Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua
Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.
Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.
California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…
MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY
THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…
Lee, Hyo Jung
The hidden curriculum, the unwritten rules and standards for social conduct that most people take for granted and learn more or less automatically, poses a challenge for many individuals on the autism spectrum because of deficits in social cognition and social interaction skills. Compounding challenges are cultural factors, such as age, ethnicity,…
Mi, Misa; Zhang, Yingting
Objective This study investigated the current state of health sciences libraries’ provision of culturally competent services to support health professions education and patient care and examined factors associated with cultural competency in relation to library services and professional development. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected with a survey questionnaire that was distributed via SurveyMonkey to several health sciences librarian email discussion lists. Results Out of 176 respondents, 163 reported serving clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Various services were provided to develop or support initiatives in cultural competency in health professions education and patient care. A considerable number of respondents were unsure or reported no library services to support initiatives in cultural competency, although a majority of respondents perceived the importance of providing culturally competent library services (156, 89.1%) and cultural competency for health sciences librarians (162, 93.1%). Those who self-identified as nonwhites perceived culturally competent services to be more important than whites (p=0.04). Those who spoke another language in addition to English had higher self-rated cultural competency (p=0.01) than those who only spoke English. Conclusions These findings contribute to our knowledge of the types of library services provided to support cultural competency initiatives and of health sciences librarians’ perceived importance in providing culturally competent library services and cultural competency for health sciences librarians. The results suggest implications for health sciences libraries in fostering professional development in cultural competency and in providing culturally competent services to increase library use by people from a wide range of cultures and backgrounds. PMID:28377675
Mi, Misa; Zhang, Yingting
This study investigated the current state of health sciences libraries' provision of culturally competent services to support health professions education and patient care and examined factors associated with cultural competency in relation to library services and professional development. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected with a survey questionnaire that was distributed via SurveyMonkey to several health sciences librarian email discussion lists. Out of 176 respondents, 163 reported serving clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Various services were provided to develop or support initiatives in cultural competency in health professions education and patient care. A considerable number of respondents were unsure or reported no library services to support initiatives in cultural competency, although a majority of respondents perceived the importance of providing culturally competent library services (156, 89.1%) and cultural competency for health sciences librarians (162, 93.1%). Those who self-identified as nonwhites perceived culturally competent services to be more important than whites ( p =0.04). Those who spoke another language in addition to English had higher self-rated cultural competency ( p =0.01) than those who only spoke English. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the types of library services provided to support cultural competency initiatives and of health sciences librarians' perceived importance in providing culturally competent library services and cultural competency for health sciences librarians. The results suggest implications for health sciences libraries in fostering professional development in cultural competency and in providing culturally competent services to increase library use by people from a wide range of cultures and backgrounds.
Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Aguilar-Barrientos, Sara; Román-Calderón, Juan Pablo
This article reports the results of a study inquiring about the role of education-related factors in the development of cultural intelligence. Five hundred fifty-seven students of a Colombian international business (IB) undergraduate program participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the measures were assessed by conducting…
Wang, Qian; Zhang, Hui; Geng, Lixin; Li, Qijia; Gan, Hongquan; Wang, Hui; Bi, Cheng; Wang, Zhiqiang
To investigate the feasibility of the domestic porous tantalum as scaffold material of bone tissue engineering by observing the expressions of osteogenesis related factors of MG63 cells co-cultured with domestic porous tantalum. MG63 cells were cultured with porous tantalum scaffolds (group A), with porous tantalum leaching solution (group B), and with MEM as control group (group C). The cell adhesion of group A was observed on the scaffolds at 3, 5, and 7 days after culture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were used to detect the expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin (OC), and fibronectin (FN). At 3 days after culture, the cells of group A adhered the surface and pore of the porous tantalum scaffolds, with sparse cell arrangement and less protuberances; at 5 days after culture, adjacent cells connected to be a flat each other, which covered the surface and pore of the scaffold; at 7 days after culture, cells secreted plenty of extracellular matrix, covering most of the material surface. The expressions of Runx-2, OC, and FN were positive in 3 groups; darker staining of the cytoplasm was observed in group A, the expressions were significantly higher in group A than in other 2 groups. The results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot showed that the expressions of Runx-2 and OC were significantly increased in group A when compared with those in groups B and C (P 0.05). The expression of FN had no significant difference among 3 groups (P > 0.05). Domestic porous tantalum could promote MG63 cells adhesion and growth, and may promote the expressions of Runx-2 and OC, so it can be used as a scaffold material of bone tissue engineering.
Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kaur, Kamal Preet; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun
of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. METHODS: Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different...... correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion....... patient factors. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover...
Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.
Klein Velderman, M.; Dusseldorp, E.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Junger, M.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and
Wilbur, JoEllen; Chandler, Peggy; Dancy, Barbara; Choi, JiWon; Plonczynski, Donna
This study was part of a multi-site project carried out with seven universities throughout the United States to identify cultural, environmental, and policy determinants of physical activity in ethnic minority women aged 20 to 50 years. Following an extensive literature review, nine core research questions were created to examine potential barriers to physical activity as well as enabling factors. Methods and findings presented are from six focus groups of low-income, urban African American women. These focus groups were held at each of two health centers serving communities in Chicago, Illinois, that are predominantly African American and low income and have households usually headed by women. Forty-eight women participated, with 5 to 11 in each group. Most (85%) were unmarried, 40% had less than a high school education, and 33% were neither employed nor attending school. Findings reflected the influence of a culture of poverty and the importance of environmental safety and community support. The findings will be used to inform the development of community-based exercise interventions and policies that are culturally and socially sensitive to the needs of low-income, urban African American women.
Rimvydas Skyrius; Igor Katin; Michail Kazimianec; Svetlana Nemitko; Gediminas Rumšas; Raimundas Žilinskas
The field of business intelligence (BI), despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts –...
Gudykunst, William B.; And Others
Defines Uncertainty Reduction Theory. Examines the influence of cultural variability on communication. Argues that cultural variability in individualism-collectivism influences uncertainty reduction in ingroup and outgroup relationships, while cultural variability in masculinity-femininity influences uncertainty reduction in same- and opposite-sex…
Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kaur, Kamal Preet; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens
Number of stromal cells injected in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may be of importance for the treatment efficacy, which in turn may be influenced by various patient-related factors. In this study, we investigate whether patient-related factors influence the number of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different patient factors. There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover, there was a significantly higher number of ASCs reached in patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension and for all patients overall (68.8 ± 39.6 × 10(6) vs. 39.1 ± 23.6 × 10(6), p = .020 and 62.0 ± 55.0 × 10(6) vs. 29.0 ± 19.3 × 10(6), p < .001, respectively). The same tendency was seen with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension (58.4 ± 61.8 × 10(6) vs. 22.6 ± 13.3 × 10(6), p < .001) and in males compared to females (56.4 ± 61.5 × 10(6) vs. 30.9 ± 27.9 × 10(6), p = .041). Moreover, a significant negative correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion.
J Juzwik; K. M. Gust; R. R. Allmaras
Conifer seedlings grown in bare-root nurseries are frequently damaged and destroyed by soil-borne pathogenic fungi that cause root rot. Relationships between nursery cultural practices, soils characteristics, and populations of potential pathogens in the soil were examined in three bare-root tree nurseries in the midwestern USA. Soil-borne populations of ...
Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture.
Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM, DOW-cultured CM (DCM, synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA. The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1 expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.
Results: The Suri have an old tradition of practicing child spacing. The reasons for child spacing are related to child welfare, maternal well-being, and the violent way of life in Suri society. Methods of child spacing practiced include the rhythm method, post-partum abstinence, and prolonged breastfeeding. Traditional sexual ...
Dusseldorp, E.; Klein Velderman, M.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Junger, M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Reijneveld, S.A.
Objective: Multiple studies have identified clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours. Little is known, however, about factors associated with such clusters. This study aims to identify these factors and to assess whether their effects are in accordance with the Theory of Triadic Influence
Dusseldorp, Elise; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Junger, Marianne; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Objective: Multiple studies have identified clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours. Little is known, however, about factors associated with such clusters. This study aims to identify these factors and to assess whether their effects are in accordance with the Theory of Triadic Influence
Radell, U; Tillberg, E; Mattsson, E; Amark, P
To investigate whether children with postnatal post-infectious hemiplegic cerebral palsy, and their parents, felt that participation in activities typical for the child's age and gender was affected. To identify factors, intra- and extra-personal that influenced disability with emphasis on factors related to immigration. Interviews with six youths and 15 caregivers regarding the child's ability to participate in age-related activities, the consequences of disability in their home country compared to Sweden, and whether immigration influenced being a parent to a disabled child. All reported large difficulties participating in age-related activities. Positive and negative differences in participation in different cultures were described. War, culture, eating habits, hygiene habits, and school could differ and create difficulties when in Sweden. Language skills and intra personal factors influenced information gathering and participation in parental activities. Surprisingly large difficulties in participation may separate those with a postnatal post-infectious aetiology from hemiplegia of other aetiologies. High degrees of additional impairments may influence participation more than the physical disability. Language skills and cultural factors influence ability to seek and gain information. A mutual process where both Swedes and immigrants know traditions of care for disabled in both places may create understanding and improved dialogue.
Nevado, Julián; Peiró, Concepción; Vallejo, Susana; El-Assar, Mariam; Lafuente, Nuria; Matesanz, Nuria; Azcutia, Verónica; Cercas, Elena; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio
Diabetes mellitus leads to a high incidence of several so-called complications, sharing similar pathophysiological features in several territories. Previous reports points at early nonenzymatic glycosylation products (Amadori adducts) as mediators of diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we analysed a possible role for Amadori adducts as stimulators of proinflammatory pathways in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Cultured HPMCs isolated from 13 different patients (mean age 38.7+/-16 years) were exposed to different Amadori adducts, that is, highly glycated haemoglobin (10 nM) and glycated bovine serum albumin (0.25 mg ml(-1)), as well as to their respective low glycosylation controls. Amadori adducts, but not their respective controls, elicited a marked increase of NF-kappaB activation, as determined by electromobility shift assays and transient transfection experiments. Additionally, Amadori adducts significantly increased the production of NF-kappaB-related proinflammatory molecules, including cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or IL-6, and enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, this latter leading to the release of NO by HPMCs. The effects of Amadori adducts were mediated by different reactive oxygen and nitrosative species (e.g. superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite), as they were blunted by coincubation with the appropriate scavengers. Furthermore, NO generated upon exposure to Amadori adducts further stimulated NF-kappaB activation, either directly or after combination with superoxide anions to form peroxynitrite. We conclude that Amadori adducts can favour peritoneal inflammation by exacerbating changes in NO synthesis pathway and triggering NF-kappaB-related proinflammatory signals in human mesothelial cells.
Nevado, Julián; Peiró, Concepción; Vallejo, Susana; El-Assar, Mariam; Lafuente, Nuria; Matesanz, Nuria; Azcutia, Veronica; Cercas, Elena; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio
Diabetes mellitus leads to a high incidence of several so-called complications, sharing similar pathophysiological features in several territories. Previous reports points at early nonenzymatic glycosylation products (Amadori adducts) as mediators of diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we analysed a possible role for Amadori adducts as stimulators of proinflammatory pathways in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Cultured HPMCs isolated from 13 different patients (mean age 38.7±16 years) were exposed to different Amadori adducts, that is, highly glycated haemoglobin (10 nM) and glycated bovine serum albumin (0.25 mg ml−1), as well as to their respective low glycosylation controls. Amadori adducts, but not their respective controls, elicited a marked increase of NF-κB activation, as determined by electromobility shift assays and transient transfection experiments. Additionally, Amadori adducts significantly increased the production of NF-κB-related proinflammatory molecules, including cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6, and enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, this latter leading to the release of NO by HPMCs. The effects of Amadori adducts were mediated by different reactive oxygen and nitrosative species (e.g. superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite), as they were blunted by coincubation with the appropriate scavengers. Furthermore, NO generated upon exposure to Amadori adducts further stimulated NF-κB activation, either directly or after combination with superoxide anions to form peroxynitrite. We conclude that Amadori adducts can favour peritoneal inflammation by exacerbating changes in NO synthesis pathway and triggering NF-κB-related proinflammatory signals in human mesothelial cells. PMID:15997235
My assignment was the study of relations between cultures and groups. This regards three things: the relations between cultures, between groups and the relations between culture and groups. Let me now tell you how I approach each of them [...
Xiao, M-L; Liu, J-Q; Chen, C
Accumulating evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in white matter injury in preterm infants, a condition in which oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells are preferentially injured. We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its death (TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2) and decoy (TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R4) receptors in periventricular white matter injury (PWMI). We hypothesized that the maturation-dependent vulnerability of OLs to TRAIL is due to differential TRAIL receptor expression. We previously investigated TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression levels in rat OLs in vivo in the context of PWMI. We found that during different developmental stages, human OLs differentially express TRAIL receptors; there is a progressive loss of sensitivity to TRAIL as OLs proceed through the maturation process. Our results show that both TRAIL-R1 and -R2 are highly expressed on human OL progenitors and pre-OLs, while TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 are mainly expressed on immature and mature human OLs. Our results suggest that TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 might mediate the death signal in human OL precursor cells and pre-OLs.
Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.
Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is a country where people are dependent on each other for psychological support. Traditional Indian culture follows a collectivist pattern where the woman cares more about her family and society than herself. An unmarried woman who is pregnant poses a problem for both herself and her baby here, where traditional values are held high and pregnancy without marriage is almost always a taboo. AIMS To find the impact of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP on the anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women, correlation with period of gestation and the impact of perceived social support on anxiety and depression levels of these women. SETTING One hundred women who attended the outpatient department of ESICMC- PGIMSR, Bengaluru, India, requesting for Termination of Pregnancy, between August 2011 and December 2014 were studied. DESIGN A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, 1988 were measured both pre-TOP and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was measured post TOP in women fulfilling the Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS 1 There is a reduction of depression and anxiety after Termination of pregnancy (p <0.05 more so among unmarried women with an unwanted pregnancy. 2 The higher the period of gestation, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety levels were observed (p value of <0.05. 3 The lower the social support scores, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety and depression (p value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for larger number of abortion care providers in India with increased contraception awareness and education regarding the need for Termination of Pregnancy in medical
Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi
The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.
This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.
Goklany, Sheba; Rizvi, Noreen F; Loring, Ralph H; Cram, Erin J; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T
The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) dosage on terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus are correlated with the relative levels of specific MJ-responsive transcription factors. In this study, the expression of transcription factors (Orca, Zct, Gbf, Myc2, At-hook, and Wrky1), TIA pathway genes (G10h, Tdc, Str, and Sgd), and TIA metabolites (secologanin, strictosidine, and tabersonine) were investigated in C. roseus hairy root cultures elicited with a range of MJ dosages (0-1,000 µM) during mid-exponential growth. The highest production of TIA metabolites occurs at 250 μM MJ, increasing by 150-370% compared with untreated controls. At this MJ dosage, the expression of the transcriptional activators (Orca) is dramatically increased (29-40 fold) while the levels of the transcriptional repressors (Zct) remain low (2-7 fold). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes involved in TIA biosynthesis increases by 8-15 fold. In contrast, high MJ dosages (1,000 µM) inhibit the production of TIA metabolites. This dosage is correlated with elevated expression levels of Zct (up to 40-fold) relative to Orca (13-19-fold) and minimal induction of the TIA biosynthetic genes (0-6 fold). The significant changes in the expression of Orca and Zct with MJ dosage do not correspond to changes in the expression of the early-response transcription factors (AT-hook, Myc2, and Wrky1) believed to regulate Orca and Zct. In summary, these observations suggest that the dependence of alkaloid production on MJ dosage in C. roseus may be partly mediated through the relative levels of Orca and Zct family transcription factors. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
.... Culture, religion, anthropology, ethnography and reconciliation become central issues related to the conversation. My arguments supporting the relevance of ethnicity and culture in studying religion will be built around three main points: Cultural migrations; religion as cultural identity marker; and the location of religion within culture. It will, how...
Noting that too many errors related to health information technology (HIT) are resulting in adverse consequences, The Joint Commission (TJC) has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, urging health care providers to take steps to improve their safety culture, approach to process improvement, and leadership in this area. In this latest alert, the accrediting agency is taking particular aim at risks posed by sociotechnical factors--or the ways in which HIT is implemented and used. Experts say that many of these risks are, in fact, exemplified at a higher level in the emergency setting, where providers are under constant pressure to see more patients and move them though the system faster. In an analysis of 3,375 sentinel events that resulted in permanent patient harm or death between January 1, 2010, and June 20, 2013, The Joint Commission (TJC) found that 120 events included HIT-related contributing factors. Many of the problems cited by TJC relate to orders or medicines being prescribed for the wrong patients. These can result from toggling errors or pop-up screens where providers are asked to click on the appropriate patient or medicine, and they mistakenly click on the wrong selection. In the ED, experts recommend the creation of a multidisciplinary performance improvement group to continuously monitor the ED information system (EDIS), recognize problems, and work with the vendor to resolve them. Also important is a quick and easy way for providers to report HIT-related problems. Experts add that emergency providers need to be fully engaged in the process of selecting HIT that they will be using, and that health care organizations should arrange for usability assessments before purchasing HIT.
Prostaglandin release by cultured endometrial tissues after challenge with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor α, in relation to the estrous cycle, treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and pyometra.
Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Socha, Piotr; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta
To better understand the pathogenesis of endometrial changes in cats associated with administration of progestagen contraceptives and with pyometra, we examined local variability of the prostaglandin synthesis system after challenge with either tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organ cultures of endometrial tissues derived from cyclic cats, cats treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), or cats with pyometra, as well as in cultured endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, spontaneous prostaglandin secretion was compared in endometria from different experimental groups. Data gathered in the present study show that the concentration of PGE2 in supernatants was increased only in endometrial organ cultures from cats with pyometra (P pyometra, compared with cats treated either short- or long-term with MPA and cats during late diestrus (P pyometra; P pyometra (P pyometra, compared with other groups, which may further regulate the local inflammatory response. Data gathered from endometrial cell culture and endometrial organ culture lead to the conclusion that disturbances in prostaglandin release contribute to pyometra in cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.
Utsey, Shawn O.; Hook, Joshua N.; Stanard, Pia
Suicide among African Americans has been acknowledged by the U.S. Surgeon General as a growing crisis. However, suicide remains understudied in this population. In this article, the authors examine the literature related to cultural protective factors that buffer African Americans from suicide risk. They present an overview of suicide among…
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Relative Contributions of Socio-Cultural Variables to the Prediction of Maternal Mortality in Edo South. Senatorial District, Nigeria. Chinwe Lucy Marchie, Francisca Chika Anyanwu. 2. ABSTRACT. The study examined the extent of contributions of socio-cultural factors to maternal mortality ( ...
Marjorie C. Falanruw
Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Brey, Philip A.E.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang
In this article, I examine whether information ethics is culture relative. If it is, different approaches to information ethics are required in different cultures and societies. This would have major implications for the current, predominantly Western approach to information ethics. If it is not,
Ybema, S.B.; Buyn, H.
In this article we integrate findings from interviews and ethnographic case studies to explore issues of culture and identity in Japanese-Dutch work relations in two different contexts: Japanese firms in the Netherlands and Dutch firms in Japan. It is suggested that cultural identities do not carry
van der Meulen, Ivanka J.; van Rooij, Jeroen; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; van Cleijnenbreugel, Hugo; Geerards, Annette J.; Remeijer, Lies
PURPOSE: To assess age-related risk factors (RFs), microbiologic profile, and prognosis of infectious keratitis and create guidelines for prevention and treatment. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with infectious keratitis admitted to 2 Dutch tertiary referral centers from January 2002 to
Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom
This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…
This paper examined the socio-cultural factors that prevent grandmothers from participating in community development programmes in Nigeria.Importance of participation in community development in relation to gender issues in community development in Nigeria were discussed. Activities of grandmothers that contribute to ...
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone
The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is a 69-item survey questionnaire measuring 23 lifestyle dimensions in five life domains: (a) ways of shopping, (b) cooking methods, (c) quality aspects, (d) consumption situations, and (e) purchasing motives. In the first part of the analysis, consumer...... in terms of factor pattern, factor loadings, factor covariances and factor variances. In the second factor part of the analysis, replication samples from France (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), Germany (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), and the UK (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000) are examined for intra-cultural stability using the same...
Holck, Ulla; Stige, Brynjulf; Skrudland, Hilde
therapy (broadly seen). In addition, research conducted in another clinical setting than the local/national, as well as the dominance of English publication language, are barriers for spreading knowledge about music therapy – to clients/relatives and professionals, as well as employers. Collaborative......To make music therapy known outside the field, dissemination of the research and collaboration between clinicians and researchers on documentation are both necessary. Some music therapy researchers are active clinicians, but if they have full time positions at universities, they cannot at the same...... time be part of the interdisciplinary clinical culture found in institutions with a main focus on a certain client group. Here the music therapy clinicians can be the golden link between the research culture and the local clinical culture. At the same time, music therapy clinicians are not (usually...
Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bukowski, William M.; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Carmago, Gina; Mayman, Shari B.; Adams, Ryan E.
Multilevel modeling was used to examine contextual variations in the structure of the "self" in a sample of 918 lower- and upper-middle class early adolescents (M age = 10.37 years, SD = 1.19) from a "majority" cultural context (i.e., Barranquilla in the Caribbean region of Colombia) and a "nonmajority" context (i.e.,…
M M Akulich
Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.
Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn
The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western
Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…
Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.
Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi
Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up
Frazier, Christopher B; Ludwig, Timothy D; Whitaker, Brian; Roberts, D Steve
Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor, & Bryden, 2000; Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered to 25,574 workers across five multi-national organizations in five different industries. Exploratory and hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses were conducted revealing four second-order factors of a Safety Culture consisting of Management Concern, Personal Responsibility for Safety, Peer Support for Safety, and Safety Management Systems. Additionally, a total of 12 first-order factors were found: three on Management Concern, three on Personal Responsibility, two on Peer Support, and four on Safety Management Systems. The resulting safety culture model addresses gaps in the literature by indentifying the core constructs which make up a safety culture. This clarification of the major factors emerging in the measurement of safety cultures should impact the industry through a more accurate description, measurement, and tracking of safety cultures to reduce loss due to injury. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCrae, R.R; Allik, J
... Studies In Personality And Culture The Five-Factor Model in the Philippines: Investigating Trait Structure and Levels Across Cultures A. Timothy Church and Marcia S. Katigbak The Applicability of...
This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals' abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds. Cross-cultural training is examined as a factor that may affect individuals' CQ. Hospitality industry was chosen because of the diversity of employees, customers or owners. Because of the lack of resea...
Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…
This paper analyzes the impact of security culture on understanding and certainty of environmental protection. Showing the environment and in particular scheme and methods of endangering takes place in the context of security culture as a factor in conservation and needs of the people to ensure their safety, which occurs as a vital interest. In this way, security culture is shown through the role of person, society and the international community. Analyzing the concept of security culture and...
Introduction: Risk factors associated with the occurrence of cerebral malaria in under fives are well documented. Outside these acknowledged factors of age, location, and nutrition, other socioeconomic/cultural factors could contribute to the maze of factors determining the occurrence of the morbidity. Methods: To unravel ...
Shavitt, Sharon; Cho, Hyewon
We examine the influence of culture on consumer behavior with a particular focus on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Cultures vary in their propensity to emphasize hierarchy, a distinction captured by examining horizontal/vertical cultural orientations or contexts. These cultural factors pattern personal values and goals, power concepts, and normative expectations applied to the exercise of power. We review implications for how consumers respond to brands in the marketplace, service providers, and each others' needs.
The present invention relates to a method, computer program and system for inferring relations between cultural specific concepts (CSC) in two cultures at least comprising the steps of - extracting and listing said cultural specific concepts (CSCs) and features of said CSCs from at least a first...
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
McNeil, D W; Kee, M; Zvolensky, M J
The Cultural Involvement and Detachment Anxiety Questionnaire (D. W. McNeil, C. A. Porter, M. J. Zvolensky, & J. M. Chaney, 1998) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992) were administered to 160 Navajo college students to explore the relation between ethnic identity and culturally related anxiety, compare level of ethnic identity in reference to standardized samples, and test for gender differences. Correlations indicated a notable lack of relation between ethnic identity and cultural anxiety. This particular Navajo sample evidenced significantly higher levels of ethnic identity in comparison to students of Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic, or mixed ethnicity. There were no significant gender differences in culturally related anxiety. Results are discussed in relation to culturally related anxiety and ethnic identity in the Navajo, with implications for better understanding the nature of cultural anxiety in other American Indians and Alaska Natives.
The paper suggests that cultural practices beliefs and values be taken cognizance of in developing and implementing population policy by involving community leaders and representatives of other stakeholders. Keywords: Cultural dimensions, population related issues, cultural practices, values and norms, implementation ...
The aim here is to describe and discuss how different cultural meanings, offered in education, can contribute to unjust cultural relations such as othering and xenophobia. By analysing the cultural and discursive content in curricula using a (neo)pragmatic curriculum theory research method, dominating ideas, values and discourses between 1948 and…
Huq, Z; Martin, T N
One of the major obstacles to successful implementation of TQM/CQI in hospitals has been management's failure to consider the workforce cultural situation. This quasi-qualitative study investigates eight workforce cultural factors in seven midwestern hospitals. Results reveal only one of the seven hospitals successfully implementing TQM/CQI.
Secondly, that the socio-cultural factors such as; the influence of family, social institutions and residential environment are significantly related to child's upbringing through authoritarian parenting style.Thus, the paper recommends the following: firstly, that the native culture of every parent should reflect in their choice of ...
This article reviews the historical evolution and progress of nosological concepts from exotic psychiatric disorders and culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes. Approaches to classification and subgrouping these disorders are disccused and an argument offered for finding a place for culturally unique syndromes in the existing classification system. The characteristics of various syndromes are elaborated and suggestions are made for future research. Finally, emphasis is given to the need to be concerned with the impact of culture on every psychiatric disorder, not only culture-specific syndromes, to promote culturally competent care for every patient.
Gade, Anders Christian
will be presented. Another project was conducted by students at the Danish Technical University, who found that speech intelligibility for non-native listeners is much more sensitive to poor speech conditions than for native listeners. Also discussed are the unique features of culturally based urban soundscapes....... It is suggested that these soundscapes can provide comfort to recent immigrants by increasing their sense of being ``at home.''...
Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E
The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.
The paper examined various factors influencing appr opriateness of technological innovations among rural women for improved agricultural productivity in Nigeria.. The framework was formulated through a thorough literature search on the concept of agricultural technology, appropriate technology for rural women and ...
Van den Bos, K.; van Veldhuizen, Tanja; Au, A.K.C.
This paper uses cross-cultural comparisons and comparisons obtained by experimental manipulation to examine how cultural and contextual factors influence responses to personal and group relative deprivation. Two studies were conducted, one in an individualistic country (The Netherlands) and one in a
- Abdoulaye Kandia Barry
Full Text Available In article historical traditions of interaction of the French Republic with the Arabian world are considered. Stages of development and formation political are analyzed and a cultural contact, the factors rendering on them of influence are defined.
One of the major findings was that there is a significant relationship between employees‟ persistence and job factors (supervisory support and coaching, task design and organizational culture). KIE leaders should use this opportunity to increase their efforts with regard to employees‟ persistence while at the same time ...
Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli
Guruge, Keerthi S.; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I.; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki
Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of
Halkoaho, Arja; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Ebbesen, Mette; Karki, Suyen; Kangasniemi, Mari
In order to protect the autonomy of human subjects, we need to take their culture into account when we are obtaining informed consent. This study describes the cultural aspects related to informed consent in health research and is based on electronic searches that were conducted using the Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases published between 2000 and 2013. A total of 25 articles were selected. Our findings indicate that cultural perspectives relating to the informed consent process are essential during the whole research process and particularly crucial in the planning phase of a study. Our study indicates that appropriate communication between different stakeholders plays a vital role in cultural understanding. The researchers' awareness of cultural differences and their ability to work in a culturally sensitive way are key factors in improving study participation and retention in a multicultural context. Taking cultural aspects into account during the whole research process improves the quality of research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gholizadeh, Leila; Davidson, Patricia M; Heydari, Mehrdad; Salamonson, Yenna
This article seeks to review and discuss the evidence linking depression, coronary heart disease (CHD), and culture. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed, and Google were searched for pertinent evidence linking depression, culture, and CHD, and retrieved articles were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Identified themes were the followings: depression is a factor in development and prognosis of CHD and affects the capacity to self-manage and adhere to treatment recommendations; culture mediates mental health/illness representations and treatment-seeking behaviors; screening and assessment of depression can be affected by cultural factors; and there is a need for culturally appropriate screening and therapeutic strategies. As depression is a predictor and moderating variable in the genesis and progression of CHD, understanding how factors such as culture affect screening and management of the disease is important to inform the development of culturally and linguistically competent strategies that ensure accurate screening, detection, and treatment of depression in cardiac patients in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.
Olesen, Henning Salling
of societal change. The article develops this argument on the basis of empirical research from the Life history project and other research at Roskilde University, which studies gendered, work related learning as re-configuration of identities. Gender has not been the point of departure, but empirical studies......The basic societal transformation to a “learning society” presupposes learning and identity processes. In order to understand the conditions and dynamics of work related learning we need to theorize the subjective significance of work and we need to study work related learning processes in a way...... which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...
The Geoffrey Saxe and Esmonde monograph (this issue) offers both fascinating empirical findings and intriguing theoretical insight about cultural change and individual cognition. Cultural and cognitive changes are "reciprocal processes," but how can these be related in research? One obvious way is to conduct longitudinal studies of the mutual…
In this paper, a Jungian understanding of cultural factors influencing individual analysis is illustrated with the case of a patient suffering from panic attacks. The analysis revealed that, in addition to the patient's personal background, the collectivistic attitudes of the Soviet culture, which had a moulding effect on the patient in his childhood and obstructed his individuation, should be taken into account. The concepts of the totalitarian object and the Russian cultural complex encompassing a grandiosity pole and an inferiority pole are used to explore the patient's condition, and the crucial role of creating mutual language with the patient is outlined. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias
In this paper, culture-related behaviors are investigated on several channels of communication for virtual characters. Prototypical behaviors were formalized in computational models based on a literature review as well as a corpus analysis, exemplifying the German and Japanese cultures. Therefore......, aspects of verbal behavior, communication management and nonverbal behavior were taken into account. In evaluation studies conducted in the targeted cultures, each aspect's impact on human observers was tested. With it, we investigated for which of the aspects, observers prefer agent behavior...... that was designed to resemble their own cultural background....
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.
Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).
Full Text Available In this study we relate two concepts, Emotional Intelligence and Culture of Honour; in both cases the emotional aspect is very important and we believe they may have a role in couple relations. We propose that both concepts would relate in reverse, so that an individual with a high level of Emotional Intelligence would give less importance to the Culture of Honor and vice versa. A sample of 203 heterosexual couples completed a questionnaire. Our results show that the dimension Attention to emotions is associated with the culture of honor. Among our fi ndings we propose that the two concepts are related in some way and that congruency in the valuation of the Culture of Honor between the two partners will also deal with a level of Emotional Intelligence higher than in couples where there is not this congruence.
Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto
Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gruenert, Anja K; Rosenbaum, Katja; Geerling, Gerd; Fuchsluger, Thomas A
To evaluate the contamination rate and the corresponding spectrum of microbes and to identify donor risk factors for corneal organ culture contaminations. A total of 3306 organ-cultured donor corneas were included in the study. We performed a retrospective database analysis to evaluate donor factors such as gender, age, death-to-explantation interval (DEI), procurement site and cause of death and to determine their influence on donor cornea contaminations. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor. The overall contamination rate was 7.8% (n = 259). Younger donor age (OR: 2.2, p = 0.003, chi-squared test), a DEI of more than 24 hr (OR: 1.6, p cultured cornea based on specific donor factors. However, donors with risk factors should not be generally excluded from cornea donation. Further studies including antibiograms might clarify whether a change in the antibiotic composition of the culture medium would be useful to deal with the increasing number of multi-resistant microbes. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan
To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…
DeFronzo, James; Prochnow, Jane
Explaining the phenomenon of male serial homicide has usually been approached from a psychiatric perspective. However, recent integrative theory suggests that cultural factors may play a role in shaping the psychology of young males with particular psychiatric and possibly neurological vulnerabilities in such ways as to facilitate converting the motivation to kill into actual behavior. Present results indicated that 34-45% of the interstate variation in rates of serial killer activity could be accounted for by three dimensions of local culture. Higher rates of male serial killer activity were associated with a local state culture supportive of game hunting and military training and a local culture supportive of punitive violence. The findings must be viewed with caution since societal variables are complex and the results are based on correlations which cannot be causally interpreted without more direct evidence of validity.
Comstock, Dana L.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Strentzsch, Julie; Cannon, Kristi; Parsons, Jacqueline; Salazar, Gustavo
Relational-cultural theory (RCT) theorists advocate expanding the multicultural/social justice counseling competencies beyond the domains of self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and culturally responsive helping skills. This article provides an overview of RCT and discusses how creating and participating in growth-fostering relationships are…
This study investigated the socio-cultural factors influencing women's participation in sports as perceived by female undergraduates in the University of Ilorin. Two hundred female undergraduate students residing in school halls of residence were involved in the study. These were selected using simple randomsampling.
This paper discusses the controversial Trovan study conducted by Pfizer in 1996 in Kano, Nigeria, the peculiar socio-cultural factors that researchers should consider as well as the relevance of the 2007 National Code for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in informed ...
Socio-Cultural factors and ethnic group relationship in comtemporary Nigerian society. M Ifeyinwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i2.46158 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...
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REVIEW ARTICLE. Engendering the Attainment of the SDG-3 in Africa: Overcoming the Socio Cultural Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality. Rosemary N. Ogu. 1,4 ... This review discusses sociocultural influences that contribute to the high rate of maternal mortality in ..... as sex trafficking, forced labour or compromised.
The study aim to determine the risk factors associated with conjunctival culture positivity in patients scheduled for cataract surgery in OAUTHC Ile-Ife. Eighty four consecutive consenting patients scheduled for cataract surgery were recruited into the study. The patients had a structured questionnaire administered, visual ...
The results indicate that many international students suffer psychological feelings and struggling with cross-cultural adjustment. Language barrier, life style and xenophobia were trendy among a myriad of other factors. While some seems very reserved to avoid conflicts, many have high self-efficacy to set goals which are ...
HIV / AIDS is one of the major public health problems in Tanzania. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to identify socio-cultural factors influencing HIV transmission among Wagogo tribe in Ibihwa Village Bahi District Dodoma. The study revealed that about (98.9%) of the respondents aware ...
A study was conducted in Imo and Ebonyi states to determine the influence of cultural factors in the utilization of the sweet potato flour for confectionery. Imo and Ebonyi States were purposively selected. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from respondents. Data collected were analyzed and presented using ...
This paper is a part of a bigger ethnographic study conducted in two states from the Yoruba society of the Southwestern Nigeria to examine the social and cultural factors influencing the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and care and support systems in those states. This is in recognition of the need to arrest the increasing rate of the ...
The paper assesses the effects of traditional values (collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a given society) and socio-cultural factors (these are models of life, human rights, value systems, customs, beliefs and arts) on human resource management ...
This research work, corruption in Nigeria: a culture or retrogressive factor presented corruption as a curse and a complex social, political and economic phenomenon that affect all facets and the fabric of Nigerian society. Scholars and Nigerian government do not offer any realistic practical recipes in dealing with the ...
Gullón, José Antonio; García-García, José María; Villanueva, Manuel Ángel; Álvarez-Navascues, Fernando; Rodrigo, Teresa; Casals, Martí; Anibarro, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta María; Jiménez, María Ángeles; Bustamante, Ana; Penas, Antón; Caminero, José Antonio; Caylà, Joan
To analyze the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (TB) and associated factors. Prospective study of patients diagnosed with TB between September 2014 and September 2015. We calculated direct (hospital stays, visits, diagnostic tests, and treatment) and indirect (sick leave and loss of productivity, contact tracing, and rehabilitation) costs. The following cost-related variables were compared: age, gender, country of origin, hospital stays, diagnostic testing, sensitivity testing, treatment, resistance, directed observed therapy (DOT), and days of sick leave. Proportions were compared using the chi-squared test and significant variables were included in a logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. 319 patients were included with a mean age of 56.72±20.79 years. The average cost was €10,262.62±14,961.66, which increased significantly when associated with hospital admission, polymerase chain reaction, sputum smears and cultures, sensitvity testing, chest computed tomography, pleural biopsy, drug treatment longer than nine months, DOT and sick leave. In the multivariate analysis, hospitalization (OR=96.8; CI 29-472), sensitivity testing (OR=4.34; CI 1.71-12.1), chest CT (OR= 2.25; CI 1.08-4.77), DOT (OR=20.76; CI 4.11-148) and sick leave (OR=26,9; CI 8,51-122) showed an independent association with cost. Tuberculosis gives rise to significant health spending. In order to reduce these costs, more control of transmission, and fewer hospital admissions would be required. Copyright Â© 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dyduch, Agnieszka; Grzywa, Anna
Stigmatization is a common problem to overcome for people suffering from chronic diseases. It usually follows infectious diseases, disabilities and mental disorders. In our study we explained basic concepts concerning stigma, particularly health-related one, and then we presented the most important socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards mentally ill people exemplifying them by scientific literature on mental illness stigma. Profession, frequency of contact with mentally ill persons, level of mental health literacy, own experience, education level, culture-related factors, overall value orientation, gender and age are the most relevant factors which influence perception of people suffering from mental disorders. A review of surveys on dependencies between those factors and attitudes towards mentally ill people and tendencies to stigmatize with mental illness was presented. Mental health literacy is the most easily modifiable factor among all the presented here. Majority of campaigns concerning change of attitude towards mentally ill people consist in enhancement of mental health awareness in society.
Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A; Snowden, Lonnie R; Ling, Pamela M; Ivey, Susan L
To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the USA. Focus groups, with homogeneous compositions of gender, generational status and length of time in the USA, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding the availability of culturally specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18-65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status and region of origin, with the use of at least one culturally specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. A large number of culturally specific products were commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural values ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally framed behaviour in culturally diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is essential to ensure that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities.
Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
The purpose of
Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J
Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.
Pierce, Robert E.
This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…
Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.
The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.
This paper examined the intergroup relations between the Ikwerre of the Niger Delta, South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria and its impact on their culture. It analyzed the Ikwerre relations with her Kalabari and Okrika coastal neighbours, as well as the Etche, Eleme, Ekpeye, Ogba Abua and the Igbo of Imo state ...
Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.
This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…
George, Amiso M.
Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…
The study examined the extent of contributions of socio-cultural factors to maternal mortality (through survey method). Two thousand one hundred and fifty seven (2,157) females of reproductive age were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument was a self developed structured and validated ...
Full Text Available India-Persia relations go back to prehistoric age. Finds found in archaeological excavations have revealed not only these relations but also the long-distance trade. Indian Iranian cultural relations have increased moreafter the Aryan migrations dated in the middles of second thousand BC. Because the people who migrated to both India and Persia named themselves as Aryan. That two geography have the similarities of language, religion, mythology and social life reveal this relation most clearly with this era. Together with 5th century BC, with the beginning of the historical period in India, relations between these geography have become more concrete, relations in cultural are assuch as writing, literature, coins, architecture, burial customs and art have soared. These relations will contribute to the recognition of India in the Western World
Machado-Alba, Jorge E; Echeverri-Cataño, Luis Felipe; Londoño-Builes, Manuel José; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; Ruiz-Villa, Joaquín Octavio
Self-medication is an increasingly frequent phenomenon worldwide; some studies suggest that there is a relationship with socio-economic and cultural factors. To determine the prevalence of self-medication and its related factors in a Colombian city. Cross-sectional descriptive study, in Pereira, Colombia. We selected 414 adults using simple randomization sampling with houses used as the observational unit. The IRIS-AM instrument was used to collect the information required. Four hundred and fourteen (414) people were interviewed, 62.6% were females, and mean age was 44 years; 77.5% of the sample had self-medicated at least once in their life and 31.9% during the last month. The most commonly used medications were: analgesics and antipyretics (44.3%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-rheumatic medication (36.4%), and anti-histamine medication (8.5%). The most commonly self-medicated symptoms were: headache (55.7%), cold (16.2%) and muscular pain (13.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed an association between self-medication throughout life and storing medications at home, and between a high level of education and having a favorable opinion of self-medication. Storing medications at home and recommending them to others were associated with self-medication during the previous 30 days. Self-medication rates were found to be similar to those reported globally, but there is not an established pattern for this practice. Associations were found between social and demographic variables and self-medication, which require further characterization. Intention to self-medicate has not been well-described in other studies, and may be an important indicator which will contribute to future understanding of this phenomenon.
Rahman, M M; Kumaraswamy, Mohan M; Ling, Florence Y.Y
Targeting integration in construction, this study compares the suitability of various factors and strategies to provide suitable contractual and noncontractual incentives for building a relational contracting (RC...
L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy); J. Hutjes
textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are
Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha
During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310
Fridley, Krista M; Nair, Rekha; McDevitt, Todd C
During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions.
Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them.
Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte
Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella...... novobiocin, followed by combinations of culture media (three types) and selective media (two types). The sensitivity of each combination and sources of variation in detection were determined by a generalized linear mixed model using a split-plot design. Conclusions: Biological factors, such as faecal origin...... and S. Dublin strain influenced the sensitivity more than technical factors. Overall, the modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV)-culture medium had the most reliable detection capability, whereas detection with selenite cystine broth and Mueller Kauffman tetrathionate broth combinations varied...
Morsello, Carla; Yagüe, Blanca; Beltreschi, Letícia; van Vliet, Nathalie; Adams, Cristina; Schor, Tatiana; Quiceno-Mesa, Maria Paula; Cruz, Daniel
Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive...
Elizaveta A. Volkova
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition and origin of the notions «mentality (identity» and «national mentality (identity» focusing on their complex essence. The article names factors that affect the formation of national identity, at the same time pointing out the aspect of human life that the identity itself affects. The notion «national identity» is revealed via its vocabulary definitions. National identity is analyzed as a factor of inter-cultural communication, its role and importance in this communication are also analyzed. One of the objectives of the research is signing out the limits of the concepts «national identity» and «inter-cultural communication» and revealing the conditions of their interaction and mutual dependence. National identity is a complex notion, which complexity lies within the combination of mental and emotional, spiritual elements. This factor adds extra difficulty into understanding, as well as investigating the notion of national identity. Thus it is not rarely ignored in linguistics, international communication, even in teaching languages. However, nowadays, when globalization makes international contacts and communication widely accessible, many people meet unexpected difficulties that derive from ignoring national identity factor. That is why recently it is getting more and more obvious that taking national identity into consideration can be one of the main keys to successful communication at all levels.
Full Text Available The objective of the study to investigate the less clear aspects of the cultural influences on the objectives-setting process and on the procedures for the adoption and implementation of a management accounting system. To achieve this objective, the study uses a research methodology which is mainly qualitative, with insertions of field research findings generated by the author. Cultural factors and the environment in which an entity operates affect the strategic objectives of management accounting systems. The key contribution of the study is that it identifies significant evidence that an entity’s the strategic objectives of may vary depending on national and cultural characteristics. It is stated that there are numerous factors that may explain these variations, but all of them are governed by the cultural dimension. Inevitably, Romanian entities are placed in a specific cultural context. The study identifies the specific cultural dimensions and how they influence the process of defining goals within management accounting systems. National management accounting systems currently lie in relatively conflictual area generated by the permanent confrontation of local values and mentality with the effect of international convergence. The reflections presented in the study are a starting point for identifying, analysing and reconciling all the factors that crystallized or erode a modern and efficient system of management accounting.
Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.
Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory
We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.
Full Text Available Within certain cultural and social limits, some behaviours linked to the use of new technology, gaming, physical exercise or work are useful practices with a positive social value for both individuals and society. As these practices are commonly and socially accepted, the trend is to underestimate the risks and not to perceive them as deviances even when they start to be compulsive. This paper focuses on the concept of new non-substance addictions and on how some social factors influence, on the one side, this new interaction between man and technology and, on the other side, social relationships in the electronic environment.
Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan
Organizational culture represents a key success factor in highly competitive environments, such as, the IT sector. Thus, IT companies need to understand what makes up a culture that fosters employee performance. While existing research typically uses self-report questionnaires to study the relation...
Full Text Available This paper attemts to ilustrate how the managers and the staff of a 5 star hotel in Kosovo define quality. Furthermore, it explores the number of critical success factors related to TQM culture and how they are applied in the hotel operations. Different theories related to the quality in the field of service provision, more particular in hospitality or hotel sector and the introduction of the TQM culture in the same sector. A conceptual framework based on existing theories and literature is developed which is than confirms through the research findings and analysis. The findings suggest that most features associated with TQM, like critical success factors assessed throughout the research (leadership, customer focus, training, communication, teams and staff empowerment can produce an advantage for the 5 star hotel operations that will affect the quality of service. Furthermore, it confirms that some of the TQM aspects are applied and can be applied in 5 star hotel operations in Kosovo. The issue is whether these aspects are understood as TQM principles and whether their added value is embraced in the day-to-day running of the hotel. The outcomes imply that, indeed, the TQM culture is present in the The Hotel, a 5 star hotel in Kosovo. Some of the critical success factors are directly linked to TQM and some less and it also provides suggestions for improvement where needed, especially related to specific tools that are integral parts of the TQM culture.
Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako
This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.
Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A
The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; John, Julie St
Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of tech...
, especially farming traditions in small-scale, non-industrial societies, has been based not only on the technologies that are "friendly" to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the source of all life. This sort of perception was particularly widespread among peoples of pre-industrial societies. The problem of searching for a way to increase long-term productivity in food grain production is complicated. This problem is of global importance for today and the future. The active interest of Modern society in the Folk experiences of using the Nature to achieve sustainable economies is yet to come, but we have much to learn from these small-scale non-industrial societies. Food production needs to be increased. At the same time, the fertility of the soil must be maintained. Achieving a balance between these two necessities is the problem. Changing the present modern human outlook from its egocentric position to one that understands and respects the natural environment, based on ideas of "ecological ethics", looks especially complex, and is directly connected with the problem of forming a new culture. Actually, the global ecological crisis and related ecological problems take priority and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, making use of Folk heritage, Folk knowledge and experience in observing Nature and using Nature to achieve harmonious interrelations in a "Nature - Society" system, and for the elaboration of a change of attitudes is quite important for modern society on a Global level to achieve ways of Sustainability. Lucius Seneca maintains that subjugation of a Nature is possible only if obeying to Nature. Modern epoch of Globalization in economy and Financial systems creating a potential of high risks for mankind on the Global level. Special attention to local factors (local experience in Nature using, local Folk experience in Life-support activity) in context of globalization problems
Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S
Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.
Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Coast, Ernestina
The World Health Organization recently made a recommendation supporting 'culturally-appropriate' maternity care services to improve maternal and newborn health. This recommendation results, in part, from a systematic review we conducted, which showed that interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care have largely improved women's use of skilled maternity care. Factors relating to the implementation of these interventions can have implications for their success. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives and experiences of these interventions, and facilitators and barriers to implementation; and concludes with how they relate to the effects of the interventions on care-seeking outcomes. We based our analysis on 15 papers included in the systematic review. To extract, collate and organise data on the context and conditions from each paper, we adapted the SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework that lists categories of factors that could influence implementation. We considered information from the background and discussion sections of papers included in the systematic review, as well as cost data and qualitative data when included. Women's and other stakeholders' perspectives on the interventions were generally positive. Four key themes emerged in our analysis of facilitators and barriers to implementation. Firstly, interventions must consider broader economic, geographical and social factors that affect ethnic minority groups' access to services, alongside providing culturally-appropriate care. Secondly, community participation is important in understanding problems with existing services and potential solutions from the community perspective, and in the development and implementation of interventions. Thirdly, respectful, person-centred care should be at the core of these interventions. Finally, cohesiveness is essential between the culturally-appropriate service and other health care providers encountered by women and their
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this
Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.
Celso Rodrigues da Costa
Full Text Available This review aims to identify factors related to abandonment of assistive technology devices in face of the increased number of individuals with disabilities, as well as the importance of the assistive technology devices (ATD to improve their occupational performance, the increased abandonment rates of these devices and the high costs associated with them. We used a critical literature review with the keywords: assistive technology/tecnologia assistiva, abandonment/abandono, rejection/rejeição, and disuse/desuso, published between the years 2002 and 2013. The search was conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO and identified a total of 49 articles and 9 publications that met the inclusion criterion. It found that the most cited factors related to the abandonment of devices are problems with the user’s physical condition; lack of information and training both professionals and users; pain; lack of functionality; ATD preference or other use of remaining capacity; increased weight; changes in ADT conditions; use difficulty; unsatisfactoriness; discomfort; inadequacy/inappropriate; and “lot of noise”. The better understanding of these factors is critical to improve the effectiveness of prescription and intervention by professionals and imperative to increase membership and promote effective results.
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Paul P. Connell
Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M
We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.
Lopez, Sandra A.
Culture is a complex and important consideration in the process of helping others. In clinical practice, we must view the individual within the context of their culture in order for assessment or treatment to be effective. Further, to overlook or negate culture, a practitioner may possibly operate from faulty cultural assumptions or…
Cheng, Yin Cheong
Many recent studies and debates about East/West cultural differences suffer from major methodological and conceptual drawbacks: confused conceptions, arbitrary use of cultural terms, over-attribution to cultural effects, and ignorance of levels of analysis. A cross-cultural research framework for conceptualizing two or more societies is presented.…
V. M. Pekarchuk
Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify
Nagendra Gouda M
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.
Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin
Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.
Hedman, Linnéa; Bjerg, Anders; Bjerg-Bäcklund, Anders; Perzanowski, Matthew; Sundberg, Sigrid; Rönmark, Eva
To examine tobacco use among teenagers, identify factors related to tobacco use, as well as evaluate the outcome of a smoking prevention program. From age 7/8 to 14/15, annual questionnaires about asthma and allergy have been completed in the OLIN paediatric study in Northern Sweden. From 12/13 years, questions about tobacco use, i.e. smoking and snuff, were added. A smoking prevention program was performed during 2 years. Any tobacco use increased from 5.0% at age 12/13 years, to 14.4% at age 14/15. At age 14/15 years, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher among boys than girls (16.7 and 12.0%, respectively). More girls than boys smoked (8.9 and 2.8%, respectively), while use of snuff was more common among the boys (15.6 and 4.2%, respectively). Significant risk factors for smoking were any of the family members currently smoking, OR 6.1 (95% CI 4.0-9.3) and a physician-diagnosed asthma at the age of 14/15 years, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0). A protective factor against tobacco use was participation in sports, OR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4). The prevention program did not result in less tobacco use, although it may have delayed smoking initiation. The patterns of tobacco use differed significantly between boys and girls. Though any tobacco use was more common among boys, girls were more likely to smoke, and boys were more likely to use snuff. Having asthma did not prevent the teenagers from smoking. Since having a smoking family member was the major risk factor for tobacco use, prevention programs should be directed at smoking families in addition to the individuals.
Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin
Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Cla...
Full Text Available Consumer behavior is an action taken by a person in making a decision to search for purchase acquire use of goods and services that will satisfy their needs. The purpose of this study is presented to determine how much the behavior of consumers to choose online shopping and direct shopping at Management of Higher School STIM Sukma Medan. The method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative data that has been obtained through the data directly from the company. The data collected with the spaciousness of research and literature in the form of distributing questionnaires to 52 fifty-two consumers. Processing data using SPSS statistical test tools version 17.00. Based on the results of the 4 four and the indicator above the 8 eight questions as well as 52 fifty-two consumers. Results showed that the most influential in choosing online shopping is a cultural factor with a percentage of 26.14 while the most influential in choosing the direct spending is psychological factors with the percentage of 26.50.
This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals' abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds.
Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua
To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.
Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.
Myers, Ronald F.; Wagner, Richard E.; Halisky, Philip M.
A 2-year study was conducted on Merion Kentucky bluegrass turf (Poa pratensis) to identify potential relationships among seasonal population dynamics of nematodes, chemical applications, thatch, tillering, dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, clipping weight, and other factors. Numbers of Tylenchorhynchus maximus determined during June were inversely related to the wet weight of grass from May. One or more monthly counts of Paratylenchus hamatus, Criconemella rusium, and T. maximus ...
Pablo Domingo Depaula; Susana Celeste Azzollini; Alejandro César Cosentino; Sergio Edgardo Castillo
..., the variable cultural intelligence, and the character strength. The research hypothesis is that the personality factor Openness is much more associated to cultural intelligence than to Extraversion...
DeStefano, Johanna S.
Mutual distrust and suspicion between individuals from differing cultures often influence behavior in the classroom to the point of blocking learning. This "culture clash" also exists for literacy learning in that, as a national goal, reading has been imposed on certain groups whose cultures are not literate and on groups who, although their…
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, attitudes towards cultural studies in Germany have developed within contexts of contact and conflict with a variety of disciplines, e.g. ethnology, anthropology, sociology, as well as the sociology of culture, liter-ary studies and Kulturwissenschaft(en. On the one hand there is a strong academ-ic interest in how cultural studies perceives and analyzes media culture, popular culture and everyday life. On the other hand boundaries with humanities and so-cial science remain, which leads to criticism and conflicts with cultural studies and its achievements.I will discuss some of the problems concerning the perception and reception of cultural studies among representatives of Kulturwissenschaft(en and sociology of culture. Furthermore I will draw on the role of cultural studies in thematizing cul-tural change and conflicts, and its ability to do so in a way that shows the im-portance of culture and politics.
Ross, Josephine; Yilmaz, Mandy; Dale, Rachel; Cassidy, Rose; Yildirim, Iraz; Suzanne Zeedyk, M
Fifteen- to 18-month-old infants from three nationalities were observed interacting with their mothers and during two self-recognition tasks. Scottish interactions were characterized by distal contact, Zambian interactions by proximal contact, and Turkish interactions by a mixture of contact strategies. These culturally distinct experiences may scaffold different perspectives on self. In support, Scottish infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in an individualistic context (mirror self-recognition), whereas Zambian infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in a less individualistic context (body-as-obstacle task). Turkish infants performed similarly to Zambian infants on the body-as-obstacle task, but outperformed Zambians on the mirror self-recognition task. Verbal contact (a distal strategy) was positively related to mirror self-recognition and negatively related to passing the body-as-obstacle task. Directive action and speech (proximal strategies) were negatively related to mirror self-recognition. Self-awareness performance was best predicted by cultural context; autonomous settings predicted success in mirror self-recognition, and related settings predicted success in the body-as-obstacle task. These novel data substantiate the idea that cultural factors may play a role in the early expression of self-awareness. More broadly, the results highlight the importance of moving beyond the mark test, and designing culturally sensitive tests of self-awareness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Juris Iljins; Viktorija Skvarciany; Elīna Gaile-Sarkane
Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate in process of change. For solving this problem, it is necessary to identify the main factors of organizational culture in the change process. After exploring the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate through distinguished culture’s factors, article examines how changes can be processed in different cultural environments. Methodology. The resea...
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M
Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.
Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan
builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize......Organizational culture represents a key success factor in highly competitive environments, such as, the IT sector. Thus, IT companies need to understand what makes up a culture that fosters employee performance. While existing research typically uses self-report questionnaires to study the relation...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...
Meissel, Kane; Rubie-Davies, Christine M
There is substantial evidence indicating that various psychological processes are affected by cultural context, but such research is comparatively nascent within New Zealand. As there are four large cultural groups in New Zealand, representing an intersection of individualist, collectivist, indigenous, colonial, and immigrant cultures, New Zealand is an important context in which to investigate the role of culture in such processes. This study investigated goal orientation and self-efficacy beliefs among students of different cultural backgrounds in New Zealand, associations between motivational beliefs and achievement, and whether any relations differed by cultural background. Participants were 2,210 students attending three intermediate schools. Participants responded to a questionnaire at the beginning of the school year to evaluate self-efficacy for mathematics and mastery and performance goal orientation. Participants also completed a standardized mathematics achievement test at the beginning and end of the year. The factor structure was sufficiently invariant by cultural group, but with statistically significant differences in average level of endorsement. Self-efficacy for mathematics predicted marginally higher end-of-year achievement after controlling for beginning-of-year achievement, with a stronger relationship for Māori and Pasifika, but no statistically significant relationship with achievement among Asian students. The questionnaire used was a valid instrument for the four main cultural groups in New Zealand. Differences were found in motivation levels, and Māori and Pasifika were more affected by their self-reported self-efficacy. Teachers may be able to raise students' self-beliefs by conveying high expectations for these students, potentially supporting higher academic outcomes. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Companies are very often confronted with external and internal cultural diversity to which they have to respond adequately. We need a deeper understanding of whether national cultures remain divergent in countries such as Japan and the Czech Republic following the pressures of globalization. One can argue that as cultures evolve they should constantly be assessed e.g., with respect to each of Hofstede‟s dimensions. By collecting data from one Eastern-European culture, the Czech Republic, and one Eastern culture, Japan, this study has re-examined Hofstede‟s (1984; 2001 cultural dimensions in these two cultures. Results suggest interesting changes have occurred in these cultures; a trend towards convergence may be derived. Explanations as well as implications are discussed.
This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.
Garner, D M; Garfinkel, P E
A population of professional dance (N = 183) and modelling (N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students (N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa (N = 68), and music students (N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6.5%) of primary anorexia nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of two important socio-cultural factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity of young individuals in rural regions. Design/methodology/approach – Our empirical study is based on a sample collected from an adult population survey, and analyzed using a logit model that controls for territorial and aging sources of heterogeneity. Our theoretical framework is anchored on a contingency perspective that emphasizes the unique influences of the contextual environment in driving entrepreneurial behavior. Findings – The main findings of our study is that in Spain the likelihood of being entrepreneurially active is no different for young and old individuals, and between rural and urban regions. Surprisingly, unlike shown in most studies, entrepreneurial role models do not have any effect on the entrepreneurship by young individuals in rural regions of Spain, while the negative impact of fear of failure in the entrepreneurship on young individuals in rural regions is much higher compared to the rest of the population. Originality/value – Our findings reveal that the context (regional has a more significant impact on entrepreneurship for some segments (younger individuals of the population than for others.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize Vietnamese policemen with hypertension, to report the proportion of hypertension control and medication adherence in Vietnamese policemen, and to explore cultural and clinical factors related to antihypertensive medication adherence. A cross-sectional study design was used. A convenience sample of 100 policemen with hypertension was recruited in Vietnam. A total score of 80% or more on the Medication Adherence scale was defined as medication adherence. Medication adherence was reported in 64% of the participants, but hypertension control was found in only 53%. Medication adherence was higher in the participants with higher perceived susceptibility to hypertension-related complications, higher perceived benefit of Western anti-hypertensive medications, longer duration of time since diagnosis, and fewer prescribed blood pressure lowering medications. Vietnamese policemen are at high risk for poor medication adherence and hypertension management. Culturally and clinically appropriate nursing interventions for hypertension management in Vietnamese policemen are needed.
Mary Margaret Rogers; Robert A. Peterson; Gerald Albaum
When conducting or evaluating cross-cultural/cross-national research studies a critical question must be asked about the measurements: are they culturally an emic or etic? That is, is the research methodology culturally bound or culture free? The research described in this paper shows how etic and emic properties may be explored by using the Ethicality Scale developed by Albaum and Peterson (2006) and demonstrates that it is at best an imposed etic scale. In doing so, this research confirms A...
Aina, O F; Morakinyo, O
One of the major problems in psychiatric practice worldwide is inability to reach a consensus as regards a globally acceptable classificatory system for the different psychopathologies. Consequently, apart from the WHO's International Classification of Diseases (ICD) that is expected to be universally applicable there are regional-based classificatory systems in some parts of the world. In Africa, a number of culture bound syndromes (CBS) have been described which have not been given international recognition. The possible consequences of this non-recognition are highlighted in this paper. Unfortunately there are serious constraints such as the relatively small number of psychiatrists on the continent, and inadequate funding for mental health research, which militate against producing an African classificatory system. Nevertheless, it is proposed that reports of African psychiatrists emanating from their research and clinical experience should be accorded adequate recognition in the WHO so as to assign these CBS their rightful placement in the International classificatory system.
The Serenity of the Meditating Mind: A Cross-Cultural Psychometric Study on a Two-Factor Higher Order Structure of Mindfulness, Its Effects, and Mechanisms Related to Mental Health among Experienced Meditators
Tran, Ulrich S.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M.; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa
Objective To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. Results The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. Conclusions A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies. PMID:25330072
The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.
Ulrich S Tran
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. METHODS: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891 and a Spanish (n = 393 meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. RESULTS: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.
The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.
Tran, Ulrich S; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa
To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.
Serafín Aldea Muñoz
Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.
Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh; Vahid Zamanzadeh; Aniroda Boroumand
Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran). Data was ...
Dressler, William W.; Balieiro, Mauro C.; dos Santos, José Ernesto
This article reports the replication after 10 years of cultural consensus analyses in four cultural domains in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Additionally, two methods for evaluating residual agreement are applied to the data, and a new technique for evaluating how cultural knowledge is represented by residual agreement is introduced. We…
Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane
This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One of the main issues reflected in this paper is that of the relationship between organizational culture, organizational change and the strategy of the organization. Besides this, another underlined aspect is that there is a strong connection between organizational culture and the community and environment the organization presides in. Also, by understanding the organizational culture we take a step forward in improving the performance of the organizations. Another fact to be taken into acco...
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.
Crumb, Loni; Haskins, Natoya
This article presents an integrative framework for using cognitive behavior therapy through the lens of relational cultural theory. The authors provide an overview of cognitive behavior therapy and relational cultural theory, followed by suggestions on how to facilitate cognitive behavior therapy using the principles of relational cultural theory…
.... It addresses how the socialization vs. assimilation hypothesis shapes immigrants and their descendants' first partnership formation patterns, analyzing the interplay of cultural and structural factors...
Full Text Available In this article, we declare the preliminary approaches of translation in Iran's history, includes some results of a research about translation trends in Iran’s cultural history, in order to understand any probable relation between the assumed approaches and the socio-cultural changes, in which there is two major historical periods, the ancient Iran and the Islamic cultural period. Then the probable relation between translation approaches and socio-cultural changes has been considered and conceptually used as an index for understanding the social functions of translation in those periods, and also finding out any socio-historical role of translation in the cultural history of Iran. The concept of “translation” in this article has been used in two different, but related conceptual meaning: the first one considers translation as the process of rendering words or texts from one language into another, the second approaches includes any reading and re-reading of a culture by another culture, as an intercultural process. Methodologically, older periods have been studied by pursuing the relations between transitional engravings, scripts and monuments. The newer periods have been studied through historical reports. The final conclusion proposes two different functions of translation; it seems that translation in the ancient period is an inner cultural trait; and in the Islamic era seems to function more as a “necessity for intercultural communications”, and also as a way to provide basic needs for constructing a trans-cultural society.
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Cultural factors can affect urban planners’ intentions to regulate public space in a particular way. The effects of cultural identity or ideology on urban planning are significant, but are often overlooked because they are difficult to quantify. This study verifies which factors affect planners’ perceptions in Prishtina, which are further reflected in their intentions behind designing and producing space. The factors are adopted from previous studies and are national identity, ethnic nationalism, social constructs and political pressure. We use qualitative research with cross-case analysis. By using purposive sampling and conducting semi-structured interviews with selected urban planners in Prishtina, the study shows the effects of such factors on urban planners’ perceptions and intentions. National identity is the most important factor affecting planners’ perceptions, followed by political pressure, whereas ethnic nationalism and social constructs are much less important. In addition, the structural relativity of planners’ perceptions and intentions has positive effects. The results of this study highlight elements that urban planners in Kosovo should consider and provide insights for future studies.
together are significant predictors of adolescents' response to HIV/AIDS preventive practices. A multiple R2 of .072 implies that the psycho cultural and physiological variables jointly explain. 7.2% of the variance in the dependent variable. The results of the significance of the regression weights of each of the psycho cultural.
Full Text Available The article discusses subject of the organizational culture and understanding the strong role it plays in organizations from the point of view in regard to the human capital management. Basically, culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts of organization members and their behaviors. It encourages employees to identify their goals with company goals, promotes knowledge sharing lead to increased competencies and teams effectiveness. The most significant thesis of the article says that organizational culture plays an important role in the process of knowledge management. Main conceptions of corporate culture as understanding, meaning, the most important aspects indicated changes which should be stimulated by transformation of organizational culture and ways of shaping, were shown.
... had a co-efficient of 3.683 which implies a positive significant relationship with Y. The study therefore recommends that mobilization campaigns based on the cultural context of the HIV/AIDs epidemic should be encouraged for the effective prevention. Keywords: Culture, HIV/AIDs, socio-cultural factors food security ...
L. M. Nesterenko
Full Text Available The impact of social and cultural factors on the musical preferences of students in Ukraine has been analysed in the article. The following factors have been selected: the type of society and social change in the polical fields of economy, culture, technology, students, musical paradigm. The urgency of the analysis of the genesis, development and change of musical preferences of students has been proven, the necessity to study the influence of sociocultural factors on the formation of musical preferences in modern society has been grounded. This allowed characterising the musical preferences as a socio-cultural phenomenon that present signs and society, and culture of the society. It has been found that the development of technology, such as the invention and use of the gramophone, phonograph, cinema, radio, television, and later a tape recorder, computer, Internet, mobile communications and the latest gadgets, has enhanced the formation of musical preferences.It has contributed meeting the needs and inquiries of students, which are studying musical art, the use of individual trajectories of formation of formal and informal musical preferences. Formal preferences are associated with the activities of social institutions and social organizations. In this context, the musical preferences and those recommended “from above” have been considered to be two different ways of formation of musical preferences in a totalitarian society. The variety of musical preferences has been determined. State-formed musical preferences have been identified and characterized by a second method of forming a musical preferences, which is based on the perception of diversity and is not approved by the musical culture of the individually selected samples, “from below” groups, which are defined as individual and personal, or informal, musical preferences. The musical preferences of students, related to situations of social changes that have occurred in the spheres
Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern
This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio
Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.
The author’s main aim is to identify the factors with major influence on the organizational culture and on the cultural climate of the Romanian metallurgic companies which are in the process of European integration. The analysis was based on direct observations regarding the organizational culture and the cultural climate as well as on interviewing a representative sample of employees from the companies taken into account, completed with collecting and interpreting significant data from the o...
Bisset, Sherri; Markham, Wolfgang A; Aveyard, Paul
To determine whether value-added education is associated with lower risk of substance use among adolescents: early initiation of alcohol use (regular monthly alcohol consumption in grade 7), heavy alcohol use (>10 units per week) and regular illicit drug use. Cross-sectional self-reported survey of alcohol and drug use. Analysis used two-level logistic modelling to relate schools providing value-added education with pupils' substance use. The value-added education measure was derived from educational and parenting theories proposing that schools providing appropriate support and control enhance pupil functioning. It was operationalised by comparing observed and expected examination success and truancy rates among schools. Expected examination success and truancy rates were based on schools' sociodemographic profiles. Data were collected across 15 West Midlands English school districts and included 25,789 pupils in grades 7, 9 and 11 from 166 UK secondary schools. Value-added education was associated with reduced risk of early alcohol initiation (OR (95% CI) 0.87 (0.78 to 0.95)) heavy alcohol consumption (OR 0.91 (0.85 to 0.96)) and illicit drug use (OR 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98)) after adjusting for gender, grade, ethnicity, housing tenure, eligibility for free school meal, drinking with parents and neighbourhood deprivation. The prevalence of substance use in school is influenced by the school culture. Understanding the mechanism through which the school can add value to the educational experience of pupils may lead to effective prevention programmes.
Makhfudli, Makhfudli; Rachmawati, Praba Diyan; Andini, Saskiyanti Ari
Introduction: Open defecation behavior is one cause of poor sanitation, which can lead to various diseases. Open defecation behavior related with cultural factors that become a habit in the daily life in a society which was then followed by their children. This study aimed to analyze factors related to the parental behavior of open defecation in school-age children based on the theory of transcultural nursing in Marce, Sedau Community Health Center Area, West Lombok Indonesia. Methods: This w...
Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.
Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitrification and in vitro culture of human ovarian tissue on the expression of oocytic and follicular cell-related genes. In this experimental study, ovarian tissue samples were obtained from eight transsexual women. Samples were cut into small fragments and were then assigned to vitrified and non-vitrified groups. In each group, some tissue fragments were divided into un-cultured and cultured (in α-MEM medium for 2 weeks) subgroups. The normality of follicles was assessed by morphological observation under a light microscope using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Expression levels of factor in the germ line alpha (FIGLA), KIT ligand (KL), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes were quantified in both groups by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the beginning and the end of culture. The percentage of normal follicles was similar between non-cultured vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P>0.05), however, cultured tissues had significantly fewer normal follicles than non-cultured tissues in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (Pcultured groups the rate of primary and secondary follicles was significantly higher than non-cultured tissues (Pcultured groups. Whiles, in comparison with cultured tissues non-cultured tissues, the expression of FIGLA gene was significantly decreased, KL gene was not changed, GDF-9 and FSHR genes was significantly increased (Pculture has no impairing effects on follicle normality and development and expression of related-genes. However, in vitro culture condition has deleterious effects on normality of follicles.
The Center for Health and Safety Culture at Montana State University developed a survey to investigate the traffic safety culture related to engagement in traffic safety citizenship behaviors. The development of the survey was based on an augmented f...
Dritschel, Barbara; Kao, Chih-Mei; Astell, Arlene; Neufeind, Julia; Lai, Te-Jen
This study investigated how culture influences the association between autobiographical memory retrieval and depression. Thirty clinically depressed patients and 30 controls, 15 each from Britain and Taiwan, completed the English and Chinese versions of the Autobiographical Memory Cueing Task (AMT). Overall, the depressed individuals from both cultural groups retrieved significantly fewer specific and more categoric autobiographical memories than their matched, nondepressed controls. Within the control groups, the British participants retrieved significantly more specific autobiographical memories and fewer categoric memories than their Taiwanese counterparts. These results suggest that difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories typical of depression may be a cognitive bias that occurs across cultures.
or small, in today's competitive market (Ersoz,. 1999; Sweis et al., 2009). According to Nkado. (1995) and Walker (1995), construction productivity is traditionally identified as one of the three main critical success factors together with cost and quality for a construction project. There are different classifications of construction.
Wunschel, David S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engelmann, Heather E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Victry, Kristin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clowers, Brian H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorensen, Christina M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valentine, Nancy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney Fahey, Christine M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wietsma, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Karen L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The detection of high consequence pathogens, such as Yersinia pestis, is well established in biodefense laboratories for bioterror situations. Laboratory protocols are well established using specified culture media and a growth temperature of 37 °C for expression of specific antigens. Direct detection of Y. pestis protein markers, without prior culture, depends on their expression. Unfortunately protein expression can be impacted by the culture medium which cannot be predicted ahead of time. Furthermore, higher biomass yields are obtained at the optimal growth temperature (i.e. 28 °C–30 °C) and therefore are more likely to be used for bulk production. Analysis of Y. pestis grown on several types of media at 30 °C showed that several protein markers were found to be differentially detected in different media. Analysis of the identified proteins against a comprehensive database provided an additional level of organism identification. Peptides corresponding to variable regions of some proteins could separate large groups of strains and aid in organism identification. This work illustrates the need to understand variability of protein expression for detection targets. The potential for relating expression changes of known proteins to specific media factors, even in nutrient rich and chemically complex culture medium, may provide the opportunity to draw forensic information from protein profiles.
Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under...
Ross, K. G; Thornson, C. A
This task, the first of five tasks in a project to support Cultural Readiness for the Department of Defense, represents the first step in the development of a "paper and pencil" questionnaire measure...
Dating, the stage in American romantic relationships, is a popular theme in interpersonal communication research. This article claims that dating is a cultural construct and concept. The claim is supported by two means: (1) by examining the perceptions of relationships, communication, and personhood that are embedded in American women‟s interviews, and (2) by comparing these perceptions with Finnish women‟s interviews about relationship initiation. The cultural meanings of dating should be ac...
Kawata, Tetsuhiro; Matsuo, Toshihiko
The aim of this study is to elucidate background clinical factors in patients with positive bacterial culture for the conjunctival sac before cataract surgery in Japan. Retrospective review was made on medical records of 576 consecutive patients who underwent conjunctival sac culture before cataract surgery with night stay at a hospital in 2 years from January 2013 to December 2014. In the patients with sequential bilateral surgeries, the data were chosen for bacterial culture in the eye which had earlier surgery. The age at surgery ranged from 33 to 100 years (mean, 76.7 years). Clinical factors, analyzed in relation with positive or negative bacterial culture, included the sex, the age, the presence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, history of cancer, and history of hospital-based surgery at other specialties. Bacterial culture of the conjunctival sac was positive in 168 patients while negative in 408 patients. In multiple regression analysis, the positive bacterial culture was related with the older age (P = 0.01), the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.004), and the history of hospital-based surgery at other specialties (P = 0.001). Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus or previous hospital-based surgeries at other specialties have a higher rate of positive bacterial culture in the conjunctival sac before cataract surgery. This study would provide a hint for identifying patients at risk for carrying bacterial flora in the conjunctival sac.
Much has been discussed and written about ethnicity. This paper is therefore intended as a contribution to the management of interethnic/intercultural conflicts in Nigeria, with a focus on new ways of handling the basic socio-cultural institutions shaping ethnic consciousness. Furthermore, this paper highlights the basic ...
The subsequent PCR analysis was carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression levels of RFs and other stem cell markers in human HUKs clearly fluctuated during culturing, which supports the hypothesis that HUKs might be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state when the maximum levels of RFs expression ...
analysis was carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression levels of RFs and other stem cell markers in human HUKs clearly fluctuated during culturing, which supports the hypothesis that. HUKs might be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state when the maximum levels of RFs expression are maintained by ...
With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…
Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin
In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…
The study concluded that there are cultural practices and beliefs that perpetuate gender-based violence and these include “chiongo”-dowry, polygamy, “the notion of household head”, male mobility, forced marriage and not having sex with a woman when she is menstruating and during post-partum abstinence which can ...
Clark, Stephen A; Lekshmi, Aiswarya; Lucidarme, Jay; Hao, Li; Tsao, How; Lee-Jones, Lisa; Jansen, Kathrin U; Newbold, Lynne S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Borrow, Ray
To compare the distribution of capsular groups and factor H-binding protein (fHBP) variants among meningococcal isolates and non-culture clinical specimens and to assess the representativeness of group B isolates amongst group B cases as a whole. A PCR sequencing assay was used to characterise fHBP from non-culture cases confirmed from January 2011 to December 2013. These were compared to genotypic data derived from whole genome analysis of isolates received during the same period. Group W and Y strains were more common among isolates than non-culture strains. The distribution of fHBP variants among group B non-culture cases generally reflected that seen in the corresponding isolates. Nonetheless, the non-culture subset contained a greater proportion of fHBP variant 15/B44, associated with the ST-269 cluster sublineage. Differences in capsular group and fHBP distribution among culture and non-culture cases may be indicative of variation in strain viability, diagnostic practice, disease severity and/or clinical presentation. Future analyses combining clinical case information with laboratory data may help to further explore these differences. Group B isolates provide a good representation of group B disease in E&W and, therefore, can reliably be used in fHBP strain coverage predictions of recently-licensed vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. I. Lunev
Full Text Available The concept of development of relations in the format of RIC, BRIC and BRICS, the scale and the scope of cooperation, the direction of activity are still relatively vague. However, there are significant prerequisites for a substantial rapprochement of states, and the main of them is the rejection of the establishment of a unipolar world. The BRICS could become for its participants a key factor both for strengthening positions in the world economic system, and for realization of concrete projects. The economic relations in the triangle Russia — China — India should be mentioned especially as the implementation of such projects is facilitated by the neighborhood of the countries in Eurasia. It is also very important to develop comprehensively cultural subsystem, first of all, the cooperation in the educational sphere (the strong increase in Chinese and Indian student enrollments to Russian universities, and medicine and natural science should be priority directions; the strengthening of the ties in the sphere of higher education and science. Cultural activities should also be dramatically expanded. The BRICS countries are not interested in a radical breaking of international political and economic relations, but are obliged to contribute to sharp strengthening of their positions in the world system.
Scott, C.D.; Baxter, R.C.
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptors in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were characterized and their regulation by cell density examined. In hepatocytes cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells per 3.8 cm2 plate (/sup 125/I)IGF-II bound to specific, high affinity receptors (Ka = 4.4 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) l/mol). Less than 1% cross-reactivity by IGF-I and no cross-reactivity by insulin were observed. IGF-II binding increased when cells were permeabilized with 0.01% digitonin, suggesting the presence of an intracellular receptor pool. Determined by Scatchard analysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity labeling, the higher binding was due solely to an increase in binding sites present on 220 kDa type II IGF receptors. In hepatocytes cultured at low densities, the number of cell surface receptors increased markedly, from 10-20,000 receptors per cell at a culture density of 6 X 10(5) cells/well to 70-80,000 receptors per cell at 0.38 X 10(5) cells/well. The increase was not due simply to the exposure of receptors from the intracellular pool, as a density-related increase in receptors was also seen in cells permeabilized with digitonin. There was no evidence that IGF binding proteins, either secreted by hepatocytes or present in fetal calf serum, had any effect on the measurement of receptor concentration or affinity. We conclude that rat hepatocytes in primary culture contain specific IGF-II receptors and that both cell surface and intracellular receptors are regulated by cell density.
Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.
This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…
Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge
As a result of their high prevalence, mayor depressive disorder single episode (MDDSE); major depressive disorder recurrent episodes (MDDREC); and dysthymia are considered an important public health problem. The objective of this paper was to identify and correlate environmental factors in patients with MDDSE, MDDREC and dysthymia. 121 patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Subzone General Hospital of San Andres Tuxtla, at Veracruz, were questioned by history with the risk variables. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. The main risk factors identified for developing depressive disorders were: being female, over 40 years old and being married. The differences obtained in this study, if it is compared with others, are probably due to sample size, selection criteria and ethnic origin.
Kruse, Julie A; Williams, Reg A; Mood, Darlene
Within the United States, there are individuals who retain the traditions and beliefs of cultural groups that vary from the general majority population. Both healthcare providers and researchers have reported that many individuals who live in but are less affiliated with the dominant culture tend to have less positive health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to use factor analysis to assess the psychometric properties of Mood's 18-item Strength of Cultural Affiliation Scale (SCAS). The SCAS was administered to 604 participants from a randomized clinical trial of cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at a large central city hospital located in the Midwest. Confirmatory Factor Analyses using Principal Component Analysis with Oblimin Rotation indicated a 16-item, 4-factor final solution with the following subscales: factor 1, lifestyle (7 items); factor 2, language and cultural-specific holidays (3 items); factor 3, relationships (4 items); and factor 4, cultural health practices (2 items). The SCAS demonstrated high reliability and content, construct, discriminant, convergent, divergent, and predictive validity. The SCAS seems to be a reliable and valid tool for practitioners to use to assess a patient's strength of cultural affiliation to provide the best culturally sensitive care possible for the patient.
Marició Janué i Miret
Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that culture played in German-Spanish relations during National-Socialism. This is a relevant historiographical question for two main reasons. The first, that we still lack an overall approach on the cultural relations between the two countries in that period. The second, that when the national-socialists came to power in 1933, culture had already become for a long time an essential part of foreign politics of the most important European powers, and consequently also of Germany. The article explains the motivations for intensifying cultural relations for both countries. Its ultimate objective is to get a clearer idea about the affinities between Nazi Germany and the Francoist regime. We base the analysis in our own research in archives as well as in the already existing literature on partial aspects of the cultural relations between the two countries. We conclude that the tensions between the different political sectors which looked for hegemony inside the francoist regime were not the decisive factor to explain the variations in the intensity of the cultural relations between the two countries. The decisive element was the negative evolution of the Second World War for Germany. Finally, the research proves that the ideological coincidences between the two regimes and the level of fascistization of Franco’s dictatorship in its first stages should not be underestimated.
Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN
Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.
Confort, C; Charrasse, S; Clos, J
The cerebellar neuroblasts in primary cultures from five-day-old rats bore NGF receptor immunoreactivity, suggesting a potential responsive to NGF. At low plating density, NGF was found to enhance DNA synthesis in these cells in a dose-dependent manner. As these cells synthesize NGF, one possibility to account for the lack of response of neuroblasts plated at high density is that the amount of endogenous trophic agent produced in this culture condition is sufficient to ensure an optimal effect. The results demonstrate that premitotic neuroblasts in the CNS, as well postmitotic neurons, are responsive to NGF. At the early stage of its development, the cerebellum therefore appears to be a very good autocrine model of NGF action.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.
Full Text Available Dating, the stage in American romantic relationships, is a popular theme in interpersonal communication research. This article claims that dating is a cultural construct and concept. The claim is supported by two means: (1 by examining the perceptions of relationships, communication, and personhood that are embedded in American women‟s interviews, and (2 by comparing these perceptions with Finnish women‟s interviews about relationship initiation. The cultural meanings of dating should be acknowledged when making generalizations and building theoretical constructs on romantic relationships, as well as in applying American research results in describing Finnish romantic relationships.
1978). Generally, the frequency of very common but chronic risks, which build up over time (e.g., heart disease ), are less likely to be reported...Corporate Culture: Diagnosis and Change. In Cooper, C.L. & Robertson, I.T. (Eds.), International Review of industrial and Organisational Psychology...Chichester: Wiley. George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (1996). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison -Wesley Publishing Company
Cultura de seguridad del paciente y factores asociados en una red de hospitales públicos españoles Cultura de segurança do paciente e fatores associados em uma rede de hospitais públicos espanhóis Patient safety culture and related factors in a network of Spanish public hospitals
Zenewton André da Silva Gama
Full Text Available Este estudio objetivó describir la Cultura de Seguridad del Paciente (CSP en una red de hospitales públicos, según las percepciones de los profesionales sanitarios, y analizar la asociación de factores sociolaborales. Se realizó una encuesta a 1.113 profesionales de ocho hospitales españoles, a través de un cuestionario con 12 dimensiones de la CSP. Las percepciones se describen mediante los Porcentajes de Respuestas Positivas (PRP y Negativas (PRN a cada dimensión, y se analiza la asociación de factores con regresión lineal múltiple. La dimensión "trabajo en equipo en la unidad" se destacó con el mayor PRP (73,5 y "dotación de personal" con el mayor PRN (61. Los factores más asociados a la CSP (p O estudo teve como objetivo descrever a Cultura de Segurança do Paciente (CSP em uma rede de hospitais públicos, na percepção dos profissionais da saúde, e analisar a associação de fatores sociolaborais. Foi realizada uma pesquisa junto a 1.113 profissionais de oito hospitais espanhóis, através de um questionário com 12 dimensões da CSP. As percepções são descritas através dos porcentuais de respostas positivas (PRP e negativas (PRN, em cada dimensão, e é analisada a associação de fatores com regressão linear múltipla. A dimensão "trabalho em equipe na unidade" se destacou, com o maior PRP (73,5 e "dotação em pessoal" com o maior PRN (61. Os fatores mais associados à CSP (p The objectives were to describe Patient Safety Culture (PSC in a regional network of public hospitals, according to the perceptions of health professionals, and analyze the influence of socio-professional factors. A survey was conducted with 1,113 professionals from eight Spanish hospitals, using a questionnaire that explores 12 dimensions of PSC. Perceptions were described through the Percentage of Positive (PPR and Negative Responses (PNR by dimension, and the association of factors was analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The
Full Text Available The goal of this research is to establish the influence of organizational culture on the system of safety and health at work. The research sample included 556 respondents of various activities in Russia. Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant connection of the Attitude towards occupational safety with 5 out of 7 aspects of organizational culture, as well as with the general factor of Usefulness of the manner of management. In addition, there is a statistically significant connection to age, total years of service and qualifications. Through a comparative analysis of results acquired in the Republic of Serbia and Russia, differences in attitudes towards safety and health activities at work were acquired i.e. there is a difference between the average answers of respondents from Serbia and Russia in the Attitude towards occupational safety which is on average slightly more prominent in respondents from Serbia. In relation to organizational culture aspects, there are differences in Vision, Credibility, Feedback and recognition as well as Responsibility. Respondents from Serbia have higher average values on all these measures, but all the differences are small (all effect sizes are below 0.2.
B. A. Batasheva
Full Text Available The work was done on the Dagestan experimental station VIR by N.I.Vavilov in 1994-2004.775 sorts of cultural barley from world gene pool were studied. Precocious sorts with productivity on the level of middle ripe forms were separated.
Muhammad Nida' Fadlan
Full Text Available Local culture is undoubtedly a very important aspect to every nation. Having an awareness of local culture, especially among the youth, plays a great role in shaping a society and a state. For one to have an appreciation of another country’s culture, however, can be an important starting point in breaking down barriers of misperceptions or misunderstandings, and in helping to build global relationships. In support of this idea, the Japanese Embassy in Jakarta this year offered a special program called the Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange for Students and Youth (JENESYS to strengthen the awareness of Japanese local culture among Muslim youth in Indonesia. In early 2014, the Japanese government, working in cooperation with PPIM (Center for the Study of Islam and Society at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah in Jakarta, invited a number of university students to visit Japan.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v21i2.1044
Children express the cultures they bring into the classrooms through musical play. When children are left to their own devices they dance, create songs, and play instruments. Campbell emphasizes how children are immersed in musical activity throughout the entirety of their day; they use music for self-expression, to interact with others, and to…
redescriptions? employs poststructuralist and feminist thinking about visual culture in an attempt to explore alternative understandings of visual education. In the final part ?Educations of vision in late modernity? socialization and self creation are proposed as two different, but supplementary, educational...
Information derived from researching cultural information on menstruation and other forms of blood flow in adolescent girls in Nigeria can contribute extensively to existing knowledge about the female world in general and on adolescent girls in particular. This will further encourage ongoing advocacy programmes in ...
Culture as a way of life determines to a large extent human behaviour. It is patterned, learned, shared and adaptive and transmittable from one generation to the other and has a way of influencing everything we do. It can be perpetuated and has a potential to overpower intervention programmes, social and educational ...
Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana
The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.
Oliveira, Laura Leismann de; Gonçalves, Annelise de Carvalho; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi
To identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with prematurity in the municipality of Porto Alegre. This was a population-based case-control study. The cases were newborns under 37 weeks of gestation and the controls were newborns over 37 weeks. The data came from the records of 19,457 births in the city of Porto Alegre in the year 2012 from the Information System on Live Births of the Municipal Health Department. The analysis was carried outand adjusted by a Logistic Regression according to a hierarchical model. The variables studied were allocated into three hierarchy levels: sociodemographic variables; reproductive history; and gestational and birth factors. There were 767 cases allocated and 1,534 controls in a design of a case for two controls (1:2) by simple randomization. In the final model, a statistically significant association was found for prematurity for the following variables: mother's age under 19 years old (OR=1.32; CI 95%: 1.02-1.71) or over 34 years old (OR=1.39; CI 95%: 1.12-1.72); inadequate maternal schooling for age (OR=2.11; CI 95%: 1.22-3.65); multiple pregnancies (OR=1.14; CI 95%: 1.01-1.29); C-section (OR=1.15; CI 95%: 1.03-1.29); birth weights under 2,500g (OR=4.04; CI 95%: 3.64-4.49); Apgar score at five minutes between zero and three (OR=1.47; CI 95%: 1.12-1.91); and inadequate prenatal care (OR=1.18; CI 95%: 1.02-1.36). The present study showed the most immediate consequence of prematurity for newborns by evidencing its association with worse Apgar scores and low birth weight. The following factors were also shown as possible more distal determinants of prematurity: mother's age; inadequate maternal education; multiple gestation; inadequate prenatal care; and C-section. Identificar fatores maternos e neonatais associados à prematuridade no município de Porto Alegre. Estudo do tipo caso-controle de base populacional. Os casos foram recém-nascidos com menos de 37 semanas de gestação, e os controles foram os rec
Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Toben, Alexandra C; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J Glenn
Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.
Full Text Available To test the notions that people from collectivist cultures may experience more intense Sensitivity Towards being the Target of Upward Comparison (STTUC responses the current study investigated the relationships between traditional gender role orientation and STTUC, and collectivistic cultural orientation and STTUC. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional survey approach, a convenient sample of 464 participants from various organizations in Botswana completed the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (59.9%, in a dating relationship (67.9%, and between the ages of 20 and 57 (M = 32.69, SD = 7.43. In the main, the hypotheses were not supported as the correlation results indicated that neither collectivistic cultural orientation nor traditional gender role orientation were linked to STTUC experiences. Discussions center on the importance of reporting and suggesting theoretical justifications for the so called ‘”nonsignificant findings.” Implications of the empirical findings and the future research directions are also discussed.
Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Five studies focus on the cultural components of population issues in Thailand, Jamaica, Korea, Kenya, and Indonesia. The reports explore the influence of cultural factors on contraceptive practice, family planning, abortion, and education. Recommendations are made for policymakers in areas that impinge on population growth. "Birth Control…
1973-01-01Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing
Full Text Available Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP is still an important complication of liver cirrhosis with ascites. Although new developments occurred it has a high mortality rate. In order to identify the related factors of mortality in cirrhotics with SBP, we studied 48 patients who fulfilled the accepted diagnostic criteria. All cases were treated with cefotaxime. The resolution rate was 87% in the study group. Eleven patients (22% died in hospital. The major causes of death were hepatorenal syndrome (HRS in 4 (36% and variceal bleeding in 3 (27%. Fifty parameters were studied to find the correlation. Sixteen parameters (urea, bilirubin, MELD score, CTP score, prothrombin time, INR, AST, ALT, PMNL in ascites, systolic and diastolic arterial tension, sepsis, variceal bleeding, changes in mental status, HRS, culture positivity in ascites were significantly correlated with mortality. Except for bilirubin, INR, AST and PMNL in ascites, the remaining parameters were also found to be predictive in logistic regression analysis. In multivariant analysis, we found that MELD score, INR, ALT, presence of mental change on admission and low mean arterial tension was significantly reduced the resolution of infection. We conclude that mortality in SBP patients mostly depends on the existence of recent variceal bleeding and the degree of liver and renal failure. Strict measures should be taken in cases with variceal bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome.
Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie
BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and
Dean Wesley R
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on
A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd
This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.
Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.
Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.
The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation
Lawan A. Lawan; Ramat Zanna
his study assesses cultural factors influencing consumer buying behaviour of clothes in Borno state, Nigeria. It was specifically carried out to examine consumer buying decision making process and assess cultural, economic as well as personal factors influencing clothes buying behavior. Data for the study were gathered through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants, on a sample of 192 clothes buyers, out of which, 174 were duly filled ...
Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio
The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk.
Full Text Available Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive. Moreover, the roles of cultural beliefs, social norms, and attitudes in driving urban bushmeat consumption are rarely evaluated. Therefore, we explored in this article the factors that influence consumption and preference for bushmeat in Amazonian towns. Given the availability of other sources of animal protein and the cultural and social importance of bushmeat in the region, we hypothesized that cultural attributes should be better predictors than economic factors of bushmeat consumption and preference. Data analysis involved fitting two-level mixed-effects regressions (random intercepts to a structured sample of 227 individuals (99 households from four towns in the Brazilian (Tabatinga and Atalaia do Norte and Colombian (Leticia and Puerto Nariño Amazon. The results indicate that a third of the interviewees had consumed bushmeat in the past month, which had primarily been harvested by the family or received as a gift rather than obtained through trade. In general, both economic and cultural factors predicted bushmeat consumption and preference, but the objective proxy for culture, individual origin, was unimportant. Among the tested indicators, the strongest predictor was the importance of bushmeat to social relations. Moreover, informal social norms, such as the greater importance attributed to taboos, tended to decrease the average number of wild species that a person would eat, whereas attitudes toward the illegality of hunting were less important. The two economic indicators, increased income and wealth, tended to decrease preference for bushmeat and the likelihood of consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of human beliefs, attitudes, and social norms to the understanding of bushmeat consumption and preference and may
Wang, Rongrong; Langhammer, Birgitta
Stroke survivors might perceive their quality of life (QoL) as being affected even years after onset. The purpose of this review was to go through the literature to identify factors related to QoL for persons with stroke in China and Western countries for possible similarities and differences in their respective cultural views. A narrative literature review was conducted on the papers identified by searching PubMed, EBSCO/CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data that published up to November 2016. Factors predicting QoL after stroke were extracted, and comparisons were made between Chinese and Western studies respecting cultural aspects. A total of 43 articles were included in this review, with 31 conducted in Western countries and 12 in China. Predictors of QoL included Demographic factors: age, gender, marital status, education level, socioeconomic status; Clinically related factors: severity of stroke, physical function, depression/anxiety, cognitive impairment, incontinence and other comorbidities; Environmental factors: residential status, social support, social participation; and Individual factors: coping strategies and self-perception. Being married and resident at home might be associated with the perception of QoL differently between Chinese and Western survivors. Most predictors of QoL in stroke survivors were the same in China and the Western countries. However, their QoL might be predicted differently regarding to the individualistic and collectivistic cultural differences. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
The effectiveness of meat and related food products marketing in Akwa Ibom State is conditioned by the specifics of culture. In this study, cultural effect on meat consumption is examined. A sample of 568 respondents were analysed with OLS regression. The results reveal that meat consumption and preferences for related ...
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the role of the relationship quality and culture between Portuguese companies and their export market intermediaries in Angola. In particular, we aim to understand the importance that the quality of the relationship has and the role of cultures in export activities. In terms of methodology we opted for a qualitative analysis; we present the results of two case studies of Portuguese exporting companies and one case study on an Angolan intermediate. In general, the results show that the business relationships are influenced by trust, commitment, culture and similar values. As known, Angola was once a Portuguese colony, so communication is easy because these countries share some common cultural traits. Such factors will influence the trade relations between Portuguese exporters and their Angolan distributors.
Analisis mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) atau Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) merupakan salah satu cara menganalisis proyek pembangunan sebelum dilaksanakan, untuk mengetahui apakah proyek tersebut berpotensi merusak lingkungan. Dalam pelaksanannya, studi AMDAL sering tereduksi artinya menjadi analisis dan sisi lingkungan secara fisik, sementara itu factor social dan budaya masyarakat di lokasi proyek acapkali terabaikan. Makalah ini akan menyoroti tentang perlunya studi AMDAL memasu...
The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made particular demands on water resource base and the environment and its sustainability is threatened by human induced activities. This study assessed the socio-economic, sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community ...
... procedure indicated that only two factors were effective in explaining adolescents' response to HIV/AIDS preventive practices. Traditional beliefs about HIV/AIDS made the greatest contribution to adolescents' response to HIV/AIDS preventive practices, followed by sexuality attitudes. Age and gender were not significant.
Levenstein, S; Li, Z; Almer, S; Barbosa, A; Marquis, P; Moser, G; Sperber, A; Toner, B; Drossman, D A
The aim of this work was to study cross-cultural variations in the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on health-related quality of life by an international comparison of disease-related concerns. Item and factor scores on the Rating Form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Concerns and overall mean concern levels were compared by analysis of variance among 2002 IBD patients in eight countries. The overall level of concern varied from 51 out of 100 in Portugal to 19 in Sweden, with intermediate scores for Italy (43), Canada (40), United States (39), France (39), Austria (33), and Israel (25). Having surgery, an ostomy, the uncertain nature of the disease, and medication side effects were each rated among the first five in importance in six countries. Other items varied considerably. For example, concern regarding pain and suffering was high in Israel and low in Portugal, whereas concern over developing cancer was low in Italy. Concern over financial issues and access to high-quality health care were inversely associated with measures of national economic prosperity. 1) Cross-cultural comparisons of patient concerns related to IBD are feasible using translated scales. 2) Reporting tendencies vary greatly; within Europe, patients from southern countries report greater overall concern. 3) The complications and the variable evolution of disease elicit general concern, but the importance of specific issues varies among countries. 4) The reasons for national differences may have social, cultural, and/or economic determinants with relevance to the patient-physician relationship, patient education, and therapeutic decision making.
8217U .- (’ UU) LLo ILIJ j V)0 ’-4to( 0 (A > S 4- U) =) c- C) S- I ~I L) 40 L C - Ml I C CLi iLJ C).. 81J very heart of the interpersonal problems...approaching the America . ervice group without getting further away from its own cultural back.. ,n., at least as represented by the recruit sample. About...Hokins Press, 19 6. I Flavell T. H., and E. R. Flavell- N0ne Deteof Ju 3 -Semantic a - Asociative Connection een ju nal of DcprL-.ental Psychology, ;aa
Full Text Available The article is divided into three parts. Through examples from twentieth century Scandinavian visual arts education the first part “Epistemological inquiries”, discusses how the historical and social construction of dominant modem strategies of vision has occurred. The second part “Experimentalist redescriptions” employs poststructuralist and feminist thinking about visual culture in an attempt to explore alternative understandings of visual education. In the third part “Educations of vision in late modernity” socialization and self creation are proposed as two different, but supplementary, educational functions which contemporary visual education inspired by epistemological and experimentalist approaches should aim to fulfill.
McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…
Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin
Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.
Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.
Mohammad Golnari Abbasi
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study to measure the impact of various cultural factors on consumerism in city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study uses clustering technique to choose a sample of 300 families out of 70,000 residences of this city. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among participants. Cronbach alpha have been calculated as 0.85 and 0.92 for cultural factors and consumerism, respectively. The results of Pearson correlation ratios indicate that there are statistically meaningful relationships between consumerism and four components of culture including religious believes, tendency to luxuries, using different multi medias and adherence to traditions.
Munniksma, A.; Flache, A.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Veenstra, D.R.
Research on adolescents' interethnic relations indicates that parents can resist their children's ethnic outgroup relations. However, there is little insight into the underlying reasons for this. The current study examines how cultural groups differ in parental acceptance of their children's
Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hwa-Ok Hannah
As aging baby boomers retire, cultural capital is expected to play a major role in representing new types of need for social inclusion for this group of people. This study aims to examine the association between cultural capital and life satisfaction among Korean baby boomers born between 1955 and 1963. Data on 297 baby boomers were extracted from the 2007 Korean General Social Survey and multiple regression models were tested. The findings indicated that acquired cultural capital (i.e. experiences of private art and culture education and diverse participation in art and cultural activities) had a significant association with a higher level of life satisfaction, whereas inherited cultural capital (i.e. paternal educational level) was not related to life satisfaction among Korean baby boomers. The findings point to the potential benefits of acquired cultural capital as a means to promote the life satisfaction of the baby boom generation.
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon
There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.
Bahadorani, M; Hosseini, S M; Abedi, P; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H
Growth factors are increasingly considered as important regulators of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). This study investigated the effects of various growth factors (GDNF, IGF1, bFGF, EGF and GFRalpha-1) on purification and colonization of undifferentiated goat SSCs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Irrespective of the culture condition used, the first signs of developing colonies were observed from day 4 of culture onwards. The number of colonies developed in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p cells (vimentin, alpha-inhibin and α-SMA) and spermatogonial cells (PLZF, THY 1, VASA, alpha-1 integrin, bet-1 integrin and DBA) revealed that both cell types existed in developing colonies, irrespective of the culture condition used. Even though, the relative abundance of VASA, FGFR3, OCT4, PLZF, BCL6B and THY1 transcription factors in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF treatment group was significantly higher than the other groups (p culture condition could colonize within the seminiferous tubules of the germ-cell depleted recipient mice following xenotransplantation. Obtained results demonstrated that combination of GDNF with IGF1 and bFGF promote in vitro culture of goat SSCs while precludes uncontrolled proliferation of somatic cells.
Hesdorffer, Dale C; Lee, Philip
Depression is the most common psychological morbidity in epilepsy, yet this comorbidity is not well understood. Possible explanations for this comorbidity include recurrence of premorbid depression, increased risk for severe epilepsy due to a history of depression, shared risk factors for depression and epilepsy, AED-induced depression in vulnerable individuals, and coping styles in the face of stressors linked to epilepsy. Preexisting vulnerability to depression may contribute to each of these explanations. Vulnerability may arise from the influence of common risk factors, family history of depression, a history of depression before initiation of relevant AEDs, or coping styles and may reflect allostatic load. These exposures may precede the occurrence of epilepsy or follow the onset of epilepsy, in both cases increasing the risk for depression in prevalent epilepsy. Their careful evaluation is vital to identifying people at greatest risk for depression in epilepsy and for informing interventions to prevent the occurrence of this disabling epilepsy comorbidity.
Full Text Available Unconventional marketing has the potential to contribute not only to the well-being of cultural institutions but also to the society by raising its general cultural level and fostering economic growth based on creative industries. This paper contributes to the theoretical explanation and understanding of the unconventional marketing approach by providing an overview of literature, a developed model of successful marketing in cultural institutions and an analysis of the objectives of such marketing. Based on empirical research on cultural institutions in the Republic of Croatia, the research objective was to contribute to identifying and understanding the factors that influence unconventional marketing as well as the potential for applying unconventional marketing in cultural institutions. Research was limited to three types of cultural institutions (theatres, museums and galleries and it was conducted on a sample of 244 institutions by using a highly structured online questionnaire.
van de Werfhorst, Herman G; Hofstede, Saskia
In this paper we empirically examined two explanatory mechanisms for educational inequality: cultural reproduction and relative risk aversion, using survey data taken from secondary school pupils in Amsterdam. Cultural reproduction theory seeks to explain class variations in schooling by cultural differences between social classes. Relative risk aversion theory argues that educational inequalities can be understood by between-class variation in the necessity of pursuing education at branching points in order to avoid downward mobility. We showed that class variations in early demonstrated ability are for a substantial part cultural: cultural capital - measured by parental involvement in highbrow culture - affected school performance at the primary and secondary level. However, relative risk aversion - operationalized by being concerned with downward mobility - strongly affects schooling ambitions, whereas cultural capital had no effect. Thus, we conclude that 'primary effects' of social origin on schooling outcomes are manifested through cultural capital and not through relative risk aversion (in addition to other potential sources of class variations such as genetics). Relative risk aversion, and not cultural capital, affects schooling ambitions, which is relevant for our understanding of secondary effects.
Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.
Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social media marketing. A questionnaire was completed by students from Norway and ...
Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...
Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.
As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.
Alves, A E; Padilha-Nakaghi, L C; Pires-Butler, E A; Apparicio, M; Silva, Nam; Motheo, T F; Vicente, Wrr; Luvoni, G C
In vitro culture of ovarian preantral follicles has emerged as a reproductive technology aimed at obtaining large amount of oocytes for in vitro embryo production. The addition of growth factors (GF) in the in vitro culture of preantral follicles of different species has provided superior results of follicular development, antrum formation and proliferation of granulosa cells. However, there are only few reports regarding the use of these factors on feline preantral follicle in vitro culture. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combination of IGF-1 and EGF on in vitro viability and growth of preantral follicles and enclosed oocytes collected from domestic cats. A total of 64 follicles characterized by multilayer granulosa cells were isolated and individually cultured for 6 days (T6) in minimum essential medium supplemented with IGF-1+ EGF (100 ng/ml each) or without (control). A higher percentage of follicles were viable after culture with GF than without, and an increase in size when IGF-1+ EGF were added to the medium (170 ± 32.4 μm (T0) vs. 201 ± 22.3 μm (T6); p .05). These data suggest that the addition of IGF-1 and EGF to the culture medium promotes the in vitro development of preantral follicles of cats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin
With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2 = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting
Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka
Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…
This paper presents the conflict between missionaries and Nigeria people's religion and culture. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of human relations that face us today in respect of mission and culture. Fundamentally, it is that social ...
Coyne, Cathy A; Demian-Popescu, Cristina; Friend, Dana
Social, cultural, and economic environments are associated with high rates of disease incidence and mortality in poor Appalachian regions of the United States. Although many historical studies suggest that aspects of Appalachian culture (e.g., fatalism, patriarchy) include values and beliefs that may put Appalachians at risk for poor health, other cultural aspects may be protective (e.g., strong social ties). Few recent studies have explored regional cultural issues qualitatively. The purpose of this study was to examine social and cultural factors that may be associated with health and illness in an Appalachian region. Ten focus groups were conducted in southern West Virginia and included five groups of men and five groups of women. Cultural norms associated with residents of rural Appalachia, such as faith, family values, and patriarchy, were examined. Both men and women in the focus groups have a sense of place, strong family ties, and a strong spiritual belief or faith in God. Patriarchy as a cultural value was not a strong factor. There are limits to how qualitative data may be used, but findings from this study help increase understanding of the social and cultural environments of people living in rural Appalachia and how these environments may affect health.
King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.
The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…
Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.
Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.
The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.
Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.
In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.
Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate in process of change. For solving this problem, it is necessary to identify the main factors of organizational culture in the change process. After exploring the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate through distinguished culture’s factors, article examines how changes can be processed in different cultural environments. Methodology: The research design is based on Yin (1994 methodology and consists of two main stages: data analysis and validation for case study and case study’s methodology according to Yin (1994 (four steps: design the case, conduct the case, analyse the case evidence and develop conclusions. In the first stage an expert evaluation method was used to investigate the significance of organizational culture factors’ impact on organizational climate. Different factors of organizational climate were explored in the paper. To affirm the results triangulation method was applied. To verify the results of the research mathematical calculations and case study were used. Within the research the most significant factors were stressed. During the second stage, the case study was carried out to validate the research results in specific companies. Comparison between medium-size companies was made. It is important, that in case Latvian company (A capital holders are Latvian entrepreneurs and capital holders of Lithuanian company (B are international. Scientific aim: To distinguish organizational culture’s factors that have an impact on organizational climate’s change. Findings: The results of the research confirmed that during the period of changes organizational culture has an impact on organizational climate through specific factors. Theoretical model how change organizational culture impacts organizational climate is developed. Research showed that stability, job satisfaction, team
Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren
To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hull-Blanks, Elva; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Befort, Christie; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura
The relationships of four types of career goals (job related, school related, value related, and unknown) with factors of school retention, academic performance, self-esteem, educational self-efficacy, and school and career commitment are studied among 401 first-semester college freshmen. Differences in types of goals based on gender are also…
Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.
This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…
Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain
This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.
Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affa...
Liderazgo estratégico en el sector de las relaciones públicas en España. Características, retos, factores culturales y estructurales / Strategic leadership in public relations in Spain. Characteristics, challenges, cultural and structural factors
Cristina Navarro Ruiz
Full Text Available El liderazgo en relaciones públicas y gestión de comunicación desempeña un papel determinante en el éxito de las organizaciones, especialmente de aquellas que actúan dentro de un contexto económico global, dinámico y altamente competitivo (ej. Meng, 2013; Berger & Meng, 2010; Berger & Reber, 2006; Berger, Reber & Heyman, 2007; Werder & Holzhausen, 2009. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones han abordado un tema que también influye directamente en el desarrollo profesional de los comunicadores y en el futuro de la disciplina (Beger & Reber, 2006. Este artículo analiza los principales desafíos que afrontan los profesionales de las relaciones públicas en España, los factores culturales y estructurales que favorecen u obstaculizan la función de comunicación y los rasgos personales más importantes para desempeñar un liderazgo excelente, tanto en la actualidad como en el futuro. Utilizando metodología cualitativa, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a líderes de relaciones públicas españoles, se profundiza en el controvertido y complejo concepto de liderazgo. Esta investigación forma parte de un proyecto internacional desarrollado en 23 países, promovido por el Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations de la Universidad de Alabama y financiado por IBM y Heyman Associates en Estados Unidos.
Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W.
Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies. PMID:26348930
Golden, C J
Cross-cultural personality research has generated a great amount of data on individual difference patterns in diverse cultures. One of the major instruments used in this research has been Cattell's 16PF. A major question in this research is whether the underlying personality structure is equivalent for different cultures. The present study evaluated the second order factor structure of the 16PF in 101 subjects of European ancestry and 117 subjects of Japanese ancestry. The factor structure for the Japanese was significantly different from that of the caucasian group. The caucasian results did not differ from those reported by Cattell and his associates. The implications of these results for personality theory and for cross-cultural evaluation were briefly discussed.
Wilson, O M
Three definitions of 'normal' are recognized: the normative or ideal, the average or statistical, and the medical or freedom from illness. We still retain from our historical past the notion that mental or emotional illness bespeaks, if not possession by spirits, at least an irreversible condition. A person who has once sought medical treatment for mental sickness is forever after viewed as suspect, as one who may relapse at any time. The modern norm of reason, as against unreason, reinforces distaste for mental illness. The withdrawal of the Eagleton candidacy in 1972 attests that our society is not yet ready to accept mental illness as treatable and curable. To aspire to the presidency or other high office is probably not 'normal' in the sense of not being 'average', and it is entirely possible that the norm of adaptive behavior is incongruent with ambition and exceptional ability. Should the eligibility requirement for leadership then be 'normal' in the sense of free from illness? Abraham Lincoln was subject to periods of acute depression, Winston Churchill was to a degree manic-depressive, and Woodrow Wilson suffered a series of 'nervous breakdowns' before serving as President. History has vindicated the mental ability and leadership qualities of these men. By modern psychiatric criteria for mental health, many creative scientists and artists would be considered abnormal. On the other hand, the concept of normalcy has recently been used to rationalize political misbehavior. Is it possible, then, to develop a viewpoint of 'normal' that is consistent with our culture, and yet at the same time is broad enough to encompass the uncommon?
In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors....
Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.
Background and purpose: This study explores the issues of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of a sample of Canadian and Chinese adolescents' experiences and possible culture differences related to bullying and cyberbullying. Sample: Two sets of data were collected in Canada and China. In…
Köster, Moritz; Cavalcante, Lilia; Vera Cruz de Carvalho, Rafael; Dôgo Resende, Briseida; Kärtner, Joscha
This cross-cultural study investigates how maternal task assignment relates to toddlers' requested behavior and helping between 18 and 30 months. One hundred seven mother-child dyads were assessed in three different cultural contexts (rural Brazil, urban Germany, and urban Brazil). Brazilian mothers showed assertive scaffolding (serious and…
Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth
A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles PMID:25297866
Washington, Anita C.
Compares changes in birth rates, sexual activity, abortion rates, illegitimate births, and incidence of giving babies up for adoption among White and Black adolescents and explores social and cultural influences on the racial differences. Presents suggestions for culturally related interventions in the area of teenage pregnancy. (Author/MJL)
Tucker, Catherine; Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Trepal, Heather C.
Young adolescents (ages 11-14), typically in the middle school grades, face life tasks involving connections and belonging with their peer group along with the development of their individual identity (Henderson & Thompson, 2010). Learning to negotiate through these developmental tasks, they face myriad relational challenges. This article explores…
de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A
School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public University Students in South-West, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2017) > ... The study specifically investigates the school organizational climate, curriculum ...
Endrass, Birgit; Nakano, Yukiko; Lipi, Afia Akhter
Small talk can be used in order to build a positive relationship towards a virtual character. However the choice of topics in a conversation can be dependent on social backgrounds such as culture. In this paper, we explore culture-related differences in small talk for the German and Japanese...... cultures. Based on findings from the literature and verified by a corpus analysis, we integrated prototypical German and Japanese small talk conversations into a multiagent system. In evaluation studies conducted in the two target cultures, we investigated whether participants prefer agent dialogs...
In this study, the author examines the relationship between staff perceptions of organizational culture and their work-related attitudes in assisted living. Data were collected from 317 staff in 61 facilities using self-administered questionnaires. Staff who had more favorable perceptions of organizational culture reported greater job satisfaction, coworker satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Among the dimensions of organizational culture, perceptions of teamwork had the strongest influence on satisfaction with coworkers, and perceptions of organizational morale had the strongest influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Those who want to improve staff attitudes should focus on creating organizational cultures that promote teamwork and high organizational morale.
Twyford, Charles William
The convergence of several lines of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic research suggests possible explanations for age-related influences on language acquisition. These factors, which include cognitive development, sociocultural context, affective factors, and language input, can be helpful to language educators. By being alert to the cognitive…
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, caring for patients at the end of life becomes an indicator of the quality of care in a hospital. Nurses are the key people to provide care for dying patients, therefore caring behaviors of nurses could affect the quality of care. To attain and maintain the quality of care at the end of life, factors that contribute to nurses’ caring behaviors for dying patients needs to be addressed.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review factors relating to nurses’ caring behaviors for dying patients from existing literature.Method: Relevant literature from electronic databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, Science direct, OVID, Proquest, and The Cochrane Library during the year 1990-2010, was examined, synthesized, and categorized systematically.Result: The results showed that factors related to a nurse’s caring behavior for a dying patient can be classified into three groups. These include; Nurse’s personal factors, Technological influencing factors and Environmental factors.Conclusion: The three factors related to nurses’ caring behaviors for dying patients in the current review could serve as a valuable database to implement in nursing practice, education and research, in order to achieve quality of end-of-life care.Key words: caring behavior, relating factor, dying patient
retention of students in the Universities. Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student, ... factors and internal efficiency of students in public universities in South-West, Nigeria. Purpose of the Study ..... Indicators of efficiency. & effectiveness in elementary & secondary education spending.
Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Cunningham, Claude H.
The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) and the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF) were administered to 395 undergraduate teachers-in-training. The MTAI and the 16PF contained three related factors accounting for 41 percent of their total variance. It was concluded that teachers' attitudes toward their pupils are determined…
This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories (those based on the value system of one particular country) have become untenable. This concept is illustrated for the fields of leadership, organization, and motivation.© 1983 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1983) 14, 75–89
Cannon, Kristi B.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Gilliam, Billie J.
Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that places emphasis on growth-fostering relationships as building blocks for wellness. This article demonstrates the use of RCT in addressing relational aggression, including cyberbullying, in counseling a group of adolescent girls. The group counselor's…
Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young
This study explored the factors affecting archery performance by calculating their relative importance in Korean archery. This study used the Delphi technique and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After reviewing the literature and collecting data on performance factors in archery, the importance of factors affecting archery performance was calculated by holding meetings with experts (20 archery experts) and conducting confirmatory factor analysis (463 archers) and the AHP (36 archery experts). Performance factors were divided into mental, skill, and fitness categories. Fitness factors affecting performance included "drawing a bow without an arrow," "lower-body weight training," and "upper-body weight training." Skill factors affecting performance included "extending by maintaining left and right shoulder balance during aiming," "shooting skill over a regular clicker time," "maintaining pace and direction at release," and "drawing skill by maintaining left and right shoulder balance." Mental factors affecting performance were "confidence," "concentration," "emotion control," and "positive thinking." "Confidence" was identified as the most important factor among the 11 subfactors. The performance factors identified in this study and their relative importance in determining successful performance can be used in training for optimal archery performance worldwide.
Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James
Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583
Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie
.... This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship...
Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration is strongly associated with low back pain, a major cause of disability worldwide. An in-depth understanding of IVD cell physiology is required for the design of novel regenerative therapies. Accordingly, aim of this work was the study of IVD cell responses to mitogenic growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic milieu, comprising characteristic molecules of IVD’s extracellular matrix. In particular, annulus fibrosus (AF cells were cultured inside collagen type-I gels, while nucleus pulposus (NP cells in chondroitin sulfate A (CSA supplemented collagen gels, and the effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I were assessed. All three growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis in both AF and NP 3D cell cultures, with potencies similar to those observed previously in monolayers. CSA supplementation inhibited basal DNA synthesis rates, without affecting the response to growth factors. ERK and Akt were found to be phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Blockade of these two signaling pathways using pharmacologic inhibitors significantly, though not completely, inhibited growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. The proposed culture systems may prove useful for further in vitro studies aiming at future interventions for IVD regeneration.
Uzundağ Işeri, Ayşe; Dulkar, Güngör; Selçuk Sönmez, Ozlem; Yilmaz Aydin, Leyla; Yilmaz, Birsen
Directly observation therapy (DOT) has been accepted as the basic method for controlling tuberculosis. The present study aimed to determine the risk factors that affect sputum culture conversion rate in the DOT managed and non-DOT managed hospitalized patients. The study was included 50 cases with positive sputum cultures between the dates April 2001-April 2002 when DOT was not applied and 60 cases between the dates May 2002-May 2003 when DOT was applied. The relation between sputum culture conversion rate and the risk factors of age, gender, cough, hemoptysis, primary drug sensitivity, high initial bacillary load, smoking and alcohol consumption, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and radiological dissemination were determined. In the present study, sputum culture conversion rate was found 68.3% in DOT managed patients, 62% in non-DOT managed patients. In DOT managed and non-DOT managed patients; there was no statistically significant difference between complaints of cough, sputum, night sweating, hemoptysis, DM, bacillary load, primary drug resistance and culture conversion rate. In DOT managed patients; a significant difference was determined between smoking and alcohol consumption and culture conversion rate. The factors determined above as being related with the sputum culture conversion rate were similar with the results of the other studies investigating the same topic. Despite no statistical significance, an increase in the sputum culture conversion rate in DOT managed patients, when compared with non-DOT managed patients was determined.
H. Kaviani; Sagan, Olivia; Pournaseh, M
Aimes: Vocabulary, written or oral, may potentially mirror the attitudes, emotionality, thinking styles, mentality and cultural tendencies among people. This research aimed to scrutinise the emotion-related words (ERWs) vs. the cognition-related words (CRWs) of three Persian dictionaries (namely, Moeen, Amid and Moaser), exploring cultural differences in terms of positive/negative and somatic/non-somatic aspects. Method: All entries in these three dictionaries were scrutinised by three indepe...
Manzano, V M; Puyol, M R; Puyol, D R; Cazaña, F J
Age-related progressive glomerular sclerosis in the rat is associated with increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-beta1 and increased protein content in the renal cortex, enhanced production of H2O2, in both renal glomeruli and mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from them, as well as augmented glomerular oxidative damage. We have previously shown that tretinoin-treated old male Fischer 344 rats have 30% lower protein content in the renal cortex than control old rats. Here, we report that this effect may depend on the inhibition of the expression of tumor necrosis factor-beta1, a matrigenic cytokine, and osteopontin, a protein with cell adhesive and chemotactic properties. In addition, we show that tretinoin prevents the cytotoxicity of H2O2 in cultured human MCs by increasing both the catalase activity and the reduced glutathione content, which are dose- and time-dependent changes. These increases were not dependent on each other: when these effects were previously inhibited with 3-amino-1,2,4-atriazole or L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, respectively, tretinoin still induced the increase of the other noninhibited antioxidant defense. An enhanced gene transcription is the most likely mechanism involved in the tretinoin-induced stimulation of MC antioxidant defense systems because 1) preincubation of MCs with actinomycin D or cycloheximide fully abolished it; 2) tretinoin-incubated MCs showed increased levels of catalase mRNA and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (catalytic subunit) mRNA, the latter being the rate-limiting step in de novo reduced glutathione synthesis; and 3) the stability of both mRNA was unchanged by tretinoin. These results show one strategy of protecting renal cells from H2O2-mediated injury based on increasing their antioxidant defenses.
Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark
The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Watanabe, Kota; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yonezawa, Ikuho; Takaso, Masashi; Minami, Shohei; Soshi, Shigeru; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Eijiro; Abe, Katsumi; Takahashi, Masamichi; Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Morio
In addition to genetic factors, environmental and lifestyle factors are thought to play an important role in the onset of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore lifestyle factors related to AIS. This study included 2,759 Japanese female junior high school students who planned a secondary screening after an initial moiré topography screening indicated possible scoliosis. The students and their mothers, or guardians, were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 38 questions about demographic factors, lifestyle-related factors, social factors, household environment, participation in sports, health status, and factors related to the mother's pregnancy and delivery. The questionnaire was completed by 2,747 students (a 99.6% response rate). After excluding students with heart disease, neurological disease, or a congenital vertebral anomaly, 2,600 students were eligible for assessment. After undergoing a secondary screening with standing radiographs of the spine, students were assigned to the normal (control) group if radiographs showed a curve of lifestyle-related factor was significantly associated with AIS. However, AIS was associated with classical ballet training (OR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.75); the odds of AIS developing increased as the child's frequency of training, number of years of experience, and duration of training in ballet increased. The OR for AIS was 1.5 times higher for participants whose mothers had scoliosis. AIS was also associated with a low body mass index (BMI). These associations remained even after mutual adjustment was performed. No association was found between AIS and lifestyle-related factors. However, classical ballet training, a family history of scoliosis, and low BMI may be associated with AIS. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Schuit, A.J.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.
Moderate alcohol consumption is related to reduced risks of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Our goal is to advance our understanding of the associations between stress-related factors and alcohol consumption, using cutoff points for alcohol intake that reflect health benefits rather
van Loon, AJM; Tijhuis, M; Schuit, AJ; van Oers, HAM; Surtees, PG; Ormel, J
Moderate alcohol consumption is related to reduced risks of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Our goal is to advance our understanding of the associations between stress-related factors and alcohol consumption, using cutoff points for alcohol intake that reflect health benefits rather
Construction labour productivity has continued to be researched into because of its importance in nations' economy. This study assesses and compares the relative effects of project-related factors on construction labour productivity in Bayelsa State of Nigeria from the perspectives of building craftsmen and project ...
Heinz, Stefan; Braspenning, Joris
An important function of the liver is the synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factors. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Here, we describe methods for the detection and quantification of most blood coagulation factors in hepatocytes in vitro. Hepatocyte cultures indeed provide a valuable tool to study blood coagulation factors. In addition, the generation and expansion of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells may be used in future for cell-based therapies of liver diseases, including blood coagulation factor deficiencies.
J. Y. Hanas
Full Text Available Crosscultural communication relates to particular phenomenon in two or more cultures and has an additional value for communicative competence comparison of different cultures representatives. The realization of communicative competence capacity is culturally conditioned, in addition, it also caused by unique individual experience of person. Intercultural communication became one of the most urgent issues of humanity in modern society. Study of intercultural communication becomes increasingly important in recent years due to globalization. Features of intercultural communication are studied within the sciences such as philosophy, linguistics, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, anthropology, ethnology, cybernetics, and an interdisciplinary process. Intercultural communication as a social phenomenon was called to the practical needs of the postwar world, reinforced by ideological interest, which of the early twentieth century was formed in academia and in the public mind for the different cultures and languages. The study of intercultural communication is a result of rapid economic development of many countries and regions, revolutionary changes in technology associated with this globalization of economic activity. On the level of historical evolutionary approach to the development of complex systems tolerance phenomenon could not be reduced to everyday perspective of tolerance. Tolerance is works as cultural norm and as a civilization principle. A key feature of tolerance as long as multiculturalism is support of complex systems diversity. Tolerance also provides a right of each individual to be a different personality. The concept of tolerance is understood as a norm that provides a balance opposing sides and the possibility of dialogue of various world views, religions and cultures. Initial thesis that each person is a unique individual and unlike the others, is characterized by different manifestations of their own individuality, is the
Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope
In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028
Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…
Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Young, Isaac F; Stewart, Sheridan A
Social scientists have studied human behavior from the dramaturgical perspective (DP), through which society is viewed as an elaborate play or game in which individuals enact different roles. The DP is more than a theoretical construct; members of individualist, secular societies occasionally adopt the DP with relation to their own lives. The current research examined the consequences of adopting the DP for evaluations of the self and conceptions of reality at large. Study 1 examined the attitudinal correlates of DP endorsement to test our claim that the DP is situated in an ideological context of individualism and secular modernism. Supporting our claim that the DP invalidates external information about the self's value, in Studies 2A and 2B individuals endorsed the DP to a greater extent after a self-esteem threat, and Studies 2C and 3 showed that exposure to the DP (but not a direct system threat) buffered self-esteem threats. Examining moderators of the DP's influence on self-esteem, Study 4 showed that taking the DP with regard to the ultimate value (vs. concrete experience) of a social role decreased self-esteem and investment in that role. Studies 5A and 5B examined the DP's consequences for perceived moral objectivism. Adopting the DP decreased moral objectivism and moralization of various behaviors but not when the intrinsic self was dispositionally or situationally salient. The latter finding suggests that although contemporary individuals can and occasionally do adopt a reflective stance toward their place within social reality, they nevertheless continue to believe in a true, core self that transcends that precarious drama.
Wong, L P
In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.
Park, Young Hyun; Gong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Gil Ah; Choi, Jun Hee; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jeong Mook
This study was conducted to evaluate if mouse preantral follicles can yield developmentally competent oocytes following culture in serum-free, defined medium. Donor follicles were obtained from 14-day-old B6CBAF1 mice, and cultured in α-MEM-Glutamax medium. The replacement of fetal bovine serum with knockout serum replacement (KSR) did not significantly reduce follicle growth or oocyte maturation in vitro, although it significantly reduced the development of oocytes after activation. Regardless of the replacement medium, follicle growth was not influenced by the addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The addition of 100 ng/ml stem cell factor (SCF) to the KSR-supplemented serum-free medium significantly stimulated follicle development, which further improved blastocyst formation after oocyte activation. On Day 3 of culture, a significant increase in Bmp7 expression was detected in the SCF-containing medium compared with the serum-containing medium, whereas Gdf9 and Amh were increased in the serum-containing medium. A significant increase in estradiol production was detected under serum-free conditions, but minimal progesterone secretion was detected throughout the culture period. In conclusion, serum-free media can be used to optimize ovarian follicle cultures, and the addition of SCF is beneficial for deriving developmentally competent oocytes through follicle culture. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neira Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael
Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...
Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Miranda, Regina
Culturally related experiences are seldom considered in assessing risk for suicidal behavior among emerging adults, despite racial/ethnic differences in suicide attempts. The present study examined the impact of culturally related stressors on hopelessness, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation-well-known predictors of suicidal behavior-among emerging adults over time, and whether hopelessness would mediate the relation between culturally related stressors and both depression and ideation. An ethnically diverse sample of 143 emerging adults, ages 18 to 25, completed self-report measures of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms at 1 time point, and self-report measures of ethnic identity, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation 2 to 3years later. Higher baseline acculturative stress and perceived discrimination predicted hopelessness, but not symptoms of depression, when entered simultaneously into a regression analysis. However, there was an indirect relation between these culturally related stressors and depressive symptoms through hopelessness. There was also a direct relation between acculturative stress at baseline and suicidal ideation at follow-up, and hopelessness mediated this relation. However, the indirect relations between culturally related stressors and depression and suicidal ideation through hopelessness were only present at low levels of ethnic identity, but not at average or high levels of ethnic identity. Acculturative stress and perceived discrimination may thus increase vulnerability to depression and suicidal ideation to the extent that they increase hopelessness, but a strong ethnic identity may buffer against this relation. This study highlights the need for incorporating culturally related experiences in assessing risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, particularly among emerging adults from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Weitz, C A; Pawson, I G; Weitz, M V; Lang, S D; Lang, A
Surveys were undertaken to study the fertility of Sherpa and Tibetan women living at altitudes over 3400 meters in Nepal. 2 teams independently collected demographic data during 1970 and 1971. Of all women who reported their ages to be 15 years and older, 348 (37.0%) provided menarchial data, 294 (31.2%) related the age at which they first became pregnant, and 420 (44.6%) replied to questions on the number of live births, neonatal deaths, infant deaths, child deaths, and the number of living children. The average completed fertility (4.77 live births) and estimated crude birthrate (31-33/1000) are low relative to low altitude peasant populations as well as to high altitude Andean peasants. Environmental phenomena (hypoxia, iodine deficiency) may be associated with retarded menarchial age and high infant mortality, but the major factors causing the low fertility seem to be cultural rather than environmental. Traditional ceremonial requirements delay the age at marriage until the mid or late twenties. Male and female celibacy is promoted by religious practices. Migrant females and women married to migrant males report reduced fertility. This is possibly due to poor nutrition and health care. Nonmigrant women living in villages participating extensively in the cash economy have greater access to the growing market economy, health care, and education and report higher numbers of live births and fewer child deaths.
Denton, Ellen-ge; Chaplin, William F.; Wall, Melanie
The present study addresses teacher burnout and in particular cultural differences and similarities in burnout. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory Education Survey (MBI-ES) as the starting point for developing a latent model of burnout in two cultures; Jamaica W.I. teachers (N= 150) and New York City teachers (N= 150). We confirm a latent 3 factor structure, using a subset of the items from the MBI-ES that adequately fit both samples. We tested different degrees of measurement invariance (model fit statistics, scale reliabilities, residual variances, item thresholds, and total variance) to describe and compare cultural differences. Results indicate some differences between the samples at the structure and item levels. We found that factor variances were slightly higher in the New York City teacher sample. Emotional Exhaustion (EE) was a more informative construct for differentiating among teachers at moderate levels of burnout, as opposed to extreme high or low levels of burnout, in both cultures. In contrast, Depersonalization in the Workplace (DW) was more informative at the more extreme levels of burnout among both teacher samples. By studying the influence of culture on the experience of burnout we can further our understanding of burnout and potentially discover factors that might prevent burnout among primary and secondary school teachers. PMID:25729572
Full Text Available During the last decades, the corporate world has witnessed a significant rise in the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As. In cross border M&As, not only different corporate cultures collide, but also different professional and national cultures. The purpose of Cultural Due Diligence (CDD is to get a coherent image of the intercultural challenges of the M&A in order to be aware of the intercultural risks and opportunities. This article aims to reveal the perception of managers involved in the pre-M&A stage on the soft risks factors that need to be investigated during CDD. This study proposes an appraisal of the most important intercultural issues that need to be considered in M&A. Our contribution to the intercultural aspects of M&A literature consists in improving the current understanding of Cultural Due Diligence content.
Younis, Assiel J; Lerer-Serfaty, Galit; Stav, Dana; Sabbah, Bethsabee; Shochat, Tzippy; Kessler-Icekson, Gania; Zahalka, Muayad A; Shachar-Goldenberg, Michal; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Fisch, Benjamin; Abir, Ronit
The possibility of maturing human primordial follicles in vitro would assist fertility restoration without the danger of reseeding malignancies. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and certain culture matrices may promote human follicular growth. The present study compared human primordial follicular growth on novel culture matrices, namely human recombinant vitronectin (hrVit), small intestine submucosa (SIS), alginate scaffolds and human recombinant virgin collagen bioengineered in tobacco plant lines (CollPlant). The frozen-thawed ovarian samples that were used had been obtained from girls or young women undergoing fertility preservation. In the first part of the study, 20 samples were cultured for 6 days on hrVit or SIS with basic culture medium alone or supplemented with one of two concentrations of LIF (10ngmL-1 and 100ngmL-1), with and without LIF-neutralising antibody. In the second part of the study, 15 samples were cultured for 6 days on alginate scaffolds or CollPlant matrices with basic culture medium. Follicular development was assessed by follicular counts and classification, Ki67 immunohistochemistry and 17β-oestradiol and anti-Müllerian hormone measurements in spent media samples. Primordial follicular growth was not enhanced by LIF. Despite some significant differences among the four matrices, none appeared to have a clear advantage, apart from significantly more Ki67-stained follicles on alginate and CollPlant matrices. Further studies of other culture matrices and medium supplements are needed to obtain an optimal system.
Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.
Suzuki, Keiko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Yukiko; Nojiri, Masami
The purpose of this study was to elucidate factors related to mental health standards of workers dispatched to foreign countries. The subjects were 317 male employees of an electronics company aged between 30 and 49 yr who were first dispatched to North America, Southeast Asia, or Western Europe without movement between the actual locations. A questionnaire survey was conducted on these subjects. Items of investigation consisted of 12 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) items (indices of mental health standards), 4 baseline characteristics (age, assignment period, areas, and types of work), and 37 other items such as sociocultural factors, medical-sanitary factors, work factors, daily lifestyle factors, social support factors, and environmental factors. Multiple regression analysis was performed on the GHQ scores as criterion variables and baseline characteristics and various factors as explanatory variables. As a result, the following factors were correlated with GHQ scores in workers dispatched to foreign countries: inconvenience caused by different manners and customs (beta = 0.256) among sociocultural factors: inability to understand doctor's instructions (beta = 0.129) among medical-sanitary factors: bad relationships with local superiors (beta = 0.229) and the frequency of paid vacation in a year (beta = -0.129) among work factors: taking exercise less than once in a week (beta = 0.141) and smoking habit (beta = 0.136) among daily lifestyle factors, and lack of communication with the family (beta = 0.177), lack of persons to consult with (beta = 0.138), being dispatched alone (beta = 0.119), and lack of cultural exchange with the local community (beta = 0.117) among social support factors. Since social support factors accounted for 4 of the 10 items related to GHQ scores, personal relationships may be important for mental health in workers dispatched to foreign countries.
Watson, Bill; Clarke, Charlotte; Swallow, Vera; Forster, Stewart
This paper presents the exploratory factor analysis of a rating instrument for assessing the strength of organizational Research and Development (R&D) culture. Despite nursing's limited research capacity, the discipline is capitalizing upon opportunities to become involved in research and is making strong progress. Within the context of the debate on nursing research capacity, the R&D Culture Index was developed as a means of appraising R&D culture within health care organizations. Factor analysis was carried out on data collected from 485 nursing staff. The method of extraction was Principal Components Analysis with oblique rotation. The Index was developed from the findings of qualitative research conducted with NHS staff. Eighteen items, encompassing the main themes from the data, were initially included in the Index. This pilot instrument was distributed to nursing staff within three different types of NHS Trust. Factor analysis resulted in rejection of two items and the analysis was repeated using the remaining 16 items. Three latent factors were extracted accounting for 58.0% of the variance in the data. The factors were: R&D Support, describing the perceived support within the working environment for R&D activity; Personal R&D Skills and Aptitude, describing an individual's perception of their ability towards R&D activity; and Personal R&D Intention, describing an individual's willingness to engage in R&D activity. Each factor had good internal reliability, as did the overall index. The R&D Culture Index provides an efficient means of assessing the strength of an organization's R&D culture in a way that captures the role of the individual practitioner and the organizational environment. These findings suggest that the continuing promotion of R&D within health care organizations is dependent upon a multi-faceted approach that addresses the learning needs of the organization as well as those of the individual practitioners.
O. V. Krasnokutskyi
Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.
Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mixed lymphocyte culturing has led to conflicting opinions regarding the selection of donors for bone marrow transplantation. The association between a positive mixed lymphocyte culture and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is unclear. The use of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte cultures could be an alternative for increasing the sensitivity of culture tests. OBJECTIVE: To increase the sensitivity of mixed lymphocyte cultures between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA identical siblings, using exogenous cytokines, in order to predict post-transplantation GVHD and/or rejection. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients with hematological malignancies and their respective donors selected for bone marrow transplantation procedures. PROCEDURES: Standard and modified mixed lymphocyte culturing by cytokine supplementation was carried out using donor and recipient cells typed for HLA. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Autologous and allogenic responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures after the addition of IL-4 or IL-2. RESULTS: In comparison with the standard method, average responses in the modified mixed lymphocyte cultures increased by a factor of 2.0 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 6.4 using IL-2 (p < 0.001, for autologous donor culture responses. For donor-versus-recipient culture responses, the increase was by a factor of 1.9 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 4.1 using IL-2 (p < 0.001. For donor-versus-unrelated culture responses, no significant increase was observed using IL-4, and a mean response inhibition of 20% was observed using IL-2 (p < 0.001. Neither of the cytokines produced a significant difference in the unrelated control versus recipient cell responses. CONCLUSION: IL-4 supplementation was the best for increasing the mixed lymphocyte culture sensitivity. However, IL-4 also increased autologous responses, albeit less
Increasing pressure on managing international teams has created a need for further understanding culturally relevant group processes. In this study, the cultural context of power distance is examined in relation to the status characteristics possessed by group members and their influence on group efficacy estimations and performance. Data obtained from 288 senior managers coming from England, France, Thailand, and the United States were used to test the hypothesis that power distance would moderate the influence of member status on collective decisions made by a group. Results demonstrate that in high power distance cultures, collective judgments of group capability are more strongly tied to higher rather than to lower status group members' personal judgments. In low power distance cultures, members appear to contribute comparably to collective efficacy judgments. The implications of the study are discussed in terms of status differentials and group decision making across cultures. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.
This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…
van der Wal, C. Natalie; Formolo, Daniel; Bosse, Tibor
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. A fire incident at a transport hub can cost many lives. To save lives, effective crisis management and prevention measures need to be taken. In this project, the effect of cultural factors in managing and preventing emergencies in public transport systems
Rosique-Blasco, Mario; Madrid-Guijarro, Antonia; García-Pérez-de-Lema, Domingo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurial skills (such as creativity, proactivity and risk tolerance) and socio-cultural factors (such as role model and businessman image) affect secondary education students' propensity towards entrepreneurial options in their future careers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of…
Wolbers, Kimberly A.
Examines cultural factors affecting black and Hispanic deaf students' achievement, discussing socioeconomic status and single parent families, parent educational levels, non-English speaking environments, inadvertent effects on the deaf child, family view of disability, and parent-school interactions. Notes strategies for developing parents as…
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
Ismail, Maimunah; Umar Baki, Nordahlia
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its…
Ismail, Maimunah; Umar Baki, Nordahlia
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its…
Светлана Сергеевна Пудова
Full Text Available The article reveals directions of using of information and communication technologies in the process of studying medical and biological physics, author assesses situation in higher medical educational institutions of Ukraine and influence of this pedagogical factor on the professional culture of future doctors.
Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The specific aim of this investigation was to map cultural factors associated with aggressive behavior in Latino adolescents. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 481 foreign- and U.S.-born Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona. Structural Equation Modeling was used to validate a conceptual model linking adolescent and…
The issue of maternal mortality has been very topical due to recent focus on sustainable development and because of the fact that maternal mortality is very high in many developing countries. In Nigeria, maternal mortality is very high and one of the highest in the world. There are cultural and social factors that exacerbate ...
International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).
IN THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT A 1965 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO), ON SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTING AND TRANSPLANTING MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND PRACTICES FROM HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS TO DEVELOPING NATIONS ARE STRESSED. AN OUTLINE OF THE ROLE OF THE ILO AND THE…
Cultural Factors And Home – Brewed Alcohol Use In A Rural Community In South Africa. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... tended to be preferred to traditional South African music, while in others the reverse was true i.e. Radio ...
Objective: To investigate socio-cultural factors that influence male involvement in home-based HIV and AIDS care in Western Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Maseno division Western Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fourty eight (248) caregivers selected fromregistered support groups in ...
Hursting, Stephen D.; Berger, Nathan A.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk and worsened prognosis for many types of cancer, but the mechanisms underlying the obesity–cancer progression link are poorly understood. Several energy balance–related host factors are known to influence tumor progression and/or treatment responsiveness after cancer develops, and these have been implicated as key contributors to the complex effects of obesity on cancer outcome. These host factors include leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, reac...
MA Rahimi; Izadi, N.; M Khashij; M Abdolrezaie; F Aivazi
Introduction: Self-efficacy made possible ability to understand patient from conditions and factors influencing health and he/she can decide to improve health and to enforce it. This study was aimed to determine the self-efficacy and related factors in diabetic patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, that was done randomly in diabetic patients referred to diabetes center, information were collected using demographic and questionnaire containing 15 questions about efficacy of glyc...
Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.
Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.
Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K
Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...... as composite risk factor score for CVD. Pearson correlation revealed significant associations between VO(2PEAK) and composite risk factor score in both boys (r = -0.48 P ...
Olivier eLe Guen
Full Text Available In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of ‘chance’, ‘coincidence’ or ‘randomness’ that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000, we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention to Action, Action to Outcome, and Intention to Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like causality are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action to Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law causality. The data suggests that the concept of ‘chance’ is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group.
Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Kahnovich
Full Text Available The article looks at the pedagogical technique of building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at the local and modular level. Interpersonal relations are viewed as the module and art classes as the local level. The research is timely as it can assist in studying the problem of moral development of preschool children by building the culture of interpersonal relations by artistic education means. The study presents novelty concluding from the survey of scientific literature. The process of building the culture of interpersonal relations in children has not been properly studied by preschool pedagogy. The task of the present study is to elaborate a pedagogical technique to build the culture of interpersonal relations between children at art classes. The article discusses ‘technological’ criteria (term by G.K. Selevko and presents interactive principles of the pedagogical technique. Group activities alongside with individual ones were viewed as organizational forms of art classes. Building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes is closely connected with the development of their personality, a child’s consciousness, their motivational and conceptual spheres during their gradual moral development at various levels - emotional (attitude, axiological level, psychic (intentional cognitive processes, activity (artistic and interpersonal literacy. Graphic (projective methods were used to analyze age dynamics of ethical and moral development. The conclusion describes a set of pedagogical conditions for efficient building of the culture of interpersonal relations in children at art classes. Goal. To elaborate a pedagogical technique for building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes. The technique can be applied at local and modular level.Methods and Methodology. The pedagogical technique is aimed at building the culture of interpersonal relations
Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F.
Background Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens’ interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Results Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r=0.52, P=0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (Pheadache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone app to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Discussion Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. PMID:26810775
Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Martins, Mariana Cunha; Shelton, Rachel C; Flórez, Karen R
With the marked increase of the Latino population in the United States during the past 20 years, there has been growing interest in the social, cultural, and structural factors that may impede breast cancer screening among Latino women, especially among those subgroups that have been understudied. Acculturation and fatalism are central cultural constructs in these growing fields of research. However, there is great debate on the extent to which acculturation and fatalism affect breast cancer screening among Latinas relative to other social or structural factors or logistical barriers. Moreover, little theoretical work specifies or tests pathways between social, structural, and cultural determinants of screening. This study tests a theoretical model of social and structural (socioeconomic status and access to health care) and cultural factors (acculturation and fatalism) as correlates of mammography screening among Dominican Latinas, a group that has been understudied. The study expands prior work by examining other factors identified as potential impediments to mammography screening, specifically psychosocial (e.g., embarrassment, pain) and logistical (e.g., not knowing how to get a mammogram, cost) barriers. Interview-administered surveys were conducted with 318 Latinas from the Dominican Republic aged 40 years or older. Fatalistic beliefs were not associated with mammogram screening. Greater acculturation assessed as language use was associated with decreased screening. The strongest predictor of decreased screening was perceived barriers. Results highlight the importance of assessing various self-reported psychosocial and logistical barriers to screening. Possible avenues for screening interventions include intensifying public health campaigns and use of personalized messages to address barriers to screening. Results add to a limited body of research on Dominicans, who constitute the fifth largest Latino group in the United States. © 2015 Society for Public
Terzioglu, Fusun; Temel, Safiye; Uslu Sahan, Fatma
To identify relationships among variables affecting nurses' performance and productivity, namely professional attitudes, organisational culture, organisational justice and exposure to mobbing. The determination of the factors affecting performance and productivity is important for providing efficient nursing services. These factors have been investigated in the literature independently, but the relationship among them has not been clearly identified. This cross-sectional questionnaire study included 772 nurses working in a University Hospital accredited by Joint Commission International. The professional attitude score of the nurses was high (4.35 ± 0.63). However, their organisational justice (2.22 ± 1.26) and organisational culture (2.47 ± 0.71) scores were low. Nurses were subjected to mobbing at a high level (0.82 ± 0.78). As the organisational justice increased, the organisational culture increased and the mobbing decreased. As the organisation culture decreased, the mobbing increased. There was a positive correlation between organisation culture and organisational justice of the nurses and a negative correlation with mobbing. The results of the study are essential for improving nurses' performance and productivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thijs, Gerard D.; van den Berg, Ed
Over a wide range of subject areas students exhibit persistent conceptions contrary to the prevailing scientific concepts. The same alternative conceptions in physics are reported to exist across many countries, within a variety of cultural and environmental contexts. Also, many alternative conceptions show striking similarities with difficulties encountered in the historical development of physics. What is the reason for these similarities? Is intuitive science learned or triggered? And, if similar brain structures are responsible for common-sense theories, in what way then are cultural factors still important in the teaching-learning process? The influence of cultural factors will be discussed on the basis of literature available on this topic. Data collected by the authors in the Netherlands, Indonesia and countries in Africa are also taken into consideration. A distinction is proposed between alternative conceptions some of which may be universal and some dependent on culture. The same distinction is made regarding ways of reasoning and epistemology. It is suggested that the effectiveness of methods for the remediation of alternative conceptions is strongly influenced by cultural aspects of the teaching-learning process.
Toffle, Mary Ellen
International relations professionals need cross-cultural competence and English language communication skills to function in the international arena (Graddol 1997). English language communication skills are necessary not only to communicate with foreign colleagues (Bocanegra-Valle 2014) but also to access the vast amount of knowledge transmitted in English over the internet (Ku, Zussman 2010). This work reports the use of CLIL and cross-cultural training in the University o...
Zayas, Luis H.; Pilat, Allyson M.
We posit that the high rates of suicidal behavior by teenage Hispanic females reported in large-scale surveys can be understood as a cultural phenomenon, a product of specific elements of the history, tradition, ideology, or social norms of a particular society, and that treatment interventions must take family and cultural factors into consideration. For over a decade, surveys have reported that among ethnic and racial minority youth in the United States, Latinas have the highest rates of suicidal behavior compared to African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent females. However, other research shows that the psychological profiles of suicidal Latina adolescent girls and the risk factors for Latina suicidal behavior may not be that different from non-Hispanic suicidal adolescent females. The unique situation of adolescent Latinas involves the convergence of cultural and familial factors (i.e., familism, acculturation, relatedness, autonomy, etc.) with the developmental, social, and individual factors frequently associated with suicidal behaviors. Based on this background, family-oriented interventions appear to be the most appropriate approach to the prevention and treatment of Hispanic suicidal girls. Factors implicated in Latina suicidal behavior and community-based interventions that include the adolescent and her family are suggested. PMID:18611132
Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo
Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...
Xie, Ying; Peng, Minggang
Using the zero-inflated model and nationally representative sample data from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2013, this study systematically explored the effects of religion, modernizing factors, and traditional culture on attitudes toward homosexuality in China. The findings indicate that most Chinese people generally hold conservative attitudes toward homosexuality, as approximately 78.53% of the respondents believed that "same-sex sexual behavior is always wrong." Modernizing factors (i.e., education, exposure to Internet information, and liberal inclinations) predicted greater tolerance for homosexuality, whereas Islamic beliefs negatively influenced respondents' attitudes toward homosexuality. In contrast to the findings of the existing literature, Christian beliefs and traditional culture did not have significant effects on attitudes toward homosexuality. These findings may contribute to the literature by not only quantitatively testing the applicability of several factors identified in most Western studies of this topic but also providing new knowledge of attitudes toward homosexuality in the social context of China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts, religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334 and women (n = 339 aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Results Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively, but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI 0.40-1.46. In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%. This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24 could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. Conclusions The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first
Hosper, Karen; Nicolaou, Mary; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien
The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts), religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334) and women (n = 339) aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively), but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education) of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI) 0.40-1.46). In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%). This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24) could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first generation women. Further research is necessary to elucidate
Full Text Available Antlers as a potential model for bone growth and development have become an object of rising interest. To elucidate processes explaining how antler growth is regulated, in vitro cultures have been established. However, until now, there has been no standard method to cultivate antler cells and in vitro results are often opposite to those reported in vivo. In addition, many factors which are often not taken into account under in vitro conditions may play an important role in the development of antler cells. In this study we investigated the effects of the antler growth stage, the male individuality, passaged versus primary cultures and the effect of foetal calf serum concentrations on proliferative potential of mixed antler cell cultures in vitro, derived from regenerating antlers of red deer males (Cervus elaphus. The proliferation potential of antler cells was measured by incorporation of (3H thymidine. Our results demonstrate that there is no significant effect of the antler growth stage, whereas male individuality and all other examined factors significantly affected antler cell proliferation. Furthermore, our results suggest that primary cultures may better represent in vivo conditions and processes occurring in regenerating antlers. In conclusion, before all main factors affecting antler cell proliferation in vitro will be satisfactorily investigated, results of in vitro studies focused on hormonal regulation of antler growth should be taken with extreme caution.
Full Text Available Learning less commonly taught languages (LCTLs such as Japanese can be challenging for American students. Due to the difficulty of learning LCTLs, more effort is required of the learners to become proficient as compared to European languages. Motivation contributes to the learners’ academic success. In the socio-cultural perspective, the learners’ cultural background mediates their cognitive process. This study examines the motivational differences and similarities among two culturally diverse groups of high school learners of Japanese: Asians excluding Japanese-Americans and non-Asians. One hundred forty two students completed a survey. Factor analysis yielded six factors: integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, intrinsic motivation (doing activities for enjoyment, self-efficacy (a belief in one’s ability to succeed, goal specificity, and goal strategy. The motivational differences were confirmed in intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for LCTL teachers suggest practical steps that can be taken on motivational factors that influence students from different cultural backgrounds.
This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in primary care. The results suggested that gender at the health system level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in primary care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed.
Angelo Luis Caron
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer offers several advantages over other gene delivery vectors when considering gene and cell therapy applications. However, using these therapies in clinical applications involves large-scale vector production in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Here we describe a high yield production of a lentivirus encoding recombinant factor VIII in a scalable and GMP-compliant culture system, based on serum free suspension cultures and transient transfection with an inexpensive reagent, polyethylenimine (PEI, reaching a total viral yield of 2.48x108 particles.
Fan, Tingjun; Jin, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaofeng
Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on cartilage cells from proboscis of skate, Raja porasa Günther, were investigated in this study. The cartilage cells were cultured in 20% FBS-supplemented MEM medium at 24°C. Twelve hours after culture initiation, the cartilage cells were treated with bFGF and IGF-II at different concentration combinations. It was found that 20 ng/ml of bFGF or 80 ng/ml of IGF-II was enough to have obvious stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. Test of bFGF and IGF-II together, revealed that 20 ng/ml of bFGF and 80 ng/ml of IGF-II together had the best stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. The cartilage cells cultured could form a monolayer at day 7.
The aim in this research was to determine how endogenous factors such as gender, intelligence, self-concept, and personality relate to the eating habits of adolescents. An empirical investigation was conducted using 340 secondary school learners, 162 boys and 178 girls. From the results it appeared that girls tend to have ...
Nealey, Stanley M.
This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…
This meta-analysis is the first to estimate the population prevalence of MetS and its related factors among adults in Palestine. Methods: A PRISMA systematic search appraisal and meta-analysis were conducted. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar was conducted in December 2014 up to ...
Background: Patient related factors hindering optimal blood pressure (BP) control in patients with hypertension are unclear. Objectives: To investigate the barriers to optimal hypertension management. Methods: A survey on the awareness and management of hypertension was conducted in 556 patients (365 males, mean ...
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...
Stanton, C.M.; Yates, J.R.W.; Hollander, A.I. den; Seddon, J.M.; Swaroop, A.; Stambolian, D.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Yu, Y.; Atsuhiro, K.; Branham, K.; Othman, M.; Chen, W.; Kortvely, E.; Chalmers, K.; Hayward, C.; Moore, A.T.; Dhillon, B.; Ueffing, M.; Wright, A.F.
Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
Where much is known about the consequences of spinal and low back pain (LBP) during military deployments, there is lesser knowledge of risk factors for LBP among the deployed forces. The objective of this study was to identify deployment-related exposures associated with LBP. The study...
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Abstract. Background: The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effec- tively reintegrated back into the community. Objectives: The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian ...
Background: The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. Objectives: The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling ...
Artificial insemination (AI) could be cost-effective in reducing breeding inefficiency that constrains Kenya's dairy production. This study examined factors related to AI use and sought to determine the relationship between AI use and farmers' personal characteristics, their experiences with AI and AI-service situation.
This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...
Background: This study examined maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal mortality over a multi-year period from de-identified retrospective medical records at Nyakahanga Designated District Hospital in north-western Tanzania. The study aimed to examine factors related to maternal mortality (MMR) and morbidity in ...
Relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course of study and resources availability to Students use of University .... and it is gaining more prominence nowadays that the nature of information in the libraries is ... information and communication technology (ICT) facilities available in most university libraries ...
Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel
Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…
Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of procurement related factors of procurement selection criteria, tendering methods and variation orders on project performance. Purpose of the study is to ...
Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) represent a significant occupational problem among road construction workers. This study conducted a prevalence and symptom survey of WRMDs among road construction workers in a Nigerian community and its relationship with risk factors over a twelve month period.
Ersoy, L.; Ristau, T.; Lechanteur, Y.T.E.; Hahn, M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Kirchhof, B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Fauser, S.
Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD
Objective: The slow discharge of long-term psychiatry patients from Weskoppies Hospital into the community has not matched the national and international drive towards deinstitutionalisation. This article investigates patient and social work factors related to successful community placement, in the context of limited ...
Assessment of demographic, health and nutrition related factors to a school performance among school children in Arb-Gebeya Town, Tach-Gaynt Woreda, South Gondar, Ethiopia. ... The prevalence of underweight (BMI value below the 5th percentile) in the area was 30(5%) in all age groups.The mean of the students' ...
Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I
Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.
Safari, Manouchehr; Ghahari, Laya; Zoroufchi, M D Babak Hossein Zadeh
Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Growth Hormone (GH) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pups (10 days). Cultured in media with different concentration of GH, PDGF and EGF separately. The proliferation of cells was evaluated by the method of MTT and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Proliferation of keratinocytes was significantly higher in experimental groups than in control group. EGF maximally stimulated at 10 and 25 ng mL(-1). PDGF-BB maximally stimulated at 50 ng mL(-1), respectively. And maximal stimulation of GH was 2.5 IU L(-1). GH, PDGF-BB and EGF stimulate keratinocyte cells proliferation in different concentration. These growth factors could play in healing of the skin.
Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hessels, Amanda J; Murray, Meghan; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine L
Children with complex medical needs are increasing in number and demanding the services of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTC), which require a focus on patient safety culture (PSC). However, no tool to measure PSC has been tested in this unique hybrid acute care-residential setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture tool slightly modified for use in the pLTC setting. Factor analyses were performed on data collected from 239 staff at 3 pLTC in 2012. Items were screened by principal axis factoring, and the original structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the best model fit for the pLTC data, and factor reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha. The extracted, rotated factor solution suggested items in 4 (staffing, nonpunitive response to mistakes, communication openness, and organizational learning) of the original 12 dimensions may not be a good fit for this population. Nevertheless, in the pLTC setting, both the original and the modified factor solutions demonstrated similar reliabilities to the published consistencies of the survey when tested in adult nursing homes and the items factored nearly identically as theorized. This study demonstrates that the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture with minimal modification may be an appropriate instrument to measure PSC in pLTC settings. Additional psychometric testing is recommended to further validate the use of this instrument in this setting, including examining the relationship to safety outcomes. Increased use will yield data for benchmarking purposes across these specialized settings to inform frontline workers and organizational leaders of areas of strength and opportunity for improvement.
Choi, Eun Sook; Ha, Yeongmi
Work-related stress and risk factors among Korean employees were identified in this study. Data were obtained from employees aged 20 to 64 using the Korean Working Conditions Survey 2006 (KWCS). Multiple logistic regression analysis using SAS version 9.1 was performed to examine risk factors of work-related stress by gender. The age-adjusted prevalence of work-related stress among male and female employees was 18.4% and 15.1% respectively. After adjustments for multiple variables among both male and female employees, there was a significant relationship between work-related stress and risk factors including education, company size, work time, ergonomic risks, biological.chemical risks, and job demands. The significant variables for male employees were housework load, occupational class, and shift work, and for female employees, type of employment. There is a need to develop and support intensive stress management programs nationally giving consideration to work-related stress associated with working time, physical working environment, and job demands. Based on gender specific approaches, for male employes, stress management programs should be developed with consideration being given to occupational class and shift work. For stress management programs for female employees, consideration needs to be given to permanent employment status, specifically those in small companies.
Bousfield, Rachel; Thyl, Miliya; Samol, Orng; Rithea, Loet; Sona, Soeng; Chhat, Hor Put; Poda, Sar; Moore, Cartin E; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M
Blood cultures are used to confirm a diagnosis of enteric fever but reported sensitivities can be as low as 40%. To determine the factors associated with a negative blood culture in Cambodian children with suspected enteric fever. In a retrospective study of hospitalised Cambodian children given a discharge diagnosis of enteric fever, the following factors associated with a negative blood culture were analysed: age, blood culture volume, prior antibiotic therapy, duration of illness and disease severity. In 227 hospitalised Cambodian children with a discharge diagnosis of enteric fever, it was confirmed in 70% by a positive blood culture. There was no association between a negative blood culture and younger age, lower blood volumes for culture, prior antibiotic therapy, a late presentation or milder disease. Although blood culture sensitivity was higher than expected, alternative simple, rapid and sensitive tests are needed for diagnosing enteric fever.
Smith, Timothy B.; Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele...
Pfister, H D
Starting with some basic facts about the gyromagnetic factor g in Maxwell's theory, we review the special role played by a g factor g=2 in quantum mechanics and elementary particle physics, and we draw attention to the same value g=2 for the black holes and many other (electro-)vacuum solutions of general relativity. We strengthen and extend this special role of g=2 in general relativity by considering a class of slowly rotating, charged mass shells, showing that the black-hole value g=2 is extremely robust. Therefrom, we advance the hypothesis that the coincidence between these preferred g values signifies a deep common root of quantum theory and general relativity.
that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...
Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel
Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy. Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge. The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions. Despite the fact that pharmacological
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explain about the effective social–cultural factor on the drug–addicted women. In other word, we try to answer this question, which of the social–cultural factor are effective to drugs. Method: Different and new approach of this paper is study together on the effective social–cultural factors on the drug–addicted women. Results: Hypothesis has resulted from six dominant theoretical perspectives. these hypothesizes are based on Agnew’s general stain theory, sutherland’s learning theory, Kohen’s Delinquent subcultural, show and Mckay’s ecological theory, Hir schi’s social control theory, Independent variables included women information, family disintegrated, availability of drugs, addiction of family member, peer groups, parents observation, marriage women position, training parents, training spouse and training addicted women. Conclusion: This is a survey research. The data collected by questionnaire and interview. The sample size was 100 people from drug– addicted women of chitgar camp. Having gathered the data spss soft wares are used for data processing according to deceptive and inferential statistic like person and spearman. the result show that women information, family disintegrated, availability of drug, addiction of family member, training women and training parents as affective factors on women’s addiction.
Dimberg, Y. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Aspberg, A.; Tottmar, O. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology)
The effects of exogenously added nerve growth factor (NGF) on reaggregation cultures of foetal rat brain cells after X-irradiation with 2 Gy were studied. Irradiation caused decreased protein and DNA levels, which was not prevented by NGF. The activities of the cholinergic marker enzymes choline acetyl transferase and acetylcholine esterase were increased in irradiated cultures. However, no difference in the activities of these enzymes was found between irradiated and unirradiated NGF-treated cultures. Irradiation did not affect the activity of the marker enzyme for oligodendrocytes (2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase), but caused an increase in the astrocyte marker (glutamine synthetase) activity. This effect on astrocytes was prevented by NGF. (Author).
Prier Lindvig, Katrine; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Henriksen, Daniel P
.6 (95% CI 3.6-6.0)], at least two organ failure [HR 3.6 (2.9-4.5)], bacteraemia [HR 1.4 (1.1-1.8)], Charlson Comorbidity Index of at least 2 h [HR 1.7 (1.3-2.0)], SIRS [HR 1.5 (1.2-1.7)], a history of alcohol dependency [HR 1.7 (1.3-2.3)] and late drawing of blood cultures 24-48 h after arrival [HR 1......, bacteraemia, Charlson Comorbidity Index of at least 2, SIRS, a history of alcohol dependency and late drawing of blood cultures.......BACKGROUND: Early identification and treatment of patients with severe infection improve their prognosis. The aims of this study were to describe the 30-day mortality and to identify prognostic factors among blood-cultured patients in a medical emergency department (MED). PATIENTS AND METHODS...
Work-related rehabilitation has for several years been gaining greater importance in orthopaedic rehabilitation. High-quality studies have confirmed that work-related medical rehabilitation has favourable effects on earning capacity and work-life participation. This does however not hold true for all work-related rehabilitation programmes. In this context, 5 theses concerning success factors of work-related medical rehabilitation are developed. It is set out that the effects of work-related medical rehabilitation on work ability and work-life participation can be improved if programmes realize a needs-oriented assignment, include cognitive-behavioural components, follow a multimodal approach, step up treatment intensity, and if treatments are manualized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria
Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.
Jue, Joshua S; Ramasamy, Ranjith
There are currently no WHO guidelines on the indications for semen culture; however, semen cultures are performed in the evaluation of male infertility and the assisted reproductive technology (ART) process. The relevance and significance of positive semen cultures is widely debated in the literature, with no current consensus on the usefulness of this test in relation to male infertility. We review the pathogenic mechanisms of potentially pathogenic bacteria, general bacteria, urethral flora, and skin flora on sperm parameters. We also present, possible routes of semen contamination, measures to reduce contamination, and the clinical significance of culture contamination. First, it is critical to distinguish round cells in semen as leukocytes from immature germ cells. Second, it is critical to distinguish leukocytospermia from infected semen in order to guide management.
Packard, Mark G; Goodman, Jarid
Neurobehavioral evidence supports the existence of at least two anatomically distinct "memory systems" in the mammalian brain that mediate dissociable types of learning and memory; a "cognitive" memory system dependent upon the hippocampus and a "stimulus-response/habit" memory system dependent upon the dorsolateral striatum. Several findings indicate that despite their anatomical and functional distinctiveness, hippocampal- and dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory systems may potentially interact and that, depending on the learning situation, this interaction may be cooperative or competitive. One approach to examining the neural mechanisms underlying these interactions is to consider how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems. The present review examines several such factors, including information compatibility, temporal sequence of training, the visual sensory environment, reinforcement parameters, emotional arousal, and memory modulatory systems. Altering these parameters can lead to selective enhancements of either hippocampal-dependent or dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory, and bias animals toward the use of either cognitive or habit memory in dual-solution tasks that may be solved adequately with either memory system. In many learning situations, the influence of such experimental factors on the relative use of memory systems likely reflects a competitive interaction between the systems. Research examining how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems may be a useful method for investigating how these systems interact with one another. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.
Jéssica Lucinda Saldanha da Silva
Full Text Available The following research isolated and identified the main bacterial groups present in the culture of juvenile Nile tilapia in the presence of bioflocs and/or periphyton. The strains were also tested for the production of exoenzymes, indicative of potential virulence factors, and ability to form biofilm. The water samples were taken from tilapia cultured in the presence of bioflocs (T1, in the presence of bioflocs and periphyton (T2, from traditional culture (T3 and from culture in the presence of periphyton (T4. In the growth and selection of the bacterial groups, pour plate method was used, along with the following media: Plate Count Agar (PCA - DIFCO, Aero Pseudo Selective Agar (GSP - Himedia and Nutrient Agar (AN - Merck. 46 strains were isolated in the following distribution: T1 (n = 12; T2 (n = 10; T3 (n = 14 and T4 (n = 10. Among the isolates, the most frequent genera were: Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Mycobacterium spp., Micrococcus spp., and Corybacterium spp. Bacterial isolates in treatments T1 and T3 tested positive for five virulence profiles each, while those isolated from T2 and T4 for two and three virulence profiles, respectively. Treatments in bioflocs and periphyton (T2 or only periphyton (T4 yielded bacteria of less pathogenic potentials. In relation to the fish growth, T1 and T4 resulted in a higher final weight.
Jeremiah, Rohan D; Quinn, Camille R; Alexis, Jicinta M
This article features a study that explored the presence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood sexual abuse and neglect, among women associated with Partnership for Peace (PfP), the first and only culturally adapted domestic violence diversion program for men in the Eastern Caribbean. Within a multiyear evaluative study that assessed the impact of the PfP intervention in reducing domestic violence in Grenada in the West Indies, life-history interviews were collected from a subsample of women (N=9) associated with men enrolled in the PfP program between 2009 and 2011. We found that the exposure to sexual abuse and neglect during childhood was evident in the histories of the women. Most perpetrators were trusted family or community members who suffered from a common set of behavioral patterns, most prominently alcohol use. Our findings reflect an evidence-based connection, as one causative factor, of a culture of silence that is related to child sexual abuse and its management. The apparent lasting effects of these traumatic childhood exposures reflect cycles of abuse in the life histories collected during the domestic violence evaluation study. Our study identified three key structural deficiencies (insufficient research, ineffective policy, and lack of public-health interventions) and one embedded cultural norm (the culture of silence) that together "inhibit current attempts to address ACEs as a means of curbing domestic violence in the Caribbean." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Rita; Matusitz, Jonathan
In this article the authors apply Relational-Cultural Theory to pet therapy in correctional institutions. An important premise is that when pet therapy is used in prisons a symbiotic relationship develops between pets and prison inmates which, at the same time, improve their relationships with people themselves. Relational-Cultural Theory posits that relationships with individuals are not just a means to an end. Rather, good relationships promote growth and healthy development; they also cultivate reciprocal empathy. Hence, a major reason of suffering for most people is their experience of isolation; healing can occur in growth-fostering relationships.
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.
We present a new view of life style, based on a cognitive perspective, which makes life style specific to certain areas of consumption. The specific area of consumption studied here is food, resulting in a concept of food-related life style. An instrument is developed that can measure food......-related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110......-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining...
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110......-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining...
María Eugenia Nano
Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.
Prompahakul, Chuleeporn; Nilmanat, Kittikorn
Background: Nowadays, caring for patients at the end of life becomes an indicator of the quality of care in a hospital. Nurses are the key people to provide care for dying patients, therefore caring behaviors of nurses could affect the quality of care. To attain and maintain the quality of care at the end of life, factors that contribute to nurses' caring behaviors for dying patients needs to be addressed.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review factors relating to nurses' caring beh...
Cláudia Cristina Vieira Carvalho de Oliveira Ferreira Augusto
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability.METHOD: in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument.RESULTS: the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90.CONCLUSION: the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience.
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gnizy, I.; Baker, W.; Grinstein, A.
Purpose-Although small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a significant portion of international trade, little is known about the role of strategic orientation culture in improving their foreign launch success. Three orientations-market, entrepreneurial, and learning are all related to
Susanto, Tantut; Rahmawati, Iis; Wuryaningsih, Emi Wuri; Saito, Ruka; Syahrul; Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Sugama, Junko
Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.
Kurniawan, Juferdy; Hasan, Irsan; Gani, Rino Alvani; Simadibrata, Marcellus
to obtain survival rate and mortality-related factors of malignant obstructive jaundice patients. all medical records of obstructive jaundice inpatient at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed in terms of mortality: age, gender, sepsis, hypoalbumin, serum bilirubin level, serum CA 19-9 level, billiary drainage, non-ampulla Vateri carcinoma, and comorbid factors. total 181 out of 402 patients were enrolled in this study with male proportion was 58.6%, and patients aged 50 years or above was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that only sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior biliary drainage and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 were independent predictors of mortality. Patients with significant prognostic factors had median survival 14 days compared with overall median survival 26 days. Score ≥2 identified as the highest prognostic score threshold with sensitivity 68%, specificity 75%, and AUC on ROC curve 0.769. sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior bilirary drainage, and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 are factors significantly associated with shortened survival in malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Prognostic score ≥2 was determined to classify patients into high risk mortality group. Mortality of patients with those significant prognostic factors can be predicted in 76.9%.
Lila Indria Depari
Full Text Available Background: Pyoderma is a purulent bacterial infection of the skin. In developing countries, pyoderma is the most common skin disease in children. Pyoderma attacks male more often than female. Factors influencing pyoderma are low socioeconomic level, low education, low personal hygiene and unhygienic house. This study was conducted to assess the relation between risk factors of pyoderma and pyoderma incidence. Methods: This study used cross-sectional study design and was conducted from August–November 2013. The sample collection was done with multistage random sampling, where 196 primary school children in Jatinangor subdistrict were randomly taken to be admitted into this study. The data collection procedure consisted of physical examination and questionnaire filling. The data were statistically analyzed using independent T and chi-square test. Results: Upon examining 196 subjects, four were found with pyoderma. As such, the prevalence of pyoderma on primary school children in Jatinangor in 2013 was 2%. There was relation between personal hygiene and pyoderma incidence (p=0.041. Sex (p=0.623, healthy housing (p=0.097, socioeconomic level (p=0.742 and education level of parents (p=0.989 were not related with pyoderma. Conclusions: Personal hygiene is the risk factor that had relation with incidence of pyoderma.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Bolukbas, Osman; Demirel, Mehmet; Gumeli, Filiz
The objective was to explore the relationship between person-based variables and work-related variables of presenteeism in four different private sector workplaces. Employees (N=413) filled in a questionnaire related to demographic and socio-economic characteristics, social networks, work-related factors, lifestyle factors and state of health. Presenteeism was assessed using the Stanford Presenteeism Scale 6 (SPS-6). The majority of respondents were male (77.2%), and mean age was 34.7±8.1 years. The prevalence of chronic conditions was 15.9%. The mean score for the SPS-6 was 19.9 (SD, 3.3). The female score was higher than the male score on the SPS-6 in this study. Total score was higher among workers who reported working at high speed. SPS-6 score was higher among individuals with a chronic health problem. Understanding of the workplace and personal factors related to presenteeism may support the health and well-being of workers.
Krajčinović, S S; Doronjski, A; Barišić, N; Stojanović, V
False-positive blood cultures findings may lead to a falsely increased morbidity and increased hospital costs. The survey was conducted as retrospective - prospective study and included 239 preterm infants (born before 37 weeks of gestation) who were treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina during one year (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012). The retrospective part of the study focused on examination of incidence of neonatal sepsis and determination of risk factors. In the prospective part of the study infants were sub-divided into two groups: Group 1- infants hospitalized in NICU during the first 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by the "clean technique" and checklists for this procedure were not taken. Group 2- neonates hospitalized in NICU during last 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by "sterile technique" and checklists for this procedure were taken. The main risk factors for sepsis were prelabor rupture of membranes, low gestational age, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation, umbilical venous catheter placement, and abdominal drainage. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were the most frequently isolated microorganisms in false-positive blood samples. Education of employees, use of checklists and sterile sets for blood sampling, permanent control of false positive blood cultures, as well as regular and routine monthly reports are crucial for successful reduction of contamination rates.
Sung, Si Yoon; Kwon, Jong Won [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the variable factors affecting the results of percutaneous needle biopsies for infectious spondylitis. In all, 249 patients who underwent both MRI and percutaneous needle biopsies due to a suspicion of infectious spondylitis were evaluated with respect to the following factors: the usage of antibiotics before the procedure, the location of the biopsy, the guiding equipment used, the experience level of the operators, and the number of biopsies performed. The positivity of culture in cases of treated with antibiotics (16.3%) before the biopsy was lower than in the untreated cases (30.5%) (p = 0.004). Biopsies performed at the abscess (43.5%) and with fluoroscopic guidance (27.8%) showed higher culture positivity as well. The experience level of the operators and the number of biopsies had no effect on culture positivity. The usage of antibiotics before the biopsy, the biopsy's location, and the guiding equipment used affect the culture positivity, while the experience levels of the operators and the number of biopsies do not have an effect.
Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael
Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…
Full Text Available The social factor that has the widest impact on customer's behavior is culture. The aim of this work is that through the elements and dimensions of culture explains habits, customs and tendencies of people in consumption .According to the broad and pervasive nature of culture, its study requires a thorough examination of the character of the entire society, including elements such as language, laws, customs, religion, art, technology, business partners, products and other elements that give the society a distinctive taste. Understanding the similarities and differences among costumers is very important for multinational tenderer. If there is a greater similarity between the costumers they will use similar strategies but if the beliefs and customs are different, then each country uses individual marketing strategy. In international marketing error may occur if the promotional message of a company presents in a language that is not understandable to customers in a given country and which means something completely different and unacceptable by customers. Differences in cultural values can be described in various dimensions - individualism, masculinity, power distance, avoidance of uncertainty and long-term orientation. Market segments in developing countries offer great opportunities but the creation of values in those segments means that the nuances of the culture must be understood.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the co-culture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans (Ca) and C. glabrata (Cg). When using a starting ratio of Ca:Cg of 1:3, a ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increase in biofilm biomass was observed relative to Ca monoculture and a Ca:Cg ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long Ca hyphae and Cg cell clusters in the co-culture biofilms, and qRT-PCR studies showed an increase in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the Ca:Cg 1:3 biofilm compared to Ca monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 Ca:Cg biofilm demonstrated increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a co-culture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE C. albicans and C. glabrata are often co-isolated during infection and the occurrence of co-isolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in pathogenesis. During the course of an infection, the prevalence of each Candida species may change over time due to differences in metabolism and in resistance of each species to
Full Text Available The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be controlled”, “resistance to change”, “perceived risks”, “perceived usefulness”, “perceived ease of use”, and “attitude toward using”, and nine hypotheses have been generated from the connections between these six constructs. Results suggest important practical implications for attitude toward using ERP and to develop an understanding about how to improve this attitude in hospitals.
Full Text Available The integration of cultural elements into the operational planning process is a complex task that requires practical and theroretical tools for a wide comprehension of the context to help solve the problem. This article shows the results of an empirical research which presents conflicting cultural factors as the starting point for the construction of mediating structures. The main result of our research is a partial cognitive structure, a system of ideas, represented in a template listing the basic conflictive factors at the tactical level that military could find in the development of their tasks. The template is also a valuable aid to design military training curricula and to be applied to any post-conflict stability operation in complex environments resulting from irregular or asymmetric conflicts.
Serizawa, A; Ito, K; Algaddal, A H; Eltaybe, R A M
Meeting the health needs of Sudanese women, especially those living in village areas, is imperative and cannot be accomplished without understanding the cultural perceptions and health behaviors related to safe motherhood. Nevertheless, there is little literature exploring these perspectives through qualitative study, as most of the studies performed in Sudan applied quantitative methods and focused on urban areas. This study aims to explore cultural perceptions and behaviors relevant to safe motherhood among Sudanese village women. A qualitative method using an ethnographic approach was applied for the study. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six village women of reproductive age living in a village in Gadarif State, Eastern Sudan. The thematic content analysis revealed socio-economic factors, religious values and local beliefs shaping the village women's perceptions of their behaviors related to motherhood safety. Particular concerns included responses to health problems, preference for birth with traditional birth attendants, female genital mutilation/female genital cutting and a lack of utilizing family planning. An implication arising from this study is that maternal services should develop a collaboration between village midwives and traditional birth attendants. This study further suggests that educational messages must be delivered to family relatives with consideration of the cultural influences highlighted by the village women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freund, Anat; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal
Studies have shown a lower adherence to health behaviors among women in cultural-ethnic minorities and faith-based communities, especially lower screening attendance for the early detection of breast cancer. This study compares factors related to cancer screening adherence in two distinct cultural-ethnic minorities in Israel: Arab women as a cultural-ethnic minority and Jewish ultra-Orthodox women as a cultural-ethnic faith-based minority. During the year 2014, a total of 398 Jewish ultra-Orthodox women and 401 Arab women between the ages of 40-60, were randomly selected using population-based registries. These women answered questionnaires regarding adherence to mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE), health beliefs and cultural barriers. Arab women adhered more than ultra-Orthodox women to mammography (p faith-based communities. In order to increase adherence, health care professionals and policymakers should direct their attention to the specific nature of each community.
Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis
This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.
We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.
Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Jansen, Tessa; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.
Objective Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one’s ‘cultural capital’, as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1) to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2) to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3) to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices. Design We systematically searched large databases for the key-word ‘cultural capital’ in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011. Results The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents’ education completed) and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art) were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills). Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of .654; 56 items), and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices. Conclusions Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in) food choices. PMID:26244763
Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Jansen, Tessa; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J
Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1) to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2) to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3) to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices. We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011. The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed) and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art) were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills). Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items), and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices. Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in) food choices.
Carlijn B M Kamphuis
Full Text Available Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1 to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2 to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3 to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices.We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011.The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills. Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items, and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices.Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in food choices.
Hossein Abdolmaleki; Zahrasadat Mirzazadeh; Ebrahim Alidoust Ghahfarokhhi
One common aspect of all human beings, regardless of education level, income level, location and so on, is that they are all consumers. The key of success in marketing strategy both in terms of local and global aspects is understanding consumer behavior. So aim of this study was to investigate the role of socio-cultural factors on sports consumer behavior. This research was survey- descriptive. The study population were included all sports consumers in Tehran. The sampling method was random. ...
Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.
A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982
Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam
translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application......TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear...
In the article the researches in pedagogy and psychology are analyzed as for problems of preparing young people to create a family, it is emphasized the interdependence of cultural relationships in the family and the level of culture in society in general. Some reasonable grounds are given to the priority of forming the culture of family relations as a direction of family upbringing in the contemporary sociocultural space. Some aspects of forming culture of youth’s family relations are reveal...
Jansen, Bastiaan J. H.; van Ruissen, Fred; Cerneus, Stefanie; Cloin, Wendy; Bergers, Mieke; van Erp, Piet E. J.; Schalkwijk, Joost
Using serial analysis of gene expression we have previously identified the expression of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes in cultured human primary epidermal keratinocytes, including tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis
Sagawa, Keiichiro; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi
It is important for the elderly to maintain their skeletal muscle mass, which in turn helps to maintain physical functions. This study aimed to clarify factors related to skeletal muscle mass maintenance. Home-bound elderly (94 men and 216 women), at least 75 years of age, attending a day-care center in Tokyo, were enrolled in this study. Dentists specializing in dysphagia rehabilitation evaluated skeletal muscle mass, occlusal status and swallowing function. Physical function, cognitive function and nutritional status were also evaluated by interviewing caregivers. Correlations of skeletal muscle mass with various factors were determined in each gender group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that skeletal muscle mass was significantly related to nutritional status in both men and women. In men, there was a significant difference in skeletal muscle mass between those with and without occlusion of the natural teeth. Our results suggest that dental treatments and dentures would be useful for maintaining skeletal muscle mass, especially in men.
Niken Enestasia Anggraini
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis represent disease at most found in the world, including in Indonesia. This disease cause pain in bone and disability at patient so disturb everyday activity. One of removed occurrence of knee Osteoarthritis was obesity. Other factors like age, gender, physical activity, and habit smoke were risk factors of knee Osteoarthritis . This research was the relationship of obesitas and individuals factors with occurrence knee osteoarthritis at Surabaya Islamic Hospital. The methods of this research was an observation with case control design. Level of sampel was 64 which consist of 32 case group and 32 control group from incomed patient to radiology unit Islamic Hospital Surabaya for X-Ray photo. The dependent variable was occurence of knee osteoarthritis . The independent variables were obesity, gender, age, physical activity, habit smoke. The instrument used was a questionnaire and form BMI measurement. Data analysis used Chi-Square test with α=0,05 and to know oods ratio (OR used statclac. The results showed significant relationship between occurence of knee osteoartritis with obesity (p=0,001,OR=7,20, age (p=0,012,OR=3,67 , gender (p=0,005,OR=4,69. For the characteristic of habit smoke (p=0,268,OR=0,56 and physical activity (p=0.919,OR=0,71 were’nt associated with occurence of knee Osteoarthritis at Surabaya Islamic Hospital. The conclusion there is relationship between obesity with knee osteoarthritis at Surabaya Islamic Hospital. Risk factor knee osteoarthritis like gender and age also there were relation with occurence of knee osteoarthritis , for the risk factor of physical activity and habit smoke were’nt relation with occurence of knee osteoarthritis. Keyword : Knee osteoarthritis, obesity, individual factors
Degboe Arnold N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and
Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.
Il n’est sans doute pas de notion aussi vaste et aussi polysémique en sciences sociales que la notion de culture, qui renvoie alternativement à l’ensemble des symboles, des significations, des valeurs et des manières de faire propres à un groupe et au domaine spécialisé des activités expressives, savantes et populaires. La notion de culture est ainsi tout autant mobilisée dans l’exploration des grandes thématiques de la sociologie (stratification, inégalités, institutions, mouvements sociaux)...
Kamiyama, T; Muratani, H; Kimura, Y; Fukiyama, K; Abe, K; Fujii, J; Kuwajima, I; Ishii, M; Shiomi, T; Kawano, Y; Mikami, H; Ibayashi, S; Omae, T
We examined the factors related to the impairment of activities of daily living (ADL). ADL was evaluated by using ADL-20, which consists of 20 items from 4 major categories of activities; mobility, self-care, instrumental, and communication. The patients' gender, birth date, clinical diagnosis, past history, life styles, physical findings, laboratory data, and details of therapy were also recorded. Patients A total of 1,163 outpatients aged 50 years or older were included. Data from 1,093 patients were analyzed. We divided the subjects into two groups; Group I having full marks of ADL-20 (n=582) and group II exhibiting an impairment of ADL (n=511). Multiple logistic analysis revealed that in both sexes age and stroke were common independent factors related to the impairment of ADL. Other factors associated with impairment of ADL were smoking in men and presence of proteinuria in women. The presence of hyperlipidemia was associated with preservation of the ADL in women. The results demonstrated significant associations of smoking in men and the presence of proteinuria in women with the impairment of ADL in elderly Japanese outpatients. There appears to be a sex difference in the risk factors of impairment of ADL.
Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne
Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand...
Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate
Background: In South Africa, the prevalence rate of diabetes is 9.27%, with an estimated 2.6 million people living with the disease. ... Objectives: The aim of this paper was: (1) to identify the level of diabetes-related distress in a cohort of diabetes type 2 patients in KwaZulu-Natal and (2) to identify the factors that contribute to ...
Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad
Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...
Park, Hye Jeong; Ko, Saebyuk; Hong, Hyeon Mi; Ok, Eunjae; Lee, Jong In
Objective To assess factors related to standing balance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In total, 37 female patients with painful knee OA were included. Pain, knee alignment, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade were evaluated accordingly. Static standing balance was measured with a force-platform system under two different conditions: static standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) for 30 seconds. The mean speed (mm/s) of movement of the center of pressure in the anter...
Dwiana, Anna; Herawaty, Lucky
Background: Bandar Batauga village is the village which implements STBM program pillar 1 related stop open defecation but in practice has not been in line with expectations. Besides diarrhea cases recorded in Batauga health center is also very high, as many as 304 cases. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with Community attitudes in defecation in Bandar Batauga village Batauga district South Buton Regency. Method: This study is study with mixed method, with conve...
Jin, Myoung-Uk; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Kyong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Song, Keun-Bae
Dentistry has been identified as one of the most stressful work environments. Knowledge of modifiable work-environment factors related to job stress could lead to a strategy and policy to provide a better work environment for dentists. The aims of this study were to examine the degree and distribution of burnout and to determine the factors associated with burnout subscale of Korean dentists. A cross-sectional survey of Korean dentists was conducted using a custom-designed and validated questionnaire that incorporated the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as well as questions regarding sociodemographic and job-related characteristics. A random sample of 1,000 dentists was selected from 13,207 registered dentists in the Korean Dental Association. The MBI-HSS scores were summarised in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal sense of accomplishment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of burnout and its related factors. The adjusted response rate was 45.9% (444/967). In the subscales of burnout, 41.2%, 55.9%, and 41.4% of respondents scored highly in emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and poorly for personal sense of accomplishment, respectively. High burnout seems to be more likely to occur in association with some of the sociodemographic and job-related characteristics, especially younger age, male gender, without occupational calling, and unwilling to reselect a dentistry as a job. This study suggests that burnout is a common problem in Korean dentists and that occupational calling and willing to reselect a dentistry as a job are important factors for managing burnout. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Stuart Heckman; HanNa Lim; Catherine Montalto
Concerns that debt loads and other financial worries negatively affect student wellness are a top priority for many university administrators. Factors related to financial stress among college students were explored using the Roy Adaptation Model, a conceptual framework used in health care applications. Responses from the 2010 Ohio Student Financial Wellness Survey were analyzed using proportion tests and multivariate logistic regressions. The results show that financial stress is widespread ...
Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; Caetano, Joselany Áfio; Barros, Lívia Moreira; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
The objective was to identify the main diagnoses, related factors and risk factors regarding the cardiovascular/pulmonary responses class proposed by NANDA version 2009-2011. This case series descriptive study was performed with twenty patients who underwent bariatric surgery in a public hospital in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected by two intensive care unit nurse specialists through interviews, physical examinations and the reviewing of medical records, and analyzed through descriptive statistics and cross-mapping. The nursing diagnoses identified with a frequency greater than 50% were: decreased cardiac output (75%), ineffective breathing patterns (65%), dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response (55%) and ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion (75%); in addition, fourteen related factors and five risk factors were identified. We verified the need for further studies to better define the diagnostic profile of these patients in order to direct nursing care towards the early detection of complications.
Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.
UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-risk individuals was found. Of all DXA, 19.5 % were reported by women without any risk factor for osteoporosis, similarly by 16.2 % of men. Distance to DXA facilities and current smoking were inversely related to probability of reporting a DXA. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal examination rates among high risk...
Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates in Aceh province are still quite high compared to other provinces in Indonesia. In addition to disease factors, the factor that contributes to the rates is socio-cultural factor. Objective: This study aims to know and understand the view of postpartum mothers, health personnel, cadres, and the chairperson of the Aceh traditional assembly about the culture related to postpartum and newborn and integrated infant management program (MTBM in Aceh. Methods: This was a qualitative study. Data collection was conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 on seven health cadres by focus group discussion and in-depth interviews on five postpartum mothers, one health worker, and the Aceh traditional assembly chairperson. The open-code software program was used for data analysis. Results: Three themes were emerged from data: 1 The 'Madeung' Culture in postpartum mothers in Aceh has a relationship with maternal health problems, 2 'Peucicap' and 'troen tanoh' cultures in newborns in Aceh are at risk of causing complex problems in newborns, and 3 Community-based integrated management of young infants can be implemented while maintaining Acehnese culture. Conclusion: To improve access to maternal and neonatal health services with socio-cultural issues, the community-based integrated management of young infants is considered appropriate in Aceh culture.
Full Text Available The article develops a two-level analysis of the relation between general sociology and the sociology of culture, as it has been formed at the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. One level presents struggles between groups for the seizure of institutional positions and sources, and the other describes formal differences in contents between the two sub-disciplines of sociology. The expected division of their competences is such that general sociology studies and compares general theories, while the sociology of culture studies culture as a particular object. At the Department of Sociology, the structuralist approach gained theoretical hegemony in the 1980s, positioning itself institutionally as the “sociology of culture.” The institutional place of “general sociology” was constituted as a residue of contents and as an institutional asylum. Consequently, structuralist sociologists of culture took the initiative in practising general sociology. Later, the structuralist movement dispersed because none of the theoretical schools achieved hegemony and because the production of theory and theoretical dialogue was not stimulated institutionally. The contemporary polemic against the “studies” approach and for a rebuilding of a theoretical basis of the sociology of culture is a struggle for the renewal of theoretical hegemony, but now as the hegemony of historical materialism.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Li, Chunbo; Wu, Wenyuan; Jin, Hua; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Haibo; He, Yanling; Xiao, Shifu; Jeste, Dilip V; Zhang, Mingyuan
There are few studies of successful aging in China. This study was designed to investigate the distribution, and related factors, of successful aging in an elderly Chinese population. A cross-sectional, community-dwelling elderly population was surveyed in Shanghai, China. We defined successful aging based on a multi-dimensional model. Correlates of successful aging were explored through the Shanghai Successful Aging Project Questionnaire, which includes sociodemographic questions, and a battery of standardized instruments, including the Chinese version of the Mini-mental State Examination, activities of daily living, and the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA). The rate of successful aging was 46.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 43.6-48.7] among people aged 65 or above, and the rate for males was higher than that for females. The rate was much lower for those aged 85 years or over (9.4%). Logistic regression analysis suggested that female gender and older age were unfavorable factors for successful aging. A higher score on the LSIA, more leisure activities and being currently married related to successful aging. The rate of successful aging in Shanghai, China is similar to that found in studies from western countries. There are some potentially modifiable factors that may relate to successful aging.
Jones, Kelly; Keeler, Ngara; Morris, Chris; Brennan, David; Roberts-Thompson, Kaye; Jamieson, Lisa
To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate. Those completing some recommended treatment reported achieving desired oral health outcome of relief of pain or system-level barriers to completion. Those reporting accessing no dental treatment in contrast reported varied and complex barriers to dental care. Differences in both individual and health service-related factors were evident. Individual-level factors related to health literacy, self-efficacy, and social control. Service factors related to availability of an advocate, service delivery, and culture. Practical service-level changes may alleviate the effects of individual-level factors.
Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny
During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.
This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help missionaries…
Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael
This study considers the role of cognitive styles and culture in relation to students' perceptions of the value of different types and sources of feedback from sociocultural and constructivist perspectives. The increasingly heterogeneous nature of higher education highlights the importance of enhancing student accessibility to and engagement with…
Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.
Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican…
Olson, Seth; Reed, Kris; Schweinle, Amy
Human relations training is intended to prepare teachers to be culturally sensitive to an increasingly diverse population. There is a growing trend in teacher education to train preservice teachers more effectively to meet the demands of multicultural society. However, limited research is available to guide the future design of human relations…
Trepal, Heather C.; Boie, Ioana; Kress, Victoria E.
The authors examine eating disorders through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). Taking into account the importance of relationships and connection, it is suggested that RCT may be a useful lens for conceptualizing and working with people who are experiencing eating disorders. Ways that RCT can be applied to enhance…
by the opening of the area for tourists in 1974 and from the massive presence of the Indian military. This work explores the discourses among intellectuals, practitioners and young people about psychopathology among the Ladakhi youth in relation to socio-cultural changes. Based on the discourse analysis...
Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця
Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere
Wilbur F. LaPage
A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...
Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias
To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee eSoon Li; Jung-Ae eKim; Karen Jennifer Golden; Jae-Hwi eKim; Miriam Sang-Ah Park
Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Ma...
Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per
by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...... the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high...... of depression, whereas the other seven studies used self-administered questionnaires. The authors found moderate evidence for a relation between the psychological demands of the job and the development of depression, with relative risks of approximately 2.0. However, indication of publication bias weakens...
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being
Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.
Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)
Virendra C Patil
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.
Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and
Liu Wei; Lu Zhouping; Li Jian; Liu Hongjie; Zhang Zhiyong
Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-strick...
Hu, Ya; Yu, Jia-lin; Li, Lu-quan
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infection in neonates has been risen year by year, but there are no widely accepted criteria to identify the clinical significance of the culture results of secretion from lower respiratory tract at present. The aim of the present study was to understand the clinical value and risk factors of fungal infections as suggested by sputum culture in neonates, which may help clinicians to diagnose and treat the neonates with fungal infection of respiratory tract. One hundred and forty nine neonates with positive sputum culture results and suffered from pneumonia hospitalized from October, 2002 to May, 2005 in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were analyzed. The cases were divided into three groups according to the results of sputum culture. Forty cases who were only fungus positive were enrolled into the fungal group, 30 cases who were positive for both fungus and bacteria were classified into the mixed group, and the remaining 79 cases who were positive for bacteria only were recruited into bacterial group. Several clinical characteristics of neonates from the three groups were compared retrospectively. t test, chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Seventy of the 149 patients (47.0%) had fungal infections. Candida was the main genus cultured from sputum. Rate of resistance to fluconazole was 25.7% (9/35). Candida albicans was the most common strain, which was found in 56.9% of cases whose sputum culture was positive for fungi. In fungal group (n = 40), mixed group (n = 30) and bacterial group (n = 79), white blood cell count were (10.3 +/- 3.5) x 10(9)/L (11.7 +/- 5.2) x 10(9)/L and (14.4 +/- 10.5) x 10(9)/L, respectively, F = 3.78, P = 0.03, with neutrophil count (5.1 +/- 3.3) x 10(9)/L, (7.4 +/- 4.7) x 10(9)/L and (9.0 +/- 7.4) x 10(9)/L, respectively, F = 5.50, P = 0.01. Ratios of risk factors were as follows:for preterm infant, 32.5% (13/40), 20% (6/30) and 12
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing the economic concept of time based on historical and cultural factors. The manuscript presents the historical evolution of the concept of time, highlighting its conceptualization since ancient times until now. Subsequently, the paper analyzes the economic value of time down through the history of no-time (leisure time and its cultural contextualization (occidental culture/linear conception vs. oriental culture/cyclical conception. Finally, the contemporary state of the concepts of time and money, and suggests the need to establish a new culture of time, which should be taught from an early age.
Lee, Daegu; Hwang, Ji Hye; Chu, Inho; Chang, Hyun Ju; Shim, Young Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ratio of significant weakness in the affected arm of breast cancer-related lymphedema patients to their unaffected side. Another purpose was to identify factors related to arm weakness and physical function in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Consecutive patients (n = 80) attended a single evaluation session following their outpatient lymphedema clinic visit. Possible independent factors (i.e., lymphedema, pain, psychological, educational, and behavioral) were evaluated. Handgrip strength was used to assess upper extremity muscle strength and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to assess upper extremity physical function. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using factors that had significant differences between the handgrip weakness and non-weakness groups. Out of the 80 patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema, 29 patients (36.3 %) had significant weakness in the affected arm. Weakness of the arm with lymphedema was not related to lymphedema itself, but was related to the fear of using the affected limb (odds ratio = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval = 1.30-2.37). Fears of using the affected limb and depression significantly contributed to the variance in DASH scores. Appropriate physical and psychological interventions, including providing accurate information and reassurance of physical activity safety, are necessary to prevent arm weakness and physical dysfunction in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.
Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang
Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.
Full Text Available Introduction: Old people appear to be most prone to loneliness and depression perhaps because of decrease in their ability in daily livings, increase in morbidity, loss of close ties caused by loss of friends and spouses. This study was conducted for investigation of the loneliness and its related factors in elderly people in Yazd. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 200 old people (over 60 years old from three zone; health centers, nursing home and retirement center by convenient sampling method. Data was collected by UCLA Loneliness Scale that was consisting of 20 items for loneliness measurement. Scores 41 and more defined as loneliness. Collected data was analyzed by proper statistical tests with SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 71 % of subjects had Not Feel Lonely, 24 % moderate and 5 % severe felling of loneliness. Factors such as level of education, marital status, numbers of daughter and sons, previous job, residence site, current job status, living in nursing home, insufficient income, place of praying, sleep quantity and quality of sleep and feeling of healthy were associated with loneliness status (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings showed loneliness is common in elderly that support needs for more investigations and attention to loneliness related factors, educational courses conduction for family to take care of their elders, preparing of recreational measures and social support groups to decrease the loneliness in old people and so they spend this period by good and healthy sensation.
Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado
Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.
Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are considered one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of various blood disorders. However, due to difficulties in establishing stable maintenance and expansion of HSCs in vitro, their insufficient supply is a major constraint to transplantation studies. To solve these problems we have developed a fully defined, all-recombinant protein-based culture system. Through this system, we have identified hemopexin (HPX and interleukin-1α as responsible for HSC maintenance in vitro. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed that HPX reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels within cultured HSCs. Furthermore, bone marrow immunostaining and 3D immunohistochemistry revealed that HPX is expressed in non-myelinating Schwann cells, known HSC niche constituents. These results highlight the utility of this fully defined all-recombinant protein-based culture system for reproducible in vitro HSC culture and its potential to contribute to the identification of factors responsible for in vitro maintenance, expansion, and differentiation of stem cell populations.
Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R; Mirza, Tehniat; Labrie, Joseph W
This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad-specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad.
Casey, Tristan W; Riseborough, Karli M; Krauss, Autumn D
Growing international trade and globalization are increasing the cultural diversity of the modern workforce, which often results in migrants working under the management of foreign leadership. This change in work arrangements has important implications for occupational health and safety, as migrant workers have been found to be at an increased risk of injuries compared to their domestic counterparts. While some explanations for this discrepancy have been proposed (e.g., job differences, safety knowledge, and communication difficulties), differences in injury involvement have been found to persist even when these contextual factors are controlled for. We argue that employees' national culture may explain further variance in their safety-related perceptions and safety compliance, and investigate this through comparing the survey responses of 562 Anglo and Southern Asian workers at a multinational oil and gas company. Using structural equation modeling, we firstly established partial measurement invariance of our measures across cultural groups. Estimation of the combined sample structural model revealed that supervisor production pressure was negatively related to willingness to report errors and supervisor support, but did not predict safety compliance behavior. Supervisor safety support was positively related to both willingness to report errors and safety compliance. Next, we uncovered evidence of cultural differences in the relationships between supervisor production pressure, supervisor safety support, and willingness to report errors; of note, among Southern Asian employees the negative relationship between supervisor production pressure and willingness to report errors was stronger, and for supervisor safety support, weaker as compared to the model estimated with Anglo employees. Implications of these findings for safety management in multicultural teams within the oil and gas industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sterling, Hillary A.
Science maintains low status in many elementary classrooms. Beginning teachers find it difficult to teach science effectively. The Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform Model suggests there are personal, structural, and cultural factors that impact teaching practices. The questions that drove this study were: (a) How do beginning teachers perceive structural and cultural factors of the TCSR model as affecting their science teaching practices? (b) How do those perceptions compare between beginning teachers who teach science and those who do not? (c) How do beginning teachers' perceptions compare to those of principals and veteran teachers? The model was used to collect and analyze data on the perceptions of factors that influenced beginning teachers' science teaching practices. A case study involved six beginning teachers from three elementary schools in the southwestern United States during the 2005--2006 school year. Through an initial survey, two groups of beginning teachers were first identified as (a) those who taught and liked science, and (b) those who did not teach or like science. Three teachers from each group were selected to participate in the study that consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations, and review of artifacts. These data were compared with interview data from three veteran teachers and three principals. The findings of this study supported the TCSR model and confirmed that the beginning teachers did perceive certain structural context factors (e.g., curriculum, materials, time, professional development, district requirements, classroom management), and cultural context factors (e.g., district-wide low priority of science) as having an impact on their science teaching. The veteran teachers' perceptions more closely matched those of the beginning teachers' than did those of the principals. Despite the contextual influences, the beginning teachers' perceptions ultimately differed in teacher thinking (i.e., those who taught science had
Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie
The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.
Barnard, J A; Graves-Deal, R; Pittelkow, M R; DuBois, R; Cook, P; Ramsey, G W; Bishop, P R; Damstrup, L; Coffey, R J
Several polypeptide growth factors related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been identified recently, including transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), amphiregulin (AR), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and betacellulin (BTC). These peptides all bind to the EGF receptor (EGFr). In an effort to understand redundancy within this peptide family and interactions among these related peptides, we compared the biological activities of EGF, TGF-alpha, AR, and HB-EGF in an EGF-responsive, nontransformed intestinal epithelial line (RIE-1) and also determined the effect of individual EGF-related peptides on the expression of related family members in these cells. TGF-alpha, AR, HB-EGF, and EGF were equipotent in stimulating [3H]thymidine incorporation by RIE-1 cells and bound the EGFr with equivalent affinity. Each EGF-related peptide induced the mRNA expression of the remaining family members, including BTC. HB-EGF and AR mRNAs were induced rapidly (within 30 min) and to a greater extent than TGF-alpha and BTC mRNAs, suggesting heterogeneity in the molecular mechanisms for induction. This same pattern was observed for all EGF-related peptides tested. A similar pattern of mRNA induction was observed in secondary cultures of human keratinocytes and in LIM1215 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that induction of AR and HB-EGF is, at least in part, regulated at the level of gene transcription. Concurrent treatment with HB-EGF and cycloheximide resulted in superinduction of HB-EGF and AR, suggesting that these peptides are immediate early genes in RIE-1 cells. Our results demonstrate an equivalent biological response to EGF-related peptides in RIE-1 cells and further indicate that extensive auto-induction and cross-induction occur within the EGF-related peptide family in several EGF-responsive epithelial cell types.