Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...
Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...
Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.
In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)
Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Levett-Jones, Tracy
Culture influences the way health-care professionals communicate with each other and their ability to relate to colleagues in an assertive manner. Cultural barriers can also make it difficult for nurses to speak up even when they have concerns about patient safety. An understanding of the potential impact of cultural factors is therefore needed when developing assertiveness communication training programs. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored Japanese nurses' perceptions of how culture and values impact assertive communication in health care. Semistructured interviews with 23 registered nurses were undertaken, and data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Two major themes were identified: collectivism and hierarchy/power. In the present study, we discuss the cultural values related to collectivism that included four categories of "wa" (harmony), "uchi to soto" (inside and outside), implicit communication/ambiguity, and "nemawashi" (groundwork). The findings highlight the impact of culture on nurses' assertive communication behaviors and can be used to inform the design of culturally-appropriate assertiveness communication training programs for Japanese nurses working both within their own country or internationally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.
Conflict ( Prosocial Behavior ) Cognitive Processes - Shared Team Mental Models, Transactive Memory Action Processes - Team Coordination...information sharing behaviors after the experiment unfolded. To explore this further, an independent sample t -test was conducted, where the difference in...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral , Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing multi-dimensional organizational culture. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different business units and collects 283 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.799. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.821 and 1395.74, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing organizational culture including, diversity in culture, connection based culture, integrated culture and structure of culture. In terms of diversity in culture, sensitivity to quality data and cultural flexibility are the most influential sub-factors while connection based marketing and relational satisfaction are two important sub-factors associated with diversity in culture. The study discusses other issues.
Lopez, Sandra A.
Culture is a complex and important consideration in the process of helping others. In clinical practice, we must view the individual within the context of their culture in order for assessment or treatment to be effective. Further, to overlook or negate culture, a practitioner may possibly operate from faulty cultural assumptions or…
Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette
This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…
Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.
The paper presents a general model that provides a framework for the safety culture assessment, creating the possibility to identify factors that can significantly influence the safety culture. The main safety culture influence factors (SCIF) used by model are the following: regulatory environment, organizational environment, worker characteristics, socio-political environment, national culture, organization history, business and technological characteristics. After the analysis of the deficiencies and weaknesses of SCIFc in evolution of the Fukushima accident, some issues that may become necessities and requirements to change and improve both the safety culture and safety of the nuclear installations were highlighted. For each influence factor were identified some requirements to amend. The results will emphasize the necesity of the human - technology - organization system assessment. Hence it was demonstrated that the safety culture results from the interaction of individuals with technology and with the organization. (authors)
Lai, Daniel W L; Li, Lun; Daoust, Gabrielle D
This paper reviews recent literature on factors influencing suicide behaviours, including thoughts, plans, and attempts, in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups, to inform a more comprehensive understanding of suicide behaviours in increasingly culturally diverse populations. Thirty-three studies published between 2002 and 2013 were identified through digital databases searches and included in this review. Analysis of study findings focused on impacts of ethno-cultural identity and acculturation, other cultural and immigration influences, and family and community supports on suicide behaviours. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are identified, to inform relevant suicide prevention efforts and enhance mental health supports for immigrant and ethno-cultural minority populations.
1973-01-01Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing
Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...
Triandis, Harry C; Suh, Eunkook M
Ecologies shape cultures; cultures influence the development of personalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culture-specific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples.
L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy); J. Hutjes
textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are
KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella
Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan
To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.; Hutjes, J.
textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a count...
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the Journalistic Culture of Ecuador Project (CPE on the perception of the influence factors of journalists in Ecuador. These influences are studied because they determine the ideologies and the professional practices of journalists concerning internal consistency and development in relation to the context. These influences come from internal (actor and institutional level and external (system level levels. This qualitative/quantitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with 31 journalists from 6 media companies in Ecuador during the first half of 2014. The results show that journalists interviewed perceive greater influence within their newsrooms and the immediate environment, but also from the media legislation of the Government, the audience or the public, the news sources and Government or their representatives determine their daily work.
Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias
To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sihui WANG; Yuanyuan SONG; Yunman LIU; Yankai GUO; Jing LIAN; Jianbo GUO
In order to get the optimal growth conditions of anammox bacteria, the mature-cultured anammox granule sludge is used to investigate the influencing factors. The effects of temperature, pH value, COD and influent substrate (NO-2-N and NH+4-N) on anammox bacteria activity are investigated. The results demonstrate that the optimal temperature is 40 ℃ and the optimal pH value is between 7.0~8.0 for anammox bacteria. The anammox bacteria activity is not inhibited severely when COD concentration i...
Marsing, Deborah J.
Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…
Zeeni, N; Gharibeh, N; Katsounari, I
The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Yousef Abu Alsuood
Full Text Available This article reports an investigation into societal and organizational cultural influences on academic leadership in Saudi Arabian higher education, a previously underexplored area. In Saudi Arabia, it is currently unclear how university deans are negotiating the balance between organizational cultural values and contemporary influences, and how the values they embrace may influence their leadership practices and effectiveness. The study has been conducted in eight main governmental universities under the Ministry of Education. Qualitative data has been collected, involving interviews with fifteen university deans, with data scrutinized by an interpretive thematic analysis. The deans’ responses indicated dissatisfaction with the broad societal culture around them and the negative influence this had on leadership practices. Tensions were apparent between traditional values and change, and the influence of family and tribal backgrounds. Five organizational cultural themes were identified as influences on deans’ leadership—a centralized environment, strict regulations, the authority of top management, selection and promotion issues, and reputational factors. The study’s outcomes contribute to the understanding of leadership perceptions and practices within a particular cultural context.
Full Text Available Political culture is one of the most important phenomena of social life in modem era, with an undeniable influence on the political conduct of the members of the society. It is also one of the main pillars and principles of the growth and development of society. Belief in political equality, trust, feeling of security, and national and ethnic loyalty, are among significant elements closely related to political culture and society development pattern. The present study aims to analyze the factors influencing the political culture of the students of Parsabad Islamic Azad University. The main question addressed in this study concerns the factors which influence the political culture of the students of Parsabad Islamic Azad University. The hypotheses of the study suggest that variables such as ethnicism, religiousness, political motivation, personality and socioeconomic status have a significant relationship with political culture. The survey methodology - correlation between variables - and interview, as the means for collecting data to answer the questions, are utilized in this study. Also the statistical method and the SPPS software are used to analyze the data. The results of the study indicate that none of the hypotheses of the research was confirmed except for the relationship between the political motivation and the political culture. This shows that the temporal and spatial condition of Parsabad and, consequently, that of the students are different from the temporal and spatial conditions of the theories presented in this study.
Leon G Schiffman; William R Dillon; Festus E Ngumah
This paper explores the potential role of subculture (religious) and personality (Rockeach Dogmatism Scale) characteristics in explaining differences in the extent of consumer acculturation. The survey results suggest that for a complex and heterogeneous nation like Nigeria, there are significant within-nation differences that may influence consumer acculturation. Implications and suggestions for future cross-cultural consumer research taking an acculturation perspective are indicated.© 1981 ...
Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kaur, Kamal Preet; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun
of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. METHODS: Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different...... correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion....... patient factors. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover...
Full Text Available The social factor that has the widest impact on customer's behavior is culture. The aim of this work is that through the elements and dimensions of culture explains habits, customs and tendencies of people in consumption .According to the broad and pervasive nature of culture, its study requires a thorough examination of the character of the entire society, including elements such as language, laws, customs, religion, art, technology, business partners, products and other elements that give the society a distinctive taste. Understanding the similarities and differences among costumers is very important for multinational tenderer. If there is a greater similarity between the costumers they will use similar strategies but if the beliefs and customs are different, then each country uses individual marketing strategy. In international marketing error may occur if the promotional message of a company presents in a language that is not understandable to customers in a given country and which means something completely different and unacceptable by customers. Differences in cultural values can be described in various dimensions - individualism, masculinity, power distance, avoidance of uncertainty and long-term orientation. Market segments in developing countries offer great opportunities but the creation of values in those segments means that the nuances of the culture must be understood.
Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Levett-Jones, Tracy
Hierarchy and power characterize health-care relationships around the world, constituting a barrier to assertive communication and a risk to patient safety. This issue is more problematic and complex in countries such as Japan, where deep-seated cultural values related to hierarchy and power persist. The current paper is the second of two that present the findings from a study exploring Japanese nurses' views and experiences of how cultural values impact assertive communication for health-care professionals. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 registered nurses, following which data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Two overarching themes emerged from the analysis: hierarchy/power and collectivism. In the present study, we focus on cultural values related to hierarchy and power, including differences in professional status, gender imbalance, seniority/generation gap, bullying, and humility/modesty. The findings from our research provide meaningful insights into how Japanese cultural values influence and constrain nurses' communication and speaking up behaviors, and can be used to inform educational programs designed to teach assertiveness skills. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran
Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…
Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders
light on external factors that could influence the read out in terms of IFN-γ levels. It was found that optimal culture conditions varied between individual animals; when polyclonal activated, cells from whole blood cultures were most responsive, but when activated specifically, the optimal cell....... However, there is no consensus whether to use whole blood cultures or purified PBMCs for the assay, and both cell populations are being used and results compared. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare different culture settings using immune cells from previously vaccinated calves, and to shed...... concentration/population varied with whole blood, 10 × 106 cells/ml PBMC and 5 × 106 cells/ml PBMC being the highest performing conditions. A further investigation of the distribution of cell populations in PBMCs compared to whole blood was conducted, and a significant (p
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available We present a study to investigate the impacts of four factors on contribution role on society among Arab tribes Jarghoyeh women who live in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, distributes them among 400 women, and analyzes their feedbacks. There are four hypotheses, which study the effects of various factors on women’s contribution role on society. These factors include educational background, level of welfare, numbers of children and ties of kinship. The results show that while educational background, level of welfare and ties of kinship play important role on women’s contribution role on society, having more children do not statistically have any influence on juvenile delinquency.
Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.
Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jian; Lu, Zhouping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong
Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of culturally competent intervention programs for heroin use intervention and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of
The sociocultural factors impacting on fertility behavior among the Yoruba of Nigeria were investigated in a sample of 330 women, 199 from Ife-Ife urban area and 131 from 3 rural villages also in the Oranmiyan Local Government Area. All study participants were Yoruba women married to Yoruba men who had at least 1 child; their mean age was 34.5 years and 41% had no education. The study was conducted during 1987. The responses confirmed the close link between marriage and procreation in this culture. Children are valued as a source of prestige to a woman, and childless women are stigmatized. The reasons for which children are valued were found to vary according to educational level. 77% of women with no education compared with 41% of those with high levels of education value children as a source of caretaking in old age. In contrast, 44% of highly educated women versus 11% of uneducated women valued children as a source of joy. Educated women were also more likely than women with no education to view motherhood as a means of fulfilling God's command to continue the human race. In terms of sex preference, higher percentages of educated and urban women wanted their 1st child to be a male and son preference has strong religious, legal, and social status significance in the Yoruban culture. However, all respondents indicated they wanted to have children of both sexes. More information on sociocultural factors examined in this study is needed to help in the design of a population policy for the Yoruba.
Full Text Available Includes a general concept for the various philosophical implications for the conduct based on participation in the exercise of power through the institutions of formal and informal value of finality associated outputs any effect of each of these other actors and processes on daily life from the simplest affairs to the most complex groping ordinary citizen impact of these outputs through its relationship with actors and represented locally and nationally this perception itself constitute the base of the logical behaviour of the political mechanisms of nutritious local and other actors thus - as we have seen in the former - this is a performance of official institutions and non-formal primary factor effecting the nature and size of the feedback. We are trying to address through the topic of the impact of the level of human development and the content of those measures various dimensions of political, economic, social and cultural rights on the culture of the citizen. Lifting of the levels of human development in general requires efforts and cooperative from all sectors of society groups also requires equal participation of key parties and requires the mobilization of all the energies and finally the existence of the ability of these key parties to cooperate and participate in the responsibility for achieving development and motivating factor to all of this is to be a human being effective role through participation and production would not be available without a good rehabilitation and the acquisition of knowledge and skills with a reduction of the necessary rights of citizenship. On this basis, we examine how it affects the performance of institutions to create the motivation of individuals to be active citizens through three axes: ideology, the actors and the psychological impact of building individual capacity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate
Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo
The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1) variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2) changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3) ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per
Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.
María Dolores Álvarez-Pérez
Full Text Available This article develops and tests a theoretical model to find out which factors influence the behaviour of supervisors in terms of promoting a work-family culture. This model explains to what extent the factors studied are relevant to encourage deans to promote this type of culture at Spanish universities. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis. Data were obtained through a questionnaire to deans. The results yield five key factors: (1 the personal work-family conflict of managers; (2 the transformational leadership style of managers; (3 the identification with subordinates in need of work-family cares; (4 the perceived institutional support; and (5 the perceived support from other supervisors in the centre. The findings have practical implications for human resources management (HRM practices. Human resources management practices such as (a providing deans and other supervisors with training about the importance of work-family programs; (b promoting deans’ training in order to develop transformational leadership skills; or (c increasing institutional support can be useful when implementing a work-family culture in Spanish universities.
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Cotignola-Pickens, Heather M
This study uses data from two waves of the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) study and focuses on the 1) rates of dating violence victimization by gender, 2) risk of experiencing dating violence victimization over time, 3) association of dating violence victimization with other forms of victimization, and 4) association of immigrant status, acculturation, and familial support with dating violence victimization over time. A total of 547 Latino adolescents, from across the USA, aged 12-18 at Wave 1 participated in both waves of the study. Rates of dating violence were around 19% across waves. Dating violence at Wave 1 and non-dating violence victimization were associated with an elevated risk of dating violence during Wave 2. Cultural factors did not distinguish between dating violence trajectories, except for immigrant status and familial support being associated with no dating violence victimization. Overall, dating violence affects a large number of Latino teens and tends to continue over time. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
focused on comparisons between individualistic and collectivistic cultures . Furthermore, given the differential emphasis toward group factors in...either individualistic or collectivistic cultures , social influence tactics involving group social elements may be a good starting point for exploring...in Two Cultures : The Differential Influence of Social Proof and Commitment/Consistency on collectivists and Individualists . Personality and Social
The evaluation of the implementation nuclear safety culture at BATAN has been performed. BATAN is Indonesia’s national nuclear energy agency. Nowadays, BATAN is planning to develop an experimental power reactor. To implement the nuclear safety culture BATAN has issued BATAN chairman regulation (Perka BATAN 200). Perka BATAN is the reference for individuals and organizations to implement nuclear safety culture which includes basic principles, mechanisms, assessment, as well as the implementation of the application of safety culture. It covers the establishment of safety policies, program development, program implementation, development and measurement of safety culture. Each facilities within BATAN is expected to well implement a safety culture. The implementation of safety culture is developed by considering the characteristics, attributes and indicators. The characteristics, attributes and indicators referenced are elaborated from the IAEA. The activities to strengthen safety culture are monthly workshop with participants is head of every facilities, safety leadership training and workshop for safety division manager in every facilities. It is also issued a handbook of safety that is distributed to all employees BATAN.
In the enterprise development process, many companies put on the corporate culture and employee knowledge of psychological capital to stay in their respective functional areas, and can not really establish a humanistic ideas, nor will it recognize employees of psychological capital in the building of enterprise culture in the transmission and…
Harrison, C.J.; Konings, K.D.; Dannefer, E.F.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Wass, V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to
Empirical studies have shown that although leadership shares similar practices across East and West, some practices have inherently distinguished socio cultural characteristics. Understanding these characteristics is important in Asian contexts since socio-cultures are a major power in determining the success or failure of a change process. This…
Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.
Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.
Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.
Frye, Barbara A.
Of all of the Southeast Asian populations, Cambodian refugees are at the highest risk for physical and psychosocial problems. In order to treat them, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of Khmer culture. This paper describes the Khmer value of equilibrium as it affects such things as home remedies, for children's illnesses, managing…
J.J. Kerremans (Jos); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Vos (Margreet)
textabstractThe maximum recommended transport time for blood cultures is 4 h [L. S. Garcia (ed.), 2007 Update: Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed., 2007]. In a previous study, we found that the average transport time was 10 h. In this cohort study, we measured transport times for
Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.
This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…
Farkas, Meredith Gorran; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Houk, Amy Harris
In an environment in which libraries need to demonstrate value, illustrating how the library contributes to student learning is critical. Gathering and analyzing data to tell the library's story as well as identify areas for improvement require commitment, time, effort, and resources--all components of a culture of assessment. This paper presents…
Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Voogt, Joke
Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how
Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.
Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of
Ross-Walker, Cheryl; Rogers-Clark, Cath; Pearce, Susanne
Nursing workload is an issue that effects both the recruitment and retention of nurses, and patient safety. Historically, measurement has focussed on the delivery of direct patient care and excluded workload of facilitating hands-on care and supporting the organisation via duties that reflect organisation cultural and climate needs. Qualitative research is appropriate to understand this complexity. To determine the best available evidence in relation to registered nurses experiences of workplace cultural and climatic factors that influence nursing workloads, in an acute health care setting. This review sought high quality studies which explored registered nurses' experiences of the influence of cultural and climatic factors on their workloads. Qualitative research studies and opinion-based text were considered. An extensive search of the literature was conducted to identify published and unpublished studies between January 1990 and June 2011 in English, and indexed in the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, Medline-In Process, PsychINFO, Emerald, Current Contents, TRIP, JSTOR Nursing Consult Psychology & Behavioural Sciences collections, Emerald Management Reviews, Emerald Full Text Journals, Embase, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Proquest and MedNar, EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Wiley Interscience. Two independent reviewers (CRW and CRC), using appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), assessed fifteen articles; one was excluded. Data were extracted from included papers using standardised tools developed by the JBI. Data from qualitative studies and textual/opinion papers were meta-synthesised separately using standardised instruments. Data synthesis involved the pooling of findings, then grouped into categories on the basis of similarity of meaning. The categories were further aggregated into synthesised findings. 14 papers were identified as high quality and meeting the inclusion criteria. 81 findings were identified from the 10 qualitative research
Mohammad Reza Iravani; Mostafa Rajabi; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Akram Fakhri Fakhramini; Mina Shirvani
We present a study to investigate the impacts of four factors on contribution role on society among Arab tribes Jarghoyeh women who live in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, distributes them among 400 women, and analyzes their feedbacks. There are four hypotheses, which study the effects of various factors on women’s contribution role on society. These factors include educational background, level of welfare, numbers of children and ties of kinship. The results show that while educatio...
Kim, Y K; Xiao, C L; Rogers, J D
Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, the causal agent of Sphaeropsis rot of pears and apples, is a recently described species. In this study the effects of culture media, temperature, water potential, pH and light on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of S. pyriputrescens were evaluated. Apple juice agar and pear juice agar were most suitable for mycelial growth of all six isolates tested. Cornmeal agar was not suitable for either mycelial growth or pycnidial production. The fungus grew from -3 to 25 C, with optimum growth at 20 C and no growth at 30 C. The fungus grew at water potential as low as -5.6 MPa on potassium chloride-amended potato-dextrose agar (PDA). Hyphal extension was not observed at -7.3 MPa after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were placed on PDA. The fungus grew at pH 3.3-6.3 and optimum growth was at pH 3.3-4.2. No mycelial growth was observed at pH above 7.2 after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were transferred onto PDA. Regardless of medium tested, few pycnidia formed at 20 C in the dark. Pycnidial production was enhanced significantly by fluorescent light, but continuous light appeared to reduce pycnidial production, depending on the medium. Oatmeal agar (OMA) was most suitable for production of pycnidia and conidia. Pycnidia that formed on 3 wk old OMA cultures at 20 C under 12 h light/12 h dark produced abundant conidia, and the technique is recommended for inoculum production.
Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.
Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…
Zhao, H; Huang, L; Xiao, C L; Liu, J; Wei, J; Gao, X
To identify media and environmental conditions suitable for rapid mycelial growth and sporulation of Diplocarpon mali. Liquid shake cultures were used to evaluate effects of media and environmental conditions on mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. Carrot sucrose broth (CSB), potato and carrot dextrose broth (PCDB) and potato and carrot sucrose broth (PCSB) were most favourable for rapid mycelial growth. PCDB, PCSB, PCB (potato and carrot broth) and carrot dextrose broth (CDB) were favourable for conidial production. All carbon sources tested and peptone favoured for mycelial growth. Carbon and nitrogen sources tested did not significantly stimulate conidial production. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and conidial production was 25 degrees C. No mycelial growth occurred at 5 or 30 degrees C, but D. mali survived at these temperatures. Active mycelial growth occurred at pH 5-7, and pH 5-8 was favourable for sporulation. PCDB and PCSB incubated at 25 degrees C for 14 day are recommended for mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. The information generated in this study will facilitate mycological and pathological research on D. mali and Marssonina leaf blotch of apple caused by D. mali.
Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D
Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.
Oller, Martín; Chavero, Palmira
Este artículo presenta los resultados del proyecto Cultura Periodística de Ecuador (CPE) sobre la percepción de los factores de influencia de los periodistas dentro de la cultura periodística de Ecuador. Estas influencias son estudiadas porque determinan las ideologías y las prácticas profesionales de los periodistas desde su punto de vista de coherencia y desarrollo interno en relación con el contexto. Además, proceden tanto de los niveles internos a la redacción del medio (nivel de actor e ...
Jamila K. Stockman
Full Text Available Background: Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective: In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI. We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV influences abuse. Design: Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions: Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to
Today, an increasing proportion of society has to reconcile eldercare and work. This task poses challenges for them, which they meet through an adjustment of their everyday living arrangements. These coping strategies have been so far scarcely noted within research on the reconciliation of elder care and employment. Knowledge about the active dealing with this parallel involvement in both spheres of life is of vital importance when wanting to derive precisely tailored support measures for employed care givers. A goal of this article is to deliver insight on reconciling activities of employed women who provide care, while it tries to specify respective factors which determine those actions. Moreover, an ideal typology is presented, which systematizes these associations. With this ideal typology, conceptual instruments have been developed which illustrate the complex reality of the reconciliation actions and the dependence on various coping resources. In gerontological practice, these findings may provide support to design an intervention strategy tailored to the individual situation that addresses the everyday level of action and strengthens the performance of those affected.
Consequently, challenges abound in the teaching and learning of ... English in tertiary institutions in contemporary Nigeria, the influence of socio-cultural factors ... The English Language has been a crucial issue in the Nigerian education.
Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Stevens, Marguerite; Kraemer, Helena
The goal of this mixed-methods study was to characterize the perceptions of multi-cultural long-term care nurses about patient dignity at the end-of-life (EOL). The study was conducted in a large, urban long-term care (LTC) facility. The participants were forty-five long-term care nurses and 26 terminally ill nursing home patients. Nurses completed an open-ended interview about their perceptions of the concept of dying with dignity and the data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Main themes identified as promoting patient dignity at the EOL included treating them with respect, helping them prepare for their EOL, promoting shared decision making and providing high quality tenor of care. The nurses’ cultural and religious backgrounds influenced their perceptions of what constitutes dignity-conserving care. Foreign-born nurses stressed the need for end-of-life rituals but this was strikingly absent in the statements of US-born nurses. Foreign-born Catholic nurses stated that the dying experience should not be altered using analgesics to relieve suffering or by attempts to hasten death by forgoing curative therapy or by other means. Both nurses and terminally ill patients completed the Dignity Card-sort Tool (DCT). A comparison of the LTC nurses cohort to the terminally ill patient responses on the DCT revealed that the nurses felt that patient dignity was eroded when her/his wishes were not carried out and when s/he is treated without respect. In contrast, dying LTC patients felt that poor medical care and loss of ability to choose care options to be the most important factors leading to erosion of dignity. PMID:23496266
Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…
In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…
Murray, Teri A
Despite numerous calls to diversify the nursing workforce, little progress has been made in increasing the numbers of African American graduates from prelicensure nursing programs, thus widening the diversity gap in the number of African Americans who enter the RN workforce. An integrative literature review was conducted to determine whether, from the students' perspective, the institutional climate and culture influenced their academic success. Themes of Alienation and Isolation, Persistent Determination, and Difficulty Seeking Help emerged as having an influence on students' academic success. On the basis of this review, professional development programs on topics such as implicit bias, microaggressions, and other unintentional and unconscious behaviors are recommended. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Guerrero, Anthony P S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Chang, Janice Y; Ona, Celia; Cunanan, Vanessa L; Hishinuma, Earl S
Among Filipino youth in Hawai'i, low Filipino cultural identification and low family support may be important risk factors for delinquency. To examine, in a sample of Filipino youth in Hawai'i, correlations between delinquent behaviour and the aforementioned - as well as other, potentially mediating - variables. A youth risk survey and Filipino Culture Scale were administered to Filipino students (N = 150) in Hawai'i. A parent risk survey was administered to available and consenting parents. Delinquent behaviour correlated positively with acculturative stress, low cultural identification and adverse peer influences; and negatively with total Filipino Culture Scale score. Structural equation modelling suggested that absent/ineffective adults and adverse peer influences might be more important variables compared to low self-esteem and less religiosity, linking low cultural identification to delinquent behaviour. Although further studies are warranted, to be effective, efforts to prevent delinquency by enhancing Filipino youths' cultural connectedness may also need to enhance family connectedness and address adverse peer influences.
Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.
Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G.
This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly
Koltai, Kolina Sun; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Johnson, Walter; Cacanindin, Artemio
This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Forces newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the cases politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerabilityhigh risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.
Fligor, Brian J.; Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania
Purpose: This study examined listening levels and duration of portable listening devices (PLDs) used by people with diversity of ethnicity, education, music genre, and PLD manufacturer. The goal was to estimate participants' PLD noise exposure and identify factors influencing user behavior. Method: This study measured listening levels of 160…
Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria
The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.
Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.
variables and season which govern culturability of human enteric pathogens and FIOs. Therefore, knowledge of these factors is critical for accurate microbial risk assessment. Future water quality management strategies could be improved through monitoring sediment-associated bacteria and non-culturable bacteria. This could facilitate source apportionment of human enteric pathogens and FIOs and direct remedial action to improve water quality.
Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane
The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie
The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.
Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi
The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.
Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara
Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.
Soo-Hoo, Sarah; Nemeth, Samantha; Baser, Onur; Argenziano, Michael; Kurlansky, Paul
To explore the impact of racial and ethnic diversity on the performance of cardiac surgical risk models, the Chinese SinoSCORE was compared with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk model in a diverse American population. The SinoSCORE risk model was applied to 13 969 consecutive coronary artery bypass surgery patients from twelve American institutions. SinoSCORE risk factors were entered into a logistic regression to create a 'derived' SinoSCORE whose performance was compared with that of the STS risk model. Observed mortality was 1.51% (66% of that predicted by STS model). The SinoSCORE 'low-risk' group had a mortality of 0.15%±0.04%, while the medium-risk and high-risk groups had mortalities of 0.35%±0.06% and 2.13%±0.14%, respectively. The derived SinoSCORE model had a relatively good discrimination (area under of the curve (AUC)=0.785) compared with that of the STS risk score (AUC=0.811; P=0.18 comparing the two). However, specific factors that were significant in the original SinoSCORE but that lacked significance in our derived model included body mass index, preoperative atrial fibrillation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SinoSCORE demonstrated limited discrimination when applied to an American population. The derived SinoSCORE had a discrimination comparable with that of the STS, suggesting underlying similarities of physiological substrate undergoing surgery. However, differential influence of various risk factors suggests that there may be varying degrees of importance and interactions between risk factors. Clinicians should exercise caution when applying risk models across varying populations due to potential differences that racial, ethnic and geographic factors may play in cardiac disease and surgical outcomes.
Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W; Unger, Jennifer B
We examine whether peer substance use and cultural factors differentially influence the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) among a community-based sample of Hispanics. Participants provided data in 11th grade (M = 16.8 years old, SD = 0.54) and emerging adulthood (M = 20.3 years old, SD = 0.6). Peer tobacco use had a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use in emerging adulthood (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.89) than in adolescence (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.40), but this pattern was not observed with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use. Cultural orientation is associated with initiation of tobacco use during EA but not with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use.
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica
In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…
Berdykulova G. M.
Full Text Available the article is dedicated to studying the influence of organizational and project cultures on effective project management of the company by knowledge systematization and the comparative analysis of world companies’ practice that allowed to reveal the main factors and criteria of projects success and negative influence of organizational culture on the project; key aspects of corporate culture and cultural integration under the conditions of globalization.
Amin Ali Almubark
Full Text Available This study was set out to explore and evaluate the importance of having mastered the cultural knowledge throughout the process of depicting the culture-specific concepts involving two languages namely Arabic and English. In doing so, the participants sampled in this study were a group of final year Bachelor’s degree students majoring in Translation in ALAradha College at the Jazan University. The findings of the study method employed in this study statistically confirmed that the students of the Translation at AL AlAradh college- Saudi Arabia faced considerable difficulties throughout the process of translating cultural concepts owing to inadequate mastery of knowledge in relation to the culture involved. Among the measures which can be taken in addressing the issues in this context are training the learners by means of exposure to real cases involving culture-specific concepts which may help them deal with such difficulties in the translation process.
The Best Interests of the Child from different cultural perspectives : Factors influencing judgements of the quality of child-rearing environment and construct validity of the Best Interests of the Child-Questionnaire (BIC-Q) in Kosovo and Albania
Zevulun, Daniëlle; Post, Wendy J.; Zijlstra, A. Elianne; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Knorth, Erik J.
Child-rearing practices and beliefs of what determines a ‘good quality’ of child-rearing differ across cultural contexts and diverse interpretations can be given to “a child’s best interests”. This study aims to examine the cultural factors that influence judgements of the quality of children’s
De Block, M
Tissue culture conditions and transformation have been established for both aspen and poplar. The use of previously described culture conditions resulted in shoot tip necrosis in the shoot cultures and necrosis of stem and leaf explants. Shoot tip necrosis could be overcome by buffering the medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and Ca-gluconate and by growing the shoots below 25 degrees C. Necrosis of the explants was probably due to an accumulation of ammonium in the explants and could be overcome by adapting the NO(3) (-)/NH(4) (+) ratio of the media. Stem explants of established shoot cultures of the aspen hybrid Populus alba x P. tremula and of the poplar hybrid Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides were cocultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and neo genes on their disarmed tDNAs. Transformed aspen shoots were obtained from 30 to 40% of the explants, while transformed poplar shoots were obtained from 10% of the explants. Extracts from the transformed trees contained high phosphinotricin acetyltransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase activities, and the trees contained one to three copies of the chimeric genes. The transformed trees were completely resistant to the commercial preparations of the herbicide phosphinotricin (glufosinate), while control trees were not.
G Allen Finley
Full Text Available Culture is commonly regarded as a factor in pain behaviour and experience, but the meaning of the term is often unclear. There is little evidence that pain perception is modified by cultural or ethnic factors, but pain expression by children and interpretation by caregivers may be affected by the culture of the patient or the caregiver. The present paper examines some of the research regarding cultural influences on children’s pain assessment, and addresses directions for future research. A focus on cultural influences should not distract clinicians from the need to be sensitive to individual beliefs and attitudes.
Kristin D. Huisinga
Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to prehistoric human influences. A spatial analysis was used to determine the relationship of archaeological sites and populations of S. dorrii ssp. mearnsii. In the lower Verde Valley,...
Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.
Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David
Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p working ≥60 h per week (1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5) and lifting weights ≥25 kg by hand (1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working
Saha, A; Mandal, P; Dasgupta, S; Saha, D
Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies.
ahmadu, aminu; Md. Harashid, Haron; Azlan, Amran
The purpose of the study is to examine the leading factors towards philanthropic dimension of corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian financial sector. The need to build corporate image, prompt managers towards prioritizing the philanthropic dimension of CSR. Satisfaction of stakeholder needs to reduce the pressure exerted on managers’ leads also to the assumption of more philanthropic activities. Within these set of circumstances, the objective of the study is to explore the possible...
Endrass, Birgit; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth
There are several factors that influence communicative behavior, such as gender, personality or culture. As virtual agents interact in a more and more human-like manner, their behavior should be dependent on social factors as well. Culture is a phenomenon that affects one’s behavior without one...... realizing it. Behavior is thus sometimes perceived as inappropriate because there is no awareness of the cultural gap. Thus, we think cultural background should also influence the communication behavior of virtual agents. Behavioral differences are sometimes easy to recognize by humans but still hard...
Arlis Dewi Kuraesin
Full Text Available This article aims to know the culture of the organization and management accounting information system based on existing theories. The management information system is a collection of sub-systems which are interconnected with each other to work together in harmony to achieve one goal of process data into information needed by management in decision making. An important factor influencing the use of information systems is Cultural Organization. Management Information system success is influenced by several factors one of which is the organizations culture. Organizational culture has a very strong influence on the overall organizational and individual behavior due to the information system is a major component of the organization are influenced substantially by organizational culture.
Muls, Ann; Dougherty, Lisa; Doyle, Natalie; Shaw, Clare; Soanes, Louise; Stevens, Anna-Marie
In the wake of the Francis report, the need for NHS trusts and hospitals to adopt a culture of learning, safety and transparency has been highlighted. This article considers different aspects of culture in health care, and hones in on the link between culture and safety for patients in putting the patient first, embedding the 6Cs and considering the options to measure and influence organisational culture. The article reflects more deeply on how leadership across all levels can influence and inspire change in organisational culture, ensuring that the patient remains the focus of any changes in care delivery.
Cleary, Susan M; Molyneux, Sassy; Gilson, Lucy
District level health system governance is recognised as an important but challenging element of health system development in low and middle-income countries. Accountability is a more recent focus in health system debates. Accountability mechanisms are governance tools that seek to regulate answerability between the health system and the community (external accountability) and/or between different levels of the health system (bureaucratic accountability). External accountability has attracted significant attention in recent years, but bureaucratic accountability mechanisms, and the interactions between the two forms of accountability, have been relatively neglected. This is an important gap given that webs of accountability relationships exist within every health system. There is a need to strike a balance between achieving accountability upwards within the health system (for example through information reporting arrangements) while at the same time allowing for the local level innovation that could improve quality of care and patient responsiveness. Using a descriptive literature review, this paper examines the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms and relationships within the district health system, and draws out the implications for responsiveness to patients and communities. We also seek to understand the practices that might strengthen accountability in ways that improve responsiveness--of the health system to citizens' needs and rights, and of providers to patients. The review highlights the ways in which bureaucratic accountability mechanisms often constrain the functioning of external accountability mechanisms. For example, meeting the expectations of relatively powerful managers further up the system may crowd out efforts to respond to citizens and patients. Organisational cultures characterized by supervision and management systems focused on compliance to centrally defined outputs and targets can constrain front line
Carataº Maria Alina; Spãtariu Elena Cerasela
The present paper aims highlighting the characteristics of the organisational culture concept in Romania. In the first part of the paper, we have presented the importance of organizational culture theory through a literature review; we described the factors that have an impact on it. In the second part, we developed ideas about the national culture of Romania, the national frame and how this affects the organizational culture, and we presented its peculiarities.
Jacobs, Patricia A.
This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...
The concept of perception influenced by culture is pretty important in the study of intercultural communication. The perceptions of language and nonverbal language formed under various cultures intimate with each other during communication. This paper aims to explore the relationship between perception and culture in nonverbal communication through the study of eye language and body odor, and promote the communication among people of different culture as well.
Van Biljon, J
Full Text Available . Although the feature driven and usability focus carry value, it is not the full picture. There is also an alternative or wider perspective: mobile phone use is influenced by demographic, social, cultural, and contextual factors that complicate...
Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the management of infertile couples at the Kenyatta National Hospital. ... that may influence male participation in the management of the infertile couples attending the KNH Infertility Clinic.
... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and mental health is important for coping with the high requirements of medical studies that are associated with a higher risk for severe stress, insomnia, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and easier access to drugs. Health behaviors of medical students influence not just their own health but also the health of their future patients. We examined whether socio-cultural factors can explain differences in students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey in Germany (Dresden, Munich and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs enclosed international medical students in their 1st, 3rd and 5th academic years. The students were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete a questionnaire on different aspects of health behavior during obligatory seminars and lectures in 2014. The response rate of the total sample was 56.2 % (n = 2935; the subgroup analysis enclosed data of German (n = 1289, Hungarian (n = 1057 and Norwegian (n = 148 students. Results A high number of Norwegian students (84.5 % assessed their health status as very good/excellent. In comparison, only 60.3 % of the Hungarian and 70.7 % of the German participants reported a very good/excellent health status. The distributions were comparable between the study sites. Although gender, financial situation and nationality were significant health status predictors, they could explain only 8.2 % of the total variance of health status in the multivariable model. A comparably high number of Hungarian students (95.3 % vs. 67.4 % German and 56.7 % Norwegian reported that they can currently do a lot/very much for their health. In contrast, a significant number of Norwegians (73.0 % vs. 63.7 % Hungarian and 51.5 % German reported that they currently do a lot/very much for their health (chi2-test, p ≤ 0.001. Financial situation, study site and study year were the strongest predictors for health
difference to significantly change the society from a collectivist to individualist culture .42 Pakistan scores fourteen which indicates a strongly...score lower than fifty indicating a more collectivist society. This helps the strategic leader to appreciate the importance class and culture play on...Pakistan which possess strong uncertainty avoidance scores (70) and low individualistic scores (14) - and are collectivists - rules and laws are
Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...
Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua
Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.
Shavitt, Sharon; Cho, Hyewon
We examine the influence of culture on consumer behavior with a particular focus on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Cultures vary in their propensity to emphasize hierarchy, a distinction captured by examining horizontal/vertical cultural orientations or contexts. These cultural factors pattern personal values and goals, power concepts, and normative expectations applied to the exercise of power. We review implications for how consumers respond to brands in the marketplace, service providers, and each others' needs.
Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African ... 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of ... areas (Eyo et al., 2003). .... systems. Nigerian Journal of Rural. Extension and Development. 6: 38-. 42.
R.M. Yusuff; A. Busu; A. Rashid; N. Zulkifli
Purpose: The lack of organizational effort to assess cultural compatibility or fit prior to the engagement offirms has contributed to the failure of several mergers and acquisition. A Korean public listed company withmanufacturing plants in Malaysia and New Zealand found that the performances of the newly acquired plantswere significantly lower than the manufacturing plants in Korea.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, the influence of national culture on organizational culture andthe ...
Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio
Following the economic crash of the late 1990s, the suicide rate in Japan increased to a rate of over 30 000 people per year and has been one of the highest in the world. Cultural factors have influenced this high suicide rate, such as a tradition of honorable suicide as well as permissive attitudes towards suicide that remain in modern times. Additionally, the economic downturn, particularly the trend of unemployment in middle-aged men, also played a significant role in the high suicide rate. The suicide rate has started to decrease in recent years perhaps in part due to suicide prevention measures undertaken by the government. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson
Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...
Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise
Prior research in social psychology indicates that East Asians from collectivistic and interdependent sociocultural systems are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners, whereas Westerners with individualistic and independent representation have a tendency to process focal and discrete attributes of the environment. Here we have demonstrated that such systematic cultural variations can also be observed in cyberspace, focusing on self-presentation of photographs on Facebook, the most popular worldwide online social network site. We examined cultural differences in face/frame ratios for Facebook profile photographs in two studies. For Study 1, 200 digital profile face photographs of active Facebook users were randomly selected from native and immigrant Taiwanese and Americans. For Study 2, 312 Facebook profiles of undergraduate students of six public universities in East Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan) and the United States (California and Texas) were randomly selected. Overall, the two studies clearly showed that East Asian Facebook users are more likely to deemphasize their faces compared to Americans. Specifically, East Asians living in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan exhibited a predilection for context inclusiveness in their profile photographs, whereas Americans tended to prioritize their focal face at the expense of the background. Moreover, East Asian Facebook users had lower intensity of facial expression than Americans on their photographs. These results demonstrate marked cultural differences in context-inclusive styles versus object-focused styles between East Asian and American Facebook users. Our findings extend previous findings from the real world to cyberspace, and provide a novel approach to investigate cognition and behaviors across cultures by using Facebook as a data collection platform.
Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise
Prior research in social psychology indicates that East Asians from collectivistic and interdependent sociocultural systems are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners, whereas Westerners with individualistic and independent representation have a tendency to process focal and discrete attributes of the environment. Here we have demonstrated that such systematic cultural variations can also be observed in cyberspace, focusing on self-presentation of photographs on Facebook, the most popular worldwide online social network site. We examined cultural differences in face/frame ratios for Facebook profile photographs in two studies. For Study 1, 200 digital profile face photographs of active Facebook users were randomly selected from native and immigrant Taiwanese and Americans. For Study 2, 312 Facebook profiles of undergraduate students of six public universities in East Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan) and the United States (California and Texas) were randomly selected. Overall, the two studies clearly showed that East Asian Facebook users are more likely to deemphasize their faces compared to Americans. Specifically, East Asians living in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan exhibited a predilection for context inclusiveness in their profile photographs, whereas Americans tended to prioritize their focal face at the expense of the background. Moreover, East Asian Facebook users had lower intensity of facial expression than Americans on their photographs. These results demonstrate marked cultural differences in context-inclusive styles versus object-focused styles between East Asian and American Facebook users. Our findings extend previous findings from the real world to cyberspace, and provide a novel approach to investigate cognition and behaviors across cultures by using Facebook as a data collection platform. PMID:22468606
Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.
Hogan, R M
Religion is a cultured phenomenon, a subculture within our larger cultural system. Different religions have different teachings about what constitutes sexual morality, while members within a specific religious denomination may also have different beliefs and practices. Religiosity, or acceptance of the teachings of a particular religion, is more important as a determinant of sexual behavior than a specific religion per se. Orthodox Judaism, traditional Catholicism and traditional Protestantism are alike in their condemnation of masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, and premarital and extramarital coitus. More liberal members of these religions may not tolerate these activities, but may espouse them as necessary means to maintain or attain health. Nurses assess the beliefs that clients hold in regard to sexual morality and also identify if the client is experiencing guilt about past sexual practices. Interventions are planned with the client within the framework of the client's religious and spiritual beliefs and practices. To do otherwise is to invite distrust and distress in the client. Nurses intervene with sensitivity, compassion, and respect for beliefs and values that may be different from their own.
Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J
Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate
Stienstra, Martin R.; Harms, Rainer; ten Ham, R.; Groen, Arend J.
Processes that lead to the creation of new ventures are characterized by a combination of planned (causation) and emergent (effectuation) actions. Which one prevails is among others depending on contextual factors such as industry and national culture. Research on the impact of national culture on
Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.
Ruslan Vyacheslavovich Kostrigin
Full Text Available Purpose. The article examines the influence of socio-cultural space of educational institution on the formation and manifestation of mental and emotional characteristics of students. The authors present the social culture of the University educational space as a socio-cultural environment, significant living space, which is in the process of formation of a student personality. Methodology. The basis of the research is the fundamental principles of modern psychology on the social conditioning of personality development in activity, communication and vocational training, the modern ideas of humanistic psychology and pedagogy, the system-structural approach to the analysis of the personality, the role of education and vocational training in its development were the methodological and theoretical basis of the work. Results. The results of this research consist of the fact that the authors represent the range of types of project activities with its potential enable to shape moral consciousness, value orientation, and sustainable world view, related to the solution of life issues. The conclusion has been made about a direct relationship of quality of educational space and the manifestation of psycho-emotional characteristics of students and development and self-development of emotional sphere of personality. Practical implications. The results of the study can be applied in the sphere of education, work with the students, and for the work of psychological pedagogical services.
Henriksen, Kristoffer; Storm, Louise Kamuk; Larsen, Carsten Hvid
athlete development; (3) that such an organisational culture can, and must, be deliberately developed and maintained by the coach and management through cultural leadership; and (4) that a key task of the sport psychology practitioner is to make the coach conscious of his role as a culture leader and thus......In this chapter we will argue: (a) that a preoccupation with individual talented athletes should be supplemented with an understanding of the environment in which they develop; (b) that a strong and coherent organisational culture of a youth club or team is a, if not the, key factor in successful...
users of individualistic cultures (e.g. the US) would not be influenced as much by their friends in their twitting behavior as users of collectivist ...advanced experiment (Georgila and Traum, 2011c) we learn policies for three cultural norms ( individualists , collectivists , and altruists...Canadians were less likely to request for help but overall received more help compared to individuals from collectivistic cultures . 8. Honor and
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...
Pereira, Carlos Henrique V.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Vieira Neto, Antonio S.
This paper analyzes the social networks that influence the formation and maintenance of the safety culture within the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP). From the mapping and analysis of social networks, actors with a significant degree of influence were identified. Later using a questionnaire, the beliefs of the population sample were mapped. Thus, the importance of key actors in the network analysis could be confirmed statistically. Therefore, based on the mentioned methods we could demonstrate our hypothesis, that there are some social networks that are important in the formation of safety culture, as well as the fact that the influence of some distinguished actors plays an essential role in this amalgam. (author)
Pereira, Carlos Henrique V.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Vieira Neto, Antonio S., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
This paper analyzes the social networks that influence the formation and maintenance of the safety culture within the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP). From the mapping and analysis of social networks, actors with a significant degree of influence were identified. Later using a questionnaire, the beliefs of the population sample were mapped. Thus, the importance of key actors in the network analysis could be confirmed statistically. Therefore, based on the mentioned methods we could demonstrate our hypothesis, that there are some social networks that are important in the formation of safety culture, as well as the fact that the influence of some distinguished actors plays an essential role in this amalgam. (author)
Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.
Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.
Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.
Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.
A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)
cultural , Social Influence, Communication modality, Emotional contagion, Individualistic , Collectivistic , Group orientation, Behavioral influences 16...appeals to take additional training – Culture groups: Individualistic and Collectivistic – Six persuasive appeals will be used in the stimuli: rational...between media type and emotional contagion Does culture influence the impact of social proof? H4: Collectivistic cultures will engage in
Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
Lolokote, Sainyugu; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Li, Xiaofeng
An unhealthy lifestyle of college students is an important public health concern, but few studies have been undertaken to examine the role of socio-cultural differences. For this cross-sectional comparative study, data on college students' health-promoting lifestyles (HPL), as measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) scale, and self-rated health status (SRH) as measured by Sub-Optimal Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) were collected from 829 college students. The sample of 829 college students included 504 (60.8%) Chinese and 325 (39.2%) international students. Chinese students had higher scores in overall health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) (P difference in psychological health subscale (P = 0.156, eta squared = 0.002). HPL was predicted by financial status among the Chinese group and by student's major, age and level of education in the international group. Body mass index (BMI) and financial status emerged as predictors of the three subscales of SHMS V1.0 in the Chinese group and also of physiological and psychological subscales in the international group. Gender was associated with psychological health in both groups. Smoking status was a predictor of psychological health in both groups and also of social health in the international group. The level of education emerged as a predictor of social health in the international group. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (P cultural factors as key determinants of the HPL and SRH of college students.
Godfrey, Ph.D. Winset Group, LLC. Fairfax, VA Arab Cultural Influences 2 Introduction “The handling of time is revealing of how unconscious implicit...faint strains of this tendency in, for example, the works of William Shakespeare . Here, Western society has extracted, excerpted and restated...Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 430-454. Khaldûn, I. (1967). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Background Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. Objective We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Methods Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. Results We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Conclusions Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications
Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina
In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...
In this paper, a Jungian understanding of cultural factors influencing individual analysis is illustrated with the case of a patient suffering from panic attacks. The analysis revealed that, in addition to the patient's personal background, the collectivistic attitudes of the Soviet culture, which had a moulding effect on the patient in his childhood and obstructed his individuation, should be taken into account. The concepts of the totalitarian object and the Russian cultural complex encompassing a grandiosity pole and an inferiority pole are used to explore the patient's condition, and the crucial role of creating mutual language with the patient is outlined. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
An organizations safety culture can influence safety outcomes. Research and experience show that when safety culture is strong, accidents are less frequent and less severe. As a result, building and maintaining strong safety cultures should be a t...
Influence of culture and religion on HIV and sexuality education among South African ... the prevailing religious and cultural tolerance sexuality education is receiving. ... was mainly driven by their own cultural and religious values and beliefs.
Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T
The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2) culturally independent participants, enmeshment will not be a risk factor for (1) participants of Asian descent or (2) culturally interdependent participants. P...
Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de
Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun
The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.
Carrasco, Beatriz; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Barri, Pedro N; Veiga, Anna
To determine whether the type of medium used to culture human embryos in vitro influences neonatal birth weight after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study and a retrospective study. Private assisted reproduction center. The prospective study included 449 IVF/ICSI cycles from August to December 2008. The retrospective analysis was performed for 2,518 IVF/ICSI cycles from October 2006 to December 2010. In the prospective study, patients were randomized for embryo culture in Cook or Vitrolife medium. The retrospective study was performed with three different culture media (MediCult, Cook, and Vitrolife). Mean birth weight, adjusted for gestational age and gender (z score) of newborns. In the prospective study, the average z score was -0.19 ± 0.85 in Cook and 0.08 ± 1.40 in Vitrolife. In the retrospective study, the z scores obtained in each group were as follows: Cook, -0.14 ± 0.96; MediCult, 0.06 ± 1.13; and Vitrolife, 0.03 ± 1.05. No significant differences were observed regarding the birth weight of children born in the different groups in both studies. The results do not show any relationship between the medium used for in vitro culture and mean birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender of singletons born after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd
The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the ...
Régnier, Faustine; Chauvel, Louis
Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications for public health: the digital self
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd
The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.
Ferguson, Gail M; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Iturbide, Maria I
Cultural variability (CV) is introduced as an overlooked dimension of cultural identity development pertaining to emphasizing and de-emphasizing the influence of a single cultural identity (i.e., cultural influence [CI]) on daily interactions and behaviors. The Cultural IDentity Influence Measure (CIDIM) is introduced as a novel measure of CI and CV, and hypothesis-driven validation is conducted in two samples along with exploration of associations between CV and well-being. A multicultural sample of 242 emerging adults participated in a daily diary study (Mage = 19.95 years, SDage = 1.40) by completing up to eight daily online surveys containing the CIDIM, criterion measures (ethnic identity, other group orientation, ethnic identity salience and daily variability in salience, social desirability), and measures of personal and interpersonal well-being. A second validation sample (n = 245) completed a 1-time survey with the CIDIM and a subset of criterion measures. Results using both samples show evidence of CI and CV and demonstrate the validity, reliability, and domain-sensitivity of the CIDIM. Further, CV made unique and positive contributions to predicting interaction quality after accounting for ethnic salience and variability in ethnic salience. An analytic approach utilizing standard deviations produced near-identical results to multilevel modeling and is recommended for parsimony. Ethnic minority and majority individuals make daily adjustments to play up and play down the influence of cultural identity on their social interactions and behaviors, and these adjustments predict interpersonal well-being. Cultural influence and cultural variability contribute to our emerging understanding of cultural identity as dynamic and agentic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S
The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.
The negative impact of physical violence against children is well established, but cultural norms surrounding appropriate acts of violence vary and aspects of one’s culture influence these behaviors. Given that the U.S. is multicultural, it is critical to examine which aspects of immigrants’ cultures are risky or protective for physical discipline. However, researchers who study the links between culture and physical punishment typically focus on one culture and the factors identified in one ...
Johnathon P. Ehsani
Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.
Choy, Siew Chee; Sedhu, Daljeet Singh; Liew, Yow Lin; Lee, Mun Yee; Malenee, Audrey; Anuar, Norkhadirah
Purpose: The reason many Asian students find student-centred learning challenging may be due to cultural factors present in every human interaction between individuals. This study attempts to determine the influence of these cultural factors on students' awareness of how and why they learn. Method: A sample of 12 students enrolled in a two year…
Full Text Available The Increasing of infrastructure development in Indonesia and the need of facilities and infrastructure for the resident and also upgrading and advancing the technology every subject need to have a proper contract and this may result in prolonged disputes when in to a project contract and disputes that are not handled carefully especially when associated with a broad of territory of Indonesia that has diverse cultures languages and customs. Referring to Act no. 18 1999 on Construction Services Act no. 30 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Settlement and Act No.2 of 2017 concerning Construction Services that is Indonesia path of law for construction disputes settlement Legal culture in Indonesia among others consensus for consensus as one of the legal component also greatly affect the work of the legal system. Attitudes of eastern society that put forward the values of harmonization for the application of law in solving the problem. The eastern people tend to reject the application of the third party to solve the construction dispute because the court is considered as the rifters of social relations of society. The value of harmony and tend to close the problem is the culture of the eastern society and this is certainly very different from the way of view and attitude of western society in looking at the law. The modeling given the variables which need to be observed so that the conflicts can be minimized. The results of the questionnaires modeled with the model proved statistically to provide information that dispute resolution with the dispute board is the preferred system of society in the scope of the study area. This is to increase awareness or prevent the happening of dispute. So dispute resolution could resolve quickly and appropriately and must be handled from the beginning of contract by independent experts trusts and people respect to it. So the project continues but the settlement of claims and or disputes is still being
Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.
Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane
Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Improvement of the Chondrocyte-Specific Phenotype upon Equine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation: Influence of Culture Time, Transforming Growth Factors and Type I Collagen siRNAs on the Differentiation Index
Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a tissue characterized by its poor intrinsic capacity for self-repair. This tissue is frequently altered upon trauma or in osteoarthritis (OA, a degenerative disease that is currently incurable. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and OA incurs considerable economic loss for the equine sector. In the view to develop new therapies for humans and horses, significant progress in tissue engineering has led to the emergence of new generations of cartilage therapy. Matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is an advanced 3D cell-based therapy that holds promise for cartilage repair. This study aims to improve the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique by using equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow differentiated into chondrocytes that can be implanted in the chondral lesion. The optimized protocol relies on culture under hypoxia within type I/III collagen sponges. Here, we explored three parameters that influence MSC differentiation: culture times, growth factors and RNA interference strategies. Our results suggest first that an increase in culture time from 14 to 28 or 42 days lead to a sharp increase in the expression of chondrocyte markers, notably type II collagen (especially the IIB isoform, along with a concomitant decrease in HtrA1 expression. Nevertheless, the expression of type I collagen also increased with longer culture times. Second, regarding the growth factor cocktail, TGF-β3 alone showed promising result but the previously tested association of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 better limits the expression of type I collagen. Third, RNA interference targeting Col1a2 as well as Col1a1 mRNA led to a more significant knockdown, compared with a conventional strategy targeting Col1a1 alone. This chondrogenic differentiation strategy showed a strong increase in the Col2a1:Col1a1 mRNA ratio in the chondrocytes derived from equine bone marrow MSCs, this ratio being considered as an
Improvement of the Chondrocyte-Specific Phenotype upon Equine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation: Influence of Culture Time, Transforming Growth Factors and Type I Collagen siRNAs on the Differentiation Index.
Branly, Thomas; Contentin, Romain; Desancé, Mélanie; Jacquel, Thibaud; Bertoni, Lélia; Jacquet, Sandrine; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Audigié, Fabrice; Demoor, Magali; Galéra, Philippe
Articular cartilage is a tissue characterized by its poor intrinsic capacity for self-repair. This tissue is frequently altered upon trauma or in osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease that is currently incurable. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and OA incurs considerable economic loss for the equine sector. In the view to develop new therapies for humans and horses, significant progress in tissue engineering has led to the emergence of new generations of cartilage therapy. Matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is an advanced 3D cell-based therapy that holds promise for cartilage repair. This study aims to improve the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique by using equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow differentiated into chondrocytes that can be implanted in the chondral lesion. The optimized protocol relies on culture under hypoxia within type I/III collagen sponges. Here, we explored three parameters that influence MSC differentiation: culture times, growth factors and RNA interference strategies. Our results suggest first that an increase in culture time from 14 to 28 or 42 days lead to a sharp increase in the expression of chondrocyte markers, notably type II collagen (especially the IIB isoform), along with a concomitant decrease in HtrA1 expression. Nevertheless, the expression of type I collagen also increased with longer culture times. Second, regarding the growth factor cocktail, TGF-β3 alone showed promising result but the previously tested association of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 better limits the expression of type I collagen. Third, RNA interference targeting Col1a2 as well as Col1a1 mRNA led to a more significant knockdown, compared with a conventional strategy targeting Col1a1 alone. This chondrogenic differentiation strategy showed a strong increase in the Col2a1 : Col1a1 mRNA ratio in the chondrocytes derived from equine bone marrow MSCs, this ratio being considered as an index of the
Ahorlu, Collins K; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit
Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Out of 820 adolescents interviewed, 128 (16%) were pregnant or mothers. Adolescents in both groups (62% never pregnant girls and 68% pregnant/young mothers) have access to social support, especially from their parents. Parents are taking the place of aunts and grandmothers in providing sexual education to their adolescent girls due to changing social structures where extended families no longer reside together in most cases. More (79%) pregnant girls and young mothers compared to never pregnant girls (38%) have access to economic support (P = pregnancy among adolescent girls. Findings showed that adolescent girls, especially those that get pregnant should not be viewed as weak and vulnerable because many of them have developed competencies to cope with pregnancy and childbirth effectively. Thus, focusing on developing the competencies of girls to access social, economic and cultural capitals may be an effective way of tackling the threat of teenage pregnancy than focusing only on their vulnerability and
(1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size
Ryan, Stephen B.
