and the consumer’s evaluation of sensory quality. This paper therefore investigates how organic consum...

  10. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are involved in the upregulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide of rat trigeminal ganglion after organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Yuan, Xingyun; Wang, Shaolan; Zhang, Fujun; Han, Yan; Ning, Qilan; Luo, Guogang; Lu, Shemin

    2012-09-01

    The trigeminal ganglion (TG) can express and release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), an important neuropeptide that plays a crucial role in migraine attack and cluster headache. Activation of rat TG increases CGRP expression. However, the regulatory mechanism of CGRP expression in TG neurons remains to be explored. This study aims to evaluate the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in CGRP upregulation after rat TG organ culture. Rat TG was cultured alone for 24 h or cultured in combination with MAPK inhibitors, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), or interleukin 1β (IL-1β) for 24 h. CGRP protein was determined using immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of CGRP, TNF-α, and IL-1β were analyzed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MAPK phosphorylation was detected via western blot. After rat TG organ culture, the expressions of CGRP, TNF-α, and IL-1β were upregulated at 24 h. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), P38, and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) significantly increased at 30 min compared with fresh rat TG. In addition, both CGRP expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38, and JNK were enhanced obviously after rat TG treatment with TNF-α or IL-1β compared with fresh rat TG. However, they decreased markedly after rat TG pretreatment with PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (P38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) compared with rat TG co-culture with TNF-α or IL-1β. In conclusion, the elevated CGRP expression after rat TG organ culture can be regulated via MAPK pathways. The findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms and experimental evidence for therapeutic targets of migraine.

  12. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  13. Habitat specialization predicts genetic response to fragmentation in tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Eraud, Cyril; Ollivier, Anthony; Arnoux, Emilie; Rocheteau, Vincent; Bely, Marine; Lefol, Emilie; Delpuech, Martin; Carpentier, Marie-Laure; Leblond, Gilles; Levesque, Anthony; Charbonnel, Anaïs; Faivre, Bruno; Garnier, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe threats to biodiversity as it may lead to changes in population genetic structure, with ultimate modifications of species evolutionary potential and local extinctions. Nonetheless, fragmentation does not equally affect all species and identifying which ecological traits are related to species sensitivity to habitat fragmentation could help prioritization of conservation efforts. Despite the theoretical link between species ecology and extinction proneness, comparative studies explicitly testing the hypothesis that particular ecological traits underlies species-specific population structure are rare. Here, we used a comparative approach on eight bird species, co-occurring across the same fragmented landscape. For each species, we quantified relative levels of forest specialization and genetic differentiation among populations. To test the link between forest specialization and susceptibility to forest fragmentation, we assessed species responses to fragmentation by comparing levels of genetic differentiation between continuous and fragmented forest landscapes. Our results revealed a significant and substantial population structure at a very small spatial scale for mobile organisms such as birds. More importantly, we found that specialist species are more affected by forest fragmentation than generalist ones. Finally, our results suggest that even a simple habitat specialization index can be a satisfying predictor of genetic and demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation, providing a reliable practical and quantitative tool for conservation biology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1984-01-01

    calf serum and 100 ng/ml of one of the following steroids: oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, chlormadinone acetate, norethynodrel, norethindrone acetate, and ethynyloestradiol. Release of insulin to the culture medium was measured during a 2 week culture...... period, and the islet content of insulin, glucagon, and DNA was measured at the end of the period. It was found that progesterone and its derivatives megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, and chlormadinone caused a 2-fold increase in insulin release during the culture period. When islets cultured...

  15. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  16. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... in the future? How and why do they have so much influence over us, and what influences them? How do they contribute to and detract from the meaningfulness of lives, and how might we improve them so they better serve our needs and desires? This Very Short Introductions addresses all of these questions...

