Sample records for cultivation method based

  1. Ecological balance between supply and demand based on cultivated land ecological footprint method in Guizhou Province (United States)

    Qian, Qinghuan; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Cheng


    In order to construct the indicators of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity, basing on the relation of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity supply and demand, applying the model of Cultivated Land Ecological Footprints and the method of CIS and considering the factors of cultivated land production, taking the statistical data of 2015 as an example, and then made a systematic evaluation of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou Province. The results show that (1) the spatial distribution of supply and demand of cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou is unbalanced, and the northern and eastern parts are the overloading area, the middle, the south and the west parts are the balance area. (2) From the perspective of cultivated land structure, the crops with ecological carrying capacity surplus were rice, vegetables and peanuts, among which rice was the highest and the ecological balance index was 0.7354. The crops with ecological carrying capacity overload were potato, wheat, maize, rapeseeds, soybeans and cured tobacco, of which the index of potato up to 7.11, other types of indices are less than 1.5. The research can provide the ecological security early warning, the overall plan of land use and sustainable development of the area cultivated land with scientific evidence and decision support.

  2. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method]. (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui


    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  3. An spatial zoning of Saffron cultivation based on climatic factors using hierarchical analysis process method (Case Study: Torbate Hydariyeh City

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    mahdieh rashid sorkh abadi


    Full Text Available Between of effective factors in agricultural crops production, climatic conditions is an important task from the view of environmental variables. On the other hand the basic in agricultural development is having detailed knowledge of the environmental characteristics in any place and applying specific management. Saffron as the world's most valuable agricultural and medicinal product is among the plants that has acquired a significant role in the economic and social conditions of arid and semi-arid areas of Southern and Central Khorasan. Thereafter, this study with purpose of climatic conditions evaluation for Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was conducted. For this reason, climatic data of 10 meteorological stations in the province was selected and with the help of Arc GIS software environment, the modeling and spatial analysis of information was conducted. using of suitable climatic conditions in different growth stages of Saffron, information layers were classified and the value of the maps was determined. Finally for the integrating of information layers using multi-criteria decision-making methods were used based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, climatic potential map of Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was prepared. The results of the study showed that the effect of rainfall, temperature and solar radiation climatic factors, appropriate the different growth stages, in each region is different and from the total 9570.2071 sq kms area of the Torbate Hidariyeh city according to Saffron cultivation zoning, 6% has a very good quality, 56% of the area has a good quality, 28% has relative conditions for cultivation, 8.5% has poor and 1.5% of the area has a quite unsuitable quality for the cultivation of Saffron.

  4. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation.

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    Sara eMishamandani


    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain – thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment.

  5. A simplified method for the cultivation of extreme anaerobic Archaea based on the use of sodium sulfite as reducing agent. (United States)

    Rothe, O; Thomm, M


    The extreme sensitivity of many Archaea to oxygen is a major obstacle for their cultivation in the laboratory and the development of archaeal genetic exchange systems. The technique of Balch and Wolfe (1976) is suitable for the cultivation of anaerobic Archaea but involves time-consuming procedures such as the use of air locks and glove boxes. We describe here a procedure for the cultivation of anaerobic Archaea that is more convenient and faster and allows the preparation of liquid media without the use of an anaerobic chamber. When the reducing agent sodium sulfide (Na2S) was replaced by sodium sulfite (Na2SO3), anaerobic media could be prepared without protection from oxygen outside an anaerobic chamber. Exchange of the headspace of serum bottles by appropriate gases was sufficient to maintain anaerobic conditions in the culture media. Organisms that were unable to utilize sulfite as a source for cellular sulfur were supplemented with hydrogen sulfide. H2S was simply added to the headspace of serum bottles by a syringe. The use of H2S as a source for sulfur minimized the precipitation of cations by sulfide. Representatives of 12 genera of anaerobic Archaea studied here were able to grow in media prepared by this procedure. For the extremely oxygen-sensitive organism Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, we show that plates could be prepared outside an anaerobic chamber when sulfite was used as reducing agent. The application of this method may faciliate the cultivation and handling of extreme anaerobic Archaea considerably.

  6. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology. (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo


    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  7. A novel fed-batch based cultivation method provides high cell-density and improves yield of soluble recombinant proteins in shaken cultures (United States)


    Background Cultivations for recombinant protein production in shake flasks should provide high cell densities, high protein productivity per cell and good protein quality. The methods described in laboratory handbooks often fail to reach these goals due to oxygen depletion, lack of pH control and the necessity to use low induction cell densities. In this article we describe the impact of a novel enzymatically controlled fed-batch cultivation technology on recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli in simple shaken cultures. Results The enzymatic glucose release system together with a well-balanced combination of mineral salts and complex medium additives provided high cell densities, high protein yields and a considerably improved proportion of soluble proteins in harvested cells. The cultivation method consists of three steps: 1) controlled growth by glucose-limited fed-batch to OD600 ~10, 2) addition of growth boosters together with an inducer providing efficient protein synthesis within a 3 to 6 hours period, and 3) a slow growth period (16 to 21 hours) during which the recombinant protein is slowly synthesized and folded. Cell densities corresponding to 10 to 15 g l-1 cell dry weight could be achieved with the developed technique. In comparison to standard cultures in LB, Terrific Broth and mineral salt medium, we typically achieved over 10-fold higher volumetric yields of soluble recombinant proteins. Conclusions We have demonstrated that by applying the novel EnBase® Flo cultivation system in shaken cultures high cell densities can be obtained without impairing the productivity per cell. Especially the yield of soluble (correctly folded) proteins was significantly improved in comparison to commonly used LB, Terrific Broth or mineral salt media. This improvement is thought to result from a well controlled physiological state during the whole process. The higher volumetric yields enable the use of lower culture volumes and can thus significantly reduce

  8. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the soil management methods under rice cultivation in. Ndokwa grassland soils with the aim of determining the most effective soil management measures for rice cultivation. Soil samples were collected at three locations where rice is presently cultivated in the area. Five plots of 20m x 20m were ...

  9. The Combination of Functional Metagenomics and an Oil-Fed Enrichment Strategy Revealed the Phylogenetic Diversity of Lipolytic Bacteria Overlooked by the Cultivation-Based Method (United States)

    Narihiro, Takashi; Suzuki, Aya; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Yokota, Atsushi; Kimura, Nobutada; Kamagata, Yoichi


    Metagenomic screening and conventional cultivation have been used to exploit microbial lipolytic enzymes in nature. We used an indigenous forest soil (NS) and oil-fed enriched soil (OS) as microbial and genetic resources. Thirty-four strains (17 each) of lipolytic bacteria were isolated from the NS and OS microcosms. These isolates were classified into the (sub)phyla Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, all of which are known to be the main microbial resources of commercially available lipolytic enzymes. Seven and 39 lipolytic enzymes were successfully retrieved from the metagenomic libraries of the NS and OS microcosms, respectively. The screening efficiency (a ratio of positive lipolytic clones to the total number of environmental clones) was markedly higher in the OS microcosm than in the NS microcosm. Moreover, metagenomic clones encoding the lipolytic enzymes associated with Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Armatimonadetes, and Planctomycetes and hitherto-uncultivated microbes were recovered from these libraries. The results of the present study indicate that functional metagenomics can be effectively used to capture as yet undiscovered lipolytic enzymes that have eluded the cultivation-based method, and these combined approaches may be able to provide an overview of lipolytic organisms potentially present in nature. PMID:24859309

  10. Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods. (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, In-Cheol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Weon, Hang-Yeon


    Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial strains isolated from meju samples showed that the dominant species were related to members of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. The community DNAs extracted from nine different meju samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting of the V1 to V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 132,374 sequences, with an average read length of 468 bp, were assigned to several phyla, with Firmicutes (93.6%) representing the predominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (4.5%) and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Other phyla accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial sequences. Most of the Firmicutes were Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc, whose ratio varied among different samples. In conclusion, this study indicated that the bacterial communities in meju were very diverse and a complex microbial consortium containing various microorganisms got involved in meju fermentation than we expected before.

  11. An isotope approach based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling vs. the root trenching method to separate heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in cultivated peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, C.; Pitkamaki, A. S.; Tavi, N. M.; Koponen, H. T.; Martikainen, P. J. [Univ.of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], e-mail:


    We tested an isotope method based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling for determining the fractional contribution of soil microbial respiration to overall soil respiration in an organic soil (cutaway peatland, eastern Finland), cultivated with the bioenergy crop, reed canary grass. The plants were exposed to CO{sub 2}-13 for five hours and the label was thereafter determined in CO{sub 2} derived from the soil-root system. A two-pool isotope mixing model was used to separate sources of respiration. The isotopic approach showed that a minimum of 50% of the total CO{sub 2} originated from soil-microbial respiration. Even though the method uses undisturbed soil-plant systems, it has limitations concerning the experimental determination of the true isotopic signal of all components contributing to autotrophic respiration. A trenching experiment which was comparatively conducted resulted in a 71% fractional contribution of soil-microbial respiration. This value was likely overestimated. Further studies are needed to evaluate critically the output from these two partitioning approaches. (orig.)

  12. Apparatus and method for controlling autotroph cultivation

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    Fuxman, Adrian M; Tixier, Sebastien; Stewart, Gregory E; Haran, Frank M; Backstrom, Johan U; Gerbrandt, Kelsey


    A method includes receiving at least one measurement of a dissolved carbon dioxide concentration of a mixture of fluid containing an autotrophic organism. The method also includes determining an adjustment to one or more manipulated variables using the at least one measurement. The method further includes generating one or more signals to modify the one or more manipulated variables based on the determined adjustment. The one or more manipulated variables could include a carbon dioxide flow rate, an air flow rate, a water temperature, and an agitation level for the mixture. At least one model relates the dissolved carbon dioxide concentration to one or more manipulated variables, and the adjustment could be determined by using the at least one model to drive the dissolved carbon dioxide concentration to at least one target that optimize a goal function. The goal function could be to optimize biomass growth rate, nutrient removal and/or lipid production.

  13. Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance (United States)

    Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.


    Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter that this review is primarily aimed. PMID:12097242

  14. Alternative method for vegetables cultivation in Benin

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    Lucia Recchia


    Full Text Available In the developing countries populations, which are already vulnerable and food insecure, are likely to be the most seriously affected by the effects of climate change, e.g. yield decreases and price increases for the most important agricultural crops. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report for Africa describes a trend of warming at a rate faster than the global average and increasing aridity: in many parts of Africa, it seems that warmer climates and changes in precipitation will destabilise agricultural production and aggravates food security. The present work concerns the vegetables cultivation in the Parakou region in Benin, where agriculture employs approximately 70% of the active population and contributes to 36% of the Gross Domestic Product and 88% of export earnings. However, the agricultural sector has been regarded as unproductive with low adaptation capacities because of structural factors (e.g. high level of poverty among rural populations, weak mechanization and intensification of production modes, but also because of natural constraints (e.g. poor management of water and soils, leading to soil degradation. Considering the aridity, the low carbon content and the reduced level of nutrients available in the soil, the use of an hydroponic module has been hypothesised. In this way sufficient yields of the crops may be assured and no agricultural machines will be needed for the tillage operations. In addition, the nutrients can be added to the growing solution using residual materials as poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. In order to verify if some construction or maintenance problems can occur and if a growing solution can be easily obtained using agricultural wastes, some tests have been carried out. Moreover laboratory analyses have been done for different solutions that may be adopted with different shares of water, poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. The tests have indicated that the hydroponic module could be used in Benin

  15. Methods for isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Nevalainen, Helena; Kautto, Liisa; Te'o, Junior


    Filamentous fungi are important organisms for basic discovery, industry, and human health. Their natural growth environments are extremely variable, a fact reflected by the numerous methods developed for their isolation and cultivation. Fungal culture in the laboratory is usually carried out on agar plates, shake flasks, and bench top fermenters starting with an inoculum that typically features fungal spores. Here we discuss the most popular methods for the isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi for various purposes with the emphasis on enzyme production and molecular microbiology.