The goal of this paper is to highlight and discuss the importance of culture and how it can affect our communication in intercultural contexts. We shall discuss the affect culture can have on communication in cross-cultural contexts using specific examples from Japanese and English speakers. Two culture models are presented for understanding and making sense of these cross-cultural events. The final purpose of this paper is to offer a way for readers and intercultural students to think about ...
Full Text Available In order to rectify environmental degradation, government has encouraged sustainable management among businesses. In addition, researchers have also suggested a new breed of study called “sustainable entrepreneurship”, which links sustainability management to entrepreneurial activities. However, the participation of entrepreneurial firms in sustainability management is still far from satisfactory. Past studies also have found that SMEs are less active in sustainabilty initiatives and many issues related to the intention of firms for sustainability entrepreneurship is still unanswered. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the influence of socio-cultural factors on intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. A total of 404 SMEs in Malaysia were surveyed by using questionnaire. Based on the statistical analyses performed, this study found that three socio-cultural factors, namely time orientation, sustainability orientation and social norm significantly influenced intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. Thus, in order to develop true sustainable entrepreneurs in the country, the effects of non-economic factors such as socio-cultural factors should not be underestimated. Lastly, some recommendations for future researchers have also been put forth in this paper.
Student Claudia MOISĂ
Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Culture is one of the most important factors affecting the marketing department to shape their strategy. This is particularly true when facing global marketing. This project is aimed at examining how the culture influences brand loyalty towards cosmetic products by comparing consumer behaviours of UK and Taiwanese consumers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted in order to collect data. By applying a qualitative approach, this project provides an insight of the cultural factors infl...
Diaz, Victor Alejandro
For many, the term "Hispanic" places undue emphasis on the European influence of Spanish colonialism and may even have negative connotations for some. "Latino" is a more encompassing term that gives recognition to the influences of the indigenous and African cultures on modern day Latin Americans. Nevertheless, recognition of typical Latino attitudes and beliefs may assist health care providers. Poverty, unemployment, and low level of education usually account for adverse health in this population. Anti-immigrant sentiment and discrimination in health care and education add adversity to the immigrant's experience. Lack of health insurance and access to quality health care typically plague the adult immigrant. For many, the nearest emergency department is their only source of medical care.
Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A
Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that
Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Gasperini, Frank A
Most US farmers are small, independent owner-operators, many of whom are exempt from safety regulation and enforcement, as well as age restrictions relative to family members performing hazardous tasks. These smaller farms account for a disproportionate share of the total fatality and injury statistics from farming incidents, contributing to an agriculture-industry death rate that is seven times greater than all occupations combined. In contrast, large agricultural enterprises that employ larger numbers of non-family workers are more regulated and more highly incentivized by economic, supply chain, and societal factors to implement cultures of safety, and are more readily influenced by agricultural opinion leaders, agribusinesses, farm organizations, and agricultural media. These agricultural influencer institutions must find ways to play more significant roles in changing the culture on operations that use only family labor. They will find willing partners in safety organizations such as the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), Agricultural Extension, and other health and safety advocates, including the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded agricultural research centers. The overall workplace injury statistics for agriculture remain alarming; however, with leadership from the larger farm operations, and help from ASHCA, academia, the healthcare community, and others, the current culture of workplace safety and health in agriculture can be impacted in positive ways.
Food, an essential prerequisite for existence, plays an irreplaceable role in the development of society and in the progress of human beings. Chinese food culture has a long and bril iant history, but under the huge impacts of the western civilization, it has been greatly influenced. From these study, the positive influences of the western food culture on the contemporary Chinese food culture can be clearly seen, which also have promoted the diverse developments of Chinese dietary culture.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…
This survey was carried out to assess attitudes and behaviour among youth within four constituencies in Oshana region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors inform attitudes and influence sexual behaviour among the population of young people surveyed. Using a structured questionnaire, ...
Introduction: in recent years, the Far North Region of Cameroon has experienced serious and recurrent cholera outbreaks. Yet, understanding of cultural influences on outbreaks and spread remain poorly understood. This qualitative study explored cultural influences on cholera exposure in this region. Methods: interviews ...
Sowattanangoon, Napaporn; Kotchabhakdi, Naipinich; Petrie, Keith J
To explore the way Thai patients perceive and manage their diabetes. Using a focused ethnographic approach, face-to-face interviews were conducted at two public hospitals in Bangkok. All interviews (n=27) were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview transcripts was completed thematically. The findings showed that Thai patients manage their diabetes according to their beliefs about diabetes. These beliefs are constructed using both modern and traditional knowledge. For example, some patients explained the cause of their illness as being due to biomedical factors such as genetics, and also cultural factors such as karma from either previous or current lifetimes. The analysis also revealed that some aspects of Thai life facilitate diabetes self-management while other aspects hamper good control of the illness. For example, Buddhist values of moderation contribute positively to dietary change, while, on the other hand, the importance of rice in the Thai diet can impede successful self-management strategies. The results of this research indicate that Thai culture influences diabetes perceptions and management. Culturally appropriate treatment guidelines should be established for diabetes management that give special consideration to the significance and meaning of food and to Buddhist beliefs.
Gregory, David; Harrowing, Jean; Lee, Bonnie; Doolittle, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Patrick S
In this qualitative study, we explored how students understood "culture." Participants defined culture and wrote narratives regarding specific cultural encounters. The sample comprised both nursing (n=14) and non-nursing (n=8) students to allow for comparison groups. Content analysis of the narratives revealed two broad paradigms of cultural understanding: essentialist and constructivist. Essentialist narratives comprised four themes: determinism (culture defied individual resistance); relativism (the possibility of making value judgments disappeared); Othering (culture was equated to exotica, and emphasized difference); and, reductionism (personhood was eclipsed by culture). In contrast, the constructivist narratives were characterized by influence (non-determinism), dynamism (culture was dynamic and evolutionary); and, relationship-building. The unintended negative consequences of essentialist notions of culture were revealed in the nursing students' narratives. Pedagogy is implicated in nursing students' essentialized understanding of culture.
Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross - cultural psychology : Research and applications (Second Edition). Cambridge...Annual Review of Psychology , 51, 93–120. Matsumoto , D. (1996). Culture and psychology . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M...interpreters. Infantry, Spring, 22–27. Shiraev, E., & Levy, D. (2004). Cross - cultural psychology : Critical thinking and contemporary applications. Boston
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.
Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…
Due to Increased regional integration, countries, which were previously closed to the world, became exposed to universal or partly adapted marketing mixes. A discussion whether global marketing campaigns can influence national cultures, and serve as a drive for emergence of global culture is developed in the article. The paper demonstrates that the conclusion, whether global marketing campaigns can generate globalisation of culture, depends on the definition of culture, which can overwhelm ei...
Vaisey, Stephen; Lizardo, Omar
Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article…
The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...
This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...
This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...
Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...
Faktor-faktor Budaya Organisasi, Suatu Studi Pada Prodi Administrasi Bisnis (ADBIS - Telkom University Bandung [Factors Influencing Organizational Culture: A Study of the Business Administration Program (ADBIS at Telkom University Bandung
Full Text Available Organizations exist because of the human need for relationships, interaction, communication, and socializing one to another to meet a common goal. Organizational culture becomes an important part that influences the effectiveness of the organization (the term for the fulfillment of the purpose of the organization. This study aims to determine the organizational culture conditions at Prodi Adbis Tel-U by using indicators from the Denison organizational culture model that show involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission. In addition to a theoretical study of the importance of organizational culture, the background for this study is a new formation at Tel-U in which there are Adbis Prodi, in recognition of the organization's culture conditions. Adbis through this research can contribute to gradually building a strong organizational culture where Adbis is aligned with the culture of Tel-U. The research method is a quantitative method with data collection using questionnaires sampling populations of faculty and staff at Prodi Adbis Tel-U with as many as 41 people processed using descriptive statistics. The results showed the overall average of the culture of the organization in the department of the Tel-U Adbis FKB including very low category with the highest score on the mission and the lowest subvariable on involvement.
is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying to understand how other cultural dimensions than the traditionally studied influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision-making. It is revealed that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which...... Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions, but it is also revealed that it could be crucial when studying the influence of culture on emotions in decision-making to distinguish between more than high and low arousal positive and negative...
Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen
The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.
Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen
Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033
Gutberg, Jennifer; Berta, Whitney
The past fifteen years have been marked by large-scale change efforts undertaken by healthcare organizations to improve patient safety and patient-centered care. Despite substantial investment of effort and resources, many of these large-scale or "radical change" initiatives, like those in other industries, have enjoyed limited success - with practice and behavioural changes neither fully adopted nor ultimately sustained - which has in large part been ascribed to inadequate implementation efforts. Culture change to "patient safety culture" (PSC) is among these radical change initiatives, where results to date have been mixed at best. This paper responds to calls for research that focus on explicating factors that affect efforts to implement radical change in healthcare contexts, and focuses on PSC as the radical change implementation. Specifically, this paper offers a novel conceptual model based on Organizational Learning Theory to explain the ability of middle managers in healthcare organizations to influence patient safety culture change. We propose that middle managers can capitalize on their unique position between upper and lower levels in the organization and engage in 'ambidextrous' learning that is critical to implementing and sustaining radical change. This organizational learning perspective offers an innovative way of framing the mid-level managers' role, through both explorative and exploitative activities, which further considers the necessary organizational context in which they operate.
Friedlander, M.A.; Evans, S.A.
Much has been written in contemporary business literature during the last decade describing the role that corporate culture plays in virtually every aspect of a firm's success. In 1990 Kotter and Heskett wrote, open-quotes We found that firms with cultures that emphasized all of the key managerial constituencies (customers, stockholders, and employees) and leadership from managers at all levels out-performed firms that did not have those cultural traits by a huge margin. Over an eleven year period, the former increased revenues by an average of 682 percent versus 166 percent for the latter, expanded their workforce by 282 percent versus 36 percent, grew their stock prices by 901 percent versus 74 percent, and improved their net incomes by 756 percent versus 1 percent.close quotes Since the mid-1980s, several electric utilities have documented their efforts to undertake strategic culture change. In almost every case, these efforts have yielded dramatic improvements in the open-quotes bottom-lineclose quotes operational and financial results (e.g., Western Resources, Arizona Public Service, San Diego Gas ampersand Electric, and Electricity Trust of South Australia). Given the body of evidence that indicates a relationship between high-performing organizational culture and the financial and business success of a firm, Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light Company undertook a study to identify the relationship between organizational culture and the frequency, severity, and nature of human error at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. The underlying proposition for this asssessment is that organizational culture is an independent variable that transforms external events into organizational performance
Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…
Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.
et al.), Westerman et al. also hypothesized that cultures categorized as individualistic and lower power distance will be more influenced by peers...while collectivistic and high power distance cultures will be less influenced by peers. Westerman and colleagues point out that people from...Humansystems® Social and Leadership Factors influencing Ethical Decision Making Page 25 individualistic cultures (e.g., Germany and Italy) are concerned
Watling, Christopher; Driessen, Erik; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei
Although feedback is widely considered essential to learning, its actual influence on learners is variable. Research on responsivity to feedback has tended to focus on individual rather than social or cultural influences on learning. In this study, we explored how feedback is handled within different professional cultures, and how the characteristics and values of a profession shape learners' responses to feedback. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted 12 focus groups and nine individual interviews (with a total of 50 participants) across three cultures of professional training in, respectively, music, teacher training and medicine. Constant comparative analysis for recurring themes was conducted iteratively. Each of the three professional cultures created a distinct context for learning that influenced how feedback was handled. Despite these contextual differences, credibility and constructiveness emerged as critical constants, identified by learners across cultures as essential for feedback to be perceived as meaningful. However, the definitions of credibility and constructiveness were distinct to each professional culture and the cultures varied considerably in how effectively they supported the occurrence of feedback with these critical characteristics. Professions define credibility and constructiveness in culturally specific ways and create contexts for learning that may either facilitate or constrain the provision of meaningful feedback. Comparison with other professional cultures may offer strategies for creating a productive feedback culture within medical education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Portex, Marine; Foulin, Jean-Noël; Troadec, Bertrand
The present study was aimed at investigating how print experience as a cultural factor influences directional tendencies in children's drawing in the interplay with biomechanical (hand), syntactic (shape orientation) and semantic (shape meaning) factors. Eighty-eight right-handed children from three literacy/age groups (preliterate, first graders and third graders) had to copy a geometrical shape adapted from the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. The shape was presented alternatively leftward and rightward, while using both dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) hands. Directional tendencies were assessed regarding directionality of drawing movements at global, intermediate and local levels and deviation error in centre line bisection. Results show a global improvement of drawing quality and strategies across groups and an advantage for the dominant right hand from 6 years onward. Regarding directional tendencies, a reinforcement of a congruency effect between conditions and writing direction was found from preliterates to third graders. These results are discussed as a cultural embodiment process and have implications for psychological testing.
to understand how other cultural dimensions, than those traditionally studied (individualism vs. collectivism) in relation to consumers’ behavior, influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research focusing on culture and emotion. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision making but there is an emerging interest in deepening the understanding of this. Review of previous studies...... reveal that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying...
Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li
Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.
This study sought to find out the extent to which some psycho cultural and ... psycho cultural and physiological variables (gender, age, traditional beliefs about ..... (Ed.) Confronting the AIDS Epidemic, ... Counselling Psychology, 6 (1): 39-57.
Full Text Available Different cultural environment requires a corresponding managerial environment. The process of managing decisions adoption is influenced by the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the employees.
Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv
This theoretical paper addresses the influence of culture on risk taking and exploratory behavior. The cultural dimensions of long-term orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and masculinity (Hofstede, 1984, 2001) are hypothesized to influence risk-taking behavior in general, and, through it, exploratory consumption behavior, risk taking, and risk attitudes and perception towards specific products. We also propose an empirical study to test the emergent model. Fu...
Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.
Frazier, Christopher B; Ludwig, Timothy D; Whitaker, Brian; Roberts, D Steve
Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor, & Bryden, 2000; Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered to 25,574 workers across five multi-national organizations in five different industries. Exploratory and hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses were conducted revealing four second-order factors of a Safety Culture consisting of Management Concern, Personal Responsibility for Safety, Peer Support for Safety, and Safety Management Systems. Additionally, a total of 12 first-order factors were found: three on Management Concern, three on Personal Responsibility, two on Peer Support, and four on Safety Management Systems. The resulting safety culture model addresses gaps in the literature by indentifying the core constructs which make up a safety culture. This clarification of the major factors emerging in the measurement of safety cultures should impact the industry through a more accurate description, measurement, and tracking of safety cultures to reduce loss due to injury. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Moon Sook; Kim, Kyoung Ja
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nurse work environments and patient safety culture on attitudes toward incident reporting. Patient safety culture had been known as a factor of incident reporting by nurses. Positive work environment could be an important influencing factor for the safety behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The structured questionnaire was administered to 191 nurses working at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Nurses' perception of work environment and patient safety culture were positively correlated with attitudes toward incident reporting. A regression model with clinical career, work area and nurse work environment, and patient safety culture against attitudes toward incident reporting was statistically significant. The model explained approximately 50.7% of attitudes toward incident reporting. Improving nurses' attitudes toward incident reporting can be achieved with a broad approach that includes improvements in work environment and patient safety culture.
AJRH Managing Editor
level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.
Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.
exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.
Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...
ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...
The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated
Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others
This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…
Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Bersamin, Melina; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Children from immigrant families often translate communication for parents, a process known as language brokering (LB). LB begins in childhood, but may continue through emerging adulthood, even when individuals are in college. We surveyed 1,222 university students with two immigrant parents and compared non-language brokers, infrequent language brokers, and frequent language brokers on a variety of ethnic, cultural, and identity measures. Significant differences emerged for cultural heritage value orientation, ethnic identity, and dimensions of acculturation with frequent language brokers scoring highest, infrequent language brokers scoring in the middle, and non-language brokers scoring the lowest on these measures. There were no significant differences on acculturative stress among these three groups. These results suggest that LB experiences may contribute to the development of psychological assets for ethnic minority, emerging adults from immigrant families.
Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter
The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.
Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use
Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N
Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watling, C.N.; Driessen, E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Vanstone, M.; Lingard, L.
CONTEXT: Although feedback is widely considered essential to learning, its actual influence on learners is variable. Research on responsivity to feedback has tended to focus on individual rather than social or cultural influences on learning. In this study, we explored how feedback is handled within
Henschke, Nicholas; Lorenz, Eva; Pokora, Roman; Michaleff, Zoe A; Quartey, Jonathan N A; Oliveira, Vinicius Cunha
Low back pain is highly prevalent and places a considerable burden on individuals, their families and communities. This back pain burden is unequally distributed around the world and within populations. Clinicians and researchers addressing back pain should be aware of the cultural, social and political context of back pain patients and how this context can influence pain perception, disability and health care use. Culture, which influences the beliefs and behaviour of individuals within a social group, could be considered an important contributor to the unequal distribution of back pain. However, there is paucity of high-quality research exploring the influence of culture on the experience and management of back pain. Further development and testing of specific tools, assessment methods and communication strategies are needed to improve our understanding of how cultural practices, values and identifications affect those dealing with back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marjorie C. Falanruw
Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...
Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…
Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal
Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.
Full Text Available Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.
Kumanyika, Shiriki K
Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.
Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Sawada, N.; Tomomura, A.; Sattler, C.A.; Sattler, G.L.; Kleinman, H.K.; Pitot, H.C.
The effects of several extracellular matrix components (EMCs) - fibronectin (Fn), laminin (Ln), type I (C-I) and type IV (C-IV) collagen - on DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes in primary culture were examined by both quantitative scintillation spectrometry and autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. Hepatocytes cultured on Fn showed the most active DNA synthesis initiated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with decreasing levels of [ 3 H]thymidine uptake exhibited in the cell cultured on C-IV, C-I, and Ln, respectively. The decreasing level of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes cultured on Fn, C-IV, C-I, and Ln respectively was not influenced by cell density. The number of EGF receptors of hepatocytes was also not influenced by EMCs. These data suggest that EMCs modify hepatocyte DNA synthesis by means of post-EGF-receptor mechanisms which are regulated by both growth factors and cell density
Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane
Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006
Watson, Liana M
To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.