  17. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  18. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  19. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  20. Organization changes of the university’s corporate culture under the influence of the social Internet communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyutin Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the definition of the term "corporate culture of the university" is refined and supplemented. It is noted that the traditional understanding does not reflect the fundamental changes taking place in the education system and interpersonal relationships of teachers and students of the university, and that undoubtedly have a significant influence on the corporate culture of the university formation

  1. Path Choice of Health Organization Culture Construction%浅议医疗卫生机构组织文化建设的路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆红; 姚健; 张敬平; 沈霜荞

    2012-01-01

    从“以人为本”出发,对医疗卫生机构组织文化建设的路径选择进行了一系列有益探索.路径包括价值取向、管理模式、组织架构、领导方式及制度建设等方面.正确的路径选择是建设优良组织文化的前提条件.%From the people-orientation, the health organization of the culture construction of the path choice is explored. The path includes value orientation, management mode, the organization structure and the style of leadership and system construction, etc. The correct path choice is the excellent organizational culture construction condition.

  2. The Review of Organic Additives in Plant Tissue Culture%植物组织培养中有机添加物应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 张冬敏; 雷华辉; 钟凤林

    2012-01-01

    At plant tissue culture,the inclusion of organic additives in the medium has obvious stimulative effect on cultivator's proliferation and differentiation.In this paper,we review the roles of organic additives and its application in plant tissue culture at present.%植物组织培养中,在培养基内加入有机添加物,对培养物的分化、增殖有明显促进作用。文章综述了有机添加物的作用及其目前在植物组织培养中的应用情况。

  3. A Study on the Diagnosis and Evolution of Organization Culture Based on Structure of Organization Culture and Personification Representative Theory%基于组织文化结构和人格化代表理论的文化诊断及流变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊耘; 邵芳; 纪晓鹏

    2013-01-01

    Organizational innovation and change are becoming more important for a company to stay competitive in knowledge economy. Literature review shows that organizational culture is regarded as a strategic resource for competitiveness. Organizational culture changes throughout the corporate lifecycle. Some studies show that organizational culture is difficult to understand because it is dynamic. Therefore, it is important to understand how organizational culture changes in a dynamic environment. From theviewpoint of diagnosing and developing organizational culture, this paper proposes a theoretical model and basic hypotheses on the relationship between three-layer culture and six main characteristics including flexibility, rigidity, sociability, solidarity, impartiality, and prompting based on the framework of four-layer organizational culture, organizational culture changes, and people of different levels in an organization representing various layers organizational culture. According to in-depth interviews and a pretest with 289 middle and senior managers, an organization culture questionnaire is developed. Data were collected from 527 persons in 5 companies. The study uses SPSS and LISREL to analyze and ensure that the measurement scale of our developed questionnaire has met the reliability and validity requirements. To prove the validity of the proposed theoretical model, LISREL was used to optimize and modify the model. Our analysis results show that various characteristics of organizational culture emerge from different layers of organizational culture. Rigidity, solidarity and prompting emerge from the perspective layer of organizational culture. Impartiality, Solidarity and Flexibility emerge from the system layer of organizational culture. Sociability, Flexibility and Prompting emerge from the personality layer of organizational culture. The result also shows that characters emerge from the same layer of organizational culture. For instance, rigidity mainly

  4. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  5. Thermodynamical String Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from...

  6. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  7. ALTERATION IN CONTRACTILE RESPONSE TO NORADRENALINE,5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE,SARAFOTOXIN 6c,AND ANGIOTENSINⅡIN RAT MESENTERIC ARTERY DURING ORGAN CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Yongxiao(曹永孝); He Langchong(贺浪冲); Xu Cangbao(徐仓宝); EDVINSSON Lars

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the vasoconstrictive effects of 9 mediators on fresh and incubated mesenteric arteries of rats. Methods The superior mesenteric artery of rat was removed and the endothelium was denuded. The vessels were cut into 1 mm long cylindrical segments and subjected to organ culture for 24 hours. Fresh or incubated segments were immersed into tissue baths and the concentration-response curves were obtained by cumulative administration of the vasoconstrictors. Results In fresh mesenteric artery, endothelin-1 (ET-1), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), and angiotensinⅡ (AngⅡ) induced potent and sustained constrictions in a concentration-dependent manner. The contraction induced by sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) was weak, while bradykinin (BK), des-Arg-bradykinin (DA-BK), and human urotensinⅡ (hUT-II) showed no detectable contraction. The concentraion-response curves in order of slopes was ET-1, NA, 5-HT, 5-CT, and AngⅡ. The order of the maximum contractions was ET-1>NA=5-HT=5-CT>AngⅡ>S6c. After organ culture, the concentration-response curves induced by S6c, NA, and 5-HT were significantly increased, while that induced by AngⅡ was decreased as comparing to fresh arteries. BK contracted the artery only weakly. Conclusion Organ culture changed the phenotypes towards an increased efficacy of NA, 5-HT, S6c, and a reduced efficacy of AngⅡ, which is in accordance with the results of pharmacological characterization in some human vascular disease.