  16. Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method (United States)

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua


    A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

  17. A six-well plate method: less laborious and effective method for cultivation of obligate anaerobic microorganisms. (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kang, Myung Suk; Mochimaru, Hanako; Lee, Sung-Taik; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kamagata, Yoichi


    We developed a simple, less laborious method to cultivate and isolate obligate anaerobic microorganisms using a six-well plate together with the AnaeroPack System, designated as the six-well plate method. The cultivation efficiency of this method, based on colony-forming units, colony formation time, and colony size, was evaluated with four authentic obligate anaerobes (two methanogenic archaea and two sulfate-reducing bacteria). The method was found to be comparable to or even better than the roll tube method, a technique that is commonly used at present for the cultivation of obligate anaerobes. Further experiments using 21 representative obligate anaerobes demonstrated that all examined anaerobes (11 methanogens, 5 sulfate- or thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 syntrophs) could form visible colonies on the six-well plate and that these colonies could be successfully subcultured in fresh liquid media. Using this method, an unidentified sulfate-reducing bacterium was successfully isolated from an environmental sample.

  18. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation (United States)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  19. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

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    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  20. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation (United States)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.


    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  1. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng. (United States)

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun


    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  2. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L. plants in depending on cultivation method

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    Andrzej Sałata


    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated from transplants produced flowers earlier than those obtained from crowns. Plants grown from seeds sown in the ground did not produce flowering shoots. They remained as leaves through the whole vegetation period. Definitely more anthodiums produced plants those cultivated from crowns in comparison with obtained from transplants and seeds. Anthodiums which developed on shoots of plants cultivated from transplants and cuttings characterized bigger average height and diameter than anthodiums of plants cultivated from crowns. Artichoke plants differed in the number of leaves. More leaves of smaller length produced plants cultivated from transplants than plants obtained from cuttings and crowns.

  3. Reform of experimental teaching based on quality cultivation (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xingwei; Liu, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Hu, Haojun


    Experimental teaching plays an import part in quality education which devotes to cultivating students with innovative spirit, strong technological talents and practical ability. However, in the traditional experimental teaching mode, the experiments are treated as a vassal or supplementary mean of theoretical teaching, and students prefer focus on theory to practice. Therefore, the traditional experimental teaching mode is difficult to meet the requirements of quality education. To address this issue, the reform of experimental teaching is introduced in this paper taking the photoelectric detector experiment as the example. The new experimental teaching mode is designed from such aspects as experimental content, teaching method and experimental evaluation. With the purpose of cultivating students' practical ability, two different-level experimental content is designed. Not only the basic experiments used to verify the theory are set to consolidate the students' learned theoretical knowledge, but also comprehensive experiments are designed to encourage the students to apply their learned knowledge to solve practical problems. In the teaching process, heuristic teaching thought is adopt and the traditional `teacher-centered' teaching form is replaced by `student-centered' form, which aims to encourage students to design the experimental systems by their own with the teacher's guidance. In addition to depending on stimulating the students' interest of science research, experimental evaluation is necessary to urge students to complete the experiments efficiently. Multifaceted evaluation method is proposed to test the students' mastery of theoretical knowledge, practice ability, troubleshooting and problem solving skills, and innovation capability comprehensively. Practices demonstrated the satisfying effect of our experimental teaching mode.

  4. Effect of plant cultivation methods on content of major and trace elements in foodstuffs and retention in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Østergaard, Lars F.; Halekoh, Ulrich


    major and trace element contents of dried foodstuffs (carrots, kale, peas, potatoes and apples) grown in two consecutive years, as well as mineral retention determined in 36 rats (second generation in a multi-generation study) fed diets based on these foodstuffs from one year. RESULTS: Overall......, there was no evident trend towards differences in element content of foodstuffs or diets due to the use of different cultivation systems, and differences between harvest years exceeded those seen between cultivation methods. Also, no significant differences in the retention of elements in rats fed diets derived from...

  5. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten


    The human gut microbiota is linked to a variety of human health issues and implicated in antibiotic resistance gene dissemination. Most of these associations rely on culture-independent methods, since it is commonly believed that gut microbiota cannot be easily or sufficiently cultured. Here, we...... show that carefully designed conditions enable cultivation of a representative proportion of human gut bacteria, enabling rapid multiplex phenotypic profiling. We use this approach to determine the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic tolerance phenotypes for 16 antibiotics in the human gut...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  6. Potential of Homestay Tourism Based on Seaweed Cultivation from the Views of Seaweed Cultivators in District of Semporna Sabah, East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Rosazman


    Full Text Available Community participation in tourism development especially among fisherman and farmers has begun to given serious attention by the government whereby the communities are given opportunities to engage in tourism development programmes in order to enhance their quality of life. In order to encourage local community participation in tourism development in rural areas, participants’ perceptions regarding tourism activities are important aspect to be sought. Good or bad perceptions from the community towards tourism development are important because it can determine the success of the programme. Firstly, this paper aims to explore the views or perceptions of seaweed cultivators towards homestay tourism which is based on seaweed cultivation in the District of Semporna, Sabah. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches have been applied in this study, such as the usage of the face to face interviews survey using survey questionnaires and field observation as primary methods. The findings show that the majority of the respondents have a positive perception of homestay tourism based on seaweed cultivation, such as the acceptance of visits by the tourists to their working place. Seaweed cultivators agreed that this tourism activity bring additional income to them. Activities that can become tourist attractions include tying seaweed seeds on a casino table. Moreover, the tourists have an opportunity to take a boat to see the seaweed farm, and take pictures of seaweed activities and so on. These findings also revealed that the majority of the respondents assumed that the visits of the tourists would motivate them to carry out the activity with more enthusiasm. This shows that seaweed cultivation could become a new tourism product which has great potential to develop in the district of Semporna, Sabah.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods. (United States)

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S; Burns, Brendan P; Ferrari, Belinda C


    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic "k-selected" bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea, and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in an increase in diversity from 14 to 57 microfungi OTUs

  8. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods (United States)

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S.; Burns, Brendan P.; Ferrari, Belinda C.


    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic “k-selected” bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea, and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and Ascomycota). This was the first known attempt to culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in an

  9. Monitoring total nitrogen content in soil of cultivated land based on hyperspectral technology (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Wang, Lizhi; Zhang, Liyan; Wang, Guijun


    Monitoring total nitrogen content (TNC) in soil of cultivated land quantitively is significant for fertility adjustment, yield improvement and sustainable development of agriculture. Analyzing the hyperspectrum response on soil TNC is the basis of remote sensing monitoring in a wide range. The study aimed to develop a universal method to monitor total nitrogen content in soil of cultivated land by hyperspectrum data. The correlations between soil TNC and the hyperspectrum reflectivity and its mathematical transformations were analyzed. Then the feature bands and its transformations were screened to develop the optimizing model of monitoring soil TNC based on the method of multiple linear regression. Results showed that the bands with good correlation of soil TNC were concentrated in visible bands and near infrared bands. Differential transformation was helpful for reducing the noise interference to the diagnosis ability of the target spectrum. The determination coefficient of the first order differential of logarithmic reciprocal transformation was biggest (0.56), which was confirmed as the optimal inversion model for soil TNC. The determination coefficient (R2) of testing samples was 0.45, while the RMSE was 0.097 mg/kg. It indicated that the inversion model of soil TNC in the cultivated land with the one differentiation of logarithmic reciprocal transformation of hyperspectral data could reach high accuracy with good stability.

  10. A simple method for cultivating freshwater copepods used in biological control of Aedes aegypti. (United States)

    Suarez, M F; Marten, G G; Clark, G G


    A simple method for indoor and outdoor cultivation of Mesocyclops aspericornis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops n. sp. copepods is presented. This method utilizes Chilomonas sp., Paramecium caudatum and fresh lettuce as food sources for copepod cultures. Steps for initiating and maintaining copepod cultures are provided.


    Andryuschenko, S V; Perunova, N B


    Determination of modulating effect of acid-base state of medium for cultivation of enterobacteria on activity of C-type lysozyme. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression, Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 model strain, Escherichia coli No. 242 strain, isolated from intestine biotope; 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, one of those contained plasmid homologue of periplasmatic lysozyme inhibitor gene pliC; 1 typical Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 strain and a Micrococcus luteus ATCC 15307 strain as a control--served as material for the study. The bacteria were cultivated for 24 hours in 2 ml of liquid medium LB at 37 degrees C, 250 rpm. Determination of antilysozyme activity (ALA) was carried out by a photonepehlometrical method according to O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999) with alterations. All the studied microorganisms, including Micrococcus luteus, at the specified conditions 24 hours after cultivation were established to change the pH of the liquid nutrient medium LB from the initial value of 6.6 ± 0.1 to 8.2 ± 0.2 units. ALA determination in the cultivation medium without buffer correction was accompanied by a decline of lysozyme activity at an order of magnitude. The effect was absent during ALA measurement by a standard technique. The local shift of acid-base state of biotope under the conditions of buffer system insufficiency results in a reversible alteration of antimicrobial activity of muramidase, that among other non-specific factors of the environment determines the background of interactions on the level of associative symbiosis. This aspect should be taken into consideration during development of models, that are close to real conditions of microsymbiocenotical interactions.

  12. Can agricultural Cultivation Methods Influence the Healthfulness of Crops for Foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich


    The aim of the current study was to investigate if there are any health effects of long-term consumption of organically grown crops using a rat model. Crops were retrieved over two years from a long-term field trial at three different locations in Denmark, using three different cultivation systems...... (OA, organic based on livestock manure; OB, organic based on green manure; and C, conventional with mineral fertilizers and pesticides) with two field replicates. The cultivation system had an impact on the nutritional quality, affecting γ-tocopherol, some amino acids, and fatty acid composition...

  13. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ... properties in the soil using the most probable instruments and analytical methods. The yield of rice harvested was measured in tons per hectares (He). The results revealed that the application of soil management techniques has enhanced rice yields by. 23.45tons/He. The combination of slash and burn, tillage and soil.

  14. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Soil samples were collected and analyzed for physical, chemical and heavy metals properties in the soil using the most probable instruments and analytical methods. The yield of rice harvested was measured in tons per hectares (He). The results revealed that the application of soil management techniques has enhanced ...

