Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua
Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.
Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Aguilar-Barrientos, Sara; Román-Calderón, Juan Pablo
This article reports the results of a study inquiring about the role of education-related factors in the development of cultural intelligence. Five hundred fifty-seven students of a Colombian international business (IB) undergraduate program participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the measures were assessed by conducting…
Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin
The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.
Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji
To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kaur, Kamal Preet; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun
of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. METHODS: Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different...... correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion....... patient factors. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover...
Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.
Klein Velderman, M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Junger, M.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and intrapersonal) and
Klein Velderman, Mariska; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Paulussen, Theo G. W. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
BACKGROUND: Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and
Bautista-Díaz, M L; Franco-Paredes, K; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Alvarez-Rayón, G; López-Aguilar, X; Ocampo Téllez-Girón, T; Soto-González, Y
The goal of the present study was to assess the role of body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors on eating psychopathology in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and women without BED. Seventy obese women consecutively evaluated participated: 35 with BED and 35 without BED who attended for the first time in a weight loss program. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including: Body Shape Questionnaire, Questionnaire of Influences on the Aesthetic Body Shape Model, Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and they were interviewed with the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorder-IV. The Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Body Fat were calculated. The results showed that 21% of obese women who participated in a weight reduction program met BED criteria. The scores of body dissatisfaction, influences of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology were higher in women with BED compared with women without BED. In the same way, significantly stronger correlations were found among influences of socio-cultural factors, specifically, influence of advertisement, social relations and eating psychopathology in women with BED than women without BED. It is concluded that the high body dissatisfaction as well as stronger associations among influence of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology could play an important role in women with BED.
Akbar Zare Shahabadi
Full Text Available Identity process specifies who the individual is psychically and socially and what position he has. In other words, identification enables social active to reply the fundamental questions referring to who and what he is appropriately and convincingly. Cultural identity crisis is a term applied to describe individuals' disability to adopt the role expected from them by the society.Cultural identity crisis means that human being ruptured and alienated from cultural origins and roots in which he has lived and mixed with it; need for attaching to other cultural origins and roots that is manifested in the form of forgetting and devaluing individual culture and traditions and ignoring it. This study intends to survey some factors related to cultural identity crisis among Tabriz high school students. Required data has been compiled through a questionnaire and sample of 378 high school students by categorical sampling method. In this survey, to clarify and define cultural identity crisis, the theories of theoreticians for symbolic interaction have been combined with Parsons' theory and conformed to Hobermouse's crisis theory. It should be mentioned that cultural identity crisis has been measured by some variables as interest in ethnic language and common history and attention to them, obligation to religious affairs and traditions, influence by friends and coevals and ...The results of performed analyses show that the variables of impressibility by friends and coevals group, individual education, sexuality and impressibility by satellite have most effects on clarifying the dependent variable, i.e., cultural identity crisis, respectively and have clarified about 41% of the variance for cultural identity crisis. The variable for social class can also contribute to specify the dependent variable.
Klein Velderman, Mariska; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Paulussen, Theo G W M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and intrapersonal) and distance in the causal pathway (ultimate or distal). Our aims were to identify cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with co-occurring HRBs and to assess the relative importance of ultimate and distal factors for each cluster of co-occurring HRBs. Respondents concerned a random sample of 898 adolescents aged 12-18 years, stratified by age, sex and educational level of head of household. Data were collected via face-to-face computer-assisted interviewing and internet questionnaires. Analyses were performed for young (12-15 years) and late (16-18 years) adolescents regarding two and three clusters of HRB, respectively. For each cluster of HRBs (e.g. smoking, delinquency), associated factors were found. These accounted for 27 to 57% of the total variance per cluster. Factors came in particular from the intrapersonal stream of the TTI at the ultimate level and the social stream at the distal level. Associations were strongest for parenting practices, risk behaviours of friends and parents and self-control. Results of this study confirm that it is possible to identify a selection of cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with co-occurring HRBs among adolescents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xinjie; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Fan, Xitao; Wu, Joseph
This study examined variables in three domains (personal, parent support, and peer support) for their relationships with the resilience of academically gifted students in the Chinese cultural and educational environment. The participants were 484 academically gifted students in two highly competitive secondary schools (so-called "key"…
Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang
HIV-related stigma in the wider community compounds the suffering of people living with HIV (PLWH) and hampers effective HIV prevention and care. This study examines the level of public stigma toward PLWH in Hong Kong and associated social-cultural factors. A telephone survey was conducted in June-July 2016 with 1080 Chinese adults aged 18-94 randomly selected from the general population. The results indicate substantial degree of public stigma toward PLWH. Overall, 58.1% of the participants endorsed at least one statement indicating negative social judgment of PLWH. Over 40% attributed HIV infections to irresponsible behaviors and nearly 30% perceived most PLWH as promiscuous. About 20% considered HIV to be a punishment for bad behavior and believed that PLWH should feel ashamed of themselves. These statistics indicate that HIV-related stigma among the general Hong Kong population had no noticeable reduction in a decade but is lower than that among rural and urban populations in China. Our findings suggest that the lower stigma in Hong Kong may be linked to higher education levels rather than Hongkongers' more Westernized outlook. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that education level (β = -.19), homophobia (β = .30), and conformity to norms (β = .14) were independent predictors of HIV-related stigma but not age, income, or cultural orientations. By differentiating between associated social-cultural factors, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the layered nature of HIV-related stigma: not broadly grounded in religion or Chinese culture but stemming from more specific social-cultural beliefs - perceptions of norm violation and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, which were not mutually exclusive. These findings have implications for HIV-related stigma reduction by providing evidence for the importance of addressing homophobia. Existing HIV publicity activities should be re-examined for inadvertent contribution
Neff, Bonita Dostal
Focusing on ethics in public relations from a multicultural point of view brings together elements which are critical to international public relations. The Public Relations-Ethics-Multicultural (PREM) model illustrates that articles can be found in the literature on ethics, public relations, and multicultural as individual concepts. The…
Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture.
Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung
Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM, DOW-cultured CM (DCM, synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA. The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1 expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.
Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin
Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.
Gaudreau, S; Michaud, C
Though the cultural factors that may contribute to the diabetes epidemic in First Nations are frequently discussed, little is known about the factors that may help prevent it. In this ethnonursing study, we explore the cultural factors that help maintain health behaviours in Algonquin women who had received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes 2 to 10 years before this study. The data were collected in two Algonquin communities through semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 7) and general informants (n = 8) and through cultural immersion, with detailed observations being recorded into logbooks. The cultural factors that are likely to affect the prevention of diabetes are the importance of family and social ties, the possibility of preserving cultural values, the opportunity to learn behaviours through educational resources adapted to needs and culture, the chance of saving money through better diet and access to blood sugar data as a means of control. In the long term, these cultural factors could influence health behaviours and thus help prevent type 2 diabetes.
Bhargava, Sakshi; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Witherspoon, Dawn P; Pomerantz, Eva M; Robins, Richard W
Parental involvement in education is an important determinant of youth's academic success. Yet, there is limited knowledge on how Latino parents' education-related involvement changes over time. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families (mother-adolescent dyad; M age of child at Wave 1=10.4, SD = 0.60), we examined trajectories of parental involvement from 5 th to 11 th grade and the effects of socio-cultural (e.g., family SES and acculturation) and contextual (e.g., neighborhood) factors on these trajectories. Results showed that mothers reduced two aspects of the educational involvement: home-based involvement and academic aspirations, but increased on a third aspect of involvement, resource seeking. Furthermore, family SES, acculturation, and neighborhood context were differentially associated with mothers' involvement at 5 th grade and predicted changes in involvement across elementary and high school.
Alves, Maria João Vidal; Manita, Celina; Caldas, Inês Morais; Fernández-Martinez, Elena; Gomes da Silva, Angélica; Magalhães, Teresa
Despite the occurrence of encouraging political and social changes in the past few years, many beliefs about women's role in intimate relationships persist, influencing their response to domestic violence (DV). This study aims to analyze the influence of recent policies against DV in Portugal, concerning particularly intimate partner violence against women and their perceptions about the victimization process. Two samples of women (n = 126 each) reporting an aggressive act allegedly perpetrated by the current or former male partner were interviewed with a hiatus of 5 years (before and after some most relevant policy updates). Results suggest a positive influence of the recent policies against DV. Many significant and encouraging changes were found in the more recent women sample (S2) relatively to the first sample (S1) regarding their information, awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward DV. They seem to show less tolerance and endurance to DV, placing responsibility on the offender, as well as seem more empowered to report. In S2, there was a decrease in the acceptance of violent behaviors as normal and of reasons to explain violence; the fears, shame, and helplessness about DV; the elapsed time between the beginning of the abuse and its report; and the prevalence of more severe types of physical abuse. In S2, there was an increase on the acknowledgment of DV as a crime, the number of reports in cases without cohabitation, the report of psychological abuses, and the feeling of safety and assurance while reporting. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ito, Masaya; Hofmann, Stefan G
Affective styles are assumed to be one of the underlying processes of depression and anxiety maintenance. However, little is known about the effect of depression and anxiety and the cultural influence of the factor structure. Here, we examined the cross-cultural validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire and its incremental validity for the influence on depression and anxiety. Affective Style Questionnaire was translated into Japanese using standard back-translation procedure. Japanese university students (N = 1,041) served as participants. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire, Brief COPE, Self-Construal Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Affective Style Questionnaire comprised four factors: Concealing, Adjusting, Holding and Tolerating (CFI = .92, TLI = .90, RMSEA = .07). The measure's convergent and discriminant validity was substantiated by its association with various emotion regulation measures. Regression analyses showed that negative influence of Adjusting, Holding, Reappraisal (β = -.17, -.19, -.30) and positive influence of Suppression (β = .23) were observed on depression. For anxiety, Adjusting and Reappraisal was negatively influenced (β = -.29, and -.18). Reliability and validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire was partly confirmed. Further study is needed to clarify the culturally dependent aspects of affective styles.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Besevegis, Elias; Chau, Cecilia; Karaman, Neslihan Güney; Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Lubiewska, Katharzyna; Rohail, Iffat
This study analyzed the unique effects of gender and culture on psychopathology in adolescents from seven countries after controlling for factors which might have contributed to variations in psychopathology. In a sample 2259 adolescents (M = 15 years; 54% female) from France, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Peru, Pakistan, and Poland identity stress, coping with identity stress, maternal parenting (support, psychological control, anxious rearing) and psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing and total symptomatology) were assessed. Due to variations in stress perception, coping style and maternal behavior, these covariates were partialed out before the psychopathology scores were subjected to analyses of variance with gender and country as factors. These analyses leveled out the main effect of country and revealed country-specific gender effects. In four countries, males reported higher internalizing and total symptomatology than females. Partialing out the covariates resulted in a clearer picture of culture-specific and gender-dependent effects on psychopathology, which is helpful in designing interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd
The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.
Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin
Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mic...
Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.
Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…
Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat
Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances.
McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Jandasek, Barbara; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B.; Potter, Christina; Fritz, Gregory K.
Objective The goal of this study is to identify individual, family/cultural, and illness-related protective factors that may minimize asthma morbidity in the context of multiple urban risks in a sample of inner-city children and families. Methods Participating families are from African-American (33), Latino (51) and non-Latino white (47) backgrounds. A total of 131 children with asthma (56% male), ages 6–13 years and their primary caregivers were included. Results Analyses supported the relationship between cumulative risks and asthma morbidity across children of the sample. Protective processes functioned differently by ethnic group. For example, Latino families exhibited higher levels of family connectedness, and this was associated with lower levels of functional limitation due to asthma, in the context of risks. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of examining multilevel protective processes that may guard against urban risks factors to decrease morbidity. Intervention programs for families from specific ethnic groups can be tailored to consider individual, family-based/cultural and illness-related supports that decrease stress and enhance aspects of asthma treatment. PMID:22408053
Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is a country where people are dependent on each other for psychological support. Traditional Indian culture follows a collectivist pattern where the woman cares more about her family and society than herself. An unmarried woman who is pregnant poses a problem for both herself and her baby here, where traditional values are held high and pregnancy without marriage is almost always a taboo. AIMS To find the impact of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP on the anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women, correlation with period of gestation and the impact of perceived social support on anxiety and depression levels of these women. SETTING One hundred women who attended the outpatient department of ESICMC- PGIMSR, Bengaluru, India, requesting for Termination of Pregnancy, between August 2011 and December 2014 were studied. DESIGN A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, 1988 were measured both pre-TOP and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was measured post TOP in women fulfilling the Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS 1 There is a reduction of depression and anxiety after Termination of pregnancy (p <0.05 more so among unmarried women with an unwanted pregnancy. 2 The higher the period of gestation, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety levels were observed (p value of <0.05. 3 The lower the social support scores, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety and depression (p value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for larger number of abortion care providers in India with increased contraception awareness and education regarding the need for Termination of Pregnancy in medical
Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi
The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.
Noting that too many errors related to health information technology (HIT) are resulting in adverse consequences, The Joint Commission (TJC) has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, urging health care providers to take steps to improve their safety culture, approach to process improvement, and leadership in this area. In this latest alert, the accrediting agency is taking particular aim at risks posed by sociotechnical factors--or the ways in which HIT is implemented and used. Experts say that many of these risks are, in fact, exemplified at a higher level in the emergency setting, where providers are under constant pressure to see more patients and move them though the system faster. In an analysis of 3,375 sentinel events that resulted in permanent patient harm or death between January 1, 2010, and June 20, 2013, The Joint Commission (TJC) found that 120 events included HIT-related contributing factors. Many of the problems cited by TJC relate to orders or medicines being prescribed for the wrong patients. These can result from toggling errors or pop-up screens where providers are asked to click on the appropriate patient or medicine, and they mistakenly click on the wrong selection. In the ED, experts recommend the creation of a multidisciplinary performance improvement group to continuously monitor the ED information system (EDIS), recognize problems, and work with the vendor to resolve them. Also important is a quick and easy way for providers to report HIT-related problems. Experts add that emergency providers need to be fully engaged in the process of selecting HIT that they will be using, and that health care organizations should arrange for usability assessments before purchasing HIT.
Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L
Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.
Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.
Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel
Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri
Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.
Marjorie C. Falanruw
Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...
Dr. P. Ester; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden
In this introduction we have outlined the vital importance of the role of culture (i.e.: the cultural factor) in the field of international relations, foreign policy, and diplomacy and the professional need for cultural competence among its practitioners.
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T
The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2) culturally independent participants, enmeshment will not be a risk factor for (1) participants of Asian descent or (2) culturally interdependent participants. P...
Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd
The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the ...
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Ybema, S.B.; Buyn, H.
In this article we integrate findings from interviews and ethnographic case studies to explore issues of culture and identity in Japanese-Dutch work relations in two different contexts: Japanese firms in the Netherlands and Dutch firms in Japan. It is suggested that cultural identities do not carry
Brey, Philip A.E.; Zaphiris, P.; Ang, C.
In this article, I examine whether information ethics is culture relative. If it is, different approaches to information ethics are required in different cultures and societies. This would have major implications for the current, predominantly Western approach to information ethics. If it is not,
Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.
Whitespot syndrome virus, WSSV, is the most important among the shrimp diseases. One of the suggested WSSV risk factors is the occurrence of stress since stressors could compromise the shrimp defence system thus increasing the risk of WSSV infection. Stressors are usually related to the
Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom
This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…
Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A
With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving.
Imai, Mutsumi; Kanero, Junko; Masuda, Takahiko
The relationship between culture, language, and thought has long been one of the most important topics for those who wish to understand the nature of human cognition. This issue has been investigated for decades across a broad range of research disciplines. However, there has been scant communication across these different disciplines, a situation largely arising through differences in research interests and discrepancies in the definitions of key terms such as 'culture,' 'language,' and 'thought.' This article reviews recent trends in research on the relation between language, culture and thought to capture how cognitive psychology and cultural psychology have defined 'language' and 'culture,' and how this issue was addressed within each research discipline. We then review recent research conducted in interdisciplinary perspectives, which directly compared the roles of culture and language. Finally, we highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between culture and language to provide a comprehensive picture of how language and culture affect thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heinz Peter Berg
Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Levett-Jones, Tracy
Culture influences the way health-care professionals communicate with each other and their ability to relate to colleagues in an assertive manner. Cultural barriers can also make it difficult for nurses to speak up even when they have concerns about patient safety. An understanding of the potential impact of cultural factors is therefore needed when developing assertiveness communication training programs. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored Japanese nurses' perceptions of how culture and values impact assertive communication in health care. Semistructured interviews with 23 registered nurses were undertaken, and data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Two major themes were identified: collectivism and hierarchy/power. In the present study, we discuss the cultural values related to collectivism that included four categories of "wa" (harmony), "uchi to soto" (inside and outside), implicit communication/ambiguity, and "nemawashi" (groundwork). The findings highlight the impact of culture on nurses' assertive communication behaviors and can be used to inform the design of culturally-appropriate assertiveness communication training programs for Japanese nurses working both within their own country or internationally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
M M Akulich
Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.
Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn
The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing multi-dimensional organizational culture. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different business units and collects 283 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.799. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.821 and 1395.74, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing organizational culture including, diversity in culture, connection based culture, integrated culture and structure of culture. In terms of diversity in culture, sensitivity to quality data and cultural flexibility are the most influential sub-factors while connection based marketing and relational satisfaction are two important sub-factors associated with diversity in culture. The study discusses other issues.
Canino, Glorisa; Alegría, Margarita
Background There is little consensus on the extent to which psychiatric disorders or syndromes are universal or the extent to which they differ on their core definitions and constellation of symptoms as a result of cultural or contextual factors. This controversy continues due to the lack of biological markers, imprecise measurement and the lack of a gold standard for validating most psychiatric conditions. Method Empirical studies were used to present evidence in favor of or against a universalist or relativistic view of child psychiatric disorders using a model developed by Robins and Guze to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of some of the most common specific disorders and syndromes as well as its risk and protective factors vary across cultures, yet comorbid patterns and response to treatments vary little across cultures. Cross-cultural longitudinal data on outcomes is equivocal. Conclusions The cross-cultural validity of child disorders may vary drastically depending on the disorder, but empirical evidence that attests for the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic criteria for each child disorder is lacking. There is a need for studies that investigate the extent to which gene–environment interactions are related to specific disorders across cultures. Clinicians are urged to consider culture and context in determining the way in which children’s psychopathology may be manifested independent of their views. Recommendations for the upcoming classificatory system are provided so that practical or theoretical considerations are addressed about how culture and ethnic issues affect the assessment or treatment of specific disorders in children. PMID:18333929
Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…
Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.
Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.
Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi
Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up
This study sought to find out the extent to which some psycho cultural and ... psycho cultural and physiological variables (gender, age, traditional beliefs about ..... (Ed.) Confronting the AIDS Epidemic, ... Counselling Psychology, 6 (1): 39-57.
Frazier, Christopher B; Ludwig, Timothy D; Whitaker, Brian; Roberts, D Steve
Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor, & Bryden, 2000; Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered to 25,574 workers across five multi-national organizations in five different industries. Exploratory and hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses were conducted revealing four second-order factors of a Safety Culture consisting of Management Concern, Personal Responsibility for Safety, Peer Support for Safety, and Safety Management Systems. Additionally, a total of 12 first-order factors were found: three on Management Concern, three on Personal Responsibility, two on Peer Support, and four on Safety Management Systems. The resulting safety culture model addresses gaps in the literature by indentifying the core constructs which make up a safety culture. This clarification of the major factors emerging in the measurement of safety cultures should impact the industry through a more accurate description, measurement, and tracking of safety cultures to reduce loss due to injury. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In order to rectify environmental degradation, government has encouraged sustainable management among businesses. In addition, researchers have also suggested a new breed of study called “sustainable entrepreneurship”, which links sustainability management to entrepreneurial activities. However, the participation of entrepreneurial firms in sustainability management is still far from satisfactory. Past studies also have found that SMEs are less active in sustainabilty initiatives and many issues related to the intention of firms for sustainability entrepreneurship is still unanswered. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the influence of socio-cultural factors on intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. A total of 404 SMEs in Malaysia were surveyed by using questionnaire. Based on the statistical analyses performed, this study found that three socio-cultural factors, namely time orientation, sustainability orientation and social norm significantly influenced intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. Thus, in order to develop true sustainable entrepreneurs in the country, the effects of non-economic factors such as socio-cultural factors should not be underestimated. Lastly, some recommendations for future researchers have also been put forth in this paper.
users of individualistic cultures (e.g. the US) would not be influenced as much by their friends in their twitting behavior as users of collectivist ...advanced experiment (Georgila and Traum, 2011c) we learn policies for three cultural norms ( individualists , collectivists , and altruists...Canadians were less likely to request for help but overall received more help compared to individuals from collectivistic cultures . 8. Honor and
Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Shavitt, Sharon; Cho, Hyewon
We examine the influence of culture on consumer behavior with a particular focus on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Cultures vary in their propensity to emphasize hierarchy, a distinction captured by examining horizontal/vertical cultural orientations or contexts. These cultural factors pattern personal values and goals, power concepts, and normative expectations applied to the exercise of power. We review implications for how consumers respond to brands in the marketplace, service providers, and each others' needs.
Holck, Ulla; Stige, Brynjulf; Skrudland, Hilde
time be part of the interdisciplinary clinical culture found in institutions with a main focus on a certain client group. Here the music therapy clinicians can be the golden link between the research culture and the local clinical culture. At the same time, music therapy clinicians are not (usually...... documentation Locally based projects involving clinical music therapists as well as researchers are an effective way of spreading the use of and knowledge about music therapy, and can also be a basis for later data collection on a greater scale. Starting from web-based examples, this round table will present...
Analysis of scientific literature dealing with health related physical culture status in Palestine has been made in order to determine the factors influencing fitness-technologies implementation. Historical, sociocultural, political, religious, economic conditions determining the current level and the prospects of health related physical culture development in Palestine have been determined.
The subject of the thesis was Japanese customer service culture and the driving factors behind it. Fons Trompenaars’ and Geert Hofstedes culture studies were handled as the main part of the theoretical part of the thesis, which of only the applicable factors were introduced. The applicable factors were Trompenaars’ universal-ism/particularism, individualism/communitarianism, neutral/emotional, specific/diffuse and attitudes to environment and Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, masculinity...
Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
) the results of the bivariate metaanalyses indicate that CQ and its underlying dimensions are positively associated with expatriation intention, job satisfaction, cultural adjustment, transformational leadership, and different performance outcomes (task performance, contextual performance, and team performance...
Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone
in terms of factor pattern, factor loadings, factor covariances and factor variances. In the second factor part of the analysis, replication samples from France (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), Germany (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), and the UK (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000) are examined for intra-cultural stability using the same...
Carrier, J M
Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.
Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.
In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)
Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.
Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, Using Quantail Regression Analysis. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate relation between demographic factors and hospitalization in gastrointestinal disorders.
Kin, Tatsuya; Senior, Peter; O'Gorman, Doug; Richer, Brad; Salam, Abdul; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James
Culturing islets can add great flexibility to a clinical islet transplant program. However, a reduction in the islet mass has been frequently observed during culture and its degree varies. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with a significant islet loss during culture. One-hundred and four islet preparations cultured in an attempt to use for transplantation constituted this study. After culture for 20 h (median), islet yield significantly decreased from 363 309 +/- 12 647 to 313 035 +/- 10 862 islet equivalent yield (IE) (mean +/- SE), accompanied by a reduction in packed tissue volume from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 ml and islet index (IE/islet particle count) from 1.20 +/- 0.04 to 1.05 +/- 0.04. Culture did not markedly alter islet purity or percent of trapped islet. Morphology score and viability were significantly improved after culture. Of 104 islet preparations, 37 suffered a substantial islet loss (> 20%) over culture. Factors significantly associated with risk of islet loss identified by univariate analysis were longer cold ischemia time, two-layer method (TLM) preservation, lower islet purity, and higher islet index. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of islet loss were higher islet index and the use of TLM. This study provides novel information on the link between donor- isolation factors and islet loss during culture.
Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...
Van Biljon, J
Full Text Available . Although the feature driven and usability focus carry value, it is not the full picture. There is also an alternative or wider perspective: mobile phone use is influenced by demographic, social, cultural, and contextual factors that complicate...
Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...
Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the management of infertile couples at the Kenyatta National Hospital. ... that may influence male participation in the management of the infertile couples attending the KNH Infertility Clinic.
... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.
The aim here is to describe and discuss how different cultural meanings, offered in education, can contribute to unjust cultural relations such as othering and xenophobia. By analysing the cultural and discursive content in curricula using a (neo)pragmatic curriculum theory research method, dominating ideas, values and discourses between 1948 and…
Diaz, Victor Alejandro
For many, the term "Hispanic" places undue emphasis on the European influence of Spanish colonialism and may even have negative connotations for some. "Latino" is a more encompassing term that gives recognition to the influences of the indigenous and African cultures on modern day Latin Americans. Nevertheless, recognition of typical Latino attitudes and beliefs may assist health care providers. Poverty, unemployment, and low level of education usually account for adverse health in this population. Anti-immigrant sentiment and discrimination in health care and education add adversity to the immigrant's experience. Lack of health insurance and access to quality health care typically plague the adult immigrant. For many, the nearest emergency department is their only source of medical care.
In this paper, cultural factors of overwork death in Japan are examined. The frequency of karoshi (death from overwork) and karo-jisatsu (suicide from overwork) tends to increase. Although these phenomena are somewhat present in other countries, they are the most frequent in Japan, which, for the purpose of explanation, imposes a need for examining its specificities. In literature, these phenomena are most often explained by economic factors. Although the cultural specificities of Japan may a...
Gade, Anders Christian
will be presented. Another project was conducted by students at the Danish Technical University, who found that speech intelligibility for non-native listeners is much more sensitive to poor speech conditions than for native listeners. Also discussed are the unique features of culturally based urban soundscapes....... It is suggested that these soundscapes can provide comfort to recent immigrants by increasing their sense of being ``at home.''...
McClaskey, Carolyn Marie
Sounds that evoke a sense of pitch are ubiquitous in our environment and important for speech, music, and auditory scene analysis. The frequencies of these sounds rarely remain constant, however, and the direction and extent of pitch change is often more important than the exact pitches themselves. This dissertation examines the mechanisms underlying how we perceive relative pitch distance, focusing on two types of stimuli: continuous pitch changes and discrete pitch changes. In a series of e...
Van den Bos, K.; van Veldhuizen, Tanja; Au, A.K.C.
This paper uses cross-cultural comparisons and comparisons obtained by experimental manipulation to examine how cultural and contextual factors influence responses to personal and group relative deprivation. Two studies were conducted, one in an individualistic country (The Netherlands) and one in a
Geographical factors aided the movement of people from one ecological zone ... Consequently, no human group, its level of development notwithstanding, ..... war between him and the community took some of his children – Amme, Ijinda, ... Dance, music and displays from hinterland cultures penetrated into Kalabari culture.
Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.
Keerthi S Guruge
Full Text Available Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and
Gholizadeh, Leila; Davidson, Patricia M; Heydari, Mehrdad; Salamonson, Yenna
This article seeks to review and discuss the evidence linking depression, coronary heart disease (CHD), and culture. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed, and Google were searched for pertinent evidence linking depression, culture, and CHD, and retrieved articles were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Identified themes were the followings: depression is a factor in development and prognosis of CHD and affects the capacity to self-manage and adhere to treatment recommendations; culture mediates mental health/illness representations and treatment-seeking behaviors; screening and assessment of depression can be affected by cultural factors; and there is a need for culturally appropriate screening and therapeutic strategies. As depression is a predictor and moderating variable in the genesis and progression of CHD, understanding how factors such as culture affect screening and management of the disease is important to inform the development of culturally and linguistically competent strategies that ensure accurate screening, detection, and treatment of depression in cardiac patients in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.
Although human undifferentiated keratinocytes (HUKs) can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ...
Full Text Available This paper is not a conventional one, on the contrary, is an atypical one. It doesn’t presentthe author’s points of view (except the conclusions, but, to be more persuasive, he quotes some veryimportant personalities of the world of arts, culture and literature. Everything appears to be so clear,that he could say: No comment ! But the author of this article goes away, he concludes everyquotation of the most important personalities invited to speak (so to say and puts away some veryinteresting ideas, very rarely expressed. One could say it took a certain amount of courage for him todo it…, but someone has to do it, finally! The style of this paper is remarkably colloquial andattractive, it’s worth reading it.
Berry, J W
Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand the development and expression of human behavior in relation to the cultural contexts in which it occurs. It adopts the perspective of "universalism," which assumes that all human beings share basic psychological processes, but which are then shaped by cultural influences. This perspective allows for the comparison of individuals from different cultures (based on the process commonality), but also accepts behavioral variability (based on the cultural shaping). In the case of behavior that takes place during interactions between individuals coming from two (or more) cultures, the task is more complex; we now need to understand at least two sets of culture-behavior phenomena, as well as a third set--those that arise at the intersection of their relationships. In cross-cultural psychology, we have adopted concepts and methods from sociology and political science to inform work on "ethnic relations," and from cultural anthropology we have been informed in our work on the process and outcomes of "acculturation." In the former domain are phenomena such as prejudice and discrimination; in the latter are the strategies people use when in daily contact with people from other cultures (such as assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization). These phenomena take place in cultural contexts, which need to be understood in terms of the core dimensions of cultural difference (such as diversity, equality, and conformity). During prolonged and intimate contact between persons of different cultural backgrounds, all these psychological concepts and processes, and cultural influences need to be taken into account when selecting, training, and monitoring individuals during their intercultural interactions.
Abstract. Organizational culture can also be evaluated as an application stage for the processes and fixations that occur with communication. The lack of cooperation at the desired level may lead to a decrease in effectiveness, especially at the points where teamwork is required, and to a slower implementation. This is one of the most important factors especially for the common purpose and goal setting and for the generations of the application schedules to be generic. The expected cultural c...
Olesen, Henning Salling
which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...... of individuals’ subjective relation to work and work related learning have revealed a close connection between gender relations and societal work organisation. This observation has become particularly pointed in studies of a number of professions dealing with traditional ‘women’s work’, in which the close links...... of individual and collective learning and identity processes....
In this paper, a Jungian understanding of cultural factors influencing individual analysis is illustrated with the case of a patient suffering from panic attacks. The analysis revealed that, in addition to the patient's personal background, the collectivistic attitudes of the Soviet culture, which had a moulding effect on the patient in his childhood and obstructed his individuation, should be taken into account. The concepts of the totalitarian object and the Russian cultural complex encompassing a grandiosity pole and an inferiority pole are used to explore the patient's condition, and the crucial role of creating mutual language with the patient is outlined. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.
Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias
In this paper, culture-related behaviors are investigated on several channels of communication for virtual characters. Prototypical behaviors were formalized in computational models based on a literature review as well as a corpus analysis, exemplifying the German and Japanese cultures. Therefore...
Raybeck, Douglas; Herrmann, Douglas
Reports on a cross-cultural investigation of semantic relations, including antonyms, synonyms, and class inclusion, among bilingual adult subjects in the United States, England, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, Pakistan, and Hong Kong. Found significant agreement across cultures, especially for antinomy. Results in general support theories of linguistic…
Vasquez, Gabriel M.; Taylor, Maureen
Examines the role of culture as a key variable in public relations research and practice. Finds (1) American practitioners continue to practice one-way models of public relations; and (2) public relations practitioners who have collectivistic values tend to practice two-way models of public relations. Discusses implications for theory and…
Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto
Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan
To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In this study we relate two concepts, Emotional Intelligence and Culture of Honour; in both cases the emotional aspect is very important and we believe they may have a role in couple relations. We propose that both concepts would relate in reverse, so that an individual with a high level of Emotional Intelligence would give less importance to the Culture of Honor and vice versa. A sample of 203 heterosexual couples completed a questionnaire. Our results show that the dimension Attention to emotions is associated with the culture of honor. Among our fi ndings we propose that the two concepts are related in some way and that congruency in the valuation of the Culture of Honor between the two partners will also deal with a level of Emotional Intelligence higher than in couples where there is not this congruence.
Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).
Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.
The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions
Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…
Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...
Conflict ( Prosocial Behavior ) Cognitive Processes - Shared Team Mental Models, Transactive Memory Action Processes - Team Coordination...information sharing behaviors after the experiment unfolded. To explore this further, an independent sample t -test was conducted, where the difference in...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral , Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors
Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
The purpose of
Minagawa, T.; Nakaya, C.; Iida, H.
Host DNA synthesis is suppressed by the culture fluid of cell cultures infected with measles virus. This activity in the culture fluid is initiated somewhat later than the growth of infectious virus. Ninety percent of host DNA synthesis in HeLa cells is inhibited by culture fluid of 3-day-old cell cultures of Vero or HeLa cells infected with measles virus. This suppressing activity is not a property of the virion, but is due to nonvirion-associated componentnent which shows none of the activities of measles virus such as hemagglutination, hemolysis, or cell fusion nor does it have the antigenicity of measles virus as tested by complement-fixation or hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody blocking tests. Neutralization of the activity of this component is not attained with the pooled sera of convalescent measles patients. This component has molecular weights of about 45,000, 20,000, and 3,000 and appears to be a heat-stable protein. The production of host DNA suppressing factor (DSF) is blocked by cycloheximide. Neither uv-inactivated nor antiserum-neutralized measles virus produce DSF. Furthermore, such activity of nonvirion-associated component is not detected in the culture fluid of cultures infected with other RNA viruses such as poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or Sindbis virus. (auth)
Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J
Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.
Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.
The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.
George, Amiso M.
Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…
... during his earthly ministry. The proper examination of these problems engaged the aim of this paper. The method of approach is descriptive and phenomenological approaches based on the review of related literature. Keywords: corruption, culture, bribe, extortion, policy, traditional gift, church, religion and social change ...
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Elliott, Marc; Pradhan, Rohit; Schiller, Cameron; Dreachslin, Janice; Hays, Ron D.
Cultural competency has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address racial/ethnic disparities in the health care system; disparities are a long-standing policy challenge whose relevance is only increasing with the increasing population diversity of the US and across the world. Using an integrative conceptual framework based on the resource dependency and institutional theories, we examine the relationship between organizational and market factors and hospitals’ degree of cultural competency. Our sample consists of 119 hospitals located in the state of California (US) and is constructed using the following datasets for the year 2006: Cultural Competency Assessment Tool of Hospitals (CCATH) Survey, California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning & Development’s Hospital Inpatient Discharges and Annual Hospital Financial Data, American Hospital Association’s Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File. The dependent variable consists of the degree of hospital cultural competency, as assessed by the CCATH overall score. Organizational variables include ownership status, teaching hospital, payer mix, size, system membership, financial performance, and the proportion of inpatient racial/ethnic minorities. Market characteristics included hospital competition, the proportion of racial/ethnic minorities in the area, metropolitan area, and per capita income. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the CCATH overall score and organizational and market variables. Our results show that hospitals which are not-for-profit, serve a more diverse inpatient population, and are located in more competitive and affluent markets exhibit a higher degree of cultural competency. Our results underscore the importance of both institutional and competitive market pressures in guiding hospital behavior. For instance, while not-for-profit may adopt innovative/progressive policies like cultural competency simply as a function of their organizational
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Elliott, Marc N; Pradhan, Rohit; Schiller, Cameron; Dreachslin, Janice; Hays, Ron D
Cultural competency has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address racial/ethnic disparities in the healthcare system; disparities are a long-standing policy challenge whose relevance is only increasing with the increasing population diversity of the US and across the world. Using an integrative conceptual framework based on the resource dependency and institutional theories, we examine the relationship between organizational and market factors and hospitals' degree of cultural competency. Our sample consists of 119 hospitals located in the state of California (US) and is constructed using the following datasets for the year 2006: Cultural Competency Assessment Tool of Hospitals (CCATH) Survey, California's Office of Statewide Health Planning & Development's Hospital Inpatient Discharges and Annual Hospital Financial Data, American Hospital Association's Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File. The dependent variable consists of the degree of hospital cultural competency, as assessed by the CCATH overall score. Organizational variables include ownership status, teaching hospital, payer mix, size, system membership, financial performance, and the proportion of inpatient racial/ethnic minorities. Market characteristics included hospital competition, the proportion of racial/ethnic minorities in the area, metropolitan area, and per capita income. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the CCATH overall score and organizational and market variables. Our results show that hospitals which are not-for-profit, serve a more diverse inpatient population, and are located in more competitive and affluent markets exhibit a higher degree of cultural competency. Our results underscore the importance of both institutional and competitive market pressures in guiding hospital behavior. For instance, while not-for-profit may adopt innovative/progressive policies like cultural competency simply as a function of their organizational goals
Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Fahlberg, Anjuli; Espinola, Maria
There is limited research comparatively evaluating delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth. This analysis examines the rates and cultural correlates associated with delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth using data from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents study. The study surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating aggression perpetration and delinquency. Dating aggression perpetration and delinquency rates and relative risk ratios are presented. Logistic regression analyses examined the role of cultural factors on the perpetration of dating aggression and delinquent behaviors. Results showed that cultural factors had differential influence on dating aggression versus delinquency. Specifically, victimization, acculturation, and familial support were associated with dating aggression whereas only victimization and familial support were associated with delinquency. The results provide guidance for intervention and prevention efforts with Latino youth, particularly on the need for cultural consideration and the supportive role family can play in addressing these behaviors.
L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy); J. Hutjes
textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are
Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M. J.; Wong, K. M.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.
What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryos than the culture medium or
Warlum, Michael Frank
The study seeks to determine and describe factors which are related to, and which may be responsible for, adult participation or lack of participation in a large-scale, community-wide, cultural arts project involving considerable volunteer effort. While serving as a participant observer, the researcher gathered data from sources directly related…
Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them.
Porcelli, Stefano; Bianchini, Oriana; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Aguglia, Eugenio; Crea, Luciana; Serretti, Alessandro
Relapses represent one of the main problems of schizophrenia management. This article reviews the clinical factors associated with schizophrenia relapse. A research of the last 22 years of literature data was performed. Two-hundred nineteen studies have been included. Three main groups of factors are related to relapse: factors associated with pharmacological treatment, add-on psychotherapeutic treatments and general risk factors. Overall, the absence of a maintenance therapy and treatment with first generation antipsychotics has been associated with higher risk of relapse. Further, psychotherapy add-on, particularly with cognitive behaviour therapy and psycho-education for both patients and relatives, has shown a good efficacy for reducing the relapse rate. Among general risk factors, some could be modified, such as the duration of untreated psychosis or the substance misuse, while others could not be modified as male gender or low pre-morbid level of functioning. Several classes of risk factors have been proved to be relevant in the risk of relapse. Thus, a careful assessment of the risk factors here identified should be performed in daily clinical practice in order to individualise the relapse risk for each patient and to provide a targeted treatment in high-risk subjects.
Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte
Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella...... novobiocin, followed by combinations of culture media (three types) and selective media (two types). The sensitivity of each combination and sources of variation in detection were determined by a generalized linear mixed model using a split-plot design. Conclusions: Biological factors, such as faecal origin...... and S. Dublin strain influenced the sensitivity more than technical factors. Overall, the modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV)-culture medium had the most reliable detection capability, whereas detection with selenite cystine broth and Mueller Kauffman tetrathionate broth combinations varied...
Duijster, Denise; Oude Groeniger, Joost; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Lenthe, Frank J
This study aimed to assess the contribution of material, behavioural, cultural and psychosocial factors in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities (education and income) in oral health of Dutch adults. Cross-sectional data from participants (25-75 years of age) of the fifth wave of the GLOBE cohort were used (n = 2812). Questionnaires were used to obtain data on material factors (e.g. financial difficulties), behavioural factors (e.g. smoking), cultural factors (e.g. cultural activities) and psychosocial factors (e.g. psychological distress). Oral health outcomes were self-reported number of teeth and self-rated oral health (SROH). Mediation analysis, using multivariable negative binomial regression and logistic regression, was performed. Education level and income showed a graded positive relationship with both oral health outcomes. Adding material, behavioural, cultural and psychosocial factors substantially reduced the rate ratio for the number of teeth of the lowest education group from 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.83) to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.97) and of the lowest income group from 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73-0.88) to 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96-1.14). Inclusion of all factors also substantially reduced the odds ratio for poor SROH of the lowest education group from 1.61 (95% CI: 1.28-2.03) to 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85-1.48) and of the lowest income groups from 3.18 (95% CI: 2.13-4.74) to 1.48 (95% CI: 0.90-2.45). In general, behavioural factors contributed most to the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in adult oral health, followed by material factors. The contribution of cultural and psychosocial factors was relatively moderate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Elizaveta A. Volkova
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition and origin of the notions «mentality (identity» and «national mentality (identity» focusing on their complex essence. The article names factors that affect the formation of national identity, at the same time pointing out the aspect of human life that the identity itself affects. The notion «national identity» is revealed via its vocabulary definitions. National identity is analyzed as a factor of inter-cultural communication, its role and importance in this communication are also analyzed. One of the objectives of the research is signing out the limits of the concepts «national identity» and «inter-cultural communication» and revealing the conditions of their interaction and mutual dependence. National identity is a complex notion, which complexity lies within the combination of mental and emotional, spiritual elements. This factor adds extra difficulty into understanding, as well as investigating the notion of national identity. Thus it is not rarely ignored in linguistics, international communication, even in teaching languages. However, nowadays, when globalization makes international contacts and communication widely accessible, many people meet unexpected difficulties that derive from ignoring national identity factor. That is why recently it is getting more and more obvious that taking national identity into consideration can be one of the main keys to successful communication at all levels.
Schultheiss, Donna E.; Watts, Jane; Sterland, Ljaja; O'Neill, Maggie
In response to the precarious and disadvantaged position of forced migrants in the United States and the UK, marked by unemployment, under employment and loss of career capital, this paper draws upon a relational cultural paradigm and a life design career model in order to understand migrant work life, shape the career intervention process and…
Baltaretu, Adriana-Alexandra; Krahmer, Emiel; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons
In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to
Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.
Mar 4, 2013 ... Policy makers in government, clients, and private developers into housing projects should give adequate .... constraints, payment method, finding methods and ... price and negotiation of contract details and firm ... All these discussed .... Decision. Cost related factors. 31.83. 3. 9.34. 0.00. S*. Accept H1.
Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a model that can focus attention on appropriate cultural targets of inquiry, provide a completion criterion for root-cause completeness, and illustrate results. The illustration provided is as follows: Discover the root causes(s) related to issues of a nuclear reactor operator sleeping, inattention to duties, failure to adhere to procedures, and management inaction or adequate action
Boyd, D. R.; And Others
The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…
Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory
We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.
Full Text Available Culture and international relations easily appear to be mutually contradictory terms. To speak of "culture" is to invoke the creative capacities of human beings, to point, for example, to the constitutive role of values and visions, to the power of language and aesthetic expression, to communities great and small engaged in reconstructing normative aspirations and reshaping the possibilities for a decent way of life. To speak of "international relations," by contrast, is to draw upon an altogether bleaker account of the human condition, to refer to missiles and bombs, trade figures and debts, statesmanship and diplomacy, intrigue and force. It is to echo assertions about naked power and the sacrifice of cultural creativity and normative aspiration to the supposedly more enduring determinations of survival or supremacy. From the dark depths of international relations, the term culture takes on an aura of frivolity. It appears to refer to the idealistic and utopian, to the veneer of civilized decency that is always stripped away by the harsh realities of power politics and international conflict. This work aims at showing the contrary.
Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca
In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women
Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee
Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.
Full Text Available Finding a place for public participation in the policies and practices of European river basin management planning is a challenge for the authorities in the participating countries and territories. Understanding the relation between national culture, the historical and political differences in the respective countries, and their practical experience with participation is considered important to support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. Knowledge and understanding of this relation is important to provide a context and basis from which new participatory practices can be designed and experiences evaluated and to identify conditions necessary for social learning. Within the context of the HarmoniCOP project, such a study was undertaken in the form of a National Approach and Background study, which examined and evaluated both historical and recent experiences that exist across Europe in relation to public participation and water management as it is today. We draw upon the findings of the HarmoniCOP national reports to identify common features and cultural differences. We depart from the traditional ideational concept of culture as a long-lasting system of perceptions, beliefs, norms, and values to provide a detailed discussion of the practices in four countries. We demonstrate that culture is just one of the factors that explain the differences in national approaches to public participation and argue that culture perceived as a more dynamic, integrated, adaptive socio-cultural system in which groups of actors create new frames, norms, and routines is a more promising road for further research.
Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Kouckodila Nzingoula, Michael Florian; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Hessou Ahahanzo-Glèlè, Yolaine; Damienne Agueh, Victoire; Tinoaga Ouédraogo, Laurent; Makoutodé, Michel
Organizational culture, a frequently ignored concept, affects job satisfaction and productivity in organizations. To determine the factors associated with the strength of organizational culture (OC) in Mono / Couffo regional hospital in Lokossa in Benin. This cross-sectional and analytical study involved 121 workers of Mono/Couffo hospital in March 2015. Data on the strength of OC was collected using a questionnaire based on the validated tool proposed by Cameron and Quinn (2006). Logistic regression was performed to explore the nature of the relationship between the independent variables and OC using Odds ratios. 62% of the surveyed subjects had a positive perception of organizational culture. This perception was statistically associated with managerial factors (moral support of workers and type of relationship with the executive staff). The risk of perceiving a low strength of OC was sixfold higher OR = 3.78, 95% CI (1.08 - 13.22) among subjects who felt they did not have moral support from executive staff than in those who perceived this moral support. The risk of perceiving a weak OC was higher among subjects who considered relations with the staff to be uncordial [OR = 14.32, 95% CI (4.35 - 47.11)] compared to those who considered these relations to be cordial. Human resource management factors were more closely associated with the strength of organizational culture. Hospital managers should pay more attention to these factors in their hospitals to promote better institutional performance.
Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.
Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)
Oakley, M Anne; Addison, Shirley C; Piran, Niva; Johnston, Gary J; Damianakis, Mary; Curry, Joyce; Dunbar, Christine; Weigeldt, Almuth
The current study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief relational-cultural model of therapy in a community-based mental health center for women. The study was distinctive in its use of a hybrid model that employed elements of randomized control and naturalistic design. Results showed that the entire treatment group of 91 women improved significantly on all eight outcome measures. Therapeutic gains were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The results lend support to the importance of including relational-cultural factors in the treatment of women. An adherence scale/manual was developed and implemented and will allow for replication.
Full Text Available This paper attemts to ilustrate how the managers and the staff of a 5 star hotel in Kosovo define quality. Furthermore, it explores the number of critical success factors related to TQM culture and how they are applied in the hotel operations. Different theories related to the quality in the field of service provision, more particular in hospitality or hotel sector and the introduction of the TQM culture in the same sector. A conceptual framework based on existing theories and literature is developed which is than confirms through the research findings and analysis. The findings suggest that most features associated with TQM, like critical success factors assessed throughout the research (leadership, customer focus, training, communication, teams and staff empowerment can produce an advantage for the 5 star hotel operations that will affect the quality of service. Furthermore, it confirms that some of the TQM aspects are applied and can be applied in 5 star hotel operations in Kosovo. The issue is whether these aspects are understood as TQM principles and whether their added value is embraced in the day-to-day running of the hotel. The outcomes imply that, indeed, the TQM culture is present in the The Hotel, a 5 star hotel in Kosovo. Some of the critical success factors are directly linked to TQM and some less and it also provides suggestions for improvement where needed, especially related to specific tools that are integral parts of the TQM culture.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine what factors are associated with sputum culture conversion after 1 month of tuberculosis (TB treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 52 patients with new drug susceptible pulmonary TB were included in the study. Patients completed St. George respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ, they were asked about smoking, alcohol use, living conditions and education. Body mass index (BMI measurements, laboratory tests (C reactive protein [CRP], vitamin D, albumin were performed, and chest X-ray was done. After 1 month of treatment sputum culture was repeated. Results: Culture conversion after 1 month of treatment was found in 38.5% cases. None of investigated social factors appeared to have an effect on conversion, but worse overall health status (as reported in SGRQ and longer duration of tobacco smoking were detected in the “no conversion” group. Concentrations of albumin, CRP, X-ray score and the time it took Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture to grow also differed. Patients who scored 30 or more on SGRQ were more than 7 times as likely to have no conversion. However, the most important factor predicting sputum culture conversion was sputum smear grade at the beginning of treatment: patients with grade of 2+ or more had more than 20-fold higher relative risk for no conversion. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we also developed a risk score for no conversion. Conclusions: The most important factors in predicting sputum culture conversion after 1 month of treatment were grades of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears at time of diagnosis and scores of SGRQ. Keywords: Smoking, Smear grade, St. George respiratory questionnaire, Tuberculosis, Culture conversion
Henkens, Tom; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs
, especially farming traditions in small-scale, non-industrial societies, has been based not only on the technologies that are "friendly" to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the source of all life. This sort of perception was particularly widespread among peoples of pre-industrial societies. The problem of searching for a way to increase long-term productivity in food grain production is complicated. This problem is of global importance for today and the future. The active interest of Modern society in the Folk experiences of using the Nature to achieve sustainable economies is yet to come, but we have much to learn from these small-scale non-industrial societies. Food production needs to be increased. At the same time, the fertility of the soil must be maintained. Achieving a balance between these two necessities is the problem. Changing the present modern human outlook from its egocentric position to one that understands and respects the natural environment, based on ideas of "ecological ethics", looks especially complex, and is directly connected with the problem of forming a new culture. Actually, the global ecological crisis and related ecological problems take priority and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, making use of Folk heritage, Folk knowledge and experience in observing Nature and using Nature to achieve harmonious interrelations in a "Nature - Society" system, and for the elaboration of a change of attitudes is quite important for modern society on a Global level to achieve ways of Sustainability. Lucius Seneca maintains that subjugation of a Nature is possible only if obeying to Nature. Modern epoch of Globalization in economy and Financial systems creating a potential of high risks for mankind on the Global level. Special attention to local factors (local experience in Nature using, local Folk experience in Life-support activity) in context of globalization problems
Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S
Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.
Liu Huizhen; Zhang Li; Zhang Yuling; Guan Shihua
This paper analyzes the different types of organization factors which influence the system safety. The organization factor can be divided into the interior organization factor and exterior organization factor. The latter includes the factors of political, economical, technical, law, social culture and geographical, and the relationships among different interest groups. The former includes organization culture, communication, decision, training, process, supervision and management and organization structure. This paper focuses on the description of the organization factors. The classification analysis of the organization factors is the early work of quantitative analysis. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this
Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Paul P. Connell
Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Coast, Ernestina
The World Health Organization recently made a recommendation supporting 'culturally-appropriate' maternity care services to improve maternal and newborn health. This recommendation results, in part, from a systematic review we conducted, which showed that interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care have largely improved women's use of skilled maternity care. Factors relating to the implementation of these interventions can have implications for their success. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives and experiences of these interventions, and facilitators and barriers to implementation; and concludes with how they relate to the effects of the interventions on care-seeking outcomes. We based our analysis on 15 papers included in the systematic review. To extract, collate and organise data on the context and conditions from each paper, we adapted the SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework that lists categories of factors that could influence implementation. We considered information from the background and discussion sections of papers included in the systematic review, as well as cost data and qualitative data when included. Women's and other stakeholders' perspectives on the interventions were generally positive. Four key themes emerged in our analysis of facilitators and barriers to implementation. Firstly, interventions must consider broader economic, geographical and social factors that affect ethnic minority groups' access to services, alongside providing culturally-appropriate care. Secondly, community participation is important in understanding problems with existing services and potential solutions from the community perspective, and in the development and implementation of interventions. Thirdly, respectful, person-centred care should be at the core of these interventions. Finally, cohesiveness is essential between the culturally-appropriate service and other health care providers encountered by women and their
Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Yik, Michelle; Koval, Peter; Coosemans, Joachim; Zeng, Kevin J; Russell, James A
While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so-called V-shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five-Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. In Study 1, we replicated the V-shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence-arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V-shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. The results showed that the steepness of the V-shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West-East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality-emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nassaji-Zavareh, M; Ghorbani, R
Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis is a common and significant problem in clinical practice. This study aims to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and to evaluate some important related factors. 300 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of hospitals in Semnan, Iran from April 2003 to February 2004 were prospectively studied. Variables evaluated were age, gender, site and size of catheter, type of insertion and underlying conditions (diabetes mellitus, trauma, infectious disease and burns). Phlebitis was defined when at least four criteria were fulfilled (erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth, induration, palpable cord and swelling). Any patient who was discharged or their catheter removed before three days were excluded. Phlebitis occurred in 26 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 21- 31 percent) of patients. There was no significant relationship between age, catheter bore size, trauma and phlebitis. Related risk factors were gender (odds-ratio [OR] 1.50, 95 percent CI 1.01-2.22), site (OR 3.25, 95 percent CI 2.26-4.67) and type of insertion (OR 2.04, 95 percent CI 1.36-3.05) of catheter, diabetes mellitus (OR 7.78, 95 percent CI 4.59-13.21), infectious disease (OR 6.21, 95 percent CI 4.27-9.03) and burns (OR 3.96, 95 percent CI 3.26-4.82). Phlebitis is still an important and ongoing problem in medical practice. In patients with diabetes mellitus and infectious diseases, more attention is needed.
Lee, Hanju; Kim, Jiyun; Han, Hae-Ra
This paper is a report of a study of the correlates of mammogram use among Korean American women. Despite the increasing incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, Asian women in the United States of America report consistently low rates of mammography screening. A number of health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics have been associated with mammogram participation among these women. However, studies systematically investigating cultural factors in relation to mammogram experience have been scarce. We measured screening-related health beliefs, modesty and use of Eastern medicine in 100 Korean American women in 2006. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine the unique contribution of the study variables, after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Only 51% reported past mammogram use. Korean American women who had previously had mammograms were statistically significantly older and had higher perceived benefit scores than those who had not. Perceived benefits (odds ratio = 6.3, 95% confidence interval = 2.12, 18.76) and breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.06, 9.59) were statistically significant correlates of mammography experience, whereas cultural factors did not correlate. Post hoc analysis showed that for women with some or good English skills, cultural factors statistically significantly correlated with health beliefs and breast cancer knowledge (P culturally tailored interventions of more targeted outreach and healthcare system navigation assistance for promoting mammography screening in Korean American women. Further research is needed to unravel the interplay between acculturation, cultural factors and health beliefs related to cancer screening behaviours of Korean American women.
Symbolic Interactionism : Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall. Bonner, J. T. (1980). The Evolution of Culture in...cultural factors. The framework includes the impacts of cultural perception of information-such as interpretation of signs, signals and symbols . This...for Cultural Factors in Organizational Model .................... 23 5.3 Signs, Signals, and Symbols : The Impacts on the Cultural Perception of
S. Abolhassan Ryazi
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study socio-cultural and psychological effective factors contributing to suicide, as well as comparing these factors among Iranian and Tajik women who attempted suicide. The present study was a qualitative study in which 60 patients (30 from each country participated. Each of these participants went through an in-depth interview. Results of the study showed that the most important factors considering suicide attempt in both groups were as follows: domestic violence, cultural induction, family cold relations, forced marriages, too much responsibility, lack of privacy, polygamy, irrational biases and lack of communication between generations. Tajik men, despite the law of monogamy, prefer polygamy and marry more than one woman. Tajik people also, prohibit burring body of a woman who is dead after a suicide atempt in Muslim cemetery.
Lopez, Sandra A.
Culture is a complex and important consideration in the process of helping others. In clinical practice, we must view the individual within the context of their culture in order for assessment or treatment to be effective. Further, to overlook or negate culture, a practitioner may possibly operate from faulty cultural assumptions or…
Donald A. MACCUISH
Full Text Available The late Colonel John Boyd developed what he called the OODA-Loop as both a learning and decision making model to help us better understand how we make decisions and learn. His OODA-Loop model consists of non-sequential elements: Observe – Orient – Decide – Action. He contended if one could cycle through these phases quicker and more accurately than one’s adversary you could then get inside your adversary’s OODA-Loop and “win”. The key to the OODA-Loop he noted is Orientation. He only drew one diagram of his OODA-Loop. Only in the Orientation phase did he elaborate component elements. These elements are: Cultural Traditions, Genetic Heritage, Analysis/Synthesis, New Information, and Previous Experience. All of these elements he contended are interconnected. Thus, the interaction of all these factors effects how we orient ourselves to the situation at hand. In this article I will share my view of the “Culture Factor” in Orientation.
Mohammad Hossein Omidi Noghlehbari
Full Text Available Feelings of security in urban areas are one of the qualitative criteria of living space. With the rise in urbanization and increasing abnormal urban behavior, especially offenses, this issue has become of great importance. This study aims to identify and analyze the effects of spatial factors on crime-inducing culture in affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods of Chaloos. The method used in this study is analytical-descriptive and it is practical in terms of objective. In order to study and understand the status of physical-spatial structures of affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods in Chaloos, we used field study method. Data were collected through interview, notes taking and questionnaire. The results indicate that in affluent neighborhoods, all criteria components of spatial differences are above the mean (Mean=3, but in non-affluent neighborhoods, all components are lower than the mean. In addition, there is a significant relationship between criteria components of spatial differences and the formation of crime-inducing culture (except the diagnosis component in the affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods.
V. M. Pekarchuk
Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify
Nagendra Gouda M
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.
Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.; Hutjes, J.
textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a count...
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye
In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation.
Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous
Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous
Full Text Available Consumer behavior is an action taken by a person in making a decision to search for purchase acquire use of goods and services that will satisfy their needs. The purpose of this study is presented to determine how much the behavior of consumers to choose online shopping and direct shopping at Management of Higher School STIM Sukma Medan. The method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative data that has been obtained through the data directly from the company. The data collected with the spaciousness of research and literature in the form of distributing questionnaires to 52 fifty-two consumers. Processing data using SPSS statistical test tools version 17.00. Based on the results of the 4 four and the indicator above the 8 eight questions as well as 52 fifty-two consumers. Results showed that the most influential in choosing online shopping is a cultural factor with a percentage of 26.14 while the most influential in choosing the direct spending is psychological factors with the percentage of 26.50.
This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals' abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds.
Culture knowledge plays an important role in linguistic proficiency and currently most teaching activities are stil happened inthe traditionalclassroom. So this paper introducedsome ofthe practicalteachingmethods ofChinese culture inthe Chinese language classroom.
Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Braun, B C; Comizzoli, P
Different culture conditions have been used to produce domestic cat embryos. As part of the in vitro procedures, the medium composition significantly affects the quality of the embryo development also. Quality assessments based on cleavage kinetics and blastomere symmetry are useful, but embryos also can differ in their relative gene expression patterns despite similar morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare cat embryos produced with two different in vitro culture systems routinely used in two different laboratories [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington D.C., USA (SCBI) and Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany (IZW)]. Specifically, relative mRNA expression patterns of critical genes for pre-implantation embryo development were assessed in both conditions. Embryos were produced in parallel in both culture systems by IVF using frozen-thawed ejaculated semen in the United States and fresh epididymal sperm in Germany. Success of embryo development in vitro was recorded as well as relative mRNA abundances [DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A (DNMT1, DNMT3A), gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [OCT4], insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), beta-actin (ACTB)] in pools of days 4-5 morulae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Percentages of cleaved embryos were similar (p > 0.05) between both culture systems, regardless of the location. OCT4 mRNA abundance was higher (p culture system compared with those from the IZW system when epididymal sperm was used for IVF. No clear correlation between the expression pattern and the culture system could be found for all other genes. It is suggested that OCT4 expression might be affected by the media composition in some conditions and can be the indicator of a better embryo quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua
To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.
Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja
The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.
Ong Choon Hee
The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...
Full Text Available In a production experiment (Experiment 1 and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2, we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as the ball between the man and the drawer. In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball. In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first relatum. The results showed a preference to start with the left entity, however, only as a trend, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b, and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c, then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d. Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first relatum than those on the right (Experiment 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d. Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d. When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiment 1c, 1d. In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2, participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed.
Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, attitudes towards cultural studies in Germany have developed within contexts of contact and conflict with a variety of disciplines, e.g. ethnology, anthropology, sociology, as well as the sociology of culture, liter-ary studies and Kulturwissenschaft(en. On the one hand there is a strong academ-ic interest in how cultural studies perceives and analyzes media culture, popular culture and everyday life. On the other hand boundaries with humanities and so-cial science remain, which leads to criticism and conflicts with cultural studies and its achievements.I will discuss some of the problems concerning the perception and reception of cultural studies among representatives of Kulturwissenschaft(en and sociology of culture. Furthermore I will draw on the role of cultural studies in thematizing cul-tural change and conflicts, and its ability to do so in a way that shows the im-portance of culture and politics.
Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed
and its potential expansion, the relative importance of national boundaries must be expected to diminish whereas other boundaries will become more apparent. One type of boundaries of vital impo to international marketing is the cultural boundaries dividing Europe into regions with individual cultural...... to the point where some people ta about a 'world cuisine'. However, local, national, and regional differences continue to play a decisive role in the way elements, products, and ingredients are combined, and when, how, with what, and with whom they are eaten. 4. This paper explores information about...... such cultural patterns of food consumption based on information from an exisiting database originating from a 1989 pan-European lifestyle survey questioning around 20.000 people in 16 European countries divided into 79 regions. 5. A factor analysis reduced the number of variables from 138 to 41, discovering...
Ross, Josephine; Yilmaz, Mandy; Dale, Rachel; Cassidy, Rose; Yildirim, Iraz; Suzanne Zeedyk, M
Fifteen- to 18-month-old infants from three nationalities were observed interacting with their mothers and during two self-recognition tasks. Scottish interactions were characterized by distal contact, Zambian interactions by proximal contact, and Turkish interactions by a mixture of contact strategies. These culturally distinct experiences may scaffold different perspectives on self. In support, Scottish infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in an individualistic context (mirror self-recognition), whereas Zambian infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in a less individualistic context (body-as-obstacle task). Turkish infants performed similarly to Zambian infants on the body-as-obstacle task, but outperformed Zambians on the mirror self-recognition task. Verbal contact (a distal strategy) was positively related to mirror self-recognition and negatively related to passing the body-as-obstacle task. Directive action and speech (proximal strategies) were negatively related to mirror self-recognition. Self-awareness performance was best predicted by cultural context; autonomous settings predicted success in mirror self-recognition, and related settings predicted success in the body-as-obstacle task. These novel data substantiate the idea that cultural factors may play a role in the early expression of self-awareness. More broadly, the results highlight the importance of moving beyond the mark test, and designing culturally sensitive tests of self-awareness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of two important socio-cultural factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity of young individuals in rural regions. Design/methodology/approach – Our empirical study is based on a sample collected from an adult population survey, and analyzed using a logit model that controls for territorial and aging sources of heterogeneity. Our theoretical framework is anchored on a contingency perspective that emphasizes the unique influences of the contextual environment in driving entrepreneurial behavior. Findings – The main findings of our study is that in Spain the likelihood of being entrepreneurially active is no different for young and old individuals, and between rural and urban regions. Surprisingly, unlike shown in most studies, entrepreneurial role models do not have any effect on the entrepreneurship by young individuals in rural regions of Spain, while the negative impact of fear of failure in the entrepreneurship on young individuals in rural regions is much higher compared to the rest of the population. Originality/value – Our findings reveal that the context (regional has a more significant impact on entrepreneurship for some segments (younger individuals of the population than for others.
Garner, D M; Garfinkel, P E
A population of professional dance (N = 183) and modelling (N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students (N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa (N = 68), and music students (N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6.5%) of primary anorexia nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.
Full Text Available In recent years, the environmental crisis is considered as one of the major challenges that human is faced. Many scientists have proposed technological solutions to reduce or prevent environmental crises, however, some of them have suggested the necessity of new relation and interaction between nature and human, and also, the need for a new environmental culture. This study aims to explore the environmental culture and its influencing factors in Shiraz city. Research was conducted by using survey method, cluster sampling and questionnaire. In total, 402 completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Research findings indicate that environmental culture had positive and significant relationship with opportunities and facilities offered, feeling efficiency and environmental education. However, environmental culture had no significant relationship with environmental knowledge and social norms. Also, multivariate regression results show that opportunities and facilities offered and feeling efficiency are significant with environmental culture.
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M
Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.
Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi
Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.
Serafín Aldea Muñoz
Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.
Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang
This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed
Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane
This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Serenity of the Meditating Mind: A Cross-Cultural Psychometric Study on a Two-Factor Higher Order Structure of Mindfulness, Its Effects, and Mechanisms Related to Mental Health among Experienced Meditators
Tran, Ulrich S.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M.; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa
Objective To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. Results The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. Conclusions A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies. PMID:25330072
The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.
Ulrich S Tran
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. METHODS: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891 and a Spanish (n = 393 meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. RESULTS: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.
Full Text Available The article discusses subject of the organizational culture and understanding the strong role it plays in organizations from the point of view in regard to the human capital management. Basically, culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts of organization members and their behaviors. It encourages employees to identify their goals with company goals, promotes knowledge sharing lead to increased competencies and teams effectiveness. The most significant thesis of the article says that organizational culture plays an important role in the process of knowledge management. Main conceptions of corporate culture as understanding, meaning, the most important aspects indicated changes which should be stimulated by transformation of organizational culture and ways of shaping, were shown.
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shirakabe, Y; Kinugasa, T; Kawata, M; Kishimoto, T; Shirakabe, T
Of the many aspects of aesthetic surgery, the double-eyelid operation generates the most interest for Japanese surgeons, as there has been an enormous demand for it by patients who are fashion-conscious. It has been possible to locate 32 operative procedures that have been published in the Japanese literature over the past ninety years. Some of these procedures have been reviewed here in relation to the cultural and social changes which are important factors determining the extent of the demand for the operation and which correlate with various changes in surgical technique. This study chronologically describes each of the principal methods related to these social changes and also considers the influence of cultural fads and fashions.
Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern
This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio
L. M. Nesterenko
Full Text Available The impact of social and cultural factors on the musical preferences of students in Ukraine has been analysed in the article. The following factors have been selected: the type of society and social change in the polical fields of economy, culture, technology, students, musical paradigm. The urgency of the analysis of the genesis, development and change of musical preferences of students has been proven, the necessity to study the influence of sociocultural factors on the formation of musical preferences in modern society has been grounded. This allowed characterising the musical preferences as a socio-cultural phenomenon that present signs and society, and culture of the society. It has been found that the development of technology, such as the invention and use of the gramophone, phonograph, cinema, radio, television, and later a tape recorder, computer, Internet, mobile communications and the latest gadgets, has enhanced the formation of musical preferences.It has contributed meeting the needs and inquiries of students, which are studying musical art, the use of individual trajectories of formation of formal and informal musical preferences. Formal preferences are associated with the activities of social institutions and social organizations. In this context, the musical preferences and those recommended “from above” have been considered to be two different ways of formation of musical preferences in a totalitarian society. The variety of musical preferences has been determined. State-formed musical preferences have been identified and characterized by a second method of forming a musical preferences, which is based on the perception of diversity and is not approved by the musical culture of the individually selected samples, “from below” groups, which are defined as individual and personal, or informal, musical preferences. The musical preferences of students, related to situations of social changes that have occurred in the spheres
Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.
Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma
There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jozefien eDe Leersnyder
Full Text Available The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships—close others shape people’s environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways—and are afforded by structural conditions—people’s daily lives limit the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja
The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships-close others shape people's environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways-and are afforded by structural conditions-people's daily lives "limit" the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.
Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E
Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja
The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals th...
The article discusses subject of the organizational culture and understanding the strong role it plays in organizations from the point of view in regard to the human capital management. Basically, culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. It encourages employees to identify their goals with company goals, promotes knowledge sharing lead to increased competencies and teams effectiveness. The most significa...
Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Bedford, Olwen; Yang, Yung-Jui
The consensus definition of autonomy in the psychological literature emphasizes self-governance through free volition, not separation or independence from others. Since the concept of self may differ cross-culturally, several researchers have tried to incorporate types of self into the notion of autonomy; however, only the dual model of autonomy has been able to do this while retaining an emphasis on volition. The dual model describes two distinct forms of autonomy-individuating and relating-each with superior function in a specific domain of individual functioning. Individuating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act against social constraints and offers a route to achieve an independent self-identity by expressing individualistic attributes and distinctions. Relating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act by emphasizing the harmony of self-in-relation-to-others, the quality of interpersonal relationships, and self-transcendence. These two forms of autonomy have been shown to coexist at the individual level in a Taiwanese sample. This study takes the next step, with a cross-cultural test of the coexistence and domain superiority hypotheses of individuating and relating autonomy. Participants included 306 college students from Taiwan and 183 college students from the United States. Structural equation modelling by multigroup analyses confirmed the cross-cultural equivalence of the two-factor individuating autonomy and relating autonomy measurement model. Across both samples the two forms of autonomy were shown to be mutually inclusive and not exclusive or independent. The domain-superior function of each form of autonomy was also confirmed cross-culturally; each form of autonomy has a dominant, but not necessarily exclusive, domain of functioning. Specifically, individuating autonomy was more associated with intrapersonal than interpersonal domain dependent variables, while relating autonomy was more associated with interpersonal than
Blakeman, Rachel; Haseley, Dennis
As psychoanalytic institutes evolve, adapting to the contemporary financial and social environment, the integration of new technologies into psychoanalytic education presents opportunities for expansion to candidates residing beyond the usual geographic boundaries. While the teaching of analytic content through distance learning programs appears to be relatively straightforward, factors including legalities, traditional mind-sets, and cross-cultural issues need to be considered as complicating the situation, as illustrated by one U.S. institute's distance learning initiative with a group in South Korea. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.
Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting
This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized
Pratama Gradiyan Budi
Full Text Available National culture plays an important role in the application of ergonomics and safety. This research examined role of national culture in accident analysis of Indonesian aviation using framework of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. 53 Indonesian aviation accidents during year of 2001-2012 were analyzed using the HFACS framework by authors and were validated to 14 air-transport experts in Indonesia. National culture is viewed with Hofstede’ lens of national culture. Result shows that high collectivistic, low uncertainty avoidance, high power distance, and masculinity dimension which are characteristics of Indonesian culture, play an important role in Indonesian aviation accident and should be incorporated within HFACS. Result is discussed in relation with HFACS and Indonesian aviation accident analysis.
Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio
The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.
Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo
Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)
Feldt, S; Dzakpasu, R; Olariu, E; Żochowski, M; Wang, J X; Shtrahman, E
In this work we investigate the relationship between gross anatomic structural network properties, neuronal dynamics and the resultant functional structure in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Specifically, we studied cultures as they developed under two conditions: the first supporting glial cell growth (high glial group), and the second one inhibiting it (low glial group). We then compared structural network properties and the spatio-temporal activity patterns of the neurons. Differences in dynamics between the two groups could be linked to the impact of the glial network on the neuronal network as the cultures developed. We also implemented a recently developed algorithm called the functional clustering algorithm (FCA) to obtain the resulting functional network structure. We show that this new algorithm is useful for capturing changes in functional network structure as the networks evolve over time. The FCA detects changes in functional structure that are consistent with expected dynamical differences due to the impact of the glial network. Cultures in the high glial group show an increase in global synchronization as the cultures age, while those in the low glial group remain locally synchronized. We additionally use the FCA to quantify the amount of synchronization present in the cultures and show that the total level of synchronization in the high glial group is stronger than in the low glial group. These results indicate an interdependence between the glial and neuronal networks present in dissociated cultures
subsequent require- ment placed on military police, legal operations, personnel control facilities, stockades and the correctional training program increase...variables and particularly different aspects of the env,ronmtent. 7 -’:.- -.-’C. . *C? From this overviev , as well as a perusal of an in-depth review ’ of...variahles. The-3nalysis w•’s col•iieted at the University of Wisconsin Computer Center, U!I’,PC 1108 System. Ten factors, dealing with response to AWM
Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup
and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family...... families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related...
Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.
The paper presents a general model that provides a framework for the safety culture assessment, creating the possibility to identify factors that can significantly influence the safety culture. The main safety culture influence factors (SCIF) used by model are the following: regulatory environment, organizational environment, worker characteristics, socio-political environment, national culture, organization history, business and technological characteristics. After the analysis of the deficiencies and weaknesses of SCIFc in evolution of the Fukushima accident, some issues that may become necessities and requirements to change and improve both the safety culture and safety of the nuclear installations were highlighted. For each influence factor were identified some requirements to amend. The results will emphasize the necesity of the human - technology - organization system assessment. Hence it was demonstrated that the safety culture results from the interaction of individuals with technology and with the organization. (authors)
TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma
The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...
TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma
The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...
Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith
Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…
Yang, Keeyung; Chung, Sock H.
Purpose: As universities and colleges face an increasingly global environment, internationalization is viewed as a critical aspect of education, a fact that has significant academic and economic implications for higher educational institutions worldwide which need to be current with cultural education to adapt to change. Learning from other…
Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin
In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…
Much has been discussed and written about ethnicity. This paper is therefore intended as a contribution to the management of interethnic/intercultural conflicts in Nigeria, with a focus on new ways of handling the basic socio-cultural institutions shaping ethnic consciousness. Furthermore, this paper highlights the basic ...
With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…
Clark, Stephen A; Lekshmi, Aiswarya; Lucidarme, Jay; Hao, Li; Tsao, How; Lee-Jones, Lisa; Jansen, Kathrin U; Newbold, Lynne S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Borrow, Ray
To compare the distribution of capsular groups and factor H-binding protein (fHBP) variants among meningococcal isolates and non-culture clinical specimens and to assess the representativeness of group B isolates amongst group B cases as a whole. A PCR sequencing assay was used to characterise fHBP from non-culture cases confirmed from January 2011 to December 2013. These were compared to genotypic data derived from whole genome analysis of isolates received during the same period. Group W and Y strains were more common among isolates than non-culture strains. The distribution of fHBP variants among group B non-culture cases generally reflected that seen in the corresponding isolates. Nonetheless, the non-culture subset contained a greater proportion of fHBP variant 15/B44, associated with the ST-269 cluster sublineage. Differences in capsular group and fHBP distribution among culture and non-culture cases may be indicative of variation in strain viability, diagnostic practice, disease severity and/or clinical presentation. Future analyses combining clinical case information with laboratory data may help to further explore these differences. Group B isolates provide a good representation of group B disease in E&W and, therefore, can reliably be used in fHBP strain coverage predictions of recently-licensed vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ross, K. G; Thornson, C. A
This task, the first of five tasks in a project to support Cultural Readiness for the Department of Defense, represents the first step in the development of a "paper and pencil" questionnaire measure...
... population policy implementation strategies and implications for planning. Cultural practices, norms, values, beliefs and religion negatively influence procreation, population control measures, immunization, child survival transmission, management, child survival transmission, management and care of HIV and AIDS.
Scott, C.D.; Baxter, R.C.
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptors in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were characterized and their regulation by cell density examined. In hepatocytes cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells per 3.8 cm2 plate [ 125 I]IGF-II bound to specific, high affinity receptors (Ka = 4.4 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) l/mol). Less than 1% cross-reactivity by IGF-I and no cross-reactivity by insulin were observed. IGF-II binding increased when cells were permeabilized with 0.01% digitonin, suggesting the presence of an intracellular receptor pool. Determined by Scatchard analysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity labeling, the higher binding was due solely to an increase in binding sites present on 220 kDa type II IGF receptors. In hepatocytes cultured at low densities, the number of cell surface receptors increased markedly, from 10-20,000 receptors per cell at a culture density of 6 X 10(5) cells/well to 70-80,000 receptors per cell at 0.38 X 10(5) cells/well. The increase was not due simply to the exposure of receptors from the intracellular pool, as a density-related increase in receptors was also seen in cells permeabilized with digitonin. There was no evidence that IGF binding proteins, either secreted by hepatocytes or present in fetal calf serum, had any effect on the measurement of receptor concentration or affinity. We conclude that rat hepatocytes in primary culture contain specific IGF-II receptors and that both cell surface and intracellular receptors are regulated by cell density
Lai, Daniel W L; Li, Lun; Daoust, Gabrielle D
This paper reviews recent literature on factors influencing suicide behaviours, including thoughts, plans, and attempts, in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups, to inform a more comprehensive understanding of suicide behaviours in increasingly culturally diverse populations. Thirty-three studies published between 2002 and 2013 were identified through digital databases searches and included in this review. Analysis of study findings focused on impacts of ethno-cultural identity and acculturation, other cultural and immigration influences, and family and community supports on suicide behaviours. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are identified, to inform relevant suicide prevention efforts and enhance mental health supports for immigrant and ethno-cultural minority populations.
Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge
As a result of their high prevalence, mayor depressive disorder single episode (MDDSE); major depressive disorder recurrent episodes (MDDREC); and dysthymia are considered an important public health problem. The objective of this paper was to identify and correlate environmental factors in patients with MDDSE, MDDREC and dysthymia. 121 patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Subzone General Hospital of San Andres Tuxtla, at Veracruz, were questioned by history with the risk variables. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. The main risk factors identified for developing depressive disorders were: being female, over 40 years old and being married. The differences obtained in this study, if it is compared with others, are probably due to sample size, selection criteria and ethnic origin.
S. I. Lunev
Full Text Available The concept of development of relations in the format of RIC, BRIC and BRICS, the scale and the scope of cooperation, the direction of activity are still relatively vague. However, there are significant prerequisites for a substantial rapprochement of states, and the main of them is the rejection of the establishment of a unipolar world. The BRICS could become for its participants a key factor both for strengthening positions in the world economic system, and for realization of concrete projects. The economic relations in the triangle Russia — China — India should be mentioned especially as the implementation of such projects is facilitated by the neighborhood of the countries in Eurasia. It is also very important to develop comprehensively cultural subsystem, first of all, the cooperation in the educational sphere (the strong increase in Chinese and Indian student enrollments to Russian universities, and medicine and natural science should be priority directions; the strengthening of the ties in the sphere of higher education and science. Cultural activities should also be dramatically expanded. The BRICS countries are not interested in a radical breaking of international political and economic relations, but are obliged to contribute to sharp strengthening of their positions in the world system.
To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)
A K Voronkov
Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.
Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela
Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.
Michelle E LeBlanc
Full Text Available Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (Hdgfrp3 or HRP-3 was recently reported as a neurotrophic factor and is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma to promote cancer cell survival. Here we identified HRP-3 as a new endothelial ligand and characterized its in vitro and in vivo functional roles and molecular signaling. We combined open reading frame phage display with multi-round in vivo binding selection to enrich retinal endothelial ligands, which were systematically identified by next generation DNA sequencing. One of the identified endothelial ligands was HRP-3. HRP-3 expression in the retina and brain was characterized by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation assay showed that HRP-3 stimulated the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. HRP-3 induced tube formation of HUVECs in culture. Wound healing assay indicated that HRP-3 promoted endothelial cell migration. HRP-3 was further confirmed for its in vitro angiogenic activity by spheroid sprouting assay. HRP-3 extrinsically activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2 pathway in endothelial cells. The angiogenic activity of HRP-3 was independently verified by mouse cornea pocket assay. Furthermore, in vivo Matrigel plug assay corroborated HRP-3 activity to promote new blood vessel formation. These results demonstrated that HRP-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.
Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between corporate governance, cultural factors and voluntary disclosure by the listed companies in Bangladesh. The corporate governance factors examined are proportion of independent non-executive directors (INDs, board leadership structure, management ownership, board size and audit committee size. The extent of voluntary disclosure level is measured using 68 items of information. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in Bangladesh. The result shows a positive association between board size, board leadership structure, audit committee size and voluntary disclosure. However, no evidence is found to support the contention that independent directors are associated with increased disclosure, consistent with previous studies. Higher education of the CEO and CFO is positively related to the level of voluntary disclosure. The result also indicates that the extent of voluntary disclosures is negatively associated with a higher management ownership.
There is evidence for widespread disbelief in the genetics of suicide, despite recent research progress in this area and convergent evidence supporting a role for genetic factors. This study analyzed the beliefs held in 8 samples (total N = 1224) of various types (psychology, medical, and various undergraduates, psychology graduates, and the general population) from 6 countries located on 3 continents (Austria, Canada, Malaysia, Romania, United Kingdom, and the USA). Endorsement rates for the existence of genetic risk factors for suicide ranged from 26% and 30% (Austrian psychology undergraduates and general population) to around 50% (psychology undergraduates in the USA and United Kingdom). In the 8 samples, respondents' sex, age, religiosity, political orientation, and other demographic variables were, for the most part, unrelated, but overall knowledge about suicide throughout was related positively to endorsement rates. Consistent with previous research, across a considerable variety of sample types and cultural settings there was no evidence for a clear majority believing in genetic bases for suicide.
Tourism has to maintain an individual and social balance, so that as well as providing personal fulfilment, it can be development in harmony with the human, natural and cultural environment and fit into a context of sustainable development. At the threshold of the third millennium, those of us involved in social tourism are faced with the emergence of threefold revolution: a revolution of the imagination and of creation in the development of new products and new; services in response to the n...
Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN
Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.
Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.
This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…
Faeh, D; Minder, C; Gutzwiller, F; Bopp, M
The aim was to compare cause-specific mortality, self-rated health (SRH) and risk factors in the French and German part of Switzerland and to discuss to what extent variations between these regions reflect differences between France and Germany. Data were used from the general population of German and French Switzerland with 2.8 million individuals aged 45-74 years, contributing 176 782 deaths between 1990 and 2000. Adjusted mortality risks were calculated from the Swiss National Cohort, a longitudinal census-based record linkage study. Results were contrasted with cross-sectional analyses of SRH and risk factors (Swiss Health Survey 1992/3) and with cross-sectional national and international mortality rates for 1980, 1990 and 2000. Despite similar all-cause mortality, there were substantial differences in cause-specific mortality between Swiss regions. Deaths from circulatory disease were more common in German Switzerland, while causes related to alcohol consumption were more prevalent in French Switzerland. Many but not all of the mortality differences between the two regions could be explained by variations in risk factors. Similar patterns were found between Germany and France. Characteristic mortality and behavioural differentials between the German- and the French-speaking parts of Switzerland could also be found between Germany and France. However, some of the international variations in mortality were not in line with the Swiss regional comparison nor with differences in risk factors. These could relate to peculiarities in assignment of cause of death. With its cultural diversity, Switzerland offers the opportunity to examine cultural determinants of mortality without bias due to different statistical systems or national health policies.
Kalpakci, Kerem N; Kim, Eric J; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A
Treatments for patients suffering from severe temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction are limited, motivating the development of strategies for tissue regeneration. In this study, co-cultures of fibrochondrocytes (FCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) were seeded in agarose wells, and supplemented with growth factors, to engineer tissue with biomechanical properties and extracellular matrix composition similar to native TMJ fibrocartilage. In the first phase, growth factors were applied alone and in combination, in the presence or absence of serum, while in the second phase, the best overall treatment was applied at intermittent dosing. Continuous treatment of AC/FC co-cultures with TGF-β1 in serum-free medium resulted in constructs with glycosaminoglycan/wet weight ratios (12.2%), instantaneous compressive moduli (790 kPa), relaxed compressive moduli (120 kPa) and Young's moduli (1.87 MPa) that overlap with native TMJ disc values. Among co-culture groups, TGF-β1 treatment increased collagen deposition ∼20%, compressive stiffness ∼130% and Young's modulus ∼170% relative to controls without growth factor. Serum supplementation, though generally detrimental to functional properties, was identified as a powerful mediator of FC construct morphology. Finally, both intermittent and continuous TGF-β1 treatment showed positive effects, though continuous treatment resulted in greater enhancement of construct functional properties. This work proposes a strategy for regeneration of TMJ fibrocartilage and its future application will be realized through translation of these findings to clinically viable cell sources. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marició Janué i Miret
Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that culture played in German-Spanish relations during National-Socialism. This is a relevant historiographical question for two main reasons. The first, that we still lack an overall approach on the cultural relations between the two countries in that period. The second, that when the national-socialists came to power in 1933, culture had already become for a long time an essential part of foreign politics of the most important European powers, and consequently also of Germany. The article explains the motivations for intensifying cultural relations for both countries. Its ultimate objective is to get a clearer idea about the affinities between Nazi Germany and the Francoist regime. We base the analysis in our own research in archives as well as in the already existing literature on partial aspects of the cultural relations between the two countries. We conclude that the tensions between the different political sectors which looked for hegemony inside the francoist regime were not the decisive factor to explain the variations in the intensity of the cultural relations between the two countries. The decisive element was the negative evolution of the Second World War for Germany. Finally, the research proves that the ideological coincidences between the two regimes and the level of fascistization of Franco’s dictatorship in its first stages should not be underestimated.
Full Text Available The goal of this research is to establish the influence of organizational culture on the system of safety and health at work. The research sample included 556 respondents of various activities in Russia. Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant connection of the Attitude towards occupational safety with 5 out of 7 aspects of organizational culture, as well as with the general factor of Usefulness of the manner of management. In addition, there is a statistically significant connection to age, total years of service and qualifications. Through a comparative analysis of results acquired in the Republic of Serbia and Russia, differences in attitudes towards safety and health activities at work were acquired i.e. there is a difference between the average answers of respondents from Serbia and Russia in the Attitude towards occupational safety which is on average slightly more prominent in respondents from Serbia. In relation to organizational culture aspects, there are differences in Vision, Credibility, Feedback and recognition as well as Responsibility. Respondents from Serbia have higher average values on all these measures, but all the differences are small (all effect sizes are below 0.2.
Yorulmaz, Orçun; Gençöz, Tülin; Woody, Sheila
Recent findings have suggested some potential psychological vulnerability factors for development of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, including cognitive factors of appraisal and thought control, religiosity, self-esteem and personality characteristics such as neuroticism. Studies demonstrating these associations usually come from Western cultures, but there may be cultural differences relevant to these vulnerability factors and OC symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between putative vulnerability factors and OC symptoms by comparing non-clinical samples from Turkey and Canada, two countries with quite different cultural characteristics. The findings revealed some common correlates such as neuroticism and certain types of metacognition, including appraisals of responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/need for certainty, as well as thought-action fusion. However, culture-specific factors were also indicated in the type of thought control participants used. For OC disorder symptoms, Turkish participants were more likely to utilize worry and thought suppression, while Canadian participants tended to use self-punishment more frequently. The association with common factors supports the cross-cultural validity of some factors, whereas unique factors suggest cultural features that may be operative in cognitive processes relevant to OC symptoms.
Sivokon, V.; Gladyshev, M.; Malkin, S.
The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance
... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...
Information derived from researching cultural information on menstruation and other forms of blood flow in adolescent girls in Nigeria can contribute extensively to existing knowledge about the female world in general and on adolescent girls in particular. This will further encourage ongoing advocacy programmes in ...
1973-01-01Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing
Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette
This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…
pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the ... could serve as disease models and aid in the discovery of drugs and genes; furthermore, this approach to gene-.
Dohlnér, Lisa; Grom, Karin
Malaysia is one of the developing countries in the world that is on the verge to become de-veloped (Internationella Programkontoret, 2003). In 2004, Malaysia had a growth rate around 7% (United Nation Statistic Division, 2005) and it is implied that the Malaysian market is continuously growing. One factor that can increase the growth rate in Malaysia is foreign direct investments (FDI), which is, according to Chino (2004), one factor of sus-tainable growth. It has been noticed that the world ...
Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup
The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family acculturation stress. At the societal level low socioeconomic status was identified as a risk factor. Cultural level risk factors included patriarchal beliefs. Positive parental coping strategies were a protective factor. An ecological analysis of the results suggests that family related violence in refugee families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related violence should not only include the individual, but the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dada-Adegbola, H O
There is a disproportionate share of AIDS cases over the years in Africa. This has occurred in racial and ethnic minority populations, a finding likely related to social, economic and cultural factors. Certain socio-cultural and religious practices such as polygamy and giving a daughter away in marriage without considering the social life of the man are likely contributory factors to the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women in this part of the world. This is illustrated with a case of Mr. M. S. who married two wives within four months interval, having lived a promiscuous life before marriage. One of the wives was a virgin at the time of marriage. Neither of wives had any symptoms suggestive of STD or HIV before marriage, however, the three of them tested positive to HIV-1 following a visit to the special treatment clinic. He had genital herpes and his two wives also had vulvovaginal candidiasis, genital herpes and condyloma accuminata (genital warts). The husband would not want his HIV status declared to the wives. There is therefore a need to enact law on pre-marriage HIV screening for intending couples. Couple Pre-and post-test counseling must be encouraged and promoted. In addition, women should be empowered to negotiate safer sex.
Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.
Full Text Available To test the notions that people from collectivist cultures may experience more intense Sensitivity Towards being the Target of Upward Comparison (STTUC responses the current study investigated the relationships between traditional gender role orientation and STTUC, and collectivistic cultural orientation and STTUC. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional survey approach, a convenient sample of 464 participants from various organizations in Botswana completed the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (59.9%, in a dating relationship (67.9%, and between the ages of 20 and 57 (M = 32.69, SD = 7.43. In the main, the hypotheses were not supported as the correlation results indicated that neither collectivistic cultural orientation nor traditional gender role orientation were linked to STTUC experiences. Discussions center on the importance of reporting and suggesting theoretical justifications for the so called ‘”nonsignificant findings.” Implications of the empirical findings and the future research directions are also discussed.
Vancha, Ajith R; Govindaraju, Suman; Parsa, Kishore VL; Jasti, Madhuri; González-García, Maribel; Ballestero, Rafael P
Abstract Background Several cell lines and primary cultures benefit from the use of positively charged extracellular matrix proteins or polymers that enhance their ability to attach to culture plates. Polyethyleneimine is a positively charged polymer that has gained recent attention as a transfection reagent. A less known use of this cationic polymer as an attachment factor was explored with several cell lines. Results Polyethyleneimine compared favorably to traditional attachment factors suc...
Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio
The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk.
Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.
Full Text Available Political culture is one of the most important phenomena of social life in modem era, with an undeniable influence on the political conduct of the members of the society. It is also one of the main pillars and principles of the growth and development of society. Belief in political equality, trust, feeling of security, and national and ethnic loyalty, are among significant elements closely related to political culture and society development pattern. The present study aims to analyze the factors influencing the political culture of the students of Parsabad Islamic Azad University. The main question addressed in this study concerns the factors which influence the political culture of the students of Parsabad Islamic Azad University. The hypotheses of the study suggest that variables such as ethnicism, religiousness, political motivation, personality and socioeconomic status have a significant relationship with political culture. The survey methodology - correlation between variables - and interview, as the means for collecting data to answer the questions, are utilized in this study. Also the statistical method and the SPPS software are used to analyze the data. The results of the study indicate that none of the hypotheses of the research was confirmed except for the relationship between the political motivation and the political culture. This shows that the temporal and spatial condition of Parsabad and, consequently, that of the students are different from the temporal and spatial conditions of the theories presented in this study.
Full Text Available Several individual scholars and international organizations have attempted to conceptualize “culture” in its different meanings in sustainability. Despite those efforts, a tangle of different approaches are being used, reflecting the various disciplines and policy aims. In this paper we propose an interdisciplinary framework for identifying the different roles of culture in sustainability in an attempt to guide the research and policy activities in this complex field. The framework is comprised of three representations defined by a literature review on “cultural sustainability”, which are further explored through eight organizing dimensions that mark the similarities and differences between the three representations. The article reveals that the three representations are partly interlinked and that they also reveal gradients in the dynamics of the system, as well as in the human/nature interface.
A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd
This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.
Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.
The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation
self i:age involves racial identity. Not only do they make - heavy references to Malaysian , Filipino, Asian, and other labels with ethnic-racial...example, the responses in the various food categories elicited by the stimulus words HUNGRY and TO EAT reflect the main items of the group’s diet ...cultural groups’ diet . For example, the Korean group receives a high score for RICE, the U. S. group a very much lower score, and the Colombian group
Dean Wesley R
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on
Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie
BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and
Márquez-Martín, Belén; Sesmero, Rafael; Quesada, Miguel A; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Sánchez-Romero, Carolina
Application of transformation and other biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos capable of germination at an acceptable rate. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih
The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications. Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to practices
Full Text Available The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health.Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications.Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to
Becker, Samuel L.
Bias in mass communication can be defined as interpretation based on factors that are independent of the original information, or as shaping the meaning of information according to the context in which it is placed. Although research has explored the concept of bias from a number of perspectives, its subtle manifestations can be understood best by…
Evagorou, Olympia; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria
It is a well known fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon that women may experience, regardless of cultural identity and beliefs. This literature review presents the cultural beliefs and postnatal practices around the world, in each continent and people's origins, looking through the extent to which they contribute positively or negatively to the onset of the disease. 106 articles were used in this research, through a systematic electronic search of Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus. Comparison is also made between the prevalence, the risk factors and the different ways of appearance of the disease around the world and among immigrants. Finally, the initiatives and interventions made so far by the governments and institutions with a view to prevent and address this global problem are presented. The results showed (a) that different cultures share the same risk factors towards the disease (b) significant differences in the prevalence of the disease among both Western and non Western cultures and between the cultures themselves (c) more tendencies for somatization of depressive symptoms in non-Western cultures, (d) different postnatal practices between cultures, which are not always effective (e) the more non-West a culture is, the less interventions concern on mental health; the same phenomenon is observed on populations burdened by immigration. The beliefs held by culture should be taken seriously in detecting of PPD, as well as the assessment of the needs of women who have recently given birth.
Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.
Chu Zhenwei; Yang Tao; Wang Luhuan; Hao Xiuhua; Yan Guangtao
Objective: To study the effect of three stress factors high glucose (HG), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the expression of culture supernatant IL-6 (IL-6) and leptin contents of HELA cell line. Methods: HELA cell culture models of severe inflammatory response syndrome were prepared with cultures treated with 50 mmol/L glucose (HG), 4 μg/ ml LPS and 100 μmol/L H 2 O 2 respectively and supernatant contents of IL-6 and leptin were measured with RIA at 1h, 6h and 24h. Results: Generally speaking, the culture supernatant contents of IL-6 gradually increased and leptin contents gradually decreased with significant differences from those in cultures not treated with either stress factor at 6h and 12h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Leptin as a possible anti-inflammatory cytokine might plays an important protective role in severe inflammatory response. (authors)
Bahadorani, M; Hosseini, S M; Abedi, P; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H
Growth factors are increasingly considered as important regulators of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). This study investigated the effects of various growth factors (GDNF, IGF1, bFGF, EGF and GFRalpha-1) on purification and colonization of undifferentiated goat SSCs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Irrespective of the culture condition used, the first signs of developing colonies were observed from day 4 of culture onwards. The number of colonies developed in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p cells (vimentin, alpha-inhibin and α-SMA) and spermatogonial cells (PLZF, THY 1, VASA, alpha-1 integrin, bet-1 integrin and DBA) revealed that both cell types existed in developing colonies, irrespective of the culture condition used. Even though, the relative abundance of VASA, FGFR3, OCT4, PLZF, BCL6B and THY1 transcription factors in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF treatment group was significantly higher than the other groups (p culture condition could colonize within the seminiferous tubules of the germ-cell depleted recipient mice following xenotransplantation. Obtained results demonstrated that combination of GDNF with IGF1 and bFGF promote in vitro culture of goat SSCs while precludes uncontrolled proliferation of somatic cells.
The effectiveness of meat and related food products marketing in Akwa Ibom State is conditioned by the specifics of culture. In this study, cultural effect on meat consumption is examined. A sample of 568 respondents were analysed with OLS regression. The results reveal that meat consumption and preferences for related ...
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the role of the relationship quality and culture between Portuguese companies and their export market intermediaries in Angola. In particular, we aim to understand the importance that the quality of the relationship has and the role of cultures in export activities. In terms of methodology we opted for a qualitative analysis; we present the results of two case studies of Portuguese exporting companies and one case study on an Angolan intermediate. In general, the results show that the business relationships are influenced by trust, commitment, culture and similar values. As known, Angola was once a Portuguese colony, so communication is easy because these countries share some common cultural traits. Such factors will influence the trade relations between Portuguese exporters and their Angolan distributors.
Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.
-culturaly valid way. To this end we have developed a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have constructed scales based on cross-culturally stable factor patterns. We have then applie set of scales to a fourth country, in order to further test the cross-cultural validity of the instrument....
Saji, M.; Tsushima, T.; Isozaki, O.; Murakami, H.; Ohba, Y.; Sato, K.; Arai, M.; Mariko, A.; Shizume, K.
The interaction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with porcine thyroid cells cultured in monolayer was studied. Specific binding of [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells was a reversible process dependent on the time and temperature of incubation. A steady state was achieved in 18 h at 4 C and averaged 14.2 +/- 2% (mean +/- SD)/10(6) cells. Binding of [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I was inhibited by unlabeled IGF-I; half-maximal inhibition occurred at concentrations of 2-5 ng/ml. Multiplication-stimulating activity (rat IGF-II) and pork insulin had relative potencies of 1:20 and 1:300 compared with IGF-I. Scatchard analysis of binding data revealed a single class of IGF-I receptors with a Ka of 4.3 X 10(10) M-1, 49,000 binding sites were estimated per cell. Affinity cross-linking and autoradiography demonstrated the presence of type I IGF receptors. Thyroid cells also had specific receptors for insulin, but specific binding of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was much lower than that of [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I. Preincubation of thyroid cells with IGF-I or insulin caused a concentration-dependent decrease in [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I binding due to an apparent loss of receptors. Preincubation with epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or TSH did not alter subsequent binding of [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I. Low concentrations of IGF-I stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of thyroid cells and acted synergistically with epidermal growth factor. Multiplication-stimulating activity and insulin had relative potencies in stimulating DNA synthesis comparable to their abilities to inhibit the binding of [ 125 I]iodo-IGF-I to thyroid cells
redescriptions? employs poststructuralist and feminist thinking about visual culture in an attempt to explore alternative understandings of visual education. In the final part ?Educations of vision in late modernity? socialization and self creation are proposed as two different, but supplementary, educational......The article is divided into three parts. Through examples from twentieth century Scandinavian visual arts education the first part ?Epistemological inquiries? discusses how the historical and social construction of dominant modern strategies of vision has occurred. The second part ?Experimentalist...... functions which contemporary visual education inspired by epistemological and experimentalist approaches should aim to fulfill....
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon
There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.
Wang, Rongrong; Langhammer, Birgitta
Stroke survivors might perceive their quality of life (QoL) as being affected even years after onset. The purpose of this review was to go through the literature to identify factors related to QoL for persons with stroke in China and Western countries for possible similarities and differences in their respective cultural views. A narrative literature review was conducted on the papers identified by searching PubMed, EBSCO/CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data that published up to November 2016. Factors predicting QoL after stroke were extracted, and comparisons were made between Chinese and Western studies respecting cultural aspects. A total of 43 articles were included in this review, with 31 conducted in Western countries and 12 in China. Predictors of QoL included Demographic factors: age, gender, marital status, education level, socioeconomic status; Clinically related factors: severity of stroke, physical function, depression/anxiety, cognitive impairment, incontinence and other comorbidities; Environmental factors: residential status, social support, social participation; and Individual factors: coping strategies and self-perception. Being married and resident at home might be associated with the perception of QoL differently between Chinese and Western survivors. Most predictors of QoL in stroke survivors were the same in China and the Western countries. However, their QoL might be predicted differently regarding to the individualistic and collectivistic cultural differences. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Levenstein, S; Li, Z; Almer, S; Barbosa, A; Marquis, P; Moser, G; Sperber, A; Toner, B; Drossman, D A
The aim of this work was to study cross-cultural variations in the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on health-related quality of life by an international comparison of disease-related concerns. Item and factor scores on the Rating Form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Concerns and overall mean concern levels were compared by analysis of variance among 2002 IBD patients in eight countries. The overall level of concern varied from 51 out of 100 in Portugal to 19 in Sweden, with intermediate scores for Italy (43), Canada (40), United States (39), France (39), Austria (33), and Israel (25). Having surgery, an ostomy, the uncertain nature of the disease, and medication side effects were each rated among the first five in importance in six countries. Other items varied considerably. For example, concern regarding pain and suffering was high in Israel and low in Portugal, whereas concern over developing cancer was low in Italy. Concern over financial issues and access to high-quality health care were inversely associated with measures of national economic prosperity. 1) Cross-cultural comparisons of patient concerns related to IBD are feasible using translated scales. 2) Reporting tendencies vary greatly; within Europe, patients from southern countries report greater overall concern. 3) The complications and the variable evolution of disease elicit general concern, but the importance of specific issues varies among countries. 4) The reasons for national differences may have social, cultural, and/or economic determinants with relevance to the patient-physician relationship, patient education, and therapeutic decision making.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the Journalistic Culture of Ecuador Project (CPE on the perception of the influence factors of journalists in Ecuador. These influences are studied because they determine the ideologies and the professional practices of journalists concerning internal consistency and development in relation to the context. These influences come from internal (actor and institutional level and external (system level levels. This qualitative/quantitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with 31 journalists from 6 media companies in Ecuador during the first half of 2014. The results show that journalists interviewed perceive greater influence within their newsrooms and the immediate environment, but also from the media legislation of the Government, the audience or the public, the news sources and Government or their representatives determine their daily work.
Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.
Poverty creates preconditions for malaria and ways for its spread, thereby making it difficult to control malaria. Individual perceptions of illness, in this case malaria, determine people's response to seeking medical care. For example, in Orissa state, India, tribal peoples do not take treatment for malaria or take part in parasite control because they do not consider mosquito bites to be harmful and consider malaria as a mild disease. Untreated people are potential sources of malaria infection. Research from rural areas in other developing countries show the widespread belief that mosquitoes do not transmit malaria. The bad smell emitted by insecticides keep people from various areas in developing countries from spraying their households. The practice forbidding nonkin males from entering houses where only women assemble (purdah) prevents teams from spraying Muslim households in Sri Lanka. Thus, refusal to allow spraying increases the density of mosquitoes, resulting in an increased frequency of mosquito bites, and spread of malaria. Sleeping habits which contribute to the spread of malaria include not using mosquito nets or any protective device, outdoor sleeping, and children sharing a bed. People should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using bed nets, protective repellents, and screening and site selection for dwellings. A study in the Gambia revealed that, among 3 ethnic groups, Mandinkas children had the lowest prevalence rate because almost everyone used bed nets while 1-6% of people in Fula and Wolof villages did. Further, Mandinka children slept on mattresses and the other children slept on the floor. Research needs to examine whether cultural beliefs and values or poverty prevent some people from not using bed nets or any other protective device.
Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin
With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2 = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting
Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka
Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…
Coale, A J
Demographic transition is a period characterized by changes in mortality and fertility that accompany modernization and economic development. Typical features of age at first marriage among populations in different stages of demographic transition are described including the changes in age at marriage, the association between marriage age changes and fertility control, and the role of cultural and traditional behavior in influencing age at marriage and initiation of fertility control. In the Western model, there was a late age of marriage for women between 23 and 28 years old, and a high proportion of women who remain single until 50 years old (10-25%). The Eastern European model was one of moderately early marriage (mean age 19-22) and a small proportion remaining single (2-5%). The third model was Asian and African with early (mean age of 18 years) and universal marriage (1% unmarried). The reduction in number married was associated with reduced fertility. The differences between the Eastern and Western models were in household composition. In premodern societies, any fertility control present was governed by custom and limited biomedical influences such as duration of breast feeding and sexual abstention following a birth. These practices were not considered deliberate fertility control. The mean age of marriage in India was 14 years until 1941 and slowly reached 18.4 years in 1981. Fertility did not begin to decline until after 1960. Examples are given of the close association between marital fertility that is voluntary controlled and mean age at marriage. The influences of culture and traditions on the association between mean age of marriage and voluntary fertility control are shown by examples from the Soviet Union. The eastern part of the Soviet Union experienced a rise in mean age of marriage and an unsustained decline in marital fertility similar to that in China. There were also similarities in nuptiality and fertility between other areas in the Soviet
Workplace motivation strongly depends on local cultural values. But while there is a large number of studies that focus on the US-American and Western European background, the specifically Romanian factors still remain in the shadow. This text aims to explain the main factors that form the „typically Romanian” set of social employee needs and their origin.
Jafari, Siavash; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi; Craib, Kevin; Baharlou, Souzan; Mathias, Richard
This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20-43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…
King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.
The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…
Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate in process of change. For solving this problem, it is necessary to identify the main factors of organizational culture in the change process. After exploring the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate through distinguished culture’s factors, article examines how changes can be processed in different cultural environments. Methodology: The research design is based on Yin (1994 methodology and consists of two main stages: data analysis and validation for case study and case study’s methodology according to Yin (1994 (four steps: design the case, conduct the case, analyse the case evidence and develop conclusions. In the first stage an expert evaluation method was used to investigate the significance of organizational culture factors’ impact on organizational climate. Different factors of organizational climate were explored in the paper. To affirm the results triangulation method was applied. To verify the results of the research mathematical calculations and case study were used. Within the research the most significant factors were stressed. During the second stage, the case study was carried out to validate the research results in specific companies. Comparison between medium-size companies was made. It is important, that in case Latvian company (A capital holders are Latvian entrepreneurs and capital holders of Lithuanian company (B are international. Scientific aim: To distinguish organizational culture’s factors that have an impact on organizational climate’s change. Findings: The results of the research confirmed that during the period of changes organizational culture has an impact on organizational climate through specific factors. Theoretical model how change organizational culture impacts organizational climate is developed. Research showed that stability, job satisfaction, team
Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A
Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.
The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.
Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.
Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain
This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.
.... Cultural assessment is a detailed analysis of factors that influence cultural behavior and a summary of the characteristics of the culture of a given population in relation to proposed military operations...
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Jeffrey S. Lidke
Full Text Available A celebration and critical evaluation of Sthaneshwar Timalsina’s brilliant book, Tantric Visual Culture: A Cognitive Approach. In this groundbreaking work, Timalsina utilizes the lens of cognitive studies to shed interpretive light on the Tantric visualization practices that he knows both as a scholar and lifetime practitioner. Timalsina argues that mastery of Tantric practice requires immersion in the culturally relative metonymic and holographic logic framed by the Tantric ritual texts. The conclusion that arises from his analysis is that Tantric “truths” are bound to the linguistic and cultural systems that frame them. In response, I herewith offer a perennialist critique and argument for a more nuanced consideration of the transcendent “truth” or “being” that is the stated aim of Tantric practice.
Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W
Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies.
Liderazgo estratégico en el sector de las relaciones públicas en España. Características, retos, factores culturales y estructurales / Strategic leadership in public relations in Spain. Characteristics, challenges, cultural and structural factors
Cristina Navarro Ruiz
Full Text Available El liderazgo en relaciones públicas y gestión de comunicación desempeña un papel determinante en el éxito de las organizaciones, especialmente de aquellas que actúan dentro de un contexto económico global, dinámico y altamente competitivo (ej. Meng, 2013; Berger & Meng, 2010; Berger & Reber, 2006; Berger, Reber & Heyman, 2007; Werder & Holzhausen, 2009. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones han abordado un tema que también influye directamente en el desarrollo profesional de los comunicadores y en el futuro de la disciplina (Beger & Reber, 2006. Este artículo analiza los principales desafíos que afrontan los profesionales de las relaciones públicas en España, los factores culturales y estructurales que favorecen u obstaculizan la función de comunicación y los rasgos personales más importantes para desempeñar un liderazgo excelente, tanto en la actualidad como en el futuro. Utilizando metodología cualitativa, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a líderes de relaciones públicas españoles, se profundiza en el controvertido y complejo concepto de liderazgo. Esta investigación forma parte de un proyecto internacional desarrollado en 23 países, promovido por el Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations de la Universidad de Alabama y financiado por IBM y Heyman Associates en Estados Unidos.
Sanchez-Burks, J; Nisbett, R E; Ybarra, O
Two studies provide evidence that Latins (i.e., Mexicans and Mexican Americans) are guided by a concern with socioemotional aspects of workplace relations to a far greater degree than are Anglo-Americans. The focus on socioemotional considerations results in Latins having a relatively greater preference for workgroups having a strong interpersonal orientation. Preferred relational style had a far greater impact on preferences for workgroups and judgments about their likely success than did the ethnic composition of the workgroups for both Latins and Anglo-Americans. Evidence that the two groups differ markedly in relational schemas comes from examination of suggestions about how group performance could be improved, judgments about whether a focus on socioemotional concerns necessarily entails a reduction in task focus, and recall for socioemotional aspects of workgroup interactions. Implications for the dynamics of intercultural contact are discussed.
Okada, S.; Sakai, K.; Nakamura, N.
Factors that affect RBE values have been investigated in cultured cells. It was shown that: (1) Different RBE values were obtained with the same tritiated water treated cells depending upon the biological end-point; this may be related to target size. (2) The RBE value for one end-point (e.g. cell killing) in different cell types was often different. In some cells, the RBE value increased with reducing dose; in other cells, the value remained constant. (3) The RBE value for tritiated water seemed to fit a general RBE-LET relationship. These results suggest that although the RBE value might vary from 1 to 2 when cells are exposed to HTO, there are situations where the value becomes higher than 2; these are associated with low dose and low dose rate exposures in some cell types. (author)
Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje
An increasing number of contemporary research publications acknowledge the influence of religion and culture on sexual and reproductive behavior and health-care utilization. It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcomes. In this paper, we will pay particular attention to Muslims in sexual and reproductive health care. This review reveals that knowledge about devout Muslims' own experience of sexual and reproductive health-care matters is limited, thus providing weak evidence for modeling of efficient practical guidelines for sexual and reproductive health care directed at Muslim patients. Successful outcomes in sexual and reproductive health of Muslims require both researchers and practitioners to acknowledge religious heterogeneity and variability, and individuals' possibilities to negotiate Islamic edicts. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate health-care provision and, in the worst case, to suboptimal encounters between migrants with Muslim background and the health-care providers in the receiving country. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Krotki, K J
Facts employed in formulating Ansley Coale's interpretation of European historical demographic transition have largely been in the public domain for a long time. Coale's achievement, however, in bringing pertinent information together to form a theoretical framework is applauded, and is acknowledged as being an important contribution to the traditional use of demographic transition. Beyond this general interest and broad approval, the author critiques various points of Coale's thesis. First, he notes the need to be suspicious of high correlations found between mean age at 1st marriage and total fertility rate. Second, he is unsure of the role played by servants in explaining the comparatively later marriage age of western Europeans. Finally, the author considers marked fertility declines in China, Taiwan, and Korea. These declines run strongly counter to the traditional cultures of these countries. Moreover, the high life expectations at birth, strong episodic economic development in Taiwan and Korea, and serious autocratic government interference in China are atypical of experiences in most developing countries. Traditional family planning in these 3 countries was simply a facilitator of demographic transition. The experiences of China, Taiwan, Korea, and Bangladesh support the ineffectiveness of imposing programs from either within or outside of a country.
Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Randall, Julian; Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin
Individuals’ self administration of medication is an essential component of disease management because incorrect and incomplete medication can result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs and also spreads drug resistance. Its impact is necessarily wider than just\\ud medical and includes the cultural and managerial considerations which govern success in medical interventions. This review paper is aimed at how Nepalese cultural factors (beliefs, religious practices, customs and...
Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia among children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... It was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between June and ...
Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training
Fiske, Alan Page
To test the cross-cultural generality of relational-models theory, 4 studies with 70 adults examined social errors of substitution of persons for Bengali, Korean, Chinese, and Vai (Liberia and Sierra Leone) subjects. In all four cultures, people tend to substitute someone with whom they have the same basic relationship. (SLD)
Recent scholarship in second and foreign language (FL) pedagogy has advocated for approaches to teaching culture that move beyond static notions of culture-as-fact, construed in terms of national traditions, towards relational approaches that foster strategies for interaction within discourse communities, where members embody and express a range…
Köster, Moritz; Cavalcante, Lilia; Vera Cruz de Carvalho, Rafael; Dôgo Resende, Briseida; Kärtner, Joscha
This cross-cultural study investigates how maternal task assignment relates to toddlers' requested behavior and helping between 18 and 30 months. One hundred seven mother-child dyads were assessed in three different cultural contexts (rural Brazil, urban Germany, and urban Brazil). Brazilian mothers showed assertive scaffolding (serious and…
Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth
A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.
de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A
Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.
In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Using an African-centered cultural framework
In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang
Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...
Shin, Cha-Nam; Keller, Colleen; Sim, Jeongha
To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model. This review highlights how cultural contexts impact health and health behaviors of Korean Americans, and may contribute to health disparities in the United States. The key cultural contexts highlighted in this review include social support/social network, family, gender role expectations, and a holistic view of health and illness. These cultural contexts should be incorporated in designing culturally relevant, effective, and sustainable health interventions for Korean Americans, which will contribute to eliminating health disparities for this ethnic group who experience great obstacles to healthcare access and healthy behaviors.
Endrass, Birgit; Nakano, Yukiko; Lipi, Afia Akhter
Small talk can be used in order to build a positive relationship towards a virtual character. However the choice of topics in a conversation can be dependent on social backgrounds such as culture. In this paper, we explore culture-related differences in small talk for the German and Japanese...... cultures. Based on findings from the literature and verified by a corpus analysis, we integrated prototypical German and Japanese small talk conversations into a multiagent system. In evaluation studies conducted in the two target cultures, we investigated whether participants prefer agent dialogs...
In this study, the author examines the relationship between staff perceptions of organizational culture and their work-related attitudes in assisted living. Data were collected from 317 staff in 61 facilities using self-administered questionnaires. Staff who had more favorable perceptions of organizational culture reported greater job satisfaction, coworker satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Among the dimensions of organizational culture, perceptions of teamwork had the strongest influence on satisfaction with coworkers, and perceptions of organizational morale had the strongest influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Those who want to improve staff attitudes should focus on creating organizational cultures that promote teamwork and high organizational morale.
Full Text Available National attachment sense as one of the components of social Property is a key word in national culture. Any definition of society is Occurred by accepting attachment and commitment sense and the society is existed to some extent because people have positive sense about that. National attachment sense is considered as one the important affairs of any society and its proper recognition and full knowledge of authorities and affair operators about the effective social factors on that can be an effective step in recognizing the existent problems in society. The present research reviewed the relation between cultural components and national attachment among the Yazd citizens. The research statistical society was all of the Yazd’s 15 to 65 years old citizens that 384 people were selected as sample by Cochran formula. The tool of data gathering was researcher-made questionnaire that had appropriate validity and reliability. Sampling method has been multi-stage clustered. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between secularization, consumerism and virtual social networks with national attachment has been reverse and meaningful, but the relationship between age and values preferences with national attachment has been direct and meaningful. Independent variables in regression equation managed to explain 39 percent of national attachment variable changes. The greatest impact on dependent variable (national attachment has belonged to the variables of secularization, age, values preferences and consumerism.
Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A
Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.
Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration is strongly associated with low back pain, a major cause of disability worldwide. An in-depth understanding of IVD cell physiology is required for the design of novel regenerative therapies. Accordingly, aim of this work was the study of IVD cell responses to mitogenic growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic milieu, comprising characteristic molecules of IVD’s extracellular matrix. In particular, annulus fibrosus (AF cells were cultured inside collagen type-I gels, while nucleus pulposus (NP cells in chondroitin sulfate A (CSA supplemented collagen gels, and the effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I were assessed. All three growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis in both AF and NP 3D cell cultures, with potencies similar to those observed previously in monolayers. CSA supplementation inhibited basal DNA synthesis rates, without affecting the response to growth factors. ERK and Akt were found to be phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Blockade of these two signaling pathways using pharmacologic inhibitors significantly, though not completely, inhibited growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. The proposed culture systems may prove useful for further in vitro studies aiming at future interventions for IVD regeneration.
Dong, Jia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K N; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin
Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes.
To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue
J. Y. Hanas
Full Text Available Crosscultural communication relates to particular phenomenon in two or more cultures and has an additional value for communicative competence comparison of different cultures representatives. The realization of communicative competence capacity is culturally conditioned, in addition, it also caused by unique individual experience of person. Intercultural communication became one of the most urgent issues of humanity in modern society. Study of intercultural communication becomes increasingly important in recent years due to globalization. Features of intercultural communication are studied within the sciences such as philosophy, linguistics, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, anthropology, ethnology, cybernetics, and an interdisciplinary process. Intercultural communication as a social phenomenon was called to the practical needs of the postwar world, reinforced by ideological interest, which of the early twentieth century was formed in academia and in the public mind for the different cultures and languages. The study of intercultural communication is a result of rapid economic development of many countries and regions, revolutionary changes in technology associated with this globalization of economic activity. On the level of historical evolutionary approach to the development of complex systems tolerance phenomenon could not be reduced to everyday perspective of tolerance. Tolerance is works as cultural norm and as a civilization principle. A key feature of tolerance as long as multiculturalism is support of complex systems diversity. Tolerance also provides a right of each individual to be a different personality. The concept of tolerance is understood as a norm that provides a balance opposing sides and the possibility of dialogue of various world views, religions and cultures. Initial thesis that each person is a unique individual and unlike the others, is characterized by different manifestations of their own individuality, is the
Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark
The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho
Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been previously produced in tobacco cell suspension cultures. However, the amount of hGM-CSF accumulated in the culture medium dropped quickly from its maximum of 150 microg/L at 5 d after incubation. To overcome...... of recombinant hGM-CSF in transgenic rice cell suspension culture and protease activity of this culture medium was low compared to that of tobacco culture system....
Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.
The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms
Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formati...
Wool, Geoffrey D; Lu, Chuanyi M
To review various anticoagulation therapies and related laboratory monitoring issues, with a focus on factor X-related chromogenic assays. A case-based approach is used to review pertinent published literatures and product inserts of anticoagulation drugs and to look back on clinical use of factor X-related chromogenic assays. The number of anticoagulants available to clinicians has increased greatly in the past decade. Whether and how these anticoagulants should be monitored are areas of uncertainty for clinicians, which can lead to misuse of laboratory assays and suboptimal patient management. Factor X-related assays are of particular concern because of the similar and often confusing test names. Based on a common clinical case scenario and literature review regarding anticoagulant monitoring, an up-to-date discussion and review of the various factor X-related assays are provided, focusing on the differences in test designs and clinical utilities between the chromogenic anti-Xa and chromogenic factor X activity assays. Anticoagulation therapy and related laboratory monitoring are rapidly evolving areas of clinical practices. A good knowledge of relevant laboratory assays and their clinical applications is necessary to help optimize patient care.
Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Alexandrova, Stoyana; Usheva, Anny
Questions about the changes of biological systems in response to hostile environmental factors are important but not easy to answer. Often, the traditional description with differential equations is difficult due to the overwhelming complexity of the living systems. Another way to describe complex systems is by simulating them with phenomenological models such as the well-known evolutionary agent-based model (EABM). Here we developed an EABM to simulate cell colonies as a multi-agent system that adapts to hyper-gravity in starvation conditions. In the model, the cell's heritable characteristics are generated and transferred randomly to offspring cells. After a qualitative validation of the model at normal gravity, we simulate cellular growth in hyper-gravity conditions. The obtained data are consistent with previously confirmed theoretical and experimental findings for bacterial behavior in environmental changes, including the experimental data from the microgravity Atlantis and the Hypergravity 3000 experiments. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to utilize an EABM with realistic qualitative description to examine the effects of hypergravity and starvation on complex cellular entities.
Wong, L P
In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.
The authors have worked with mouse embryos in vitro asking first, what are the suitable parameters to define the radiation sensitivity of embryos, and second what is a major factor determining it. The LD 50 was adopted as a parameter of the radiation sensitivity of a population in a mouse embryo system in culture. The fertilized ova were collected into Whitten's medium at various times during the pronuclear and 2-cell stages of development. They were irradiated in chambers with X-rays at doses of 0 to 800 rads. After the embryos were cultured, a set of the lethal fractions for various X-ray doses were obtained. Regarding the radiation sensitivity variation of the embryos, the LD 50 varied from 100 to 200 rads during the pronuclear stage and from 100 to 600 rads during the 2-cell stage. The embryos during the pronuclear stage were most radioresistant at early G 2 phase, followed by an increase in the sensitivity. The embryos during the 2-cell stage were also most radioresistant at early G 2 phase and were more sensitive when they got close to either the first or the second cleavage division. Furthermore, it seems that the factor 6 of the large variation was due to the extremely long G 2 period, 14 hrs for the 2-cell embryos. That is, the pooled 2-cell embryos were in a relative sense well synchronized with G 2 phase. In contrast, the synchrony was poor during the pronuclear stage, which led to less variation of the LD 50 for the pronuclear embryos. It is concluded that during the early cleavage stages of mice, radiosensitivity is mainly governed by the content of cells of various cell cycle ages in the embryo. (Namekawa, K.)
Ya V Zubova
Full Text Available The article focuses on the civil society and its development in Russia in connection with the notion of legal culture. The legal culture is integral to people's social activities and it is inextricably intertwined into the system of social relations as a result of the regulatory control of the activity, the ranking and regulation of the public intercourse based on the law. The legal culture is uniquely positioned for exercising strong influence upon an individual since it involves competence, adherence and respect for the legal standards expressing the accumulated moral and political requirements of the society.
Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.
Bower, Julienne E.
Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839
Full Text Available During the last decades, the corporate world has witnessed a significant rise in the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As. In cross border M&As, not only different corporate cultures collide, but also different professional and national cultures. The purpose of Cultural Due Diligence (CDD is to get a coherent image of the intercultural challenges of the M&A in order to be aware of the intercultural risks and opportunities. This article aims to reveal the perception of managers involved in the pre-M&A stage on the soft risks factors that need to be investigated during CDD. This study proposes an appraisal of the most important intercultural issues that need to be considered in M&A. Our contribution to the intercultural aspects of M&A literature consists in improving the current understanding of Cultural Due Diligence content.
Full Text Available During the last decades, the corporate world has witnessed a significant rise in the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As. In cross border M&As, not only different corporate cultures collide, but also different professional and national cultures. The purpose of Cultural Due Diligence (CDD is to get a coherent image of the intercultural challenges of the M&A in order to be aware of the intercultural risks and opportunities. This article aims to reveal the perception of managers involved in the pre-M&A stage on the soft risks factors that need to be investigated during CDD. This study proposes an appraisal of the most important intercultural issues that need to be considered in M&A. Our contribution to the intercultural aspects of M&A literature consists in improving the current understanding of Cultural Due Diligence content.
Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope
In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of "chance," "coincidence," or "randomness" that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of "chance" is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group.
Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope
In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028
İbrahim Halil SEYREK
Full Text Available Job satisfaction of employees in any type of organization is important both for the employee and for the organization he/she works for. There are several factors researchers studied that are related to employee satisfaction. Even though there are several common factors for the job satisfaction of employees, there can be differences based on the personal and job characteristics. Information Technology (IT workers are important for current information economy and therefore factors related to their job satisfaction is an important research topic. In this study, based on survey data collected from 455 IT workers from different industries, the factors related to IT worker job satisfaction are investigated. As a result of analyses, it was found that demographic factors like gender, sector (public vs. private, work experience, and wage are not related to the job satisfaction of the worker. On the other hand, the results show that feel of belonging, feel of acceptance, job autonomy, burnout, role clarity and fairness of rewards are factors that affect job satisfaction.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Methods: A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis. Results: Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100. The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05. The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034, P<0.05. Conclusions: The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’ own conditions.
O. V. Krasnokutskyi
Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.
Rosique-Blasco, Mario; Madrid-Guijarro, Antonia; García-Pérez-de-Lema, Domingo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurial skills (such as creativity, proactivity and risk tolerance) and socio-cultural factors (such as role model and businessman image) affect secondary education students' propensity towards entrepreneurial options in their future careers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of…
The issue of maternal mortality has been very topical due to recent focus on sustainable development and because of the fact that maternal mortality is very high in many developing countries. In Nigeria, maternal mortality is very high and one of the highest in the world. There are cultural and social factors that exacerbate ...
La Salabarnada, E.; German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.
This paper presents the research project funded by UNESA and conducted by the CISOT-CIEMAT that aims to contribute to improving the operating performance of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper aims to identify the factors and key organizational processes to improve efficiency, in order to advance knowledge about the influence of organizational culture on the safety of high reliability organizations.
Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.
van der Wal, C. Natalie; Formolo, Daniel; Bosse, Tibor
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. A fire incident at a transport hub can cost many lives. To save lives, effective crisis management and prevention measures need to be taken. In this project, the effect of cultural factors in managing and preventing emergencies in public transport systems
Ismail, Maimunah; Umar Baki, Nordahlia
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its…
KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella
Csoma, Zsanett Renáta; Meszes, Angéla; Ábrahám, Rita; Kemény, Lajos; Tálosi, Gyula; Doró, Péter
Recent technological advances and diagnostic and therapeutic innovations have resulted in an impressive improvement in the survival of newborn infants requiring intensive care. Consequently, with the use of modern invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the incidence of iatrogenic events has also increased. The aim of this study was to assess various iatrogenic complications in neonates requiring intensive care and determine possible contributing factors to the injuries. Our prospective cross-sectional cohort survey was conducted in a central regional level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correlations between intensive therapeutic interventions, complications, factors influencing attendance and prognosis, and the prevalence of iatrogenic skin injuries (ISIs) were investigated over a 2-year study period. Between January 31, 2012, and January 31, 2014, 460 neonates were admitted to the NICU, 83 of whom exhibited some kind of ISI. The major risk factors for ISIs were low birthweight, young gestational age, long NICU stay, use of the intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) technique, surfactant use, mechanical ventilation, insertion of an umbilical arterial catheter, circulatory and cardiac support with dopamine or dobutamine, pulmonary hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and positive microbiology culture results. To prevent ISIs, careful consideration of risk factors and the creation of protocols ensuring efficient treatment of injuries are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bower, Julienne E
Fatigue is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer that might persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and might be a risk factor of reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in patients with cancer have been well characterized and there is growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation seems to have a key role in fatigue before, during, and after cancer-treatment. However, there is a considerable variability in the presentation of cancer-related fatigue, much of which is not explained by disease-related or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors might be important in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have identified genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioural risk factors associated with cancer-related fatigue. Although no current gold-standard treatment for fatigue is available, a variety of intervention approaches have shown beneficial effects in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. This Review describes the mechanisms, risk factors, and possible interventions for cancer-related fatigue, focusing on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients.
Piekło, R; Gregoraszczuk, E L; Lesko, J; Golais, F; Stokłosowa, S
The objective of this research was to study possible interactions of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) with ovarian tissue. Granulosa cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured as monolayers for 6 days in a control medium without PRGF and in medium supplemented with different doses of this agent. Increased population density and change towards more fibroblastic-like shape of cells cultured with 10(9) I.U PRGF was observed when compared with control culture. The cells divided significantly faster during 6 days of culture under the influence of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) I.U./ml of PRGF at a dose dependent manner. PRGF in a dose 10(9) I.U. added to cultured cells isolated from small and medium follicles did not influence progesterone secretion . An increase of progesterone secretion under the influence of PRGF in all investigated days of cultures was observed in cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles. The marked increase in progesterone content in PRGF treated culture in doses of 0.5x10(7), 0.5x10(8), 0.5x10(9) I.U. was observed during 4 and 6 days of culture. The rise of progesterone content was not connected with increased number of secretory cells, but with a stimulation of production per cell. PRGF exerted no visible effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from small and medium follicles cultured for 6 days. The presented in vitro data provide evidence for a local action of PRGF in the follicle depending on the stage of follicular development and duration of exposure. Precise relevance of the interaction of PRGF with follicular development requires further study.
DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B.
While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain
Medina-Arana, Vicente; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Rodríguez-González, Diana; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Álvarez-Argüelles, Hugo; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Salido-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia M.; González-Aguilera, Juan J.
Abstract Colorectal tumor perforation is a life-threatening complication of this disease. However, little is known about the anatomopathological factors or pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of factors related with tumoral neo-angiogenesis, which could influence tumor perforation are assessed in this study. A retrospective study of patients with perforated colon tumors (Group P) and T4a nonperforated (controls) was conducted between 2001 and 20...
Lee, Young-Me; Dancy, Barbara; Florez, Elizabeth; Holm, Karyn
The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore factors that are related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents and identify which of those factors are common across successful sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents. An integrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included Latino, Hispanic, education, intervention/prevention programs, sex, sexuality, reproductive health, health risk behaviors, multiple sex partners, contraception, STI/HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, delay in initiation of sexual intercourse, consistent use of birth control, avoidance of STI/HIV infections, unintended pregnancy, cultural factors, and gender roles. Findings revealed from the review of 17 articles addressing factors related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents included familialism, religion, gender roles, level of knowledge/information, and privacy/confidentiality. Five successful STI/HIV intervention programs, that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were recognized as common factors integrated into and across successful intervention programs for this population. Only STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were found as common factors across the five successful STI/HIV intervention programs and should be incorporated into future intervention programs that are culturally and gender specific. Therefore, health care providers need to understand culturally related gender roles and their impact on sexual practices to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate sex education about STIs and HIV for Latino adolescents to increase the program potential for reducing STI/HIV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mixed lymphocyte culturing has led to conflicting opinions regarding the selection of donors for bone marrow transplantation. The association between a positive mixed lymphocyte culture and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is unclear. The use of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte cultures could be an alternative for increasing the sensitivity of culture tests. OBJECTIVE: To increase the sensitivity of mixed lymphocyte cultures between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA identical siblings, using exogenous cytokines, in order to predict post-transplantation GVHD and/or rejection. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients with hematological malignancies and their respective donors selected for bone marrow transplantation procedures. PROCEDURES: Standard and modified mixed lymphocyte culturing by cytokine supplementation was carried out using donor and recipient cells typed for HLA. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Autologous and allogenic responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures after the addition of IL-4 or IL-2. RESULTS: In comparison with the standard method, average responses in the modified mixed lymphocyte cultures increased by a factor of 2.0 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 6.4 using IL-2 (p < 0.001, for autologous donor culture responses. For donor-versus-recipient culture responses, the increase was by a factor of 1.9 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 4.1 using IL-2 (p < 0.001. For donor-versus-unrelated culture responses, no significant increase was observed using IL-4, and a mean response inhibition of 20% was observed using IL-2 (p < 0.001. Neither of the cytokines produced a significant difference in the unrelated control versus recipient cell responses. CONCLUSION: IL-4 supplementation was the best for increasing the mixed lymphocyte culture sensitivity. However, IL-4 also increased autologous responses, albeit less
Gualtieri, R.J.; Shadduck, R.K.; Baker, D.G.; Quesenberry, P.J.