  8. 浓香型白酒生产有机窖泥培养%Research on the Culture of Organic Pit Mud for Luzhou-flavor Liquor Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宇宏

    2011-01-01

    The main physiochemical indexes of organic pit mud and inorganic pit mud for Luzhou-flavor liquor production were compared including microbial species,sensory indexes,moisture content,pH values,ammonia nitrogen,phosphorus,available potassium and humus.The selection of raw materials for the culture of organic pit mud,pit mud formula,and the operating points were discussed.The purpose of organic pit mud culture was to culture quality beneficial microflora and create favorable growth environment for beneficial microbes and achieve sustainable and efficient growth of microbes.(Tran.by YUE Yang)%对浓香型有机窖泥和无机窖泥的微生物种类、感官指标以及水分含量、pH值、氨态氮、有效磷、有效钾和腐殖质等主要理化指标进行对比研究。对有机窖泥培养的原料选择、窖泥配方、操作要点进行了论述。有机窖泥培养的目的是培养优质有益菌群,为有益微生物创造一个良好的生长环境,使之能持续有效地生长。

  9. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present a fragmen......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...... a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments...

  10. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present a fragmen......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...... a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments...

  11. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  12. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  13. Complete axiomatizations for XPath fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, B.; Litak, T.; Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We provide complete axiomatizations for several fragments of Core XPath, the navigational core of XPath 1.0 introduced by Gottlob, Koch and Pichler. A complete axiomatization for a given fragment is a set of equivalences from which every other valid equivalence is derivable; equivalences can be thou

  14. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  15. Adaptation to fragmentation: evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Hargreaves, Anna L; Bonte, Dries; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-01-19

    Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions. While species have adapted to natural fragmentation, adaptation to anthropogenic fragmentation has received little attention. In this review, we address how and whether organisms might adapt to anthropogenic fragmentation. Drawing on selected case studies and evolutionary ecology models, we show that anthropogenic fragmentation can generate selection on traits at both the patch and landscape scale, and affect the adaptive potential of populations. We suggest that dispersal traits are likely to experience especially strong selection, as dispersal both enables migration among patches and increases the risk of landing in the inhospitable matrix surrounding them. We highlight that suites of associated traits are likely to evolve together. Importantly, we show that adaptation will not necessarily rescue populations from the negative effects of fragmentation, and may even exacerbate them, endangering the entire metapopulation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Status quo of patient safety culture in foreign healthcare organizations%国外医疗机构患者安全文化现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓晓; 崔颖; 席修明

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To learn the status quo of patient safety culture in foreign healthcare organizations and to provide references for assessment and improvement of patient safety culture in China. Methods: Literature on patient safety culture assessment from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were differences among dimensional positive response rate of patient safety culture which could be divided into areas of strength and areas with potential for improvement. There were also differences among patients on safety culture. But the statistical significance of differences needed to be tested. Conclusions: There were differences among safety culture dimensions and participants. Corresponding measures can be taken according to differences can help patient safety culture sustainable development.%目的:了解国外医疗机构患者安全文化现状,为国内患者安全文化测评与改进提供借鉴。方法:检索2005年-2014年国外关于患者安全文化测评的文献,对研究结果进行统计分析。结果:患者安全文化各维度积极反应率不同,有优势区域与待改进区域之分;患者安全文化水平在调查对象间存在不同程度差异,差异统计学意义有待验证。结论:患者安全文化水平在不同维度及调查对象之间存在不同程度差异,针对差异采取针对性改进措施有助于患者安全文化水平的不断提升。