Zandstra, Heleen; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Dumoulin, John C M
Do culture media influence birthweight of children born after IVF? Some studies have observed a significant effect of culture media on birthweight, while others have not, but since most studies compared different culture media, conventional meta-analysis was not possible. Animal studies suggest that in vitro culture of embryos can have a significant effect on the birthweight of offspring when compared with in vivo developed embryos. The type of culture medium (or certain components of the medium) used is one of the causal factors. We reviewed all available literature reporting on a relation between culture medium and birthweight in human studies and a selection of animal studies. An extensive literature search on Pubmed and Medline was performed with relevant search criteria relating to IVF, birthweight and culture medium. Eleven studies reporting on a relationship between culture medium and birthweight in human were included in this review. Five of these found significant differences in birthweight when offspring born after culture in different culture media were compared. The remaining studies did not find differences in birthweight after changing culture medium. The number of human studies is limited and different culture media with different compositions are compared which makes a comparison between the studies difficult, if not impossible. Furthermore, most study designs were retrospective with consecutive use of different culture media and limited sample sizes, which makes bias of the results likely. If it could be confirmed that the type of culture medium used does indeed influence phenotypic characteristics (such as birthweight) of children born after IVF, it would underline the importance of monitoring the health of IVF children in relation to aspects of the laboratory techniques used during embryo culture. No funding was applicable to this study. No conflict of interest is declared. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
Ottsen, Christina L.; Koppel, Jonathan; Johannessen, Kim Berg
Expectations of control put forth by societal norms impose a constant influence on goal perception. To examine the influence of culture on perception of personal goals, 124 Middle Easterners and 128 Scandinavians rated their perceived locus of control, generated goals and evaluated goal...... characteristics. Findings show several cultural and gender differences, most notably in perceived locus of control, unhappiness despite goal achievement and adherence to cultural life script. Many differences were qualified by interactions, suggesting that Middle Eastern men deviate from Middle Eastern women...... and Scandinavians of both sexes. The Middle Eastern men demonstrated greater ambivalence regarding goal achievement, and contrary to previous findings from other cultural samples, they also showed a significant positive association between internal and external control. Furthermore , goals generated by Middle...
The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie
This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna
The brain’s mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, i.e. the magnitude of individuals’ bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during fMRI. As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. While expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals’ overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post-hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions “feel like.” PMID:27270077
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of cross cultural leadership on organisational culture. This is assessed by using the GLOBE project’s dimensions of culture which are an extension to Hofstede model of culture. These are; power distance, uncertainty avoidance, human orientation, individuality vs. collectivism, egalitarianism, assertiveness, long term orientation and performance orientation. As more organisations in South Africa become more culturally diverse, it is important to determine where the organisational culture stems from? This is essential in addressing cross cultural conflicts and in efforts to create a winning culture in the workplace. The case study involves Arcelormittal South Africa (AMSA, and will hopefully contribute positively in identifying salient cultural implications in managerial positions such as for example, high employee turnover and cultural clashes which hinder individual performance. A qualitative research design was used in this study to determine participants’ perspectives on organisational culture and leadership. Two instruments were used for primary data collection in this research. The first one was designed by the researcher to capture the demographics data for this particular study. The second instrument used was the GLOBE survey questionnaire which captured 8 dimensions of culture and was specifically designed to encompass questions relevant to the business environment. A convenience sampling methodology was used with a target population of 115 managers classified as middle management of AMSA. The research revealed that there is a general shift from a Eurocentric approach to leadership which is congruent with high individualism and low human orientation. The influence of cross cultural leadership is thus indicated by the preference for higher degree of human orientation and collectivism amongst managers, which is associated with the Afrocentric leadership style and the black ethnic
Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen
Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...
Impacto de la hidatidosis: Influencia de factores ambientales y socioculturales en Tucumán, Argentina Impact of the Hydatidosis: Influence of Environment and Social-Culture Factors. Tucumán - Argentina
José Antonio Remis; Eduardo Alfredo Guarnera; Alberto Parra
Objetivo: Exponer experiencias de trabajo en terreno sobre la epidemiología y control de hidatidosis en la región de Alta Montaña de Tucumán, su impacto social, económico y sanitario. Material y Métodos: Mediante visitas programadas a la región endémica se estudiaron factores socioculturales establecidos en la población y su contribución para la permanencia de la enfermedad en la región de Alta Montaña de Tucumán. Se consultaron registros para medir el impacto de la patología en el hombre y e...
Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping
There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.
Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel
Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nov 3, 2010 ... A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that influence partnership performance was developed, and used in conjunction with a Partnering Process Model, to guide the preparation of the case studies. The incorporation of the temporality dimension is quite novel and adds to the understanding and ...
Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad
Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...
de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P
Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...
The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...
V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...
Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.
Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.
Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.
Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…
The purpose of this paper is to identify if aspects of organizational culture may indicate a new terrain in the cultural influences-quality healthcare relationship. This research stems from the author's belief that viewing the role of head of department or directorate as pivotal to health care management is critical to health care planning and quality healthcare delivery. Interviews were undertaken among 50 professional clinician and non-clinician managers working in the role of head of department, in acute care hospitals in Ireland. The sample was drawn from the total population of 850 managers, utilized in a previous survey study. Organizational culture is more complex than was previously thought. Several cultural influences such as excellence in care delivery, ethical values, involvement, professionalism, value-for-money, cost of care, commitment to quality and strategic thinking were found to be key cultural determinants in quality care delivery. Health care managers perceive that in order to deliver quality focused care they need to act in a professional, committed manner and to place excellence at the forefront of care delivery, whilst at the same time being capable of managing the tensions that exist between cost effectiveness and quality of care. These tensions require further research in order to determine if quality of care is affected in a negative manner by those tensions. Originality relates to the new cultural terrain presented in this paper that recognizes the potential of health service managers to influence the organizations' culture and through this influence to take a greater part in ensuring that quality health care is delivered to their patients. It also seems to be important that value-for-money is viewed as an ethical means of delivering healthcare, and not as a conflict between quality and cost.
Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.
Yılmaz, Mehmet; Yılmaz Börekçi, Dilek; Örnek, Ali
Although Third Party Logistics Service Provider (3PL) selection literature mentions organizational culture’s role in the development as well as in the maintenance of 3PL arrangements, there is a paucity of attempts to underline the significance of organizational culture’s influence on the formation and management of 3PL relationships. In this study, the influence of different organizational cultural orientations in uncertainty avoidance, future orientation, performance orientation and paterna...
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
Full Text Available In the era of rapid globalization, every kind of business and commercial trading calls for a massive exchange of ideas, products, personnel, infrastructure, and development resources across the world. Today's highly competitive global business environment sets the platform for international employee assignments, wherein people possessing the required knowledge base and motivation, move across international boundaries. The purpose of the study is to identify various factors that might influence the expatriates during their foreign assignments. The study gains significance by attempting to understand the cultural challenges and intangible barriers that might exist in a new cultural setting and which might impede the performance of expatriates. The analysis is based on the review of approximately fifty existing papers. The study finally highlights the key factors that make the expatriates perform better in their new working environment.
Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip
This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…
Zhao, Naxin; McDougall, Douglas
This study explored six Chinese graduate students' asynchronous online learning in a large urban Canadian university. Individual interviews in Mandarin elicited their perceptions of online learning, their participation in it, and the cultural factors that influenced their experiences. In general, the participants had a positive attitude towards…
Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Li, Zhang; Mano, Yoko; Saito, Daisuke; Parrish, Todd B; Sadato, Norihiro; Iidaka, Tetsuya
People living in multicultural environments often encounter situations which require them to acquire different cultural schemas and to switch between these cultural schemas depending on their immediate sociocultural context. Prior behavioral studies show that priming cultural schemas reliably impacts mental processes and behavior underlying self-concept. However, less well understood is whether or not cultural priming affects neurobiological mechanisms underlying the self. Here we examined whether priming cultural values of individualism and collectivism in bicultural individuals affects neural activity in cortical midline structures underlying self-relevant processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biculturals primed with individualistic values showed increased activation within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) during general relative to contextual self-judgments, whereas biculturals primed with collectivistic values showed increased response within MPFC and PCC during contextual relative to general self-judgments. Moreover, degree of cultural priming was positively correlated with degree of MPFC and PCC activity during culturally congruent self-judgments. These findings illustrate the dynamic influence of culture on neural representations underlying the self and, more broadly, suggest a neurobiological basis by which people acculturate to novel environments.
Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter
Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The subject of the thesis was Japanese customer service culture and the driving factors behind it. Fons Trompenaars’ and Geert Hofstedes culture studies were handled as the main part of the theoretical part of the thesis, which of only the applicable factors were introduced. The applicable factors were Trompenaars’ universal-ism/particularism, individualism/communitarianism, neutral/emotional, specific/diffuse and attitudes to environment and Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, masculinity...
Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia
factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...
Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.
Objective: To determine the role of cultural influences, namely: circumcision, ear piercing and traditional scarification, on HbsAg seropositivity among primary school children in Nnewi. Subjects and Method: Two hundred and thirty seven randomly selected primary school children aged 5-12 years, were screened for HbsAg.
Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen
This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…
Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda
Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.
Antonio Z. Gimeno García
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.
Korn, Christoph W; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Chenbo; Han, Shihui; Heekeren, Hauke R
Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others') character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic) after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] and in Beijing (behavior). We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more). Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback). Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step toward a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture.
Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Hartmann, Christina
Cultured meat could be a more environment- and animal-friendly alternative to conventional meat. However, in addition to the technological challenges, the lack of consumer acceptance could be a major barrier to the introduction of cultured meat. Therefore, it seems wise to take into account consumer concerns at an early stage of product development. In this regard, we conducted two experiments that examined the impact of perceived naturalness and disgust on consumer acceptance of cultured meat. The results of Experiment 1 suggest the participants' low level of acceptance of cultured meat because it is perceived as unnatural. Moreover, informing participants about the production of cultured meat and its benefits has the paradoxical effect of increasing the acceptance of traditional meat. Experiment 2 shows that how cultured meat is described influences the participants' perception. Thus, it is important to explain cultured meat in a nontechnical way that emphasizes the final product, not the production method, to increase acceptance of this novel food. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.
Kin, Tatsuya; Senior, Peter; O'Gorman, Doug; Richer, Brad; Salam, Abdul; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James
Culturing islets can add great flexibility to a clinical islet transplant program. However, a reduction in the islet mass has been frequently observed during culture and its degree varies. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with a significant islet loss during culture. One-hundred and four islet preparations cultured in an attempt to use for transplantation constituted this study. After culture for 20 h (median), islet yield significantly decreased from 363 309 +/- 12 647 to 313 035 +/- 10 862 islet equivalent yield (IE) (mean +/- SE), accompanied by a reduction in packed tissue volume from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 ml and islet index (IE/islet particle count) from 1.20 +/- 0.04 to 1.05 +/- 0.04. Culture did not markedly alter islet purity or percent of trapped islet. Morphology score and viability were significantly improved after culture. Of 104 islet preparations, 37 suffered a substantial islet loss (> 20%) over culture. Factors significantly associated with risk of islet loss identified by univariate analysis were longer cold ischemia time, two-layer method (TLM) preservation, lower islet purity, and higher islet index. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of islet loss were higher islet index and the use of TLM. This study provides novel information on the link between donor- isolation factors and islet loss during culture.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.
S ARMAN; M SOLTANI
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...
Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)
Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi
This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...
Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.
De Vos, A; Janssens, R; Van de Velde, H; Haentjens, P; Bonduelle, M; Tournaye, H; Verheyen, G
-significant differences in mean singleton birthweight between the two culture media. Likewise, the adjusted mean singleton birthweight was not different according to the duration of in vitro culture (P = 0.521). The conclusions are limited by its retrospective design; however, the two different sequential culture systems were used in an alternating way during the same time period. Pregnancy-associated factors possibly influencing birthweight (such as diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia) were not included in the analysis. This large retrospective study does not support earlier concerns that both the type of culture medium and the duration of embryo culture influence singleton birthweight. However, a continuous surveillance of human embryo culture procedures (medium type, culture duration and other culture conditions) should remain a priority within assisted reproduction technology. None. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna
The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chukwuneke, FN; Umeora, OUJ; Maduabuchi, JU; Egbunike, N
Bioethics principles and practice can be influenced by different cultural background. This is because the four globally accepted bioethics principles are often based on basic ethical codes such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence/nonmaleficence requires us to maximize possible benefits, while minimizing possible harms and consequently secure the well-being of others by refraining from harming them. Autonomy gives individuals the right to self-actualization and decision-making, while justice is concerned with the fair selection and distribution of the burdens and benefits of research among participants. Applications of these principles in cultural settings vary more often from one cultural perspective to the other because of the different understanding and practices of “what is good.” The proponents of global ethics may argue that these principles should be universally generalizable and acceptable, but this is not possible because of the existing cultural diversities. In the African set-up, despite the existence of major common cultural practices, there are other norms and practices, which differ from one society to the other within the communities. Therefore, the word “global” bioethics may not be applicable generally in practice except if it can account for the structural dynamics and cultural differences within the complex societies in which we live in. However, the extent to which cultural diversity should be permitted to influence bioethical judgments in Africa, which at present is burdened with many diseases, should be of concern to researchers, ethicist and medical experts taking into considerations the constantly transforming global society. This topic examines the cultural influence on principles and practice of bioethics in Africa. PMID:25328772
In this paper, cultural factors of overwork death in Japan are examined. The frequency of karoshi (death from overwork) and karo-jisatsu (suicide from overwork) tends to increase. Although these phenomena are somewhat present in other countries, they are the most frequent in Japan, which, for the purpose of explanation, imposes a need for examining its specificities. In literature, these phenomena are most often explained by economic factors. Although the cultural specificities of Japan may a...
Ho, Sio-Wa; Brotherson, Sean E
The purpose of this study was to explore the bereavement experiences of parents who had experienced the death of a child in Chinese families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 bereaved parents in Macau, China. Narrative accounts of Chinese parents' experience in the loss of a child were explored to understand how their connection to the deceased child and their worldview were influenced by cultural beliefs and values. Study themes related to parental connections with the deceased child included the use of object linking, memorializing acts, and avoidance of traditional funeral processes, with clear patterns of Chinese cultural influence. Additionally, themes related to impacts on parental worldview included use of the concept of fate as a rationale for child loss and influences on religious orientation. The influence of cultural beliefs and background on Chinese parents as they deal with the issue of a child's death was apparent. Further research is needed and will benefit our understanding of parental bereavement in Chinese families.
Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf
When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance-the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person--is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 594). The level of social distance increases if situations imply 'social closeness.' The vignette describing a person with schizophrenia, attitudes to general aspects of mental health (lay helping, community psychiatry), emotions toward those affected, and the attitude toward consequences of mental illness (medical treatment, medication side effects, negative sanctions, e.g. withdrawal of the driver license) were found to predict social distance. Demographic factors such as age, gender, and the cultural background influence social distance. The explained variance (R2) is 44.8%. Social distance is a multifaceted concept influenced by, e.g., socio-economic and cultural factors, but also by the respondent's general attitude toward (mental) health issues. These results suggest that more knowledge about mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia, may increase social distance. The findings presented here may help to focus anti-stigma campaigns not only on transmission of knowledge, but on integrating different approaches.
Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L
To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Amalia Trillo
Full Text Available This paper tries to analyse the connection between organizational culture and intellectual capital. Nowadays, the possibility of incorporating cultural capital as a factor that distinguishes the strategic–social concept of intellectual capital in the actual knowledge society is being studied. In order to this, the elements that form organizational culture in each one of the five capitals of the “Intellectus Model” have been selected. They constitute an independent capital called cultural capital. A suggestion for the future is the possibility of creating a new model. Its peculiarity is the cultural capital incorporation as a distinguishing component. This would allow relating the intangible assets elements and variables depending on the organizational culture context. It is necessary to consider than this proposal must take into account the culture as a key element, in which is based the internal logic of the model. It also provides it with the necessary dynamic structure in a competitive and changing society as ours is.
Galina T. Yedgina
Full Text Available After The Republic of Kazakhstan has got its independence we can observe intensive revival of the national culture and traditional religion as well as increasing of religiousness level of the population. So, studying of the Islamic development in our country is necessary nowadays, because it may help to comprehend specific character of social, political, historical and cultural features. The Koran is unique, it is the first written literary monument of the rise of Islam period and a code of moral, religious, civil, political and legal regulations. At the beginning of 8-th century Islam became the prevailing religion in our region due to its monotheism ideas. Since that time we can notice the development and prosperity of the Moslem Arabic culture which has influenced the social, economic, political and cultural life in Central Asia and Southern Kazakhstan. After Islam had been declared a new state religion, the Arabic language, script and literature became an integral part of the culture, and it is no doubt that the culture of local population was enriched greatly after the Arabic invasion
Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook
This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.
Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina
Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.
Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.
Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C
This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern
This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio
Nisbett, Richard E; Miyamoto, Yuri
There is recent evidence that perceptual processes are influenced by culture. Westerners tend to engage in context-independent and analytic perceptual processes by focusing on a salient object independently of its context, whereas Asians tend to engage in context-dependent and holistic perceptual processes by attending to the relationship between the object and the context in which the object is located. Recent research has explored mechanisms underlying such cultural differences, which indicate that participating in different social practices leads to both chronic as well as temporary shifts in perception. These findings establish a dynamic relationship between the cultural context and perceptual processes. We suggest that perception can no longer be regarded as consisting of processes that are universal across all people at all times.
Full Text Available The fact that culture has an impact, both in conceptual and practical sense, on education is undoubtable. But when we state that interaction between the two areas is mutual, namely, that also education has an influence on culture, then we express an original and controversial idea. Therefore, we acknowledge that education is a power which can change society. That idea was pushed forward for many years by Theodore Brameld, the founder of reconstructionst philosophy of education. In his view each educational theory and practice effectively affects culture, changes and reconstructs it. In this text I present the assumptions of Theodore Brameld’s social reconstructionism. The starting point for my considerations are three other philosophies of education indicated by by Brameld: perenialism, essentialism, and progressivism. In the conclusion I point out how each of the philosophies of education relates to social change. The terms “society” and “culture” are used interchangeably in this text.
Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Pentland, Sandy
We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.
Full Text Available We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
La Salabarnada, E.; German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.
This paper presents the research project funded by UNESA and conducted by the CISOT-CIEMAT that aims to contribute to improving the operating performance of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper aims to identify the factors and key organizational processes to improve efficiency, in order to advance knowledge about the influence of organizational culture on the safety of high reliability organizations.
Ismail, Maimunah; Umar Baki, Nordahlia
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its…
Nicolini, Humberto; Salin-Pascual, Rafael; Cabrera, Brenda; Lanzagorta, Nuria
The aspects of cultural identity and its impact on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been un-derstudied. There are different opinions, ranging from the idea that culture does not affect the symptoms of this condition to the idea that cultures with high religiosity may have more severity of OCD. Also, the concept of OCD has considerably var-ied across history and cultures, from being considered an issue related to lack of control of blasphemous ideas, and a part of anxious issues, to the description of complex neurobiological systems in its causation. The aim of this review was to address OCD as a well-characterized disorder with a proposed neurobiological ba-sis which may or may not have variations depending on cultural diversity. The question that was asked in this review is whether or not there are cultural differences in the manifestations of the OCD symptomatology and which factors of cultural diversity have a major influence on such manifestations along with the differences among some cultures regarding OCD is-sues, where the difference among countries has also been highlighted. A review of the literature was conducted that includes the following words: obsessive-compulsive disorder, cul-ture, cultural identity and religion in a period of 10 years. Cultural variations do not seem to differ from symptomatic clusters of OCD, which may be indicating that a se-ries of adaptive behaviors is evolutionarily evolving to be constantly altered, perhaps by well-determined pathophysiological mechanisms. Some aspects that have been related to some dimensions of OCD symptomatology are religion and religiosity, affecting the content of obsessions and the severity of manifestations. Properly evaluating the education background, access to health services, food, and the genetic structure of populations, using investigational instruments sensitive to these cultural elements, will increase our understanding of the importance of culture on OCD and its treatment.
Mlyn?rikov?, Katar?na; Samek, Ota; Bernatov?, Silvie; R??i?ka, Filip; Je?ek, Jan; H?ronikov?, Andrea; ?iler, Martin; Zem?nek, Pavel; Hol?, Veronika
Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organis...
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
Zhao, Fei; Manchaiah, Vinaya; St Claire, Lindsay; Danermark, Berth; Jones, Lesley; Brandreth, Marian; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Goodwin, Robin
The purpose of this paper was to highlight the importance of cultural influence in understanding hearing-help seeking and hearing-aid uptake. Information on audiological services in different countries and 'theories related to cross-culture' is presented, followed by a general discussion. Twenty-seven relevant literature reviews on hearing impairment, cross-cultural studies, and the health psychology model and others as secondary resources. Despite the adverse consequences of hearing impairment and the significant potential benefits of audiological rehabilitation, only a small number of those with hearing impairment seek professional help and take up appropriate rehabilitation. Therefore, hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake has recently become the hot topic for clinicians and researchers. Previous research has identified many contributing factors for hearing help-seeking with self-reported hearing disability being one of the main factors. Although significant differences in help-seeking and hearing-aid adoption rates have been reported across countries in population studies, limited literature on the influence of cross-cultural factors in this area calls for an immediate need for research. This paper highlights the importance of psychological models and cross-cultural research in the area of hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake, and consequently some directions for future research are proposed.
Emanuel George Oprea
Full Text Available The Mesoamerican Culture of Maya’s was one of the ancient and advanced cultures of the American continent and they influenced other Amerindian peoples. The life of Maya people, of the Earth itself and of the Universe is set and constructed around Maya Calendar and has a cyclic character as a direct influence of the stars. Many centuries the Western civilization with the its linear Calendar had not accepted the ideas of the possible influence of the stars and planets to peoples lives. The end of the last century and the beginning of XXI’s had started to demonstrate the opposite. The present work tries to show the process of meeting and intersection of the ancient ideas of Maya civilization and some of new ideas from the modern sciences.
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THOSE FACTORS, BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) THAT INFLUENCE TWO SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THROUGHPUT: "door-to-doctor" time and dwell time. We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting "door-to-doctor" and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients. We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median "door-to-doctor" time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences. The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital.
Gholizadeh, Leila; Davidson, Patricia M; Heydari, Mehrdad; Salamonson, Yenna
This article seeks to review and discuss the evidence linking depression, coronary heart disease (CHD), and culture. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed, and Google were searched for pertinent evidence linking depression, culture, and CHD, and retrieved articles were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Identified themes were the followings: depression is a factor in development and prognosis of CHD and affects the capacity to self-manage and adhere to treatment recommendations; culture mediates mental health/illness representations and treatment-seeking behaviors; screening and assessment of depression can be affected by cultural factors; and there is a need for culturally appropriate screening and therapeutic strategies. As depression is a predictor and moderating variable in the genesis and progression of CHD, understanding how factors such as culture affect screening and management of the disease is important to inform the development of culturally and linguistically competent strategies that ensure accurate screening, detection, and treatment of depression in cardiac patients in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.
Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A
With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving.
Iușcă Dorina Geta
Full Text Available Open-earedness theory has repeatedly been confirmed on several populations including American, English, Dutch, German and Finnish people. Nonetheless the influence of cultural diversity on openness towards unfamiliar music has received little attention from researchers and this may create the possibility of adding essential modifications of Albert LeBlanc’s theory. Considering the contemporary context, people’s migration towards economic developed countries becomes a phenomenon with great implications related to the progress of social and cultural characteristics of any national context. Researching the openearedness of people which have been exposed not only to their native culture but also to the adopted one (due to financial necessities may reveal a series of useful aspects for the intercultural field (by disclosing new ways to promote the tolerance towards cultural diversity and also for the educational field (by describing new strategies of learning in a context of adaptation to an unfamiliar musical space. The present article analyses a series of previous experiments that monitored the way different social categories integrated in cultural communities different from their own assimilate or not the elements of the adopted country into their musical identity. The present analysis has educational implications related to the ways students may develop the preference for unfamiliar music.
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time. Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. V...
Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L
In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.
Although human undifferentiated keratinocytes (HUKs) can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ...
orientation, empowerment, core values, agreement, open communication, job autonomy and reward system are the most significant factors organizational culture influences organizational climate through. Moreover, the list of practical recommendations for companies, which are planning to implement changes, were developed. Conclusions: This research gives managers an idea on how to deal with top-down approach to influence organizational climate. This research limits not to looking at factors in scope of organizational culture and climate classification and how they can influence shifts in between. Further research should be conducted to introduce in model characteristics of organization, culture and outcome in organizational climate change.
Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi
Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C
To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.
Rosana Marta Kolb
Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.
Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W
To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contraceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.
Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard
To evaluate the 2 major components of tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance, and their degree of dependence on characteristics of tinnitus manifestation, history, and etiology. Cross-sectional survey performed during the first months of 2004. Nonclinical population. A total of 4995 members of the German Tinnitus League. Comprehensive screening questionnaire, including the Klockhoff and Lindblom loudness grading system and the miniversion of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. A moderate correlation of 0.45 was found between tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Both factors were generally higher in men, those older than 50 years, those with binaural and centrally perceived tinnitus, those with increased noise sensitivity, and those who had continuous tinnitus without interruptions. Tinnitus that lasted 12 months or less had a stronger influence on annoyance (odds ratio [OR], 1.96) than on loudness (OR, 0.45), whereas the contrary was found for tinnitus of more than 5 years' duration (ORs, 0.72 and 2.11, respectively). Loudness and annoyance were increased in subjects with coexisting hearing loss, vertigo, and hyperacusis. The impact of hyperacusis on annoyance was clearly stronger than on loudness (ORs, 21.91 vs 9.47). Several clinical factors of tinnitus influence perceived loudness and annoyance. Both are distinguishable components of tinnitus severity.
Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A
Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of two important socio-cultural factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity of young individuals in rural regions. Design/methodology/approach – Our empirical study is based on a sample collected from an adult population survey, and analyzed using a logit model that controls for territorial and aging sources of heterogeneity. Our theoretical framework is anchored on a contingency perspective that emphasizes the unique influences of the contextual environment in driving entrepreneurial behavior. Findings – The main findings of our study is that in Spain the likelihood of being entrepreneurially active is no different for young and old individuals, and between rural and urban regions. Surprisingly, unlike shown in most studies, entrepreneurial role models do not have any effect on the entrepreneurship by young individuals in rural regions of Spain, while the negative impact of fear of failure in the entrepreneurship on young individuals in rural regions is much higher compared to the rest of the population. Originality/value – Our findings reveal that the context (regional has a more significant impact on entrepreneurship for some segments (younger individuals of the population than for others.
Garner, D M; Garfinkel, P E
A population of professional dance (N = 183) and modelling (N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students (N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa (N = 68), and music students (N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6.5%) of primary anorexia nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.
Evans, Emily C
identify research examining the effect of culture on maternal mortality rates. literature review of CINAHL, Cochrane, PsychInfo, OVID Medline and Web of Science databases. developing countries with typically higher rates of maternal mortality. women, birth attendants, family members, nurse midwives, health-care workers, and community members. reviews, qualitative and mixed-methods research have identified components of culture that have a direct impact on maternal mortality. Examples of culture are given in the text and categorised according to the way in which they impact maternal mortality. cultural customs, practices, beliefs and values profoundly influence women's behaviours during the perinatal period and in some cases increase the likelihood of maternal death in childbirth. The four ways in which culture may increase MMR are as follows: directly harmful acts, inaction, use of care and social status. understanding the specifics of how the culture surrounding childbirth contributes to maternal mortality can assist nurses, midwives and other health-care workers in providing culturally competent care and designing effective programs to help decrease MMR, especially in the developing world. Interventions designed without accounting for these cultural factors are likely to be less effective in reducing maternal mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The provision of safe healthcare is considered a priority in European Union (EU member states. Along with other preventative measures in healthcare, the EU also strives to eliminate the “causes of harm to human health”. The aim of this survey was to determine whether safety culture, supervisors and communication between co-workers influence the number of adverse event reports submitted to the heads of clinical departments and to the management of an institution. Methods. This survey is based on cross-sectional analysis. It was carried out in the largest Slovenian university hospital. We received 235 completed questionnaires. Respondents included professionals in the fields of nursingcare, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and radiological technology. Results. Safety culture influences the number of adverse event reports submitted to the head of a clinical department from the organizational point of view. Supervisors and communication between co-workers do not influence the number of adverse event reports. Conclusion. It can be concluded that neither supervisors nor the level of communication between co-workers influence the frequency of adverse event reporting, while safety culture does influence it from an organizational point of view. The presumed factors only partly influence the number of submitted adverse event reports, thus other causes of under-reporting must be sought elsewhere.
Abstract. Organizational culture can also be evaluated as an application stage for the processes and fixations that occur with communication. The lack of cooperation at the desired level may lead to a decrease in effectiveness, especially at the points where teamwork is required, and to a slower implementation. This is one of the most important factors especially for the common purpose and goal setting and for the generations of the application schedules to be generic. The expected cultural c...
Varaei, Shokoh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat
The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Iranian nurses regarding factors influencing nursing image. Nursing image is closely tied to the nurse's role and identity, influencing clinical performance, job satisfaction and quality of care. Images of nursing and nurses are closely linked to the cultural context in which nursing is practised, hence, this study explores how Iranian nurses perceive the factors that influence their own image. A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted with 220 baccalaureate qualified nurses working in four teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. A Nursing Image Questionnaire was used and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the domains of 'characteristics required for entry to work', 'social role characteristics of nursing' and 'prestige, economic and social status, and self image' the nurses had negative images. 'Reward' and 'opportunity for creativity and originality' were factors that least influenced choosing nursing as a career. The presence of a nurse in the family and working in the hospital had the greatest impact on the establishment of nurses' nursing image. Improving the nursing profession's prestige and social position as well as providing the opportunity for creativity and originality in nursing practice will change the self-image of Iranian nurses, facilitating effective and lasting changes in nursing's image. Nurse managers are well-placed to influence nurses' perceptions of nursing's image. Given the finding that thinking about leaving a job positively correlates with holding a negative nursing image, nurse managers need to consider how they can work effectively with their staff to enhance morale and nurses' experience of their job. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Toytok, Esef Hakan; Kapusuzoglu, Saduman
Problem Statement: Frequently researched, organizational effectiveness is influenced by leadership, organizational culture and climate, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction; additionally, for effective, sustainable management, ethical leadership, which also influences organizational culture, is emphasized. To our knowledge, no previous…
Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad
Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that. The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance. Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia. Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance. Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm
Macdonald, C; Cawood, T
Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Fahlberg, Anjuli; Espinola, Maria
There is limited research comparatively evaluating delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth. This analysis examines the rates and cultural correlates associated with delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth using data from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents study. The study surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating aggression perpetration and delinquency. Dating aggression perpetration and delinquency rates and relative risk ratios are presented. Logistic regression analyses examined the role of cultural factors on the perpetration of dating aggression and delinquent behaviors. Results showed that cultural factors had differential influence on dating aggression versus delinquency. Specifically, victimization, acculturation, and familial support were associated with dating aggression whereas only victimization and familial support were associated with delinquency. The results provide guidance for intervention and prevention efforts with Latino youth, particularly on the need for cultural consideration and the supportive role family can play in addressing these behaviors.
After many years of HIV prevention in Zimbabwe, AIDS morbidity and mortality rates continue to rise. This study explores factors facilitating or hindering rural Ndau women's participation in HIV prevention that might influence health promotion programming. Ethnographic methods were used with a sample of 38 females and 10 males. Women's existence is revealed as difficult and oppressive. Their socialization to become workers and mothers occurs within a context of limited voice, subservience, violence, and economic powerlessness, all barriers to HIV prevention. Through analysis of sociocultural and economic factors, it is suggested that cultural beliefs and practices, along with national and international forces, support and sustain gender inequality. For a change in the AIDS crisis, prevention strategies need to be multifaceted, consider people's culture and context, and include gender analysis. It is imperative that nurses working with diverse populations be sensitive to culture while challenging unjust and oppressive systems.
Heinz Peter Berg
Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.
Jimenez, Jorge Mario Garzon
This project targets on organizational culture and organizational learning, aiming to reveal how organizational culture influences on organizational learning within the shipping industry. The main research question is: How does organizational culture influence organizational learning within a shipping company? The two research sub-questions are: 1) Which components of organizational culture are especially important for organizational learning? 2) How is organizational structure...
Full Text Available The increasing number of international students is studying at British universities. This study investigates multicultural students’ preferences on teaching and learning which was conducted at a university in the South of England during 2009/2010 academic year. In the literature review, the framework used in this study is explained. The study sample was 34 students who were studying Japanese as a non-credit module. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using questionnaires. The results showed that some students’ preferred pedagogy appeared to be altered and influenced by British educational culture regardless of students’ previous educational culture. In addition, the sample participants’ preferred pedagogy are identified into given categories based on the framework of the study. Those who are in the teaching profession are encouraged to take into consideration of the educational cultures and teaching and learning practices from non-Anglophone countries. Keywords: culture, globalisation, higher education, Japanese language teaching, multicultural, power distance index (PDI, uncertainty avoidance index (UAI
Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P
Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work-life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Mlynariková, K.; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, F.; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, A.; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, V.
Roč. 15, č. 11 (2015), s. 29635-29647 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * bacteria * yeasts * culture media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015
Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.
Haber, S.B.; O'Brien, J.N.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented
Barbara A. Sypniewska
Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.
Full Text Available Over time, during the existence of a company, there are inevitable changes in its organizational structure, normal changes caused by the increase or decrease of its activity volume, changes brought about by the adaptation to the new needs of the market. Concretely, the company can move from organizational systems such as entrepreneurship to bureaucratic or matrix organization systems, depending on the type of activity they perform and the degree of development attained at one point. In this context, it is obvious that a strong organization also has a strong organizational culture, a culture that exists and is carried out within the general framework defined by all the market players. What is imperative for organizations is the continuous supervision of power and the way it is distributed between formal and informal leaders in order to be able to intervene on time through the levers analyzed by us in order to influence their organizational behavior.
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
The influence of culture on adolescent prosocial behavior is a neglected aspect in existing studies. Objectives: This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Cultural Influence on Helping Scale (CIHS) among Chinese adolescents. CIHS is an instrument that assesses Chinese cultural influence on helping other people. Method: The CIHS was…
Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.
Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour
Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan
Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.
Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M
We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.
Chow, Meyrick C M
Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.
M M Akulich
Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.
Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.
Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher
The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to
Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.
The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly
Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A
Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.
Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte
Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella...... novobiocin, followed by combinations of culture media (three types) and selective media (two types). The sensitivity of each combination and sources of variation in detection were determined by a generalized linear mixed model using a split-plot design. Conclusions: Biological factors, such as faecal origin...... and S. Dublin strain influenced the sensitivity more than technical factors. Overall, the modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV)-culture medium had the most reliable detection capability, whereas detection with selenite cystine broth and Mueller Kauffman tetrathionate broth combinations varied...
O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy
Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...
Paternotte, Emma; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Lee, Nadine; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Scheele, Fedde
Due to migration, doctors see patients from different ethnic backgrounds. This causes challenges for the communication. To develop training programs for doctors in intercultural communication (ICC), it is important to know which barriers and facilitators determine the quality of ICC. This study aimed to provide an overview of the literature and to explore how ICC works. A systematic search was performed to find literature published before October 2012. The search terms used were cultural, communication, healthcare worker. A realist synthesis allowed us to use an explanatory focus to understand the interplay of communication. In total, 145 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found ICC challenges due to language, cultural and social differences, and doctors' assumptions. The mechanisms were described as factors influencing the process of ICC and divided into objectives, core skills and specific skills. The results were synthesized in a framework for the development of training. The quality of ICC is influenced by the context and by the mechanisms. These mechanisms translate into practical points for training, which seem to have similarities with patient-centered communication. Training for improving ICC can be developed as an extension of the existing training for patient-centered communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto
Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin
With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2 = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting
Mlynáriková, Katarína; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, Filip; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, Andrea; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika
Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar.
Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.
Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.
Gudykunst, William B.; And Others
Shows that independent self-construals and individualistic values of college students mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of low-context communication, and interdependent self-construals and collectivistic values mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of high-context…
Piekło, R; Gregoraszczuk, E L; Lesko, J; Golais, F; Stokłosowa, S
The objective of this research was to study possible interactions of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) with ovarian tissue. Granulosa cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured as monolayers for 6 days in a control medium without PRGF and in medium supplemented with different doses of this agent. Increased population density and change towards more fibroblastic-like shape of cells cultured with 10(9) I.U PRGF was observed when compared with control culture. The cells divided significantly faster during 6 days of culture under the influence of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) I.U./ml of PRGF at a dose dependent manner. PRGF in a dose 10(9) I.U. added to cultured cells isolated from small and medium follicles did not influence progesterone secretion . An increase of progesterone secretion under the influence of PRGF in all investigated days of cultures was observed in cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles. The marked increase in progesterone content in PRGF treated culture in doses of 0.5x10(7), 0.5x10(8), 0.5x10(9) I.U. was observed during 4 and 6 days of culture. The rise of progesterone content was not connected with increased number of secretory cells, but with a stimulation of production per cell. PRGF exerted no visible effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from small and medium follicles cultured for 6 days. The presented in vitro data provide evidence for a local action of PRGF in the follicle depending on the stage of follicular development and duration of exposure. Precise relevance of the interaction of PRGF with follicular development requires further study.
Ana Maria de Albuquerque Moreira
Full Text Available This study aims to identify characteristics of national culture in the culture of Brazilian school management and leadership. Considering the broad literature that deals with the peculiarities of Brazilian culture and its influence on Brazilian management, it is assumed that as an institution belonging to a particular society, the school offers internal dynamics that are organized under influences of historical and cultural determinants of this society. This work is an exploratory study that uses secondary data found in studies on the profiles of principals, leadership, climate, and organizational culture in schools and primary data from research applied in public secondary schools located in the Federal District, Brazil. The results demonstrate that the initial premise—national culture influences the organizational culture and school leadership—has been confirmed and aspects that merit further analysis are identified.
Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo
To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...
Kierszenbaum, A.L.; Crowell, J.A.; Shabanowitz, R.B.; DePhilip, R.M.; Tres, L.L.