  15. Quantification of encapsulated bioburden in spacecraft polymer materials by cultivation-dependent and molecular methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bauermeister

    Full Text Available Bioburden encapsulated in spacecraft polymers (such as adhesives and coatings poses a potential risk to jeopardize scientific exploration of other celestial bodies. This is particularly critical for spacecraft components intended for hard landing. So far, it remained unclear if polymers are indeed a source of microbial contamination. In addition, data with respect to survival of microbes during the embedding/polymerization process are sparse. In this study we developed testing strategies to quantitatively examine encapsulated bioburden in five different polymers used frequently and in large quantities on spaceflight hardware. As quantitative extraction of the bioburden from polymerized (solid materials did not prove feasible, contaminants were extracted from uncured precursors. Cultivation-based analyses revealed <0.1-2.5 colony forming units (cfu per cm3 polymer, whereas quantitative PCR-based detection of contaminants indicated considerably higher values, despite low DNA extraction efficiency. Results obtained from this approach reflect the most conservative proxy for encapsulated bioburden, as they give the maximum bioburden of the polymers irrespective of any additional physical and chemical stress occurring during polymerization. To address the latter issue, we deployed an embedding model to elucidate and monitor the physiological status of embedded Bacillus safensis spores in a cured polymer. Staining approaches using AlexaFluor succinimidyl ester 488 (AF488, propidium monoazide (PMA, CTC (5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride demonstrated that embedded spores retained integrity, germination and cultivation ability even after polymerization of the adhesive Scotch-Weld 2216 B/A. Using the methods presented here, we were able to estimate the worst case contribution of encapsulated bioburden in different polymers to the bioburden of spacecraft. We demonstrated that spores were not affected by polymerization processes. Besides Planetary

  16. Curriculum-based library instruction from cultivating faculty relationships to assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Blevins, Amy


    Curriculum-Based Library Instruction: From Cultivating Faculty Relationships to Assessment highlights the movement beyond one-shot instruction sessions, specifically focusing on situations where academic librarians have developed curriculum based sessions and/or become involved in curriculum committees.

  17. GIS-based weight of evidence modeling for cultivated land suitability mapping (United States)

    Lv, Li-na; Zheng, Xinqi

    The cultivated land protection has become a leading concern influencing the actions of the Chinese government and people. This study introduces a method named as the weight of evidence (WOE) using natural and geographical location factors to evaluate the suitability of Jinan cultivated land. Evaluation results show that: (1) weight of evidence method as a pure data-driven approach is suitable for confirming each index's weight in the cultivated land suitability evaluation, and the weights are objective and easy to be explained; (2) weight of evidence method uses raster data which are convenient for spatial analysis and does not need to unify the evaluation unit; (3)About 60.25% of land in Jinan has superior suitability as cultivated land. The technical ideas and methods proposed in this paper can provide support for taking a fresh look at land suitability evaluation and policy making. It will also help decision-makers optimize land allocation and make better land-use planning decisions.

  18. Cultivating engineering innovation ability based on optoelectronic experimental platform (United States)

    Li, Dangjuan; Wu, Shenjiang


    As the supporting experimental platform of the Xi'an Technological University education reform experimental class, "optical technological innovation experimental platform" integrated the design and comprehensive experiments of the optical multi-class courses. On the basis of summing up the past two years teaching experience, platform pilot projects were improve. It has played a good role by making the use of an open teaching model in the cultivating engineering innovation spirit and scientific thinking of the students.

  19. Validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from Trichoderma strains. (United States)

    Florencio, C; Cunha, F M; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S


    The development of new cost-effective bioprocesses for the production of cellulolytic enzymes is needed in order to ensure that the conversion of biomass becomes economically viable. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel sequential solid-state and submerged fermentation method (SF) could be validated for different strains of the Trichoderma genus. Cultivation of the Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 reference strain under SF using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was shown to be favorable for endoglucanase (EGase) production, resulting in up to 4.2-fold improvement compared with conventional submerged fermentation. Characterization of the enzymes in terms of the optimum pH and temperature for EGase activity and comparison of the hydrolysis profiles obtained using a synthetic substrate did not reveal any qualitative differences among the different cultivation conditions investigated. However, the thermostability of the EGase was influenced by the type of carbon source and cultivation system. All three strains of Trichoderma tested (T. reesei Rut-C30, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma sp INPA 666) achieved higher enzymatic productivity when cultivated under SF, hence validating the proposed SF method for use with different Trichoderma strains. The results suggest that this bioprocess configuration is a very promising development for the cellulosic biofuels industry.

  20. Cultivating Life Skills at a Project-Based Charter School (United States)

    Wurdinger, Scott; Enloe, Walter


    Surveys that focused on academic and life skill development were collected from alumni who attended Avalon Charter School in St Paul, Minnesota. Avalon is a small public charter school that uses project-based learning as their primary teaching method. Forty-two alumni responded to the online survey. Students ranked life skills such as creativity,…

  1. Crop based climate regimes for energy saving in greenhouse cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, O.


    Sustainability is one of the major aims in greenhouse horticulture. According to agreements between the Dutch grower association and the government, energy consumption and the use of chemical biocides have to be reduced. More advanced greenhouse technique is being developed to reach the target to decrease the energy efficiency-index by 65% between 1980 and 2010. However, this could also be achieved with existing technology by using more advanced climate regimes. The present thesis aimed at that, through designing and analysing climate regimes while employing existing climate control possibilities. Theoretical temperature and humidity regimes were designed to decrease energy consumption and a photosynthesis maximisation procedure was implemented to maximise growth. The basis for a crop gross photosynthesis model for control purposes was created. Crop photosynthesis models were evaluated at conditions expected to occur with more sustainable climate regimes. It was shown with experimental evidence that theoretical assumptions on the temperature - CO2 effects in a crop that are based on theoretically models scaling up leaf photosynthesis to the crop level are valid and that simplified existing models could be applied up to 28C. With higher temperatures new designs are needed and this can probably be achieved with an improved stomata-resistance model. The well known temperature integration principle was modified with two nested time-frames (24-hour and six days) and a temperature dose-response function. In a year round tomato cultivation, energy consumption was predicted to decrease with up to 9 % compared to regular temperature integration. The potential for energy saving with temperature integration is limited by humidity control when as usual fixed set points are maintained, because it counteracts temperature integration. Vents open at lower temperatures and heating is switched on at higher temperatures than required for optimal effects of temperature integration. A

  2. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.


    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  3. Effect of Cultivation Methods on Wood Static Bending Properties in Alnus Glutinosa


    Majid Kiaei


    This study was carried out to determine radial variation of wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and stress at elastic limit in plantation and natural alder (Alnus glutinosa) forests in north of Iran. Testing samples were taken at breast height of the stem and at three radial positions (10, 50 and 90 % of radius) for both cultivation methods (natural and plantation forests) to determine wood mechanical strength properties according to the ASTM standard. Analysis...

  4. Creation Greenhouse Environment Map Using Localization of Edge of Cultivation Platforms Based on Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri


    Full Text Available Introduction Stereo vision means the capability of extracting the depth based on analysis of two images taken from different angles of one scene. The result of stereo vision is a collection of three-dimensional points which describes the details of scene proportional to the resolution of the obtained images. Vehicle automatic steering and crop growth monitoring are two important operations in agricultural precision. The essential aspects of an automated steering are position and orientation of the agricultural equipment in relation to crop row, detection of obstacles and design of path planning between the crop rows. The developed map can provide this information in the real time. Machine vision has the capabilities to perform these tasks in order to execute some operations such as cultivation, spraying and harvesting. In greenhouse environment, it is possible to develop a map and perform an automatic control by detecting and localizing the cultivation platforms as the main moving obstacle. The current work was performed to meet a method based on the stereo vision for detecting and localizing platforms, and then, providing a two-dimensional map for cultivation platforms in the greenhouse environment. Materials and Methods In this research, two webcams, made by Microsoft Corporation with the resolution of 960×544, are connected to the computer via USB2 in order to produce a stereo parallel camera. Due to the structure of cultivation platforms, the number of points in the point cloud will be decreased by extracting the only upper and lower edges of the platform. The proposed method in this work aims at extracting the edges based on depth discontinuous features in the region of platform edge. By getting the disparity image of the platform edges from the rectified stereo images and translating its data to 3D-space, the point cloud model of the environments is constructed. Then by projecting the points to XZ plane and putting local maps together

  5. Identification by the DArTseq method of the genetic origin of the Coffea canephora cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico. (United States)

    Garavito, Andrea; Montagnon, Christophe; Guyot, Romain; Bertrand, Benoît


    The coffee species Coffea canephora is commercially identified as "Conilon" when produced in Brazil, or "Robusta" when produced elsewhere in the world. It represents approximately 40 % of coffee production worldwide. While the genetic diversity of wild C. canephora has been well studied in the past, only few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of currently cultivated varieties around the globe. Vietnam is the largest Robusta producer in the world, while Mexico is the only Latin American country, besides Brazil, that has a significant Robusta production. Knowledge of the genetic origin of Robusta cultivated varieties in countries as important as Vietnam and Mexico is therefore of high interest. Through the use of Sequencing-based diversity array technology-DArTseq method-on a collection of C. canephora composed of known accessions and accessions cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico, 4,021 polymorphic SNPs were identified. We used a multivariate analysis using SNP data from reference accessions in order to confirm and further fine-tune the genetic diversity of C. canephora. Also, by interpolating the data obtained for the varieties from Vietnam and Mexico, we determined that they are closely related to each other, and identified that their genetic origin is the Robusta Congo - Uganda group. The genetic characterization based on SNP markers of the varieties grown throughout the world, increased our knowledge on the genetic diversity of C. canephora, and contributed to the understanding of the genetic background of varieties from very important coffee producers. Given the common genetic origin of the Robusta varieties cultivated in Vietnam, Mexico and Uganda, and the similar characteristics of climatic areas and relatively high altitude where they are grown, we can state that the Vietnamese and the Mexican Robusta have the same genetic potential to produce good cup quality.

  6. Water balance of rice plots under three different cultivation methods: first season results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Antonio Chiaradia


    Full Text Available In the last years rice cultivation methods have been the object of an intense research activity aiming to implement new irrigation methods in addition to traditional flooding, in order to reduce water use. This change has concerned also the traditional paddy-rice territories of the north-west of Italy, where rice has been traditionally cultivated as flooded and where paddy fields are a strong landscape landmark and represent a central feature in the Italian and European network for nature protection. The new techniques introduced in these territories consist in a dry seeding followed by field flooding after about one month (third-fourth leaf, and in a full aerobic cultivation with intermittent irrigations, similarly to standard irrigated crops. This paper presents the results obtained after the first year of a monitoring activity carried out at the Ente Nazionale Risi Experimental Station of Castello d’Agogna-Mortara (PV, Italy, where the main terms of water balance have been measured or estimated during the whole crop season. Because there is a substantial lack of data concerning the water balance related to the new water management techniques, the data are of wide interest despite this study covered only one season. The results here presented show that dry seeding-delayed flooding method required a rather similar amount of water respect to the traditional flooding method (2200 mm and 2491 mm, respectively, whereas the aerobic technique required one order of magnitude less water (298 mm, also due to the very shallow depth of the surface aquifer. Since evapotranspiration was nearly the same for the three methods (578 mm, 555 mm, and 464 mm, respectively for traditional flooded, dry seeding-delayed flooding and aerobic methods, percolation was very high in the case of the two flooded methods and very limited in the case of the aerobic cultivation with intermittent irrigations. These results suggest that, if the aerobic cultivation of rice

  7. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium. (United States)

    Pelizer, Lúcia Helena; Moraes, Iracema de Oliveira


    This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth.

  8. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae. Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth.

  9. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development


    Cui, Qian; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Qing


    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecolog...

  10. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach. (United States)

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F


    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.


    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  12. Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.


    Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer’s accuracy of 93% and a user’s accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ≥95% for cultivated croplands and ≥76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

  13. Development of a thin tube cultivation method for determining coliform counts in milk. (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Gray, Peter M


    A new rapid coliform-monitoring method using thin tube cultivation (TTC) was developed. One hundred microliters of modified selective medium (1.5% agar) and 100 microl of sample were mixed in thin cultivation tubes, yielding a semisolid mixture of 0.75% agar. The tubes were incubated at 37 degrees C and checked for a positive reaction (gas production from lactose fermentation and color changes from acid production) at 30-min intervals. The positive reaction times for TTC were compared with actual coliform numbers. The first experiment was performed to validate the TTC method using pure coliform cultures (the Escherichia coli group, the Enterobacter cloacae group. and the Klebsiella pneumoniae group). The results indicated that the TTC method saved about 10 to 14 h of incubation time compared with the conventional plating method. When coliforms were present in small numbers, such as I to 1.5 log10 CFU/ml, the TTC method detected their presence within 10 h. When highly contaminated samples were assayed (6 log10 CFU/ml), the TTC method detected the presence of coliforms within 4 to 5 h. In a food system experiment, pasteurized skim milk inoculated with a coliform mixture was assayed by the TTC method. The coliforms in the milk were quickly detected, resulting in a savings of 11 to 14 h compared with the conventional plating method. Cold-injured coliforms were studied to evaluate the TTC system. The recovery and estimation of injured coliforms by the TTC method strongly agree with those of the conventional plating method. The TTC system was also applied to ascertain the levels of natural coliforms in noninoculated milk. The TTC system reduced incubation times by about 11 to 14 h compared with the conventional plating method. According to these data, this method is a rapid, simple, accurate, and economical way to monitor and estimate total coliforms in milk.

  14. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  15. Optimization of Growth Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24 using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, C. H.


    Full Text Available Production of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24, a probiotic strain for chicken, was studied in batch fermentation using 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Response surface method (RSM was used to optimize the medium for efficient cultivation of the bacterium. The factors investigated were yeast extract, glucose and initial culture pH. A polynomial regression model with cubic and quartic terms was used for the analysis of the experimental data. Estimated optimal conditions of the factors for growth of L. salivarius i 24 were; 3.32 % (w/v glucose, 4.31 % (w/v yeast extract and initial culture pH of 6.10.

  16. Improved poliovirus D-antigen yields by application of different Vero cell cultivation methods. (United States)

    Thomassen, Yvonne E; Rubingh, Olaf; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M


    Vero cells were grown adherent to microcarriers (Cytodex 1; 3 g L(-1)) using animal component free media in stirred-tank type bioreactors. Different strategies for media refreshment, daily media replacement (semi-batch), continuous media replacement (perfusion) and recirculation of media, were compared with batch cultivation. Cell densities increased using a feed strategy from 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) during batch cultivation to 1.8, 2.7 and 5.0×10(6) cells mL(-1) during semi-batch, perfusion and recirculation, respectively. The effects of these different cell culture strategies on subsequent poliovirus production were investigated. Increased cell densities allowed up to 3 times higher D-antigen levels when compared with that obtained from batch-wise Vero cell culture. However, the cell specific D-antigen production was lower when cells were infected at higher cell densities. This cell density effect is in good agreement with observations for different cell lines and virus types. From the evaluated alternative culture methods, application of a semi-batch mode of operations allowed the highest cell specific D-antigen production. The increased product yields that can easily be reached using these higher cell density cultivation methods, showed the possibility for better use of bioreactor capacity for the manufacturing of polio vaccines to ultimately reduce vaccine cost per dose. Further, the use of animal-component-free cell- and virus culture media shows opportunities for modernization of human viral vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetic structure of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. based on retrotransposon-based markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollahi Hadi


    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the most important fiber and oil crop plants cultivated since ancient time. The flax seeds contain high amount of omega- 3-fatty acids and biologically active lignans. In spite of economic importance of cultivated flax, no information is available on its genetic variability and population structure in Iran. Therefore, we used six inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP markers and 15 combined IRAP markers to reveal within and among population genetic diversity in this crop plant. We used 30 randomly selected plants in three geographical populations for present investigation. AMOVA test produced significant genetic difference (PhiPT = 0.40, P = 0.010 among the studied populations and also revealed that, 40% of total genetic variability was due to within population diversity while, 60% was due to among population genetic differentiation. Gst (0.78, P = 0.001, Hedrick, standardised fixation index (G'st = 0.83, P = 0.001, revealed that the studied populations are genetically differentiated. STRUCTURE plot based on admixture model revealed that the studied populations differed extensively in their genetic content, but some degree of shared alleles occurred between them. Some adaptive IRAP loci were identified by LFMM analysis. These loci were private alleles restricted to geographical populations. Data obtained may be used in breeding and hybridization program of flax in the country.

  18. On the Cultivation of Automation Majors' Research Innovation Ability Based on Scientific Research Projects (United States)

    Wang, Lipeng; Li, Mingqiu


    Currently, it has become a fundamental goal for the engineering major to cultivate high-quality engineering technicians with innovation ability in scientific research which is an important academic ability necessary for them. This paper mainly explores the development of comprehensive and designing experiments in automation based on scientific…

  19. Cultivating Fluorescent Flowers with Highly Luminescent Carbon Dots Fabricated by a Double Passivation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Han


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the fabrication of highly luminescent carbon dots (CDs by a double passivation method with the assistance of Ca(OH2. In the reaction process, Ca2+ protects the active functional groups from overconsumption during dehydration and carbonization, and the electron-withdrawing groups on the CD surface are converted to electron-donating groups by the hydroxyl ions. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yield of the CDs was found to increase with increasing Ca(OH2 content in the reaction process. A blue-shift optical spectrum of the CDs was also found with increasing Ca(OH2 content, which could be attributed to the increasing of the energy gaps for the CDs. The highly photoluminescent CDs obtained (quantum yield: 86% were used to cultivate fluorescent carnations by a water culture method, while the results of fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that the CDs had entered the plant tissue structure.

  20. Support system based on GIS and weighted sum method for drawing up of land suitability map for agriculture. Application to durum wheat cultivation in the area of Mleta (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendas, A.; Delali, A.


    Due to constant decrease in farmlands, it is important to identify the best lands for sustainable agriculture (productive and profitable agriculture that protects the environment and that is socially equitable). This requirement has resulted in the development of land suitability maps for agriculture by combining a range of factors. Spatial analysis approaches, based on the concepts of the weighted sum, combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) offer the opportunity to efficiently produce these land suitability maps. The functions of the weighted sum make it possible to assign numerical weights, to distinguish between positive and negative criteria and to rank alternatives. A spatial decision support system has been developed for establishing the land suitability map for agriculture. It incorporates a version of the weighted sum method SAW (Simple Additive Weighting), applicable to the vector data model, in ArcGIS within the GIS program package environment. This approach has been tested on the area of Mleta (Algeria) to assess the land suitability for durum wheat agriculture. The parameters and the classification system used in this work are inspired from the FAO. The coherence of results confirms the system effectiveness. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Preferences based Control Design of Complex Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pavlov


    Full Text Available In the paper is presented preferences based control design and stabilization of the growth rate of fed-batch cultivation processes. The control is based on an enlarged Wang-Monod-Yerusalimsky kinetic model. Expected utility theory is one of the approaches for utilization of conceptual information (expert preferences. In the article is discussed utilization of stochastic machine learning procedures for evaluation of expert utilities as criteria for optimization.

  2. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms. (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina


    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  3. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H


    and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...... conditions: 1) on a collagen coating, 2) embedded in a collagen gel, or 3) embedded in a gel put on a porous well insert. The effect of conditioned medium (CM), insulin, transferrin, selenium, and the oxygen content was assessed. Viability was tested by the metabolic dimethylthiazol...... on a porous membrane was superior to the other methods applied [P effects to FCS. Other supplements had...

  4. Analysis of Yield of Eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum Grown with Varying Cultivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Min Lee


    Full Text Available An analysis of the yield of eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum was performed using high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate production by different cultivation methods. In A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, the total content of eleutherosides B and E was 2.466–7.360 mg/g varying by plant section, 3.886–11.506 mg/g by pinching site, 3.655–10.083 mg/g by planting time, and 3.652–10.108 mg/g by fertilizer ratio. Thus the total content of eleutherosides B and E in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum differed depending on cultivation methods. These results present useful information for high eleutheroside content applications in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum. This information can affect selection of plant section and cultivation methods for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical material development.

  5. Identification of cultivated land using remote sensing images based on object-oriented artificial bee colony algorithm (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Xiufang


    Cultivated land resources is the key to ensure food security. Timely and accurate access to cultivated land information is conducive to a scientific planning of food production and management policies. The GaoFen 1 (GF-1) images have high spatial resolution and abundant texture information and thus can be used to identify fragmentized cultivated land. In this paper, an object-oriented artificial bee colony algorithm was proposed for extracting cultivated land from GF-1 images. Firstly, the GF-1 image was segmented by eCognition software and some samples from the segments were manually identified into 2 types (cultivated land and non-cultivated land). Secondly, the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm was used to search for classification rules based on the spectral and texture information extracted from the image objects. Finally, the extracted classification rules were used to identify the cultivated land area on the image. The experiment was carried out in Hongze area, Jiangsu Province using wide field-of-view sensor on the GF-1 satellite image. The total precision of classification result was 94.95%, and the precision of cultivated land was 92.85%. The results show that the object-oriented ABC algorithm can overcome the defect of insufficient spectral information in GF-1 images and obtain high precision in cultivated identification.

  6. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.


    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  7. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods. (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S


    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  8. Cultivating healthy places and communities: evidenced-based nature contact recommendations. (United States)

    Largo-Wight, Erin


    Cultivating healthful places is an important public health focus. This paper presents evidence-based recommendations related to nature contact. A multidisciplinary review was conducted in several fields of study and findings were organized into public health recommendations: (1) cultivate grounds for viewing, (2) maintain healing gardens, (3) incorporate wooded parks and green space in communities, (4) advocate for preservation of pristine wilderness, (5) welcome animals indoors, (6) provide a plethora of indoor potted plants within view, (7) light rooms with bright natural light, (8) provide a clear view of nature outside, (9) allow outside air and sounds in, (10) display nature photography and realistic nature art, (11) watch nature on TV or videos, and (12) listen to recorded sounds of nature. The findings should inform public health promoters in the design of healthy places and communities. Future research needs are highlighted.

  9. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency. (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In


    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL(-1) of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO2-based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO2, because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    A. M. Gadgieva; M. S. Muradov


    The peculiarities of tomato cultivation and processing in conditions of plain area of Dagestan have been considered in the article. The layout of integrated tomato processing and the hardware layout of lines of tomato processind hae been described.The new effective method of tomato-juice production is developed.

  11. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers. (United States)

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M


    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  12. Determination of Adenosine, Cordycepin and Ergosterol Contents in Cultivated Antrodia camphorata by HPLC Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      The concentrations of adenosine and cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine in the hot water extract and ergosterol in the ethanol extract of a cultivated Antrodia camphorata were measured by high performance...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nováková


    Full Text Available In the year 2007, there were one hundred and seventy-eight potato varieties enlisted in the Czech list of registered potato varieties. The classical morphometric approach to characterization is not effective for such a number of varieties especially for identification at the level of tubers. The needfulness of variety identification at the level of tubers is important mainly for trade aspect. The Czech law no.110/1997 Sb. about the food-stuff and tobacco products and the consequential ordinance (MZe č. 332 / 1997 Sb. require guarantee of variety declaration in commercial relation for table potato. In this study we analyzed twenty potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated in the Czech Republic. Every variety was represented by four independent replicates. This set of samples was analyzed by methods of PCR-SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats and PCR-ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats. We discovered that both of tested methods afford sufficient polymorphism for variety identification, but the method of PCR-ISSR is not utilizable, because we observed the variability within variety. For outright identification of the whole set of potato varieties cultivated in the Czech Republic we recommend to use SSR, AFLP and retrotransposene-based markers as well as morphological markers.