The nature of hematopoietic regulatory factors elaborated by the adherent (stromal) cells of long-term murine bone marrow cultures and the effect of in vitro stromal irradiation (XRT) on the production of these factors was investigated. Using an in situ stromal assay it was possible to demonstrate stromal elaboration of at least two colony-stimulating activities, ie, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating activity (G/M-CSA) and megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity (Meg-CSA). Exposure of the stroma to XRT resulted in dose-dependent elevations of both activities that correlated inversely with total myeloid cell mass. Mixture experiments that combined control and irradiated stroma revealed that the hematopoietically active control stroma could block detection of XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. Antiserum directed against purified L cell colony-stimulating factor (CSF) reduced granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in the target layer but did not effect the increased Meg-CSA. While a radioimmunoassay for L-cell type CSF was unable to detect significant differences in concentrated media from control and irradiated cultures, bioassays of these media revealed XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. These results indicate that the G/M-CSA elaborated in these cultures is immunologically distinct from the Meg-CSA produced, and although distinct from L cell CSF, the G/M-CSA is crossreactive with the L cell CSF antiserum. Morphologic, histochemical, and factor VII antigen immunofluorescent studies were performed on the stromal cell population responsible for production of these stimulatory activities. In addition to ''fat'' cells, the stromal cells remaining after XRT were composed of two predominant cell populations. These included a major population of acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase-positive macrophage-like cells and a minor population of factor VII antigen negative epithelioid cells
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the cellular characteristics and behaviors of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs expanded in media in a hypoxic or normoxic condition and with or without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 treatment. hBMSCs isolated from the vertebral body and expanded in these four groups were evaluated for cellular proliferation/migration, colony-forming units, cell-surface characterization, in vitro differentiation, in vivo transplantation, and gene expression. Culturing hBMSCs using a particular environmental factor (hypoxia and with the addition of FGF-2 increased the cellular proliferation rate while enhancing the regenerative potential, modulated the multipotency-related processes (enhanced chondrogenesis-related processes/osteogenesis, but reduced adipogenesis, and increased cellular migration and collagen formation. The gene expression levels in the experimental samples showed activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway and glycolysis in the hypoxic condition, with this not being affected by the addition of FGF-2. The concurrent application of hypoxia and FGF-2 could provide a favorable condition for culturing hBMSCs to be used in clinical applications associated with bone tissue engineering, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and regenerative potential. Keywords: Bone marrow stromal cells, Hypoxia, Fibroblast growth factor, Tissue regeneration, Microenvironment interactions
Terzioglu, Fusun; Temel, Safiye; Uslu Sahan, Fatma
To identify relationships among variables affecting nurses' performance and productivity, namely professional attitudes, organisational culture, organisational justice and exposure to mobbing. The determination of the factors affecting performance and productivity is important for providing efficient nursing services. These factors have been investigated in the literature independently, but the relationship among them has not been clearly identified. This cross-sectional questionnaire study included 772 nurses working in a University Hospital accredited by Joint Commission International. The professional attitude score of the nurses was high (4.35 ± 0.63). However, their organisational justice (2.22 ± 1.26) and organisational culture (2.47 ± 0.71) scores were low. Nurses were subjected to mobbing at a high level (0.82 ± 0.78). As the organisational justice increased, the organisational culture increased and the mobbing decreased. As the organisation culture decreased, the mobbing increased. There was a positive correlation between organisation culture and organisational justice of the nurses and a negative correlation with mobbing. The results of the study are essential for improving nurses' performance and productivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Snowshoe, Angela; Crooks, Claire V; Tremblay, Paul F; Hinson, Riley E
We explored the interrelationships among components of cultural connectedness (i.e., identity, traditions, and spirituality) and First Nations youth mental health using a brief version of the original Cultural Connectedness Scale. Participants included 290 First Nations youth (M age = 14.4) who were recruited from both urban and rural school settings in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cultural Connectedness Scale-Short Version (CCS-S) items to investigate the factor stability of the construct in our sample. We examined the relationships between the CCS-S subscales and self-efficacy, sense of self (present and future), school connectedness, and life satisfaction using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses to establish the validity of the abbreviated measure. The results revealed that cultural connectedness, as measured by the 10-item CCS-S, had strong associations with the mental health indicators assessed and, in some cases, was associated with First Nations youth mental health above and beyond other social determinants of health. Our results extend findings from previous research on cultural connectedness by elucidating the meaning of its components and demonstrate the importance of culture for positive youth development.
Lam, Chun Nok; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Burner, Elizabeth; Unger, Jennifer B
Hispanics in the U.S. historically use tobacco at lower rates than other racial and ethnic groups. Cultural buffering, the process by which aspects of traditional Hispanic culture delay the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, is believed to be a protective factor against tobacco use. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new tobacco product that have not been extensively studied, and it is unknown if cultural factors that protect against tobacco use will buffer against e-cigarette use among the Hispanic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) in a safety-net hospital in 2014. Patients visiting the ED participated in a survey assessing demographics and substance use. Cultural buffering was operationalized as participants' primary language spoken at home. Multivariate logistic regression and generalized estimating equations examined the association between Hispanic cultural buffering and e-cigarette ever-use. Of the 1476 Hispanic ED patients (age: 46.6M±14.5SD, 49.3% male), 7.6% reported e-cigarette ever-use and 11.1% reported current combustible cigarette use. In adjusted models, Spanish speakers were half as likely to report e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.34-0.84, p=0.007), compared with English speakers. Combustible cigarette use remained the most significant factor associated with e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 9.28, 95% C.I.:7.44-11.56, pcigarette ever-use at higher rates than Spanish speakers (28.2% vs. 5.9%, pcigarette ever-use, especially in higher-income neighborhoods. These results support research on culturally-sensitive prevention programs for new and emerging tobacco products in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Kahnovich
Full Text Available The article looks at the pedagogical technique of building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at the local and modular level. Interpersonal relations are viewed as the module and art classes as the local level. The research is timely as it can assist in studying the problem of moral development of preschool children by building the culture of interpersonal relations by artistic education means. The study presents novelty concluding from the survey of scientific literature. The process of building the culture of interpersonal relations in children has not been properly studied by preschool pedagogy. The task of the present study is to elaborate a pedagogical technique to build the culture of interpersonal relations between children at art classes. The article discusses ‘technological’ criteria (term by G.K. Selevko and presents interactive principles of the pedagogical technique. Group activities alongside with individual ones were viewed as organizational forms of art classes. Building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes is closely connected with the development of their personality, a child’s consciousness, their motivational and conceptual spheres during their gradual moral development at various levels - emotional (attitude, axiological level, psychic (intentional cognitive processes, activity (artistic and interpersonal literacy. Graphic (projective methods were used to analyze age dynamics of ethical and moral development. The conclusion describes a set of pedagogical conditions for efficient building of the culture of interpersonal relations in children at art classes. Goal. To elaborate a pedagogical technique for building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes. The technique can be applied at local and modular level.Methods and Methodology. The pedagogical technique is aimed at building the culture of interpersonal relations
Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.
Musaiger, A O
Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.
Fan, Tingjun; Jin, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaofeng
Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on cartilage cells from proboscis of skate, Raja porasa Günther, were investigated in this study. The cartilage cells were cultured in 20% FBS-supplemented MEM medium at 24°C. Twelve hours after culture initiation, the cartilage cells were treated with bFGF and IGF-II at different concentration combinations. It was found that 20 ng/ml of bFGF or 80 ng/ml of IGF-II was enough to have obvious stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. Test of bFGF and IGF-II together, revealed that 20 ng/ml of bFGF and 80 ng/ml of IGF-II together had the best stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. The cartilage cells cultured could form a monolayer at day 7.
Konstantinos M. Karyotakis
Full Text Available The present paper outlines the critical role and influence of organizational culture and job satisfaction on the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial orientation (EO in the public sector through generating the theoretical framework. Upon examining these terms, a model that reflects their mutual relationships has been suggested. The amalgam of internal work environment, work discretion and rewards/recognition in combination with the appropriate degree of organizational boundaries, such as formalization, centralization, technology routines and connectedness, are crucial for fostering organizational culture and job satisfaction that lead to EO through innovativeness, proactiveness and risk taking.
Mayer, Boris; Schwarz, Beate; Trommsdorff, Gisela
How is adolescents’ willingness for intergenerational support affected by parents’ expectations and parenting behavior? Does youths’ willingness for intergenerational support in turn affect parents’ well-being? The current study addresses these questions from a cross-cultural perspective, using data from connected samples of mother-adolescent dyads (N = 4162) from 14 diverse cultural contexts as part of the “Value of Children and Intergenerational Relations Study” (Trommsdorff & Nauck, 2005)....
In the twenty-first century, promotion is everywhere and everything has become promotable: everyday goods and organizations, people and ideas, cultures and futures. This engaging book looks at the rise of advertising, public relations, branding, marketing and lobbying, and explores where our promotional times have taken us.\\ud \\ud Promotional Cultures documents how the professions and practices of promotion have interacted with and reshaped so much in our world, from commodities, celebrities ...
Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W.
The current research proposes a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to others than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure toward close friends may be explained by the construct of "relational mobility" - the general degree to which individuals in the society have the opportunities to form new and terminate old relationships. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural di...
Singh, Satish Kumar
All protein therapeutics have the potential to be immunogenic. Several factors, including patient characteristics, disease state, and the therapy itself, influence the generation of an immune response. Product-related factors such as the molecule design, the expression system, post-translational modifications, impurities, contaminants, formulation and excipients, container, closure, as well as degradation products are all implicated. However, a critical examination of the available data shows that clear unequivocal evidence for the impact of these latter factors on clinical immunogenicity is lacking. No report could be found that clearly deconvolutes the clinical impact of the product attributes on patient susceptibility. Aggregation carries the greatest concern as a risk factor for immunogenicity, but the impact of aggregates is likely to depend on their structure as well as on the functionality (e.g., immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory) of the therapeutic. Preclinical studies are not yet capable of assessing the clinically relevant immunogenicity potential of these product-related factors. Simply addressing these risk factors as part of product development will not eliminate immunogenicity. Minimization of immunogenicity has to begin at the molecule design stage by reducing or eliminating antigenic epitopes and building in favorable physical and chemical properties. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts, religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334 and women (n = 339 aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Results Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively, but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI 0.40-1.46. In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%. This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24 could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. Conclusions The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first
Hosper, Karen; Nicolaou, Mary; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien
The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts), religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334) and women (n = 339) aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively), but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education) of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI) 0.40-1.46). In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%). This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24) could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first generation women. Further research is necessary to elucidate
The aim in this research was to determine how endogenous factors such as gender, intelligence, self-concept, and personality relate to the eating habits of adolescents. An empirical investigation was conducted using 340 secondary school learners, 162 boys and 178 girls. From the results it appeared that girls tend to have ...
Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of procurement related factors of procurement selection criteria, tendering methods and variation orders on project performance. Purpose of the study is to ...
Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K
Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...
DR NJ TONUKARI
Jun 6, 2011 ... bio-technique in bacterial (Lin et al., 2007), yeast (Xu et al., 2003) ... biological activity, such as human somatotropin (hST) .... sion way with chloroplast transit peptide (Wang et al., .... chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a ... necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo.
Nealey, Stanley M.
This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Robert J. Laacke; Gary O. Fiddler
Overstory removal can offer economic and esthetic advantages over clearcutting and regeneration, but projecting success is difficult. Twenty-nine units on nine operational overstory removal cuts in northern California were studied to determine what factors are related to satisfactory or unsatisfactory stocking after harvest. Stocking determinations were based on number...
Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...
Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa. ... away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness.
Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel
Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…
Background: This study examined maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal mortality over a multi-year period from de-identified retrospective medical records at Nyakahanga Designated District Hospital in north-western Tanzania. The study aimed to examine factors related to maternal mortality (MMR) and morbidity in ...
Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...
Background: The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. Objectives: The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling ...
Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.
Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I
Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.
Vogel, Joanne E.
Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…
Hessels, Amanda J; Murray, Meghan; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine L
Children with complex medical needs are increasing in number and demanding the services of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTC), which require a focus on patient safety culture (PSC). However, no tool to measure PSC has been tested in this unique hybrid acute care-residential setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture tool slightly modified for use in the pLTC setting. Factor analyses were performed on data collected from 239 staff at 3 pLTC in 2012. Items were screened by principal axis factoring, and the original structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the best model fit for the pLTC data, and factor reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha. The extracted, rotated factor solution suggested items in 4 (staffing, nonpunitive response to mistakes, communication openness, and organizational learning) of the original 12 dimensions may not be a good fit for this population. Nevertheless, in the pLTC setting, both the original and the modified factor solutions demonstrated similar reliabilities to the published consistencies of the survey when tested in adult nursing homes and the items factored nearly identically as theorized. This study demonstrates that the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture with minimal modification may be an appropriate instrument to measure PSC in pLTC settings. Additional psychometric testing is recommended to further validate the use of this instrument in this setting, including examining the relationship to safety outcomes. Increased use will yield data for benchmarking purposes across these specialized settings to inform frontline workers and organizational leaders of areas of strength and opportunity for improvement.
Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Mullins, David
We produce an explicit formula for the dispersion relation for the Dirac equation in the standard model extension in the presence of Lorentz violation. Our expression is obtained using novel techniques which exploit the algebra of quaternions. The dispersion relation is found to conveniently factor in two special cases that each involve a mutually exclusive set of nonvanishing Lorentz-violating parameters. This suggests that a useful approach to studies of Lorentz-violating models is to split the parameter space into two separate pieces, each of which yields a simple, tractable dispersion relation that can be used for analysis.
Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Scahill, Shane; Chen, Charlotte; Hong, Jae Beom; Hughes, Carmel M
The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organisational culture and psychotropic medication use in residential care. Cross-sectional analyses of staff and resident's record survey in residential aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). The competing values framework categorised organisational culture as clan, hierarchical, market driven or adhocracy and was completed by all staff. The treatment culture tool categorised facilities as having resident centred or traditional culture and was completed by registered nursing staff and general practitioners (GP). Functional and behavioural characteristics of residents were established by staff report and health characteristics and medications used were ascertained from the health record. Multiple regression was used to test for associations between measures of culture with psychotropic medication use (anxiolytics, sedatives, major tranquillisers). In total 199 staff, 27 GP and 527 residents participated from 14 facilities. On average 8.5 medications per resident were prescribed and 42 per cent of residents received psychotropic medication. Having a diagnosis of anxiety or depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.71, 5.91), followed by persistent wandering (OR 2.53, 95 per cent CI 1.59, 4.01) and being in a dementia unit (OR 2.45, 95 per cent CI 1.17, 5.12) were most strongly associated with psychotropic use. Controlling for resident- and facility-level factors, health care assistants' assignation of hierarchical organisational culture type was independently associated with psychotropic medication use, (OR 1.29, CI 1.08, 1.53) and a higher treatment culture score from the GP was associated with lower use of psychotropic medication (OR 0.95, CI 0.92, 0.98). Psychotropic medication use remains prevalent in residential care facilities in NZ. Interventions aimed at changing organisational culture towards a less hierarchical and more resident-centred culture
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...
Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel
Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy. Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge. The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions. Despite the fact that pharmacological
Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R
shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10days......, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be increased by factors known to influence survival and differentiation of dopaminergic cells....... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...
Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simko, Myrtill
Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1microT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explain about the effective social–cultural factor on the drug–addicted women. In other word, we try to answer this question, which of the social–cultural factor are effective to drugs. Method: Different and new approach of this paper is study together on the effective social–cultural factors on the drug–addicted women. Results: Hypothesis has resulted from six dominant theoretical perspectives. these hypothesizes are based on Agnew’s general stain theory, sutherland’s learning theory, Kohen’s Delinquent subcultural, show and Mckay’s ecological theory, Hir schi’s social control theory, Independent variables included women information, family disintegrated, availability of drugs, addiction of family member, peer groups, parents observation, marriage women position, training parents, training spouse and training addicted women. Conclusion: This is a survey research. The data collected by questionnaire and interview. The sample size was 100 people from drug– addicted women of chitgar camp. Having gathered the data spss soft wares are used for data processing according to deceptive and inferential statistic like person and spearman. the result show that women information, family disintegrated, availability of drug, addiction of family member, training women and training parents as affective factors on women’s addiction.
Kuhirunyaratn, Piyathida; Prasomrak, Prasert; Jindawong, Bangonsri
Falls among the elderly can lead to disability, hospitalization and premature death. This study aimed to determine the factors related to falls among community dwelling elderly. This case-control study was conducted at the Samlium Primary Care Unit (SPCU), Khon Kaen, Thailand. Cases were elderly individuals who had fallen within the previous six months and controls were elderly who had not fallen during that same time period. Subjects were taken from elderly persons registered at the SPCU. The sample size was calculated to be 111 cases and 222 controls. Face to face interviews were conducted with subjects between May and June, 2011. The response rate was 100%. On bivariate analysis, the statistically significant factors related to falls were: regular medication use, co-morbidities, mobility, depression, cluttered rooms, slippery floors, unsupported toilets (without a hand rail), sufficient exercise, rapid posture change and wearing slippers. When controlling for others significant factors, multiple logistic regression revealed significant factors were: regular medication use (AOR: 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19 - 4.12), depression (AOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.99), sufficient exercise (AOR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19 - 0.58) and wearing slippery shoes (AOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.24 - 4.29). Interventions need to be considered to modify these significant factors associated with falls and education should be provided to these at risk.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.
Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda
The risk factors for surgical site infections in surgery should be measured and monitored from admission to 30 days after the surgical procedure, because 30% of Surgical Site Infection is detected when the patient was discharged. Calculate the Relative Risk of associated factors to surgical site infections in adult with elective surgery. Patients were classified according to the surgery contamination degree; patient with surgery clean was defined as no exposed and patient with clean-contaminated or contaminated surgery was defined exposed. Risk factors for infection were classified as: inherent to the patient, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. Statistical analysis; we realized Student t or Mann-Whitney U, chi square for Relative Risk (RR) and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards. Were monitored up to 30 days after surgery 403 patients (59.8% women), 35 (8.7%) developed surgical site infections. The factors associated in multivariate analysis were: smoking, RR of 3.21, underweight 3.4 hand washing unsuitable techniques 4.61, transfusion during the procedure 3.22, contaminated surgery 60, and intensive care stay 8 to 14 days 11.64, permanence of 1 to 3 days 2.4 and use of catheter 1 to 3 days 2.27. To avoid all risk factors is almost impossible; therefore close monitoring of elective surgery patients can prevent infectious complications.
Packard, Mark G; Goodman, Jarid
Neurobehavioral evidence supports the existence of at least two anatomically distinct "memory systems" in the mammalian brain that mediate dissociable types of learning and memory; a "cognitive" memory system dependent upon the hippocampus and a "stimulus-response/habit" memory system dependent upon the dorsolateral striatum. Several findings indicate that despite their anatomical and functional distinctiveness, hippocampal- and dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory systems may potentially interact and that, depending on the learning situation, this interaction may be cooperative or competitive. One approach to examining the neural mechanisms underlying these interactions is to consider how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems. The present review examines several such factors, including information compatibility, temporal sequence of training, the visual sensory environment, reinforcement parameters, emotional arousal, and memory modulatory systems. Altering these parameters can lead to selective enhancements of either hippocampal-dependent or dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory, and bias animals toward the use of either cognitive or habit memory in dual-solution tasks that may be solved adequately with either memory system. In many learning situations, the influence of such experimental factors on the relative use of memory systems likely reflects a competitive interaction between the systems. Research examining how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems may be a useful method for investigating how these systems interact with one another. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maly, Monica R; Costigan, Patrick A; Olney, Sandra J
Pain experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis is related to psychosocial factors and damage to articular tissues and/or the pain pathway itself. Mechanical factors have been speculated to trigger this pain experience; yet mechanics have not been identified as a source of pain in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify whether mechanics could explain variance in pain intensity in people with knee osteoarthritis. Data from 53 participants with physician-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (mean age=68.5 years; standard deviation=8.6 years) were analyzed. Pain intensity was reported on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Mechanical measures included weight-bearing varus-valgus alignment, body mass index and isokinetic quadriceps torque. Gait analysis captured the range of adduction-abduction angle, range of flexion-extension angle and external knee adduction moment during level walking. Pain intensity was significantly related to the dynamic range of flexion-extension during gait and body mass index. A total of 29% of the variance in pain intensity was explained by mechanical variables. The range of flexion-extension explained 18% of variance in pain intensity. Body mass index added 11% to the model. The knee adduction moment was unrelated to pain intensity. The findings support that mechanical factors are related to knee osteoarthritis pain. Because limitations in flexion-extension range of motion and body size are modifiable factors, future research could examine whether interventions targeting these mechanics would facilitate pain management.
Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria
The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.
Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.
Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.
Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…
Gnizy, I.; Baker, W.; Grinstein, A.
Purpose-Although small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a significant portion of international trade, little is known about the role of strategic orientation culture in improving their foreign launch success. Three orientations-market, entrepreneurial, and learning are all related to
María Eugenia Nano
Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors related to the closing of 50 ETFs in 2008. The study compared the sample of liquidated ETFs to a matched sample of active ETFs. The factors used as explanatory variables were: market capitalization, liquidity, ETF return, Index return, tracking error, fund age, and premium. Lower liquidity values, higher tracking errors, and higher ETF returns were associated with higher probabilities of liquidation. The researcher found evidence that ETFs’ market makers were profiting from the creation of new ETFs’ shares just before liquidating the ETFs’ shares at a premium.
Full Text Available The social factor that has the widest impact on customer's behavior is culture. The aim of this work is that through the elements and dimensions of culture explains habits, customs and tendencies of people in consumption .According to the broad and pervasive nature of culture, its study requires a thorough examination of the character of the entire society, including elements such as language, laws, customs, religion, art, technology, business partners, products and other elements that give the society a distinctive taste. Understanding the similarities and differences among costumers is very important for multinational tenderer. If there is a greater similarity between the costumers they will use similar strategies but if the beliefs and customs are different, then each country uses individual marketing strategy. In international marketing error may occur if the promotional message of a company presents in a language that is not understandable to customers in a given country and which means something completely different and unacceptable by customers. Differences in cultural values can be described in various dimensions - individualism, masculinity, power distance, avoidance of uncertainty and long-term orientation. Market segments in developing countries offer great opportunities but the creation of values in those segments means that the nuances of the culture must be understood.
Sung, Si Yoon; Kwon, Jong Won [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the variable factors affecting the results of percutaneous needle biopsies for infectious spondylitis. In all, 249 patients who underwent both MRI and percutaneous needle biopsies due to a suspicion of infectious spondylitis were evaluated with respect to the following factors: the usage of antibiotics before the procedure, the location of the biopsy, the guiding equipment used, the experience level of the operators, and the number of biopsies performed. The positivity of culture in cases of treated with antibiotics (16.3%) before the biopsy was lower than in the untreated cases (30.5%) (p = 0.004). Biopsies performed at the abscess (43.5%) and with fluoroscopic guidance (27.8%) showed higher culture positivity as well. The experience level of the operators and the number of biopsies had no effect on culture positivity. The usage of antibiotics before the biopsy, the biopsy's location, and the guiding equipment used affect the culture positivity, while the experience levels of the operators and the number of biopsies do not have an effect.
Sung, Si Yoon; Kwon, Jong Won
To evaluate the variable factors affecting the results of percutaneous needle biopsies for infectious spondylitis. In all, 249 patients who underwent both MRI and percutaneous needle biopsies due to a suspicion of infectious spondylitis were evaluated with respect to the following factors: the usage of antibiotics before the procedure, the location of the biopsy, the guiding equipment used, the experience level of the operators, and the number of biopsies performed. The positivity of culture in cases of treated with antibiotics (16.3%) before the biopsy was lower than in the untreated cases (30.5%) (p = 0.004). Biopsies performed at the abscess (43.5%) and with fluoroscopic guidance (27.8%) showed higher culture positivity as well. The experience level of the operators and the number of biopsies had no effect on culture positivity. The usage of antibiotics before the biopsy, the biopsy's location, and the guiding equipment used affect the culture positivity, while the experience levels of the operators and the number of biopsies do not have an effect
Bárbara de ALENCAR
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.
Augusto, Cláudia Cristina Vieira Carvalho de Oliveira Ferreira; Araújo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vítor Manuel Costa Pereira; de Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri
to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF) for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability. in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument. the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90). the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience.
Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria
Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…
Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Chung, Jae-Kyun; Choi, Youn-Hee; Sohn, Woosung; Song, Keun-Bae
The purposes of this study were to investigate the level and distribution of job satisfaction and to explore work environment factors associated with job satisfaction of South Korean dentists. A stratified systematic random sample of 1029 dentists was selected from the 10 357 registered dentists in the Korean Dental Association. They were surveyed via a self-administered mail questionnaire. Job satisfaction was measured by a modified version of the Dentist Satisfaction Survey. The response rate was 62.2%. The mean score of overall job satisfaction among South Korean dentists was 3.2 out of 5. In terms of work environment factors, the most satisfying aspect was patient relations (3.7) and the least satisfying aspect was personal time (2.8). Multiple regression analysis identified a model including patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training that accounted for 35% of variation in overall job satisfaction. The majority of the variance was explained by patient relations. This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training are important work environment factors for job satisfaction among South Korean dentists. The findings of this study will be helpful to policy makers to design plans to increase the level of job satisfaction among South Korean dentists.
Kurniawan, Juferdy; Hasan, Irsan; Gani, Rino Alvani; Simadibrata, Marcellus
to obtain survival rate and mortality-related factors of malignant obstructive jaundice patients. all medical records of obstructive jaundice inpatient at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed in terms of mortality: age, gender, sepsis, hypoalbumin, serum bilirubin level, serum CA 19-9 level, billiary drainage, non-ampulla Vateri carcinoma, and comorbid factors. total 181 out of 402 patients were enrolled in this study with male proportion was 58.6%, and patients aged 50 years or above was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that only sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior biliary drainage and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 were independent predictors of mortality. Patients with significant prognostic factors had median survival 14 days compared with overall median survival 26 days. Score ≥2 identified as the highest prognostic score threshold with sensitivity 68%, specificity 75%, and AUC on ROC curve 0.769. sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior bilirary drainage, and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 are factors significantly associated with shortened survival in malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Prognostic score ≥2 was determined to classify patients into high risk mortality group. Mortality of patients with those significant prognostic factors can be predicted in 76.9%.
Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael
Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.
Hsu, Joy; Qin, Xiaoting; Beavers, Suzanne F; Mirabelli, Maria C
Asthma is a leading cause of chronic disease-related school absenteeism. Few data exist on how information on absenteeism might be used to identify children for interventions to improve asthma control. This study investigated how asthma-related absenteeism was associated with asthma control, exacerbations, and associated modifiable risk factors using a sample of children from 35 states and the District of Columbia. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Child Asthma Call-back Survey is a random-digit dial survey designed to assess the health and experiences of children aged 0-17 years with asthma. During 2014-2015, multivariate analyses were conducted using 2006-2010 data to compare children with and without asthma-related absenteeism with respect to clinical, environmental, and financial measures. These analyses controlled for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with children without asthma-related absenteeism, children who missed any school because of asthma were more likely to have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma (prevalence ratio=1.50; 95% CI=1.34, 1.69) and visit an emergency department or urgent care center for asthma (prevalence ratio=3.27; 95% CI=2.44, 4.38). Mold in the home and cost as a barrier to asthma-related health care were also significantly associated with asthma-related absenteeism. Missing any school because of asthma is associated with suboptimal asthma control, urgent or emergent asthma-related healthcare utilization, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Further understanding of asthma-related absenteeism could establish how to most effectively use absenteeism information as a health status indicator. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Freund, Anat; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal
Studies have shown a lower adherence to health behaviors among women in cultural-ethnic minorities and faith-based communities, especially lower screening attendance for the early detection of breast cancer. This study compares factors related to cancer screening adherence in two distinct cultural-ethnic minorities in Israel: Arab women as a cultural-ethnic minority and Jewish ultra-Orthodox women as a cultural-ethnic faith-based minority. During the year 2014, a total of 398 Jewish ultra-Orthodox women and 401 Arab women between the ages of 40-60, were randomly selected using population-based registries. These women answered questionnaires regarding adherence to mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE), health beliefs and cultural barriers. Arab women adhered more than ultra-Orthodox women to mammography (p faith-based communities. In order to increase adherence, health care professionals and policymakers should direct their attention to the specific nature of each community.
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining......Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110...
Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.
This thesis is an analysis of the under-researched subject of disability in Trinidad and Tobago and presents an understanding of the concepts and contestations of disability as it is lived and experienced by disabled people in T&T. In it disability is explored in the context of identity construction, power relations and self-empowerment, and takes into account the ways in which that identity is shaped by historical events, cultural relations, social interactions and political structures.\\ud \\...
This study “Teacher Motivation” is an effort to recognize the factors which cause to diminish motivation in teachers, within and outside the system as well. During the study, I found two categories one is "General Issues but significant, need to resolve them with focus" which lays largely on the overall resources and second is Specific "The deep state in the bureaucratic system, the government approach towards teachers" lays on the practices and culture amongst the peer members and authoritie...
Scorcu, Antonello Eugenio; Vici, Laura
The role of economic factors, such as family income, the price of illegal reproductions of books, the enforcement rules and the expected penalties are considered the main determinants of the possible infringements of the copyright law. However, the comparison between individual economic gains and losses offers only a partial explanation, as also cultural individual habits and peer effects exert important influences. Using a unique dataset based on a survey conducted at the University of Bolog...
Korkor Owusu, Patrick
Recent global reports indicate that women have made tremendous improvements in educational enrolment and labour participation but are woefully underrepresented in top leadership positions. Moreover, studies have shown that feminine leadership strategies are embraced but leadership is still perceived as a prerogative of men in many societies. This study therefore sought to explore the socio-cultural and organizational factors influencing the underrepresentation of women in educational leadersh...
Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M
The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices.
Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.
A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Short, A B; Schopler, E
We examined the distribution of ages of onset of autism and related communication handicaps and assessed factors related to age of onset. Subjects were approximately 1,800 children seen at Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) since 1970. Exact numbers of subjects varied with different analyses due to missing data. Data were gathered through direct assessment, interview, and questionnaire. Seventy-six percent of autistic children were identified by parents by 24 months of age, and 94% by 36 months. Families reporting early onset tended to seek help sooner and to be seen by TEACCH sooner. Early onset was most clearly related to severity as measured by IQ and ratings on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Schopler, Reichler, & Renner, 1986). The findings support the treatment of age of onset of autism by DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987).
Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.
Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G.
This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly
Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong
This study was conducted to investigate medical residents' job satisfaction and their related factors to improve the quality of residency program. The study subjects were 159 medical residents being trained at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in 2011. The participants were asked to complete a short form Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ). The mean score for 20 items on the short form MSQ varied between 2.91 and 3.64 on a 5-point Likert scale. The assessment of related factors with job satisfaction revealed that medical residents had higher levels for job satisfaction, particularly those who were women (beta=0.200, p=0.022), and those who had mentorship experience (beta=0.219, p=0.008). This study results indicate that we should expand and support the mentorship program during medical residency to promote job satisfaction.
This document is in two parts. Part I presents the criteria and evaluation factors, based primarily on US experience, which may be used to carry out an environmental assessment of spent fuel reprocessing. The concept of As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is introduced in limiting radiation exposure. The factors influencing both occupational and general public radiation exposure are reviewed. Part II provides information on occupational and general public radiation exposure in relation to reprocessing taken from various sources including UNSCEAR and GESMO. Some information is provided in relation to potential accidents at reprocessing or MOX fuel refabrication plants. The magnitude of the services, energy, land use and non-radiological effluents for the reference design of reprocessing plant are also presented
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Jansen, Bastiaan J. H.; van Ruissen, Fred; Cerneus, Stefanie; Cloin, Wendy; Bergers, Mieke; van Erp, Piet E. J.; Schalkwijk, Joost
Using serial analysis of gene expression we have previously identified the expression of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes in cultured human primary epidermal keratinocytes, including tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis
Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.
We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.
Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.
We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings
Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria; Tolsgaard, Martin G; Dieckmann, Peter
-workers familiarity with ALS principles', 'own confidence as ALS-provider' and 'own social/inter-personal skills'. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey emphasise that ALS providers' perceived ability to apply ALS skills were substantially affected by teamwork skills and co-workers' skills. Team related factors...... associated with successful outcome were related to clear role distribution, clear inter-personal communication and attentive listening, as well as respectful behaviour and positive team atmosphere. Although intensity of setting was attributed to ability to apply ALS principles, this did not affect management...
This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.
Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Jansen, Tessa; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.
Objective Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one’s ‘cultural capital’, as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1) to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2) to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3) to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices. Design We systematically searched large databases for the key-word ‘cultural capital’ in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011. Results The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents’ education completed) and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art) were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills). Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of .654; 56 items), and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices. Conclusions Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in) food choices. PMID:26244763
Carlijn B M Kamphuis
Full Text Available Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1 to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2 to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3 to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices.We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011.The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills. Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items, and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices.Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in food choices.
Silva, Fabiana Brito
Obesity is one of the most pressing global population health issues, and importantly one that affects racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status disproportionately. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood and is related to serious medical and economic consequences throughout the life course. Childhood obesity is well recognized as a complex and multifaceted problem influenced by broader social, geographic and environmental factors. A social ecological framework that i...
Inventory . Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress RTO-MP HFM-134 10 - 7 - Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento...17-37.  Miguel-Tobal, J. J. and Cano Vindel, A. (1986). Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad. Madrid: Tea Ediciones. (2ª Edic...Psychology, 56, 2, 267-283.  Cano Vindel, A. and Miguel-Tobal, J. J. (1992). Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento (IVA). Mimeo: Universidad
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
Where much is known about the consequences of spinal and low back pain (LBP) during military deployments, there is lesser knowledge of risk factors for LBP among the deployed forces. The objective of this study was to identify deployment-related exposures associated with LBP. The study was a ques...... their subordinates and involve medical personnel, especially deployed physiotherapists, by giving advice to soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work....
Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the 3 H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate
Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo
The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1) variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2) changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3) ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per
Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Halline, Christopher; Johnson, Emilie K; Diaz-Saldano, Dawn; Meyer, Theresa; Yerkes, Elizabeth B
There is no consensus regarding use of periprocedural antibiotics or routine urine cultures during urodynamics study (UDS) in children. At our hospital, we historically have obtained urine cultures during UDS. However, even with positive cultures, few patients require treatment. Most are successfully managed with increased hydration and frequent bladder emptying. To evaluate clinical characteristics, antibiotic treatment, and outcomes in patients undergoing UDS to identify (1) risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) after UDS, and (2) patients who may benefit from routine urine culture. Retrospective review of 769 patients who underwent 1057 UDS between January 2013 and January 2015. Positive urine culture was defined as ≥10 4 colony forming units/ml. Afebrile UTI was defined as new symptoms within 7 days. Febrile UTI was new symptoms with fever (≥38.5 °C). Fisher's exact test was used for comparative analyses. Nearly all patients had a urine culture taken immediately prior to UDS (94%, 993/1057). Patients on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) were more likely to be on pre-UDS antibiotics, 22.8% (106/464) vs. 17.9% of those not on CIC (106/593) (p = 0.04). Of patients who had a urine culture, it was positive in 40% (402/993) with more positive cultures in patients on CIC vs. not (72.0%, 316/439 vs. 15.5%, 86/554, p UTI included clinical UTI within 30 days before UDS, immunosuppression, overnight Foley catheter use, febrile UTI as indication, and symptoms on day of procedure (Table). Fifteen patients (1.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.7-2.1%) developed a clinical/possible post-UDS UTI, of which 40% (6/15) were febrile, with one requiring hospitalization. Of patients with post-UDS UTIs, 33% (5/15) had negative cultures at the time of UDS. If urine cultures were obtained selectively based on our study findings, 78% of pre-UDS urine cultures could be eliminated, while "missing" clinically relevant cultures in only 0.4% (4/1057). Study limitations
Degboe Arnold N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and
Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis
This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes
Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Kamble, Nitin M; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat
The present study examined the expression profile of buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) used as a feeder layer for embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. The expression of important growth factors was detected in cells at different passages. Mitomycin-C inactivation increased relative expression levels of ACTIVIN-A, TGF-β1, BMP-4 and GREMLIN but not of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The expression level of ACTIVIN-A, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FGF-2 was similar in buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) cultured in stem cell medium (SCM), SCM+1000IU mL(-1) leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), SCM+5 ngmL(-1) FGF-2 or SCM+LIF+FGF-2 for 24 h whereas GREMLIN expression was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups. In spent medium, the concentration of ACTIVIN-A was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups whereas that of TGF-β1 was similar in SCM and LIF+FGF-2, which was higher than when either LIF or FGF-2 was used alone. Following culture of ES cell-like cells on a feeder layer for 24 h, the TGF-β1 concentration was higher with LIF+FGF-2 than with LIF or FGF-2 alone which, in turn, was higher than that in SCM. In the LIF+FGF-2 group, the concentration of TGF-β1 was lower and that of ACTIVIN-A was higher in spent medium at 24 h than at 48 h of culture. These results suggest that BFF produce signalling molecules that may help in self-renewal of buffalo ES cell-like cells.
Chien, Su-Chen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chun-Hsiu; Chang, Pei-Chi; Fang, Chiung-Hui; Yang, Hao-Jan
To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.
Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne
and supply factors together. The aim was to provide an overview of this highly interdisciplinary research, to describe how these linkages are being made and to identify which factors significantly influence dependent variables such as levels of use, activities or health and well-being benefits. Commonly used......Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand...
Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown. Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.
Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias
To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny
During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.
Hartmann, Sofie Bruun
setups for improved activation/differentiation of immune cells. Conclusively, this work highlights the importance of acknowledging the effect from external factors when analyzing data generated from in vitro cultures. This being even more important when working with immune cells since these cells adopt......T lymphocytes are key players during the initiation of an adaptive immune response. The activation of these cells in vivo requires migration within the lymph nodes until they encounter antigen presenting cells (APCs) that can activate them to secrete IFN-γ which mediates downstream effector...... functions. The in vitro reactivation of antigen-experienced T lymphocytes and detection of IFN-γ from cell cultures can be used in a diagnostic assay to test for disease or vaccine efficacy. Practical procedures of the IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) was investigated using bovine cells and whole blood cultures...
Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity
Rosenthal, Meagen M; Houle, Sherilyn K D; Eberhart, Greg; Tsuyuki, Ross T
As evidence for the efficacy of pharmacists' interventions, governments worldwide are developing legislation to formalize new practice approaches, including independent prescribing by pharmacists. Pharmacists in Alberta became the first in Canada availed of this opportunity; however, uptake of such has been slow. One approach to understanding this problem is through an examination of pharmacists who have already gained this ability. The primary objective of this study was to gain descriptive insight into the culture and personality traits of innovator, and early adopter, Alberta pharmacists with Additional Prescribing Authorization using the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The study was a cross-sectional online survey of Alberta pharmacists who obtained Additional Prescribing Authorization (independent prescribing authority), in the fall of 2012. The survey contained three sections; the first contained basic demographic, background and practice questions; the second section contained the Organizational Culture Profile; and the third section contained the Big Five Inventory. Sixty-five survey instruments were returned, for a response rate of 39%. Respondents' mean age was 40 (SD 10) years. The top reason cited by respondents for applying for prescribing authority was to improve patient care. The majority of respondents perceived greater value in the cultural factors of competitiveness, social responsibility, supportiveness, performance orientation and stability, and may be more likely to exhibit behavior in line with the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Inferential statistical analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between Organizational Culture Profile responses to cultural factors of social responsibility and competitiveness and the number of prescription adaptations provided. This insight into the experiences of innovators and early adopter pharmacist prescribers can be used to
Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.
Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)
Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh
Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.
This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help missionaries…
Dadun,; Peters, Ruth M. H.; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Lusli, Mimi; Damayanti, Rita; Irwanto, A.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: There is a need for comprehensive, valid and reliable instruments to assess leprosy-related stigma. This paper presents the process of the cross-cultural validation of an instrument in Cirebon District, Indonesia initiated by the Stigma Assessment and Reduction of Impact (SARI) project.
Hall, Brenda S.; Harper, Irene; Korcuska, James
We explored students' experiences of a graduate level group course infused with components of the Relational Cultural Theory (RCT). During the didactic and experiential aspects of 2 semester-long group courses, the faculty instructors and students focused on creating an environment of safety, connection, and empowerment. The instructor and…
Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця
Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere
Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.
Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican…
Trepal, Heather C.; Boie, Ioana; Kress, Victoria E.
The authors examine eating disorders through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). Taking into account the importance of relationships and connection, it is suggested that RCT may be a useful lens for conceptualizing and working with people who are experiencing eating disorders. Ways that RCT can be applied to enhance…
Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.
Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…
Nguyen, Quang Charles X.; Anderson, Louis P.
This study examined the relation between culturally based variables and attitudes toward seeking mental health services among a community sample of Vietnamese Americans (N = 148) with at least 8 years' residence in the United States (U.S.). Variables included Stigma, Traditional Beliefs about Mental Illness, Help-Seeking Preferences, Problem…
Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah
Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Ma...
Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W; Lozoff, Betsy
Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing the economic concept of time based on historical and cultural factors. The manuscript presents the historical evolution of the concept of time, highlighting its conceptualization since ancient times until now. Subsequently, the paper analyzes the economic value of time down through the history of no-time (leisure time and its cultural contextualization (occidental culture/linear conception vs. oriental culture/cyclical conception. Finally, the contemporary state of the concepts of time and money, and suggests the need to establish a new culture of time, which should be taught from an early age.
Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Levett-Jones, Tracy
Hierarchy and power characterize health-care relationships around the world, constituting a barrier to assertive communication and a risk to patient safety. This issue is more problematic and complex in countries such as Japan, where deep-seated cultural values related to hierarchy and power persist. The current paper is the second of two that present the findings from a study exploring Japanese nurses' views and experiences of how cultural values impact assertive communication for health-care professionals. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 registered nurses, following which data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Two overarching themes emerged from the analysis: hierarchy/power and collectivism. In the present study, we focus on cultural values related to hierarchy and power, including differences in professional status, gender imbalance, seniority/generation gap, bullying, and humility/modesty. The findings from our research provide meaningful insights into how Japanese cultural values influence and constrain nurses' communication and speaking up behaviors, and can be used to inform educational programs designed to teach assertiveness skills. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are considered one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of various blood disorders. However, due to difficulties in establishing stable maintenance and expansion of HSCs in vitro, their insufficient supply is a major constraint to transplantation studies. To solve these problems we have developed a fully defined, all-recombinant protein-based culture system. Through this system, we have identified hemopexin (HPX and interleukin-1α as responsible for HSC maintenance in vitro. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed that HPX reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels within cultured HSCs. Furthermore, bone marrow immunostaining and 3D immunohistochemistry revealed that HPX is expressed in non-myelinating Schwann cells, known HSC niche constituents. These results highlight the utility of this fully defined all-recombinant protein-based culture system for reproducible in vitro HSC culture and its potential to contribute to the identification of factors responsible for in vitro maintenance, expansion, and differentiation of stem cell populations.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being
Julia Stoffregen; Jan M. Pawlowski; Eric Ras; Snezana Scepanovic; Dragica Zugic
The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in...
Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and
Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado
Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.
Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang
Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.
Halvorsen, Tanya; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Steinberger, Julia
To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yada, Hironori; Kobayashi, Mako; Odachi, Ryo; Yamane, Toshie
This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one's role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy.
Lee, Daegu; Hwang, Ji Hye; Chu, Inho; Chang, Hyun Ju; Shim, Young Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ratio of significant weakness in the affected arm of breast cancer-related lymphedema patients to their unaffected side. Another purpose was to identify factors related to arm weakness and physical function in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Consecutive patients (n = 80) attended a single evaluation session following their outpatient lymphedema clinic visit. Possible independent factors (i.e., lymphedema, pain, psychological, educational, and behavioral) were evaluated. Handgrip strength was used to assess upper extremity muscle strength and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to assess upper extremity physical function. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using factors that had significant differences between the handgrip weakness and non-weakness groups. Out of the 80 patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema, 29 patients (36.3 %) had significant weakness in the affected arm. Weakness of the arm with lymphedema was not related to lymphedema itself, but was related to the fear of using the affected limb (odds ratio = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval = 1.30-2.37). Fears of using the affected limb and depression significantly contributed to the variance in DASH scores. Appropriate physical and psychological interventions, including providing accurate information and reassurance of physical activity safety, are necessary to prevent arm weakness and physical dysfunction in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.
Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie
The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.
-related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...... then applied the set of scales to a fourth country, Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 respondents. The scales had, with a fe exceptions, moderately good reliabilities. A cluster ana-ly-sis led to the identification of 5 segments, which differed on all 23 scales....
Beutell, Nicholas J
This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.
Full Text Available The present article refers to a qualitative analysis of the main reference authors and works related to the studies about the presence of the African legacy in the cultural identity of Bahia Honda based on a continuing historical- cultural conception. This study has a systematized theoretical character and includes methods like the dialectic- materialistic and documental analysis. The results indicated a wide diffusion of information, the variety of disciplinary directions and also a lack of this kind of qualitative evaluation in the previous studies carried out.
Aazh, Hashir; Lammaing, Karen; Moore, Brian C J
The aim was to assess factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people. Retrospective cross-sectional. Data were gathered for 184 patients with an average age of 69 years. Tinnitus handicap as measured via the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was significantly predicted by tinnitus annoyance as measured via the visual analogue scale (VAS) (regression coefficient, b = 2.9, p tinnitus on the patient's life as measured via the VAS (b = 3.9, p tinnitus annoyance significantly predicts tinnitus handicap, it is important to explore factors associated with annoyance that may be useful in designing appropriate rehabilitative interventions aimed at reducing tinnitus handicap in older people. Future studies should explore whether hyperacusis and insomnia in older people with tinnitus need to be managed in conjunction with treatment for depression.
Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R
The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.