An approach combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography was used to correlate patterns of secretory proteins in cultures of Sertoli and peritubular cells with those observed in the incubation medium from segments of seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells in culture and in seminiferous tubules secreted three proteins designated S70 (Mr 72,000-70,000), S45 (Mr 45,000), and S35 (Mr 35,000). Cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells and incubated seminiferous tubules secreted two proteins designated SP1 (Mr 42,000) and SP2 (Mr 50,000). SP1 and S45 have similar Mr but differ from each other in isoelectric point (pI). Cultured peritubular cells secreted a protein designated P40 (Mr 40,000) that was also seen in intact seminiferous tubules but not in seminiferous tubules lacking the peritubular cell wall. However, a large number of high-Mr proteins were observed only in the medium of cultured peritubular cells but not in the incubation medium of intact seminiferous tubules. Culture conditions influence the morphology and patterns of protein secretion of cultured peritubular cells. Peritubular cells that display a flat-stellate shape transition when placed in culture medium free of serum (with or without hormones and growth factors), accumulate various proteins in the medium that are less apparent when these cells are maintained in medium supplemented with serum. Two secretory proteins stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (designated SCm1 and SCm2) previously found in the medium of cultured Sertoli cells, were also observed in the incubation medium of seminiferous tubular segments stimulated by FSH. Results of this study show that, although cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells synthesize and secrete proteins also observed in segments of incubated seminiferous tubules anther group of proteins lacks seminiferous tubular correlates
Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V
Two perspectives from which memories can be retrieved have been distinguished: field resembles the view from the first-person vantage point of original experience, whereas observer resembles the view from the third-person vantage point of a spectator. There is evidence that the incidences of the two types of perspective differ between at least two different cultural groups. It is hypothesised here that this is a special case of a more general relation between memory perspective and cultural individualism, such that field and observer perspectives are more prevalent among people from, respectively, relatively individualist and relatively collectivist societies. Memory perspectives adopted by participants from a range of different countries were recorded, and were found to vary in the predicted manner. Regression analysis showed that the potential effects of three other cultural variables - uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and, to a lesser extent, power distance - were eclipsed by the influence of individualism, and the implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cantrell, Lisa; Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B
Much research evidences a system in adults and young children for approximately representing quantity. Here we provide evidence that the bias to attend to discrete quantity versus other dimensions may be mediated by set size and culture. Preschool-age English-speaking children in the United States and Japanese-speaking children in Japan were tested in a match-to-sample task where number was pitted against cumulative surface area in both large and small numerical set comparisons. Results showed that children from both cultures were biased to attend to the number of items for small sets. Large set responses also showed a general attention to number when ratio difficulty was easy. However, relative to the responses for small sets, attention to number decreased for both groups; moreover, both U.S. and Japanese children showed a significant bias to attend to total amount for difficult numerical ratio distances, although Japanese children shifted attention to total area at relatively smaller set sizes than U.S. children. These results add to our growing understanding of how quantity is represented and how such representation is influenced by context--both cultural and perceptual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The level of development of a country is defined based on indicators such as population size, GDP and contry area. Although it’s easy to identify countries like the USA, France and Spain that are part of developed countries and countries such as Senegal, Gabon Greece or China ranked as emerging countries, there is no universally accepted definition of developing contries. The “emerging contries” are often listed in terms of their differentiation from the developed contries; A comun problem is that some organizations dont’t take into consideration all the variables, a country located on a higher position in terms of GDP is possible to not have the same position at the social development or quality of life. For the last 25 years China has known continuous economic expansion, it’s forecasted that in the next 20 years it will become one of the world’s superpower. China encountered a relatively fast development after the deployment of the “cultural revolution”. In China, the long standing cultural tradition influences till today the economic area, more than other countries encounter from this category. The youth’s mentality is to learn and to work very well with the solely interest to serve the country completely. This desire of the Chinese people is positively influenced by the state - the Chinese Communist Party encourages the state of raising the development of education and the level of life.
Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
The purpose of
Nemeth, J.M.; Liu, S.-T.; Klein, E.G.; Ferketich, A.K.; Kwan, M.P.; Wewers, M.E.
The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and
Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.
It has been recognized that improved methods of verifying radiation field placement in external beam radiotherapy are required in order to make frequent checks of field placement feasible. As a result, a large number of electronic portal imaging systems have been developed as possible replacements for film. These developments have produced digital systems with faster acquisition and improved display contrast, however, the quality of the images acquired with such systems is still disappointing. This presentation examines many of the fundamental factors which limit the quality of radiographs obtained with a megavoltage radiotherapy beam. The size and shape of the radiation sources (focal and extra-focal) in radiotherapy machines and their influence on the spatial resolution of portal images are examined. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray interactions within the patient determined that a significant fraction of the x-ray scatter generated in the patient is due to bremsstrahlung and positron annihilation. Depending on the detector, the scatter signal can reduce the differential signal-to-noise by 20%. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo study of the interaction of x-rays within typical fluoroscopic imaging detectors (metal plate/phosphor screen) demonstrates the degrading effect of energy absorption noise on the detective quantum efficiency of fluoroscopic based imaging systems. Finally, the spatial frequency content in the x-ray shadowgram is demonstrated to change with x-ray energy, resulting in images that appear to have reduced spatial resolution at megavoltage energies. The relative magnitude of each of these factors will be presented and recommendations for the next generation of portal imaging systems will be made
Minagawa, T.; Nakaya, C.; Iida, H.
Host DNA synthesis is suppressed by the culture fluid of cell cultures infected with measles virus. This activity in the culture fluid is initiated somewhat later than the growth of infectious virus. Ninety percent of host DNA synthesis in HeLa cells is inhibited by culture fluid of 3-day-old cell cultures of Vero or HeLa cells infected with measles virus. This suppressing activity is not a property of the virion, but is due to nonvirion-associated componentnent which shows none of the activities of measles virus such as hemagglutination, hemolysis, or cell fusion nor does it have the antigenicity of measles virus as tested by complement-fixation or hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody blocking tests. Neutralization of the activity of this component is not attained with the pooled sera of convalescent measles patients. This component has molecular weights of about 45,000, 20,000, and 3,000 and appears to be a heat-stable protein. The production of host DNA suppressing factor (DSF) is blocked by cycloheximide. Neither uv-inactivated nor antiserum-neutralized measles virus produce DSF. Furthermore, such activity of nonvirion-associated component is not detected in the culture fluid of cultures infected with other RNA viruses such as poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or Sindbis virus. (auth)
Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin
The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.
Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma; Fung, Helene H; Yeung, Dannii Y
Previous studies have found that in American culture high-arousal positive states (HAP) such as excitement are valued more and low-arousal positive states (LAP) such as calm are valued less than they are in Chinese culture. What specific factors account for these differences? The authors predicted that when people and cultures aimed to influence others (i.e., assert personal needs and change others' behaviors to meet those needs), they would value HAP more and LAP less than when they aimed to adjust to others (i.e., suppress personal needs and change their own behaviors to meet others' needs). They test these predictions in 1 survey and 3 experimental studies. The findings suggest that within and across American and Chinese contexts, differences in ideal affect are due to specific interpersonal goals. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit
Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas Th; Chen, Yu-Chih
To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton's Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R(2) = 0.59) and in collaboration (R(2) = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are operating in a setting conducive
Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas TH; Chen, Yu-Chih
AIM: To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. METHODS: A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. RESULTS: Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R2 = 0.59) and in collaboration (R2 = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are
Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne
Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).
Holdsworth, S.R.; Askins, M.; Baker, A.; Gariboldi, E.; Holmstroem, S.; Klenk, A.; Ringel, M.; Merckling, G.; Sandstrom, R.; Schwienheer, M.; Spigarelli, S.
During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ε(t,T,σ) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets
Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew
International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are known to perform less well in many postgraduate medical examinations when compared to their UK trained counterparts. This "differential attainment" is observed in both knowledge-based and clinical skills assessments. This study explored the influence of culture and language on IMGs clinical communication skills, in particular, their ability to seek, detect and acknowledge patients' concerns in a high stakes postgraduate clinical skills examination. Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework was used to look at the impact of culture on examination performance. This was a qualitative, interpretative study using thematic content analysis of video-recorded doctor-simulated patient consultations of candidates sitting the MRCP(UK) PACES examination, at a single examination centre in November 2012. The research utilised Hofstede's cultural dimension theory, a framework for comparing cultural factors amongst different nations, to help understand the reasons for failure. Five key themes accounted for the majority of communication failures in station 2, "history taking" and station 4, "communication skills and ethics" of the MRCP(UK) PACES examination. Two themes, the ability to detect clues and the ability to address concerns, related directly to the overall construct managing patients' concerns. Three other themes were found to impact the whole consultation. These were building relationships, providing structure and explanation and planning. Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help to contextualise some of these observations. In some cultures doctor and patient roles are relatively inflexible: the doctor may convey less information to the patient (higher power distance societies) and give less attention to building rapport (high uncertainty avoidance societies.) This may explain why cues and concerns presented by patients were overlooked in this setting. Understanding cultural differences through Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory
Konstantinos M. Karyotakis
Full Text Available The present paper outlines the critical role and influence of organizational culture and job satisfaction on the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial orientation (EO in the public sector through generating the theoretical framework. Upon examining these terms, a model that reflects their mutual relationships has been suggested. The amalgam of internal work environment, work discretion and rewards/recognition in combination with the appropriate degree of organizational boundaries, such as formalization, centralization, technology routines and connectedness, are crucial for fostering organizational culture and job satisfaction that lead to EO through innovativeness, proactiveness and risk taking.
Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima
Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001).
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Dong, Jia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K N; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin
Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes.
Tranberg, Rona; Alexander, Susan; Hatcher, Deborah; Mackey, Sandra; Shahid, Shaouli; Holden, Lynda; Kwok, Cannas
We aim to systematically review studies that identify factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making among indigenous peoples. Following the outline suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, a rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted of factors that influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples. A total of 733 articles were retrieved from eight databases and a manual search. After screening the titles and abstracts, the full text of 26 articles were critically appraised, resulting in five articles that met inclusion criteria for the review. Because the five articles to be reviewed were qualitative studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program toolkit was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A thematic synthesis was employed to identify common themes across the studies. Multiple socio-economic and cultural factors were identified that all had the potential to influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous people. These factors were distilled into four themes: spiritual beliefs, cultural influences, communication and existing healthcare systems and structures. Although existing research identified multiple factors influencing decision-making, this review identified that quality studies in this domain are scarce. There is scope for further investigation, both into decision-making factors and into the subsequent design of culturally appropriate programmes and services that meet the needs of indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
There was significant difference between male and female career influencing factors. There was no significant difference regarding the influence exercised by parent in the students' choice of Business Education. There is significant difference between male and female in the influence exerted by external factors in their ...
Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…
This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…
Cole, Mikel Walker
This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…
Kuiper, E.; Van Dam, F.; Reiter, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.
Cloud adoption in the public sector is taking off slowly, which is perceived as a problem. Models of factors influencing cloud adoption are derived for better understanding using literature and results obtained via desk research and surveys by the Cloud for Europe project. We conclude that several factors require further research, such as the culture in countries, climate, legislation, economics and politics, IT staff shortage and feelings of uncertainty, fear and impatience. Adoption factors...
Scorcu, Antonello Eugenio; Vici, Laura
The role of economic factors, such as family income, the price of illegal reproductions of books, the enforcement rules and the expected penalties are considered the main determinants of the possible infringements of the copyright law. However, the comparison between individual economic gains and losses offers only a partial explanation, as also cultural individual habits and peer effects exert important influences. Using a unique dataset based on a survey conducted at the University of Bolog...
Korkor Owusu, Patrick
Recent global reports indicate that women have made tremendous improvements in educational enrolment and labour participation but are woefully underrepresented in top leadership positions. Moreover, studies have shown that feminine leadership strategies are embraced but leadership is still perceived as a prerogative of men in many societies. This study therefore sought to explore the socio-cultural and organizational factors influencing the underrepresentation of women in educational leadersh...
Nomusa B. Mazonde
Aim: The aim of this paper was to contribute to an understanding of how female entrepreneurs in a patriarchal African society can work within cultural constraints to achieve success within their own terms of reference. Setting: The study took place in Zimbabwe among female entrepreneurs who had recently formalised their businesses Methods: Using a qualitative interpretive research design, in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43 African female entrepreneurs running their own businesses in the Zimbabwean cities of Harare and Bulawayo. Results: The complex interplay of macro- (national cultural characteristics, meso- (institutional and social factors, and micro- (individual identity level factors shaped the ways in which the women dealt with the shackles of patriarchy, inequality and high power distance that had historically impeded their economic participation. Through their own agency, they mobilised their public and private identities separately, balancing the seemingly incompatible roles of home-maker vs entrepreneur. Conclusion: Zimbabwean women successfully managed the interaction between their different social roles and identities to balance domestic obligations with income generation to better the lives of their families.
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Elliott, Marc; Pradhan, Rohit; Schiller, Cameron; Dreachslin, Janice; Hays, Ron D.
Cultural competency has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address racial/ethnic disparities in the health care system; disparities are a long-standing policy challenge whose relevance is only increasing with the increasing population diversity of the US and across the world. Using an integrative conceptual framework based on the resource dependency and institutional theories, we examine the relationship between organizational and market factors and hospitals’ degree of cultural competency. Our sample consists of 119 hospitals located in the state of California (US) and is constructed using the following datasets for the year 2006: Cultural Competency Assessment Tool of Hospitals (CCATH) Survey, California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning & Development’s Hospital Inpatient Discharges and Annual Hospital Financial Data, American Hospital Association’s Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File. The dependent variable consists of the degree of hospital cultural competency, as assessed by the CCATH overall score. Organizational variables include ownership status, teaching hospital, payer mix, size, system membership, financial performance, and the proportion of inpatient racial/ethnic minorities. Market characteristics included hospital competition, the proportion of racial/ethnic minorities in the area, metropolitan area, and per capita income. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the CCATH overall score and organizational and market variables. Our results show that hospitals which are not-for-profit, serve a more diverse inpatient population, and are located in more competitive and affluent markets exhibit a higher degree of cultural competency. Our results underscore the importance of both institutional and competitive market pressures in guiding hospital behavior. For instance, while not-for-profit may adopt innovative/progressive policies like cultural competency simply as a function of their organizational
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Elliott, Marc N; Pradhan, Rohit; Schiller, Cameron; Dreachslin, Janice; Hays, Ron D
Cultural competency has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address racial/ethnic disparities in the healthcare system; disparities are a long-standing policy challenge whose relevance is only increasing with the increasing population diversity of the US and across the world. Using an integrative conceptual framework based on the resource dependency and institutional theories, we examine the relationship between organizational and market factors and hospitals' degree of cultural competency. Our sample consists of 119 hospitals located in the state of California (US) and is constructed using the following datasets for the year 2006: Cultural Competency Assessment Tool of Hospitals (CCATH) Survey, California's Office of Statewide Health Planning & Development's Hospital Inpatient Discharges and Annual Hospital Financial Data, American Hospital Association's Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File. The dependent variable consists of the degree of hospital cultural competency, as assessed by the CCATH overall score. Organizational variables include ownership status, teaching hospital, payer mix, size, system membership, financial performance, and the proportion of inpatient racial/ethnic minorities. Market characteristics included hospital competition, the proportion of racial/ethnic minorities in the area, metropolitan area, and per capita income. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the CCATH overall score and organizational and market variables. Our results show that hospitals which are not-for-profit, serve a more diverse inpatient population, and are located in more competitive and affluent markets exhibit a higher degree of cultural competency. Our results underscore the importance of both institutional and competitive market pressures in guiding hospital behavior. For instance, while not-for-profit may adopt innovative/progressive policies like cultural competency simply as a function of their organizational goals
Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.
Bello, Theodora Olufunke
The study identified the different cultural concepts that secondary school students' believe in and determined the belief and idea of students about the cultural concepts. It also investigated students' source of information about the cultural concepts and determined the influence of these cultural believes on students' academic performance in…
Lawoyin, Olusheyi O; Kanthula, Ruth M
This survey was carried out to assess attitudes and behaviour among youth within four constituencies in Oshana region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors inform attitudes and influence sexual behaviour among the population of young people surveyed. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from a random sample of eighty young men and women between the ages of 15-30 years from four constituencies in Oshana region. Survey outcomes revealed attitudes and certain factors that are linked to sexual risk behaviour such as multiple sexual partnerships. Outcomes also reveal an influence of established socio-cultural norms on gender dynamics within relationships and a culture of reserve around discussions of sex and sexuality among young people. Stakeholder interventions should be directed towards incorporating approaches that address these factors as part of efforts to curb the incidence of HIV among young people in Namibia.
Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua
Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286
None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...
AJRH Managing Editor
investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.
Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.
Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.
Cristina, Romeo T.
Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.
Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin
The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...
Olesen, Angelina P; Amin, Latifah; Mahadi, Zurina
Based on a previous survey by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in the USA, a considerable number of foreign research scientists have been found guilty of research misconduct. However, it remains unclear as to whether or not cultural factors really contribute to research misconduct. This study is based on a series of interviews with Malaysian researchers from the local universities regarding their own professional experiences involving working with researchers or research students from different countries or of different nationalities. Most of the researchers interviewed agreed that cultures do shape individual character, which influences the way that such individuals conduct research, their decision-making, and their style of academic writing. Our findings also showed that working culture within the institution also influences research practices, as well as faculty mentorship of the younger generation of researchers. Given the fact such misconduct might be due to a lack of understanding of research or working cultures or practices within the institution, the impact on the scientific community and on society could be destructive. Therefore, it is suggested that the institution has an important role to play in orienting foreign researchers through training, mentoring, and discussion with regard to the "does" and "don'ts" related to research, and to provide them with an awareness of the importance of ethics when it comes to conducting research.
Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko
Full Text Available This article examines the influence of national culture on the behavior of enterprises by comparing two countries - Ukraine and Slovakia. The data is based on the original author's own research on the enterprises of Ukraine and Slovakia. The paper is investigated why and how cultural factors (informal institutions may influence the perception of companies of rules of the game, and the formation of appropriate behavior. On the basis of surveys conducted among enterprises of Ukraine and Slovakia main conclusions about current formal rules of the game in these countries, perception by entrepreneurs these rules and the formation of certain behavior by them are done. In work on the basis of comparative analysis conclusions about the impact of national culture on the development of entrepreneurship in the national economy are done. The author of the article examines the following indicators: national culture, personal characteristics of respondents, subordination of norms, opportunism, and coherence of formal and informal institutions at the national level. In particular the most important indicators of the perception of norms are: indicators of perception of entrepreneurs of regulation and public policies in the field of entrepreneurship, business productivity, perceptions of bribery and tax evasion, etc.
Fan, Ping; He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan
Research highlights: → The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-γ and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-α decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10 3 , 1 x 10 4 or 1 x 10 5 cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-γ and TNF-α were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10 4 cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P 4 cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli cells can effectively suppress INF-γ-induced MHC II antigen expression in co-cultured ECs compared with single
Musaiger, A O
Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.
Full Text Available The authors present results of researches whose aim was to determine the factors that may substantially influence population reproduction in the Republic of Serbia, taking into consideration all specific factors, like cultural background, economic situation, health education, health service organization, religious and historical factors, etc. The research was based on the population census from 1981. Seventeen regions of the inner part of the Republic of Serbia, Vojvodina and Kosovo were included in this research. Stratification was made according to the place of living (village, town age, occupation (farmer, housewife, non and half-qualified, qualified and highly qualified workers and education (without education, with unfinished or finished primary school, with secondary school, with college or university degree. In this way 2,141 women were questioned with 101 questions by the method of interview. Interviews were conducted exclusively by doctors - gynaecologists. We determined the frequency of the use of contraceptives, intentional abortions, spontaneous abortions, pre-term deliveries, marriage infertility and term deliveries. Thus, 57.4% of women had basic knowledge of contraception, but only 15.9% of them used it; 58.9% of women had intentional abortions; 16.2% of women had spontaneous abortions, 5.1% of them had pre-term deliveries, and 67% of women had term deliveries. Marriage infertility was found in 8.6% of women. When evaluating population health and behavior, we obtained some information and data concerning addicted diseases (alcohol, smoking, drugs, tranquilizers homosexuality and ways of sexual intercourse. It was concluded that enormous differences existed among certain regions in the Republic of Serbia, which were conditioned by the diversity of the above mentioned influences. Proposals for the measures to be undertaken in the Republic of Serbia in order to regulate population policy, are given.
The result of the varimax rotation revealed that the major constraints to adoption of cocoa technologies were socio-cultural, literacy and financial problems. It was therefore recommended that existing farmers' organizations should be strengthened through regular meetings and training by Olam organization to enhance rapid ...
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
Cross-cultural communication refers to the communication between peoples of different cultural backgrounds. To solve and avoid the cultural conflicts and blocks, it is high time to enhance the actual skills of cross-cultural communication. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the concrete representations of differences between Chinese and western culture in cross-cultural communication. And it gives some communication principles on the cross-cultural communication.
Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.
Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.
Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.
Numeral not only has the numerical symbol, but also is the important constituent of language, and it also expresses the rich cultural connotation besides the literal meaning.This article emphatically will carry on the analysis to the mystique and the metaphor between Chinese and Western numeral culture in order to help the people to understand some special numeral culture phenomenon thoroughly in the Trans-Culture exchange process which will make the cultural exchange smoother.
Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture, widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life. Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization, this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance, value, literature creation and customs etc., helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.
Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.
Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the
Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.
Full Text Available Globalization of business has created a worldwide market where companies from around the world make interactions. National cultures have a significant influence on the way companies do business, as well as on company's market position. National culture influences the way managers interpret their environment, the types of organizational changes and employee motivation. Companies must perform more rigorous selection of workers, so as to employ a worker whose individual cultural values (that are formed under the influence of national culture correspond to organizational culture of a company, improving the competitiveness of companies in the process.
Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark
The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bautista-Díaz, M L; Franco-Paredes, K; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Alvarez-Rayón, G; López-Aguilar, X; Ocampo Téllez-Girón, T; Soto-González, Y
The goal of the present study was to assess the role of body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors on eating psychopathology in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and women without BED. Seventy obese women consecutively evaluated participated: 35 with BED and 35 without BED who attended for the first time in a weight loss program. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including: Body Shape Questionnaire, Questionnaire of Influences on the Aesthetic Body Shape Model, Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and they were interviewed with the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorder-IV. The Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Body Fat were calculated. The results showed that 21% of obese women who participated in a weight reduction program met BED criteria. The scores of body dissatisfaction, influences of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology were higher in women with BED compared with women without BED. In the same way, significantly stronger correlations were found among influences of socio-cultural factors, specifically, influence of advertisement, social relations and eating psychopathology in women with BED than women without BED. It is concluded that the high body dissatisfaction as well as stronger associations among influence of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology could play an important role in women with BED.
Elizaveta A. Volkova
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition and origin of the notions «mentality (identity» and «national mentality (identity» focusing on their complex essence. The article names factors that affect the formation of national identity, at the same time pointing out the aspect of human life that the identity itself affects. The notion «national identity» is revealed via its vocabulary definitions. National identity is analyzed as a factor of inter-cultural communication, its role and importance in this communication are also analyzed. One of the objectives of the research is signing out the limits of the concepts «national identity» and «inter-cultural communication» and revealing the conditions of their interaction and mutual dependence. National identity is a complex notion, which complexity lies within the combination of mental and emotional, spiritual elements. This factor adds extra difficulty into understanding, as well as investigating the notion of national identity. Thus it is not rarely ignored in linguistics, international communication, even in teaching languages. However, nowadays, when globalization makes international contacts and communication widely accessible, many people meet unexpected difficulties that derive from ignoring national identity factor. That is why recently it is getting more and more obvious that taking national identity into consideration can be one of the main keys to successful communication at all levels.
Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...
Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...
Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...
Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bottomley, Andrew; de Graeff, Alexander; Groenvold, Mogens; Koller, Michael; Petersen, Morten A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether geographic and cultural factors influence the relationship between the global health status quality of life (QL) scale score of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire and seven other subscales representing fatigue, pain,
Scott, Nell W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bottomley, Andrew; de Graeff, Alexander; Groenvold, Mogens; Koller, Michael; Petersen, Morten A.; Sprangers, Mirjarn A. G.
Objective: To investigate whether geographic and cultural factors influence the relationship between the global health status quality of life (QL) scale score of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire and seven other subscales representing fatigue, pain,
Full Text Available The Timočka Krajina region has not been sufficiently investigated archaeologically, which coupled with the fact that a very small number of metal finds and remains have been discovered, makes the reconstruction of the start and end of the Bronze Age that much more difficult. Identification work in the area around Romuliana on two occasions in 2001 and 2008 led to the discovery of another 10 predominantly multi-layered sites dating back to the Bronze Age, of which 7 are highland settlements while 3 are lowland settlements located in the immediate vicinity of the Timok river or its tributaries. The discovered sites 1. Varsari, 2. Đokin Vis, 3. Kravarnik, 4. Mustafa, 5. Nikolov Savat, 6. Njiva Zore Brzanović, 7. Petronj, 8. Potes-Petronj, 9. Strenjak and 10. Zvezdan; bare the characteristics of the material culture of the »Gamzigrad group« of the Middle Iron Age. Besides known ceramic forms and characteristic ornamentation of this culture, there is a visibly strong influence of the Vatin (Crvenka-Cornesþi and Verbicioara elements to a greater extent, and Paraćin cultural elements to a lesser extent. Given that this material was collected during identification work, we are now aware of the stratigraphic relations between these elements, and have devoted more attention to common characteristics and interconnections from which certain conclusions can be drawn. Based on the finds from archaeological sites that have been excavated it can be concluded that the distribution of sites with Gamzigrad cultural characteristics is limited to a very small area, i.e. only to the vicinity of the Crni Timok river. Nearly at all sites, both highland and lowland, Vatin and Verbicioara elements are strongly visible on the ceramic materials. The geographic position of the Crni Timok, which is located in the area where the Paraćin, Vatin and Verbichoar cultures connected and overlapped, could contribute to shedding light on the origin and characteristics of this
Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.; Murphy, Christopher G.
The increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in academic settings necessitates greater cultural competence on the part of teachers, and enhancing the cultural competence of teachers requires a greater understanding of both the level of cultural competence among teachers and the experiences that enhance cultural competence. Teacher educators…
Dr. P. Ester; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden
In this introduction we have outlined the vital importance of the role of culture (i.e.: the cultural factor) in the field of international relations, foreign policy, and diplomacy and the professional need for cultural competence among its practitioners.
Cultural polymorphism is a difficult phenomenon, which has multiform influence on the society's life. The active interest of society to local folk knowledge in life-support activities and Nature using is one of the distinctive marks of modern time. This interest has fallen on the period of active transformations of environment as a result of industrial society's pressing on Nature, and the generating of new approaches in the studying of Nature and human activity based on the "technologies" of wild life. The success of humankind in creating artificial surroundings has led to both great success in improving the quality of peoples' lives, and also to problems with renewable resources and human health and to changing for the worse ecology. In 1992 the Unites Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) set fixed standards defining global violations of the environment. The zAgenda 21', adopted at this Conference, focused on the necessity of new solutions for problems of the relationships between Nature and Society, mentioning interdisciplinary research as a positive way to search for solutions to new problems, and citing as a goal a zbalance of Nature, Society and Humans'. Pre-industrial society had a different experience in using Nature and solving problems of life-support activity under a regime of sparing nature. Experience has shown that Folk knowledge and Folk technology can, in a number of instances, actually assist in solving high level problems caused by human impact on the environment, e.g., farming methods, and, as a result offering possibilities for a more sound and at the same time effective basis for long-term sustainable production at the local level. The traditional cultures of Eurasia were engaged in agricultural pursuits and had acquired unique experiences in maintaining soil fertility and a technology which limited the impact they were having on the environment. The value of Folk heritage in exploiting the environment
Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R
shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10days......, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be increased by factors known to influence survival and differentiation of dopaminergic cells....... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...
Oyserman, Daphna; Lee, Spike W S
Do differences in individualism and collectivism influence values, self-concept content, relational assumptions, and cognitive style? On the one hand, the cross-national literature provides an impressively consistent picture of the predicted systematic differences; on the other hand, the nature of the evidence is inconclusive. Cross-national evidence is insufficient to argue for a causal process, and comparative data cannot specify if effects are due to both individualism and collectivism, only individualism, only collectivism, or other factors (including other aspects of culture). To address these issues, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of the individualism and collectivism priming literature, with follow-up moderator analyses. Effect sizes were moderate for relationality and cognition, small for self-concept and values, robust across priming methods and dependent variables, and consistent in direction and size with cross-national effects. Results lend support to a situated model of culture in which cross-national differences are not static but dynamically consistent due to the chronic and moment-to-moment salience of individualism and collectivism. Examination of the unique effects of individualism and collectivism versus other cultural factors (e.g., honor, power) awaits the availability of research that primes these factors. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Peel, T N; Cheng, A C; Lorenzo, Y P; Kong, D C M; Buising, K L; Choong, P F M
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with significant costs to the healthcare system. Current literature examines the cost of specific treatment modalities without assessing other cost drivers for PJI. To examine the overall cost of the treatment of PJI and to identify factors associated with management costs. The costs of treatment of prosthetic joint infections were examined in 139 patients across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008). Cost calculations included hospitalization costs, surgical costs, hospital-in-the-home costs and antibiotic therapy costs. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to model factors associated with total cost. The median cost of treating prosthetic joint infection per patient was Australian $34,800 (interquartile range: 20,305, 56,929). The following factors were associated with increased treatment costs: septic revision arthroplasty (67% increase in treatment cost; P = 0.02), hypotension at presentation (70% increase; P = 0.03), polymicrobial infections (41% increase; P = 0.009), surgical treatment with one-stage exchange (100% increase; P = 0.002) or resection arthroplasty (48% increase; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased treatment costs. Culture-negative prosthetic joint infections were associated with decreased costs (29% decrease in treatment cost; P = 0.047). Treatment failure was associated with 156% increase in treatment costs. This study identifies clinically important factors influencing treatment costs that may be of relevance to policy-makers, particularly in the setting of hospital reimbursement and guiding future research into cost-effective preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tingsvik, Catarina; Johansson, Karin; Mårtensson, Jan
The aim of the study was to describe the factors that influence intensive care nurses' decision-making when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Patients with failing vital function may require respiratory support. Weaning from mechanical ventilation is a process in which the intensive care nurse participates in both planning and implementation. A qualitative approach was used. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 22 intensive care nurses. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. One theme emerged: 'A complex nursing situation where the patient receives attention and which is influenced by the current care culture'. There was consensus that the overall assessment of the patient made by the intensive care nurse was the main factor that influenced the decision-making process. This assessment was a continuous process consisting of three factors: the patient's perspective as well as her/his physical and mental state. On the other hand, there was a lack of consensus about what other factors influenced the decision-making process. These factors included the care culture constituted by the characteristics of the team, the intensive care nurses' professional skills, personalities and ability to be present. The individual overall assessment of the patient enabled nursing care from a holistic perspective. Furthermore, the weaning process can be more effective and potential suffering reduced by creating awareness of the care culture's impact on the decision-making process. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan
INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...
world through a different lens). BIV-2_Leroux, J. (1994). Cognition. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), People: Psychology from a Cultural Perspective...interactions. A-2 Human behavior in global perspective: An introduction to cross- cultural psychology . A-3 The analysis of subjective culture A-4...Hofstede – Culturally questionable? A-5 Through an Arab cultural lens. A-6 Bringing culture to basic psychological theory–beyond individualism
Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil
Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were
van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.
Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on
R. Bruce Anderson
Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.
Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...
In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...
Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.
Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...
The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...
Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca
In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women
Culture is described as a common identity among people based on shared social relationships, beliefs and technology. People are different in not only gender, qualifications or skills but also in their cultural characteristics. Cultural differences in languages, custom, traditions and norms often follow organisational lines and in ...
Culture is a distinguishing feature of a nation. Usually we divide culture into eastern and western categories. As the representative of eastern and western culture, China and America have a lot of incongruities in terms of cultural values which have deep influences on international business negotiation. This thesis aims to analyze the main cultural differences of the target countries on five processes of cross-cultural business negotiation. After a general view of these theories Ⅰ suggest some negotiating strategies and tactics to solve Sino-US cultural conflict appearing on the negotiating table. And with a real business invest case happened between US company of Intel and Dalian of China.
Egbe, Catherine O; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku
The increase in smoking prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria has been mainly blamed on the aggressive marketing strategies of big tobacco companies. There is a paucity of research on other socio-cultural risk factors for smoking among the youth. The main objective of this study is to explore and describe socio-cultural risk factors influencing cigarette smoking among the youth in Southern Nigeria. A total of 27 respondents (5 community leaders, 4 political analysts and 18 young cigarette smokers) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Social-cultural practices fuelling early usage and exposure of children to cigarettes and the promotional activities of tobacco companies were identified as possible factors influencing youth's smoking behaviour in Southern Nigeria. Tobacco control policies should include cultural interventions to modify current traditional practices and social norms which fuel the use of tobacco in the society. Such interventions must target specific groups, subpopulations and subcultures more exposed to the cultural risk influences for smoking.
Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Coast, Ernestina
The World Health Organization recently made a recommendation supporting 'culturally-appropriate' maternity care services to improve maternal and newborn health. This recommendation results, in part, from a systematic review we conducted, which showed that interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care have largely improved women's use of skilled maternity care. Factors relating to the implementation of these interventions can have implications for their success. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives and experiences of these interventions, and facilitators and barriers to implementation; and concludes with how they relate to the effects of the interventions on care-seeking outcomes. We based our analysis on 15 papers included in the systematic review. To extract, collate and organise data on the context and conditions from each paper, we adapted the SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework that lists categories of factors that could influence implementation. We considered information from the background and discussion sections of papers included in the systematic review, as well as cost data and qualitative data when included. Women's and other stakeholders' perspectives on the interventions were generally positive. Four key themes emerged in our analysis of facilitators and barriers to implementation. Firstly, interventions must consider broader economic, geographical and social factors that affect ethnic minority groups' access to services, alongside providing culturally-appropriate care. Secondly, community participation is important in understanding problems with existing services and potential solutions from the community perspective, and in the development and implementation of interventions. Thirdly, respectful, person-centred care should be at the core of these interventions. Finally, cohesiveness is essential between the culturally-appropriate service and other health care providers encountered by women and their
... of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South ... its impact on school and social activities and the students' management strategies. ... is high, and not consistently associated with demographic risk factors.
Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.
Ferdenzi, Camille; Joussain, Pauline; Digard, Bérengère; Luneau, Lucie; Djordjevic, Jelena; Bensafi, Moustafa
Olfactory perception is highly variable from one person to another, as a function of individual and contextual factors. Here, we investigated the influence of 2 important factors of variation: culture and semantic information. More specifically, we tested whether cultural-specific knowledge and presence versus absence of odor names modulate odor perception, by measuring these effects in 2 populations differing in cultural background but not in language. Participants from France and Quebec, Canada, smelled 4 culture-specific and 2 non-specific odorants in 2 conditions: first without label, then with label. Their ratings of pleasantness, familiarity, edibility, and intensity were collected as well as their psychophysiological and olfactomotor responses. The results revealed significant effects of culture and semantic information, both at the verbal and non-verbal level. They also provided evidence that availability of semantic information reduced cultural differences. Semantic information had a unifying action on olfactory perception that overrode the influence of cultural background. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta
Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...
Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.
Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)
Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D
median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Diana Ioana POPA
The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...
Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed
Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India.
Terraf, M C Leccese; Juárez Tomás, M S; Nader-Macías, M E F; Silva, C
To assess the ability of vaginal lactobacilli to form biofilm under different culture conditions and to determine the relationship between their growth and the capability of biofilm formation by selected strains. Fifteen Lactobacillus strains from human vagina were tested for biofilm formation by crystal violet staining. Only Lactobacillus rhamnosus Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection (CRL) 1332, Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 and Lact. delbrueckii CRL 1510 were able to grow and form biofilm in culture media without Tween 80. However, Lact. gasseri CRL 1263 (a non-biofilm-forming strain) did not grow in these media. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Lact. rhamnosus CRL 1332 and Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 formed a highly structured biofilm, but only Lact. reuteri CRL 1324 showed a high amount of extracellular material in medium without Tween. Biofilm formation was significantly influenced by the strain, culture medium, inoculum concentration, microbial growth and chemical nature of the support used for the assay. The results allow the selection of biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains and the conditions and factors that affect this phenomenon. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
JULIANA E. BOHNENBERGER
Full Text Available The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate. The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control and 37°C for eight days (n=3. Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.
Full Text Available Seyed Ramin Jalal, Abdirahman Osman, Saeed Azizi Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK We have read the recent review article by Kahn et al1 with great interest. The original article was detailed and informative, and we felt it would be helpful to expand on the factors affecting resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As senior medical students in clinical years, we spend a significant portion of our time shadowing specialist trainees. Thus, we can offer a unique perspective on the factors affecting trainee satisfaction and well-being. View the original paper by Kahn and colleagues.
Cole, Mikel Walker
This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.
Varela, R. Enrique; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren
This article reviews the literature on how culture influences anxiety in Latino youth. First, a review of cross-cultural variations in prevalence and measurement is presented. Then, the article focuses on how culture impacts the meaning and expression of anxiety. Specifically, we discuss the meaning and expression of anxiety, the impact of culture…
Carrier, J M
Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.
Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S
Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.
Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Choi, Jinhee
This paper discusses the influence of cultural dimensions on Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) introductory videos. The study examined the introductory videos produced by three universities on Coursera platforms using communication theory and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The results show that introductory videos in MOOCs are influenced by the…
Mena, Noereem Z; Gorman, Kathleen; Dickin, Kate; Greene, Geoffrey; Tovar, Alison
Parental feeding practices shape children's dietary preferences and behaviors, which can influence a child's weight status. Limited research exists on the precursors and contextual influences of feeding, particularly among Hispanic parents. Therefore, this study explored two areas potentially important for obesity prevention in young children: (1) precursors and contextual influences on parental feeding and (2) parental perceptions and knowledge of the child care food environment. Four focus groups (n=36) were held with Hispanic parents, predominantly mothers, of preschool children at two child care centers. Parents were asked about influences on what and how they feed their children, awareness of the child care center feeding environment, and current involvement in the child care center. Themes were coded using NVivo10 software (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Participants' childhood experiences influenced how they feed their children. Parents stated that both husbands and grandparents often indulged their children with unhealthy foods and thought this interfered with their efforts to maintain a healthy home environment. Participants reported that what their children ate while in child care sometimes influenced the home feeding environment. Cultural and environmental factors influence parental feeding and involvement in the child care setting. Consistent with socioecological system theory, exploring interactions between the environment and culture using a family focus framework, such as the Family Ecological Model, could provide a better understanding of these influences among Hispanic parents. Future obesity prevention interventions with Hispanic families should be culturally relevant and target the different environments where children spend their time.
single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...
Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.
Women Research Scientists in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria ... recommends that researchers should restructure their work schedule to accommodate ICT practice and use in order to enhance ICT use. Keywords: Factors of ICT ... potential to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods by empowering users with timely.
Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...
Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...
This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...
May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.
The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...