  17. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Anusha; Maiti, Biswajit; Shenoy, Shalini; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2016-01-01

    The difficulties in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis are due to varied clinical presentation, low sensitivity of blood culture which is considered the gold standard and empirical antibiotic usage affecting the outcome of results. Though polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection of bacterial 16S rRNA gene has been reported earlier, this does not provide identification of the causative agent. In this study, we used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of amplified 16S rRNA gene to identify the organisms involved in neonatal sepsis and compared the findings with blood culture. Blood samples from 97 neonates were evaluated for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using BacT/Alert (automated blood culture) and PCR-RFLP. Bacterial DNA was detected by 16S rRNA gene PCR in 55 cases, while BacT/Alert culture was positive in 34 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism detected with both methods. Klebsiella spp. was isolated from four samples by culture but was detected by PCR-RFLP in five cases while Acinetobacter spp. was isolated from one case but detected in eight cases by PCR-RFLP. The sensitivity of PCR was found to be 82.3 per cent with a negative predictive value of 85.7 per cent. Eighty of the 97 neonates had prior exposure to antibiotics. The results of our study demonstrate that PCR-RFLP having a rapid turnaround time may be useful for the early diagnosis of culture negative neonatal sepsis.

  18. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Saari, Sampo [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Pasanen, Pertti [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Keskinen, Jorma [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Leskinen, Jari T.T. [SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1E, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Reponen, Tiina, E-mail: reponeta@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi. Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27 m/s). Released spores (optical size, d{sub p} ≥ 0.8 μm) and fragments (d{sub p} ≤ 0.8 μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment–spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P. Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based

  19. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC): impact of cultivation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred; Funari, Sérgio S; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-12-18

    Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence on ROC cultivation time and in comparison to native human and rat stratum cornea. In addition, the thermal phase behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and barrier properties were checked by measurements of the permeability of tritiated water. The development of the barrier of ROC SC obtained at different cultivation times (7, 14 and 21 days at the air-liquid interface) was connected with an increase in structural order of the SC lipids in SAXS measurements: Already cultivation for 14 days at the air-liquid interface resulted overall in a competent SC permeability barrier and SC lipid organization. Cultivation for 21 days resulted in further minor changes in the structural organization of ROC SC. The SAXS patterns of ROC SC had overall large similarities with that of human SC and point to the presence of a long periodicity phase with a repeat distance of about 122Å, e.g. slightly smaller than that determined for human SC in the present study (127Å). Moreover, SAXS results also indicate the presence of covalently bound ceramides, which are crucial for a proper SC barrier, although the corresponding thermal transitions were not clearly detectable by DSC. Due to the competent SC barrier properties and high structural and organizational similarity to that of native human SC, ROC presents a promising alternative for in vitro studies, particularly as

  20. Differences in claudin synthesis in primary cultures of acinar cells from rat salivary gland are correlated with the specific three-dimensional organization of the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Michikawa, Hiromi; Satoh, Keitaro; Katsumata, Osamu; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Tight junctions are essential for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. We have previously established a system for the primary culture of salivary parotid acinar cells that retain their ability to generate new secretory granules and to secrete proteins in a signal-dependent manner. Because cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion are prerequisites for the formation of epithelial tissues, we have investigated the structure of the tight junctions in these cultures. We have found two types of cellular organization in the culture: monolayers and semi-spherical clusters. Electron microscopy has revealed tight junctions near the apical region of the lateral membranes between cells in the monolayers and cells at the surface of the clusters. The cells in the interior of the clusters also have tight junctions and are organized around a central lumen. These interior cells retain more secretory granules than the surface or monolayer cells, suggesting that they maintain their original character as acinar cells. The synthesis of claudin-4 increases during culture, although it is not detectable in the cells immediately after isolation from the glands. Immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that claudin-4 is synthesized in the monolayers and at the surface of the clusters, but not inside the clusters. Only claudin-3, which is present in the original acinar cells following isolation and in the intact gland, has been detected inside the clusters. These results suggest that differences in claudin expression are related to the three-dimensional structures of the cell cultures and reflect their ability to function as acinar cells.