  14. Exploration and practice of the cultivation of optoelectronic innovative talents based on the Students Innovation Training Program (United States)

    Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Shi, Jianhua; Yao, Tianfu; Wang, Wei; Hu, Haojun


    The Students Innovation Training Program (SITP) has become an effective method to impel the teaching reform and improve undergraduate's innovative practical ability in Chinese colleges and universities, which is quite helpful for students to understand the social requirement, to grasp the basic means of scientific research and to improve their innovative practical ability and team work spirit. In this paper, three problems have been analyzed and discussed based on our organizing and instructing experience of SITP in recent years. Firstly, the SITP is a synthetically training project, and it is quite suitable to cultivate the students' innovative practical ability. Because SITP is similar to the real scientific research activity, and both of them include the steps of project application, solution design, research implementation and project summary etc. By making great efforts to these basic training steps, the undergraduates' innovative practical ability has been improved systemically. Secondly, a new talents cultivation system has been constructed based on SITP by integrating the subject competitions, graduation design and other conventional training activities, which is quite good to improve the training quality and decrease the total training class hours. Thirdly, a series of long-term effective operation and management guidelines have been established to ensure the SITP work normally, including doing a good job of project evaluation, setting up a reward and punishment system and creating a good atmosphere for innovation. In conclusion, great efforts have been made to enhance undergraduates' innovative ability, and the research results will provide useful reference for improving the training effects and reforming talents cultivating mode further.

  15. A PCR-based tool for the cultivation-independent monitoring of Pandora neoaphidis. (United States)

    Fournier, A; Enkerli, J; Keller, S; Widmer, F


    Pandora neoaphidis is one of the most important fungal pathogens of aphids and has a great potential for use in biocontrol. Little is known on how this fungus persists in an area and in particular on its overwintering strategies. It is hypothesized that natural areas play an important role for survival and that soil may serve as a source of inoculum for new aphid populations in spring. To test these hypotheses, a cultivation-independent PCR-based diagnostic tool was developed, that allows the detection of P. neoaphidis in the environment. Two P. neoaphidis specific PCR primer pairs were designed, targeting sequences in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster. Specificity of both primer pairs was demonstrated with P. neoaphidis and non-target close entomophthoralean relatives. Moreover, single amplicons of expected sizes were obtained with both primer pairs from various environmental sample types, including aphid cadavers, plant material, and soil. The PCR-based diagnostic tool was applied to investigate the persistence of P. neoaphidis in soil samples obtained in 2004/2005 from a nettle field harboring infected aphids in fall 2004. P. neoaphidis was detected in every sample collected in November 2004 and March 2005, suggesting an overwintering stage of P. neoaphidis in top soil layers. The developed cultivation-independent PCR-based tool will be valuable for further investigation of the ecology of P. neoaphidis and for the development and future implementation of management strategies against aphids involving conservation biocontrol.

  16. New and improved method of bamboo cultivation in semi arid areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, Guggul (Commiphora wightii Arnott.) which is a resident plant of Thar desert has been proved as a potential intercrop in bamboo cultivation. Improved growth was observed in bamboo with plant height (8.92 to 20.74 feet), number of culms (19 to 38), culm diameter (2.2 to 4.3 cm) during intercropping of ...

  17. Advanced geospatial techniques and archaeological methods to investigate historical rice cultivation at Wormsloe Historic Site (United States)

    Alessandro Pasqua


    Despite much of the environmental history of Wormsloe State Historic Site on the Isle of Hope, Georgia having previously been documented and described, there are still some aspects that require deeper investigation. For example, whether rice cultivation was ever performed at Wormsloe is a question which does not have a definitive answer.

  18. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Duchovskis, P [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Bliznikas, Z [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Breive, K [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ulinskaite, R [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Brazaityte, A [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Novickovas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zukauskas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  19. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters. (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya


    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  20. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  1. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi


    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  2. Possible Influence of the Cultivated Land Reclamation on Surface Climate in India: A WRF Model Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Qu


    Full Text Available Land use/cover change (LUCC has become one of the most important factors for the global climate change. As one of the major types of LUCC, cultivated land reclamation also has impacts on regional climate change. Most of the previous studies focused on the correlation and simulation analysis of historical LUCC and climate change, with few explorations for the impacts of future LUCC on regional climate, especially impacts of the cultivated land reclamation. This study used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to forecast the changes of energy flux and temperature based on the future cultivated land reclamation in India and then analyzed the impacts of cultivated land reclamation on climate change. The results show that cultivated land reclamation will lead to a large amount of land conversions, which will overall result in the increase in latent heat flux of regional surface as well as the decrease in sensible heat flux and further lead to changes of regional average temperature. Furthermore, the impact on climate change is seasonally different. The cultivated land reclamation mainly leads to a temperature decrease in the summer, while it leads to a temperature increase in the winter.

  3. Assessment of dust sampling methods for the study of cultivable-microorganism exposure in stables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normand, A.C.; Vacheyrou, M.; Sudre, B.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Piarroux, R.


    Studies have shown a link between living on a farm, exposure to microbial components (e.g., endotoxins or beta-d-glucans), and a lower risk for allergic diseases and asthma. Due to the lack of validated sampling methods, studies of asthma and atopy have not relied on exposure assessment based on

  4. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H


    -diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, by flowcytometry, by phase contrast microscopy, and by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation at 21 degrees C for 75 min gave an optimal yield of 3 x 10(6) (2.0-3.8 x 10(6)) viable epithelial cells in intact crypts per seven biopsies. Embedding of crypts in a collagen gel put...... and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...

  5. Biodegradation and Osteosarcoma Cell Cultivation on Poly(aspartic acid) Based Hydrogels. (United States)

    Juriga, Dávid; Nagy, Krisztina; Jedlovszky-Hajdú, Angéla; Perczel-Kovách, Katalin; Chen, Yong Mei; Varga, Gábor; Zrínyi, Miklós


    Development of novel biodegradable and biocompatible scaffold materials with optimal characteristics is important for both preclinical and clinical applications. The aim of the present study was to analyze the biodegradability of poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels, and to test their usability as scaffolds for MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Poly(aspartic acid) was fabricated from poly(succinimide) and hydrogels were prepared using natural amines as cross-linkers (diaminobutane and cystamine). Disulfide bridges were cleaved to thiol groups and the polymer backbone was further modified with RGD sequence. Biodegradability of the hydrogels was evaluated by experiments on the base of enzymes and cell culture medium. Poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels possessing only disulfide bridges as cross-links proved to be degradable by collagenase I. The MG-63 cells showed healthy, fibroblast-like morphology on the double cross-linked and RGD modified hydrogels. Thiolated poly(aspartic acid) based hydrogels provide ideal conditions for adhesion, survival, proliferation, and migration of osteoblast-like cells. The highest viability was found on the thiolated PASP gels while the RGD motif had influence on compacted cluster formation of the cells. These biodegradable and biocompatible poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels are promising scaffolds for cell cultivation.

  6. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop


    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280).

  7. Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Exchange from a Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on a Mineral Soil Measured with Eddy Covariance Method (United States)

    Lind, S.; Shurpali, N.; Martikainen, P. J.


    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O) in the atmosphere have been linked to anthropogenic activities. Energy production based on fossil fuels is the main sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Strategies to reduce CO2 emissions include use of bioenergy crops as energy source. To evaluate the real atmospheric value of bioenergy, knowledge on CO2 and N2O balances of ecosystems under bioenergy crop cultivation is needed. Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.) is increasingly being used as a bioenergy crop in the Nordic countries. It grows well in northern Europe as it tolerates flooding, requires short growing season and thrives well under low temperatures. Currently RCG is cultivated on an area of about 19000 ha in Finland and it is the highest yielding grass grown for energy purpose in Finland. The long rotation period (about ten years) of RCG cultivation without tilling favors carbon allocation into soil. First results from RCG cultivations on peat soil show that it is a promising land use option on such soils favoring soil carbon sequestration with low N2O emissions (Hyvönen et al. 2009; Shurpali et al. 2009). In order to devise a sound bioenergy policy based on this grass, studies on soils with variable characteristics under different climatic and hydrological regimes is urgently needed. Micrometeorological eddy covariance technique is suitable to study GHG fluxes at an ecosystem level (Baldocchi 2003). It is useful for continuous, direct and long-term measurements. Eddy covariance technique has been successfully used for measuring CO2 exchange in various ecosystems. The eddy covariance technique has also been used to measure N2O emissions (Denmead 2008). Aims of this study are to quantify the CO2 and N2O exchange of RCG cultivation on a mineral soil employing eddy covariance technique and to identify the key factors controlling the gas exchange. The study site on mineral soil is located in Eastern Finland. RCG was sown in spring

  8. Citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on olive-mill wastewater-based media. (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Fakas, Stylianos; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George


    Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 cultivated on olive-mill wastewater (O.M.W.)-based media, enriched with commercial-industrial glucose, presented an efficient cell growth. Parameters of growth were unaffected by the presence of O.M.Ws in the growth medium. In diluted O.M.Ws enriched with high glucose amounts (initial sugar concentration, 65 g l(-1)), a notable quantity of total citric acid was produced (28.9 g l(-1)). O.M.W.-based media had a noteworthy stimulating effect on the production of citric acid, since both final citric acid concentration and conversion yield of citric acid produced per unit of sugar consumed were higher when compared with the respective parameters obtained from trials without added O.M.W. Adaptation of the strain in O.M.W.-based media favoured the biosynthesis of cellular unsaturated fatty acids (principally of oleic and palmitoleic acids). Additionally, a non-negligible decrease of the phenolic compounds in the growth medium [up to 15% (wt/wt)], a slight decrease of the phyto-toxicity, and a remarkable decolourisation of the O.M.W. were observed. All these results suggest the potentiality of O.M.Ws utilisation in the fermentation process of citric acid production.

  9. Comparison of fatty acid analysis methods for assessing biorefinery applicability of wastewater cultivated microalgae. (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Yoo, Keunje; Lee, Juyoun; Bang, Sara; Lee, Myungjin; On, Kwangchul; Park, Joonhong


    In this study, we compared the performances of four different gas chromatography (GC) based microalgal fatty acid analysis methods that are typically applied to biorefinery research using wastewater-adapted microalgae. Compared with the HP-5-type non-polar column, WAX-type polar columns exhibited excellent abilities to quantitatively separate C(16)-C(18) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from selected wastewater-adapted microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Ankistrodesmus gracilis and Scenedesmus quadricauda) isolates. GC-mass spectroscopy (MS) using the WAX-type polar column provided the strongest detection sensitivity among the tested methods by lowest detection limit, and GC-flame ionized detector (FID) with the same polar column exhibited nearly consistent results to GC-MS analysis. Our statistical comparison of microalgal fatty acid composition profiles generated using various GC methods, microalgal resources and culture media (wastewater, BG11 and nitrogen limitation) suggested that an appropriate GC method and algal resource choice are more important than the optimization of culture conditions to evaluate the applicability of microalgal biorefinery using wastewater resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of erythromycin production by Saccharopolyspora erythraea in molasses based medium through cultivation medium optimization. (United States)

    El-Enshasy, H A; Mohamed, N A; Farid, M A; El-Diwany, A I


    In the present work, erythromycin production was carried out in submerged culture using Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Different experiments were conducted to optimize the cultivation medium through the change of carbon and nitrogen sources to cheaper one in order to reduce the cost of medium and to utilize sugar cane molasses as one of major sugar industry by-products in Egypt. It was found that the addition of sugar cane molasses a sole carbon source at a concentration of 60 g/l accompanied by corn steep liquor (as organic N-source) in combination with ammonium sulphate (as inorganic N-source) gave the maximal erythromycin production. The antibiotic production in this medium reached about 600 mg/l which is about 33% higher than the value obtained in glucose based medium. On the other hand, the addition of n-propanol in concentration of 1% (v/v) increased the antibiotic production reaching about 720 mg/l after 144 h. Concluding, the new medium formulation based on cheap carbon source, sugar cane molasses, was a good alternative solution for the production of erythromycin economically.

  11. Assessment of Soil Losses from Rills and Interills of Cultivated Fields Using Field Methods in Gelda Watershed, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ayele, Belayneh


    Soil erosion is one of the greatest challenges for the agricultural economic sector in particular and the general economic development for a country like Ethiopia in general. Despite this challenge, there have been limited studies on the amount of soil eroded at watershed level even though soil erosion prediction for the whole country has been done based on data collected from few erosion study sites. This led to ineffective soil conservation planning and the land degradation problem is still a threat to the country economy. This calls for an estimation of erosion rate at watershed level with easily manageable, cost effective method that enables the local farmers to participate in data collection so that they have an understanding of the ongoing erosion. The objective of this research was to estimate the rill and interrill erosion rate in Gelda Watershed, South Gondar, Ethiopia using field method (volumetric measurement of rills and interills). The dominant soil types were nitisols and regosols. The findings indicate that soil loss due to rills and interills in the cultivated fields was 50.25 ton/ha/yr. The contribution of rills in the upslope, middle slope and down slope was 7%, 15% and 78%, respectively to the overall rill erosion. In general, the contribution of rills to the overall erosion rate was 54%. The rill density for the nitisols and regosols was 349 and 294 m/ha respectively indicating higher rate of erosion in the former soil type. Average area of actual damage due to rills in the watershed was 113 m2/ha. The most intense erosion rate was recorded in teff field with an erosion rate of 73 tons/ha/yr followed by millet 35 tons/ha/yr. Maize fields showed the least erosion rate of 31 tons/ha/yr. The most important factors contributing to erosion rate variation among crops were time of sowing, hoeing practice, crop morphology and deliberate compaction practice that was common on teff field. The contribution of agroforestry practices (woodlots, scattered

  12. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua


    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  13. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics. (United States)

    Hua, Yujiao; Hou, Ya; Wang, Shengnan; Ma, Yang; Liu, Zixiu; Zou, Lisi; Liu, Xunhong; Luo, Yiyuan; Liu, Juanxiu


    Pseudostellariae Radix (PR) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc) cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR) and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR). A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on ¹H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  14. Is kiwifruit allergy a matter in kiwifruit-cultivating regions? A population-based study. (United States)

    Haktanir Abul, Mehtap; Dereci, Selim; Hacisalihoglu, Sadan; Orhan, Fazil


    Although kiwifruit is known as a common cause of food allergy, population-based studies concerning the prevalence of kiwifruit allergy do not exist. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren in a region where kiwifruit is widely cultivated. This cross-sectional study recruited 20,800 of the randomly selected 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren from the Rize city in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2013. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges (OFCs). Children with suspected IgE-mediated kiwifruit were skin prick tested with kiwifruit (commercial allergen and prick-to-prick test with fresh kiwifruit) and a pre-defined panel of allergens (banana, avocado, latex, sesame seed, birch, timothy, hazel, cat, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Dermatophagoides farinae). All children with a positive SPT to kiwifruit were invited for an open OFC. The prevalence of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy was established using open OFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 75.9% (15783/20800). The estimated prevalence of parental-perceived IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy was 0.5% (72/15783) (95% CI, 0.39-0.61%). Of the 72 children, 52 (72.2%) were skin tested, and 17 (32.7%) were found to be positive to kiwifruit with both commercial extract and kiwifruit. The most frequently reported symptoms in kiwifruit SPT-positive children were cutaneous (n = 10, 58.8%) followed by gastrointestinal (n = 6, 35.3%) and bronchial (n = 4, 23.5%). Oral symptoms were reported in six (35.3%) children. All children who were kiwifruit positive by SPT were found positive during the oral challenge. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy by means of open OFC in 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren living in Rize city was 0.10% (95% CI, 0

  15. The influence of cultivation method on the flowering of Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pogroszewska


    Full Text Available Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue' was grown from transplants or it was direct seeded. Four sowing dates were applied: 15 March or 30 March - in a greenhouse, in order to obtain transplants, 13 April, 27 April and 11 May - sown directly into the ground. Three plant densities were applied: 25 plants×m2, 16 plants×m2, 12 plants×m2. It was found that Horminum sage can be grown from transplants or direct seeded. The cultivation from transplants is more advantageous due to the earlier flowering of plants, by about two weeks, and a better quality of inflorescences evaluated in terms of their length and size of bracteoles. Direct sowing of Horminum sage at two-week intervals from the 2nd decade of April till the 2nd decade of May ensures that by the end of August mature inflorescence stems are obtained, ready for cutting. A delay in the date of sowing results in the development of significantly shorter inflorescence stems, irrespective of the plant density. Plant density does not affect significantly the length of the period of inflorescence formation and the date of flowering, but a larger spacing is favourable to plants growing big, what results in a larger fresh weight of the above-ground portion. Sage grown from transplants responses to favourable climatic conditions by the development of bigger inflorescences.

  16. A simple method for decomposition of peracetic acid in a microalgal cultivation system. (United States)

    Sung, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hansol; Nam, Kibok; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won


    A cost-efficient process devoid of several washing steps was developed, which is related to direct cultivation following the decomposition of the sterilizer. Peracetic acid (PAA) is known to be an efficient antimicrobial agent due to its high oxidizing potential. Sterilization by 2 mM PAA demands at least 1 h incubation time for an effective disinfection. Direct degradation of PAA was demonstrated by utilizing components in conventional algal medium. Consequently, ferric ion and pH buffer (HEPES) showed a synergetic effect for the decomposition of PAA within 6 h. On the contrary, NaNO3, one of the main components in algal media, inhibits the decomposition of PAA. The improved growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis PCC6803 was observed in the prepared BG11 by decomposition of PAA. This process involving sterilization and decomposition of PAA should help cost-efficient management of photobioreactors in a large scale for the production of value-added products and biofuels from microalgal biomass.

  17. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa. (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath


    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  18. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) (United States)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  19. Optimization of Escherichia coli cultivation methods for high yield neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 production. (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Montag, Cindy; Berndt, Sandra; Huster, Daniel


    The recombinant expression of human G protein-coupled receptors usually yields low production levels using commonly available cultivation protocols. Here, we describe the development of a high yield production protocol for the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R), which provides the determination of expression levels in a time, media composition, and process parameter dependent manner. Protein was produced by Escherichia coli in a defined medium composition suitable for isotopic labeling required for investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Y2 receptor was fused to a C-terminal 8x histidine tag by means of the pET vector system for easy one-step purification via affinity chromatography, yielding a purity of 95-99% for every condition tested, which was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The Y2 receptor was expressed as inclusion body aggregates in complex media and minimal media, using different carbon sources. We investigated the influences of media composition, temperature, pH, and set specific growth rate on cell behavior, biomass wet weight specific and culture volume specific amounts of the target protein, which had been identified by inclusion body preparation, solubilization, followed by purification and spectrometric determination of the protein concentration. The developed process control strategy led to very high reproducibility of cell growth and protein concentrations with a maximum yield of 800 μg purified Y2 receptor per gram wet biomass when glycerol was used as carbon source in the mineral salt medium composition (at 38 °C, pH 7.0, and a set specific growth rate of 0.14 g/(gh)). The maximum biomass specific amount of purified Y2 receptor enabled the production of 35 mg Y2R per liter culture medium at an optical density (600 nm) of 25. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring water fluxes in rice plots under three different cultivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Antonio Chiaradia


    Full Text Available Italy is the leading producer of rice in Europe with over half of total production, almost totally concentrated in a large traditional paddy rice area between the Lombardy and Piedmont regions, in the north-western part of the country. In this area irrigation of rice has been traditionally carried out by flooding. The introduction of new combined irrigation and agronomic management practices (dry seeding followed by field flooding and in a full aerobic cultivation with intermittent irrigations, aiming to reduce the water consumption, can determine considerable effect on the landscape and the water cycle. With the aim to study in depth the water fluxes during the whole crop season, three experimental plots at the Ente Nazionale Risi-Rice Research Centre’s Experimental Station of Castello d’Agogna (PV were instrumented. In each plot the following instruments have been installed: 1 a long throated flume and a double shaped (V-notch and rectangular thin plate for superficial inputs and outputs, 3 a set of piezometers for groundwater levels, 4 one stage level gauge in each submerged field, 5 four tensiometers and moisture sensors clusters, 6 one eddy covariance station for vapour fluxes estimation. Most of the instruments were equipped with electrical sensors connected by cables to a wireless data logger that, in turn, send the data to a PC placed within ENR offices and web-connected by a LAN. In this way, besides the automatic download of data, it was possible to remotely control the devices, to quickly fix troubles, and to better plan the field trips. The management of the whole framework was done by a specifically developed software. In this paper the whole system, which presents some degree of innovation, is described in detail.

  1. Ginseng authenticity testing by measuring carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope compositions that differ based on cultivation land and organic fertilizer type

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lee, Taek-Jun; Oh, Yong-Taek; Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Jang, In-Bae; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    .... Therefore, the analysis of C, N, and S stable isotope ratios in ginseng can provide a feasible method for determining ginseng authenticity depending on the cultivation land and type of fertilizer. Methods...

  2. Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells (United States)

    Weber, C.; Pohl, S.; Poertner, R.; Pino-Grace, Pablo; Freimark, D.; Wallrapp, C.; Geigle, P.; Czermak, P.

    Cell based therapy promises the treatment of many diseases like diabetes mellitus, Parkinson disease or stroke. Microencapsulation of the cells protects them against host-vs-graft reactions and thus enables the usage of allogenic cell lines for the manufacturing of cell therapeutic implants. The production process of such implants consists mainly of the three steps expansion of the cells, encapsulation of the cells, and cultivation of the encapsulated cells in order to increase their vitality and thus quality. This chapter deals with the development of fixed-bed bioreactor-based cultivation procedures used in the first and third step of production. The bioreactor system for the expansion of the stem cell line (hMSC-TERT) is based on non-porous glass spheres, which support cell growth and harvesting with high yield and vitality. The cultivation process for the spherical cell based implants leads to an increase of vitality and additionally enables the application of a medium-based differentiation protocol.

  3. Cultivation and utilization of specific wood biomass for synthesis of cellulose based bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Cincu, C.; Hubca, G.; Zaharia, C.; Diacon, A. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Chemistry; Filat, M.; Chira, D. [Forest Research and Management Inst., Ilfov (Romania); Nutescu, C. [National Wood Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Fara, S. [Inst. for Research and Design of Automation, Bucharest (Romania)


    The energetic characteristics of 6 types of poplar clones cultivated for different pedoclimatic conditions in Romania were determined. Four clones were developed in Italy and 2 in Romania. Five experimental cultures were used to analyze the plant survival rate and biomass production rate. After 2 years of study, the Italian clones were found to have very good adaptability to the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania in comparison with local clones. The Italian clones Monviso and AF-6 registered the most substantial growths and the highest resistance to disease. Bioethanol was synthesized by acidic hydrolysis of the cellulose using 2 approaches. In the first approach the lignocellulosic raw material was hydrolyzed with diluted sulfuric acid at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was treated with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 6 hours. The resulting solutions were neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} following another filtration and the resulted solution with pH 6.5 was subjected to fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. In the second approach the lignocellulosic raw material was subjected to hydrolysis with 10 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 4 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was hydrolyzed with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees for 6 hours. The solution was neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} and subjected to alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. The fermentation took place at 25 degrees C for 72 hours. The results for the two methods were similar.

  4. The Cultivation of Arabidopsis for Experimental Research Using Commercially Available Peat-Based and Peat-Free Growing Media. (United States)

    Drake, Tiffany; Keating, Mia; Summers, Rebecca; Yochikawa, Aline; Pitman, Tom; Dodd, Antony N


    Experimental research involving Arabidopsis thaliana often involves the quantification of phenotypic traits during cultivation on compost or other growing media. Many commercially-available growing media contain peat, but peat extraction is not sustainable due to its very slow rate of formation. Moreover, peat extraction reduces peatland biodiversity and releases stored carbon and methane into the atmosphere. Here, we compared the experimental performance of Arabidopsis on peat-based and several types of commercially-available peat-free growing media (variously formed from coir, composted bark, wood-fibre, and domestic compost), to provide guidance for reducing peat use in plant sciences research with Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis biomass accumulation and seed yield were reduced by cultivation on several types of peat-free growing media. Arabidopsis performed extremely poorly on coir alone, presumably because this medium was completely nitrate-free. Some peat-free growing media were more susceptible to fungal contamination. We found that autoclaving of control (peat-based) growing media had no effect upon any physiological parameters that we examined, compared with non-autoclaved control growing media, under our experimental conditions. Overall, we conclude that Arabidopsis performs best when cultivated on peat-based growing media because seed yield was almost always reduced when peat-free media were used. This may be because standard laboratory protocols and growth conditions for Arabidopsis are optimized for peat-based media. However, during the vegetative growth phase several phenotypic traits were comparable between plants cultivated on peat-based and some peat-free media, suggesting that under certain circumstances peat-free media can be suitable for phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis.

  5. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  6. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Woo Kim


    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress proliferation of preadipocytes significantly and failed to show effects on decomposition of adipocytes except high dosage. Conclusion : Based on these findings, cultivated wild ginseng is not a suitable choice for the treatment of localized obesity.

  7. Biodiversity of segetal weed community in continuous potato cultivated with metribuzin-based weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlonka Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The objective of the work reported here was to determine the relationship between herbicide rate and the biodiversity of weed communities in potato cultivated in continuous cropping. A seven-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of 4 metribuzin rates and an uncontrol on weed infestation in successive years of continuous potato cultivation. The following indices were calculated: the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s indices of species diversity and the Simpson’s index of domination. A total of 33 species were recorded in the experimental plots. Echinochoa crus-galli was the dominant species. The most abundant segetal communities were observed in untreated plots. An application of the herbicide reduced the biodiversity of the agrophytocenosis. Cultivation in continuous cropping increased the species number of the weed community in potato. The herbicide and cultivation in continuous cropping did not significantly affect the biodiversity indices but their values, to a great extent, confirmed the trends revealed by the analysis of weed infestation

  8. Suggestion of Teaching-Learning Methods to Cultivate Creative Design Capacities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mi-Ra Seo; Ae-Kyung Kim


    ...) teaching-learning method, this study aims to expand creative thinking among students with the aim of producing produce creative output as well as improving the effectiveness of design teaching...

  9. Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lauridsen, Charlotte


    of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. RESULTS: Carbohydrate......BACKGROUND: Environmental as well as cultivation factors may greatly influence the chemical composition of plants. The main factors affecting the chemical composition of foodstuff are level and type of fertilizer (conventional and organic cultivation systems), location or soil type, and year...... of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition...

  10. [Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm production in relation to cultivation media and biofilm staining methods]. (United States)

    Kalicińska, Agnieszka; Tyski, Stefan


    The aim of this study was to analyse P aeruginosa biofilm growing in three media, using three methods of biofilm staining: with 2% crystal violet solution (CV), with 1% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution (TTC) and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Using the method with MTT solution we could observe growth of strains forming biofilm both slowly or quickly. Achieved values of absorbation allow to observe dynamic of growing selected strains in the period of time. Among three groups of analysed strains, the biggest percentage of medium growing strains were achieved, while in the fourth group (strains isolated from spit of patients with cystic fibrosis) the biggest percentage of low growing strains was observed. Achieved results allow to select the strains quickly forming biofilm, the best media (LB, TSB2%glu) and method of biofilm staining (MTT), which will be used in the further studies.

  11. Evaluation of different media and methods of cultivation on the production and viability of entomopathogenic fungi, Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas. (United States)

    Derakhshan, Ali; Rabindra, R J; Ramanujam, B; Rahimi, Mehdi


    For mass production of V. lecanii, three types of cultivation methods including liquid, solid and diphasic production systems were investigated. In the liquid state of production, six media were tested in stationary culture conditions. Among the six media tested, Molasses Yeast Broth (MYB) supported maximum sporulation (8.33 x 10(8) spores mL(-1)) and biomass production (746 mg/100 mL). In the MYB, 4% molasses concentration was found to produce highest spore count (8.56 x 10(8) spores mL(-1)) and biomass (776 mg/100 mL) followed by 5 and 6% molasses. Among the six solid substrates tested, rice grains supported highest spore production (1.14 g/100 g). In diphasic state of production, combination of MYB and rice grains produced the greatest amount of spores, (1.70 g/100 g). Results of this study indicated that diphasic method using MYB as liquid medium and rice as solid substrate are the best method and media for mass production of V1-7 isolate of V. lecanii.

  12. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development


    Zhang, Li


    Under the direction of theory of human resources development, this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development on cultivating new-type farmers. Firstly, it increases the input of rural basic education; secondly, it reinforces the vocational education and technology training; thirdly, it promotes the rural medical and public health services; fourthly, it quickens the rural labor transfer. The status quo of China’s rural human resources has been analyzed as follows: in ter...

  13. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Evaluating Soil Suitability for Cassava Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Opeoluwa Ogunde


    Full Text Available Precision agriculture in recent times had assumed a different dimension in order to improve on the poor standard of agriculture. Similarly, the upsurge in technological advancement, most especially in the aspect of machine learning and artificial intelligence, is a promising trend towards a positive solution to this problem. Therefore, this research work presents a decision support system for analyzing and mining knowledge from soil data with respect to its suitability for cassava cultivation. Past data consisting of some major soil attributes were obtained from relevant literature sources. This data was preprocessed using the ARFF Converter, available in WEKA. 70% of the data were used as training data set while remaining 30% were used for testing. Classification rule mining was carried out using J48 decision tree algorithm for the data training. ‘If-then’ construct models were then generated from the decision tree, which was used to develop a system for predicting the suitability status of soil for cassava cultivation. The percentage accuracy of the data classification was 76.5% and 23.5% for correctly classified and incorrectly classified instances respectively. Practically, the developed system was esteemed a prospective tool for farmers, soil laboratories and other users in predicting soil suitability for cassava cultivation.

  14. Effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal in wastewater-based algae cultivation system. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Fu, Zongqiang; Cheng, Yanling; Min, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhang, Yunkai; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger


    Centrate, a type of nutrient-rich municipal wastewater was used to determine the effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal efficiency in this study. The characteristics of algal and bacterial growth profiles, wastewater nutrient removal and effect of initial algal inoculums were systematically examined. The results showed that initial algal concentration had apparent effect on bacterial growth, and the presence of bacteria had a significant influence on algal growth pattern, suggesting symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria at the initial stage of algae cultivation. The maximum algal biomass of 2.01 g/L with 0.1g/L initial algal inoculums concentration can be obtained during algae cultivation in raw centrate medium. The synergistic effect of centrate-borne bacteria and microalgae on algae growth and nutrient removal performance at initial fast growth stage has great potential to be applied to pilot-scale wastewater-based algae wastewater system cultivated in continuous or semi-continuous mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on the cultivation path of smart home-based care service mode in Internet+ vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qingchao


    Full Text Available Home-based care for the aged is an effective method to solve the problem of caring the aged in China. This thesis analyzes some problems existing in the development of current home-based care service for the aged in our country and the positive effects brought by Internet+ in home-based care service. It proposes a new service mode of care for the aged--Internet+ home-based care service, and explains the establishment of this system and the responsibilities of the participants. Also, it explores the path to realize the establishment of Internet+ home-based care service mode so as to promote the healthy development of home-based care service in China.

  16. Teaching practice and reform of the cultivation of excellent engineer based on the idea of engineering education (United States)

    Shen, Hanxin; Xiong, Feibing; Huang, Zhangchao; Bai, Zijun


    How to realize the joint cultivation of excellent engineer for the school and the enterprise is an important task of the project of excellent engineers. In five years of teaching practice, based on the concept of engineering education certification, through target management of school and enterprise, cultural fusion, stage implementation and feedback, excellent engineer education training plan of opto-electronic specialty is being implemented. It standardizes the specialty construction and practice and explores new teaching management mode, which gets the recognition of graduates and enterprises and achieves a win-win situation for school and enterprise.

  17. Optical coherence tomography-based topography determination of corneal grafts in eye bank cultivation (United States)

    Damian, Angela; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo


    Vision loss due to corneal injuries or diseases can be treated by transplantation of human corneal grafts (keratoplasty). However, quality assurance in retrieving and cultivating the tissue transplants is confined to visual and microbiological testing. To identify previous refractive surgery or morphological alterations, an automatic, noncontact, sterile screening procedure is required. Twenty-three corneal grafts have been measured in organ culture with a clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomographer. Employing a biconic surface fit with 10 degrees of freedom, the radii of curvature and conic constants could be estimated for the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Thereupon, central corneal thickness, refractive values, and astigmatism have been calculated. Clinical investigations are required to elaborate specific donor-host matching in the future.

  18. Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables. (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lauridsen, Charlotte


    Environmental as well as cultivation factors may greatly influence the chemical composition of plants. The main factors affecting the chemical composition of foodstuff are level and type of fertilizer (conventional and organic cultivation systems), location or soil type, and year of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. Carbohydrate and lignin values ranged from 584 g kg⁻¹ dry matter in kale to 910 g kg⁻¹ DM in potato, but with significant differences in the proportion of sugars, starch, non-starch polysaccharides, and lignin between the foodstuffs. Triacylglycerol was the major lipid class in pea, with 82% of total fatty acids, as opposed to apple, with only 35% of fatty acids of the ether extract. The most important factor influencing the digestibility of energy, and consequently faecal bulking, was the content of dietary fibre. The cultivation system had minor impact on the carbohydrate and lipid composition in the investigated foodstuffs or on the digestibility of energy when assessed in the rat model. Faecal bulking was related to dietary fibre in a linear fashion. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Improved methods of cultivation and production of deuteriated proteins from E. coli strains grown on fully deuteriated minimal medium. (United States)

    Paliy, O; Bloor, D; Brockwell, D; Gilbert, P; Barber, J


    The aim was to develop reliable and economical protocols for the production of fully deuteriated biomolecules by bacteria. This required the preparation of deuterium-tolerant bacterial strains and an understanding of the physiological mechanisms of acquisition of deuterium tolerance. We report here improved methods for the cultivation of Escherichia coli on fully deuteriated minimal medium. A multi-stage adaptation protocol was developed; this included repeated plating and selection of colonies and resulted in highly deuterium-tolerant cell cultures. Three E. coli strains, JM109, MRE600 and MRE600Rif, were adapted to growth on deuteriated succinate medium. This is the first report of JM109 being adapted to deuteriated minimal media. The adapted strains showed good, consistent growth rates and were capable of being transformed with plasmids. Expression of heterologous proteins in these strains was reliable and yields were consistently high (100-200 mg l-1). We also show that all E. coli cells are inherently capable of growth on deuteriated media. We have developed a new adaptation protocol that resulted in three highly deuterium-tolerant E. coli strains. Deuterium-adapted cultures produced good yields of a deuteriated recombinant protein. We suggest that E. coli cells are inherently capable of growth on deuteriated media, but that non-specific mutations enhance deuterium tolerance. Thus plating and selection of colonies leads to highly deuterium-tolerant strains. An understanding of the mechanism of adaptation of E. coli to growth on deuteriated media allows strategies for the development of disabled deuterium-tolerant strains suitable for high-level production of deuteriated recombinant proteins and other biomolecules. This is of particular importance for nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron scattering studies of biomolecules.

  20. A Texture-Based Land Cover Classification for the Delineation of a Shifting Cultivation Landscape in the Lao PDR Using Landscape Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heinimann


    Full Text Available The delineation of shifting cultivation landscapes using remote sensing in mountainous regions is challenging. On the one hand, there are difficulties related to the distinction of forest and fallow forest classes as occurring in a shifting cultivation landscape in mountainous regions. On the other hand, the dynamic nature of the shifting cultivation system poses problems to the delineation of landscapes where shifting cultivation occurs. We present a two-step approach based on an object-oriented classification of Advanced Land Observing Satellite, Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Spectrometer (ALOS AVNIR and Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (ALOS PRISM data and landscape metrics. When including texture measures in the object-oriented classification, the accuracy of forest and fallow forest classes could be increased substantially. Based on such a classification, landscape metrics in the form of land cover class ratios enabled the identification of crop-fallow rotation characteristics of the shifting cultivation land use practice. By classifying and combining these landscape metrics, shifting cultivation landscapes could be delineated using a single land cover dataset.

  1. "Climate Cost of Cultivation": A New Crop Index Method to Quantify Farmers' Cost of Climate Change Exemplified in Rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Jangle (Nihar); M. Mehra (Mamta); D.M. Dror (David)


    textabstractWe model the impact of agricultural droughts with a new multi-parameter index (using both climatic and non-climatic parameters) and propose a new risk transfer solution for crop insurance, called Climate Cost of Cultivation (CCC). We used 1979/80 to 2012/13 data relevant for wheat in

  2. Influence of cultivated landscape composition on variety resistance: an assessment based on wheat leaf rust epidemics. (United States)

    Papaïx, Julien; Goyeau, Henriette; Du Cheyron, Philippe; Monod, Hervé; Lannou, Christian


    In plant pathology, the idea of designing variety management strategies at the scale of cultivated landscapes is gaining more and more attention. This requires the identification of effects that take place at large scales on host and pathogen populations. Here, we show how the landscape varietal composition influences the resistance level (as measured in the field) of the most grown wheat varieties by altering the structure of the pathogen populations. For this purpose, we jointly analysed three large datasets describing the wheat leaf rust pathosystem (Puccinia triticina/Triticum aestivum) at the country scale of France with a Bayesian hierarchical model. We showed that among all compatible pathotypes, some were preferentially associated with a variety, that the pathotype frequencies on a variety were affected by the landscape varietal composition, and that the observed resistance level of a variety was linked to the frequency of the most aggressive pathotypes among all compatible pathotypes. This data exploration establishes a link between the observed resistance level of a variety and landscape composition at the national scale. It illustrates that the quantitative aspects of the host-pathogen relationship have to be considered in addition to the major resistance/virulence factors in landscape epidemiology approaches. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Comparison of the Chemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Cultivated Cistanche deserticola Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and a 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-Based Assay. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Jinfang; Guan, Huanyu; Xu, Rong; Luo, Xiaomei; Su, Meifeng; Chang, Xiaoyan; Tan, Wenting; Chen, Jun; Shi, Yue


    In this study, a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array coupled to quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method and a 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-based assay were used to determine the chemical constituents and screen the antioxidant activity profiles of the methanol extracts of different parts of cultivated Cistanche deserticola (C. deserticola). First, qualitative and quantitative chemical composition analyses of the different parts of cultivated C. deserticola were conducted. Obvious differences were observed between the chemical profiles and content distribution of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) from the different cultivated C. deserticola parts. The average contents of the six PhGs parts varied from 4.91 to 72.56 mg/g DW (milligrams of extract per gram of plant dry weight) in the six different parts of Cistanche deserticola, displaying a significant decreasing trend from the bottom to the top of cultivated C. deserticola and the highest content in the stems. From the bottom to the top of the plant, the echinacoside and cistanoside A content decreased and the 2 ' -acetylacteoside content increased. Second, an offline DPPH assay revealed that the total scavenging activities of all parts within the range of 20-500 μ g/mL increased in a concentration-dependent manner and that good antioxidant activities were found in all plant parts, particularly in the stems, which could be related to their higher PhG content. Additionally, a DPPH-UPLC-PDA method was successfully applied to rapidly screen the antioxidant profiles and antioxidant components of the different cultivated C. deserticola parts. According to the antioxidant profiles before and after the DPPH reaction, there were wide variations in the antioxidant activities of different cultivated C. deserticola parts. Moreover, the antioxidant profiles revealed the presence of major free radical scavengers identified as PhGs using UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. Finally, the

  4. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg


    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  5. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes


    Fu, Yong-Bi


    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the gen...

  6. Cultivation of microalgae in industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson

    that has many potential uses. Unfortunately, the current high costs of cultivation have limited the development and exploitation of such systems, resulting in only a few full-scale algae wastewater treatment installations and a small industry based mostly around food and pigments. This thesis contributes...... to autotrophic controls. Industrial wastewater was used as cultivation medium of Chlorella sorokiniana. The culture was able to grow at high rates upto a density of 4 g L-1. The deceleration-stat technique was used to create a series of pseudo-steady states to give information about the expected results...... to a growing body of knowledge with the aim to make algae cultivation viable for the production of sustainable products. Specific contributions include: improvement in the methods of screening the growth potential of different microalgae species; identification of an industrial wastewater that allows good...

  7. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache


    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  8. Activity based costing (ABC Method)


    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache; University Lecturer Anca Bratu


    In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity Based Costing method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurred due to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages of such classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  9. A model based method for evaluation of crop operation scenarios in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't A.


    Abstract This research initiated a model-based method to analyse labour in crop production systems and to quantify effects of system changes in order to contribute to effective greenhouse crop cultivation systems with efficient use of human labour and technology. This method was

  10. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung


    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  11. Evolutionary Insights Based on SNP Haplotypes of Red Pericarp, Grain Size and Starch Synthase Genes in Wild and Cultivated Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Singh


    Full Text Available The origin and domestication of rice has been a subject of considerable debate in the post-genomic era. Rice varieties have been categorized based on isozyme and DNA markers into two broad cultivar groups, Indica and Japonica. Among other well-known cultivar groups Aus varieties are closer to Indica and Aromatic varieties including Basmati are closer to Japonica, while deep-water rice varieties share kinship to both Indica and Japonica cultivar groups. Here, we analyzed haplotype networks and phylogenetic relationships in a diverse set of genotypes including Indian Oryza nivara/Oryza rufipogon wild rice accessions and representative varieties of four rice cultivar groups based on pericarp color (Rc, grain size (GS3 and eight different starch synthase genes (GBSSI, SSSI, SSIIa, SSIIb, SSIIIa, SSIIIb, SSIVa, and SSIVb. Aus cultivars appear to have the most ancient origin as they shared the maximum number of haplotypes with the wild rice populations, while Indica, Japonica and Aromatic cultivar groups showed varying phylogenetic origins of these genes. Starch synthase genes showed higher variability in cultivated rice than wild rice populations, suggesting diversified selection during and after domestication. O. nivara/O. rufipogon wild rice accessions belonging to different sub-populations shared common haplotypes for all the 10 genes analyzed. Our results support polyphyletic origin of cultivated rice with a complex pattern of migration of domestication alleles from wild to different rice cultivar groups. The findings provide novel insights into evolutionary and domestication history of rice and will help utilization of wild rice germplasm for genetic improvement of rice cultivars.

  12. Evolutionary Insights Based on SNP Haplotypes of Red Pericarp, Grain Size and Starch Synthase Genes in Wild and Cultivated Rice (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Singh, Balwant; Rai, Vandna; Sidhu, Sukhjeet; Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Nagendra K.


    The origin and domestication of rice has been a subject of considerable debate in the post-genomic era. Rice varieties have been categorized based on isozyme and DNA markers into two broad cultivar groups, Indica and Japonica. Among other well-known cultivar groups Aus varieties are closer to Indica and Aromatic varieties including Basmati are closer to Japonica, while deep-water rice varieties share kinship to both Indica and Japonica cultivar groups. Here, we analyzed haplotype networks and phylogenetic relationships in a diverse set of genotypes including Indian Oryza nivara/Oryza rufipogon wild rice accessions and representative varieties of four rice cultivar groups based on pericarp color (Rc), grain size (GS3) and eight different starch synthase genes (GBSSI, SSSI, SSIIa, SSIIb, SSIIIa, SSIIIb, SSIVa, and SSIVb). Aus cultivars appear to have the most ancient origin as they shared the maximum number of haplotypes with the wild rice populations, while Indica, Japonica and Aromatic cultivar groups showed varying phylogenetic origins of these genes. Starch synthase genes showed higher variability in cultivated rice than wild rice populations, suggesting diversified selection during and after domestication. O. nivara/O. rufipogon wild rice accessions belonging to different sub-populations shared common haplotypes for all the 10 genes analyzed. Our results support polyphyletic origin of cultivated rice with a complex pattern of migration of domestication alleles from wild to different rice cultivar groups. The findings provide novel insights into evolutionary and domestication history of rice and will help utilization of wild rice germplasm for genetic improvement of rice cultivars. PMID:28649256

  13. Replication methods and tools in high-throughput cultivation processes - recognizing potential variations of growth and product formation by on-line monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luft Karina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput cultivations in microtiter plates are the method of choice to express proteins from recombinant clone libraries. Such processes typically include several steps, whereby some of them are linked by replication steps: transformation, plating, colony picking, preculture, main culture and induction. In this study, the effects of conventional replication methods and replication tools (8-channel pipette, 96-pin replicators: steel replicator with fixed or spring-loaded pins, plastic replicator with fixed pins on growth kinetics of Escherichia coli SCS1 pQE-30 pSE111 were observed. Growth was monitored with the BioLector, an on-line monitoring technique for microtiter plates. Furthermore, the influence of these effects on product formation of Escherichia coli pRhotHi-2-EcFbFP was investigated. Finally, a high-throughput cultivation process was simulated with Corynebacterium glutamicum pEKEx2-phoD-GFP, beginning at the colony picking step. Results Applying different replication tools and methods for one single strain resulted in high time differences of growth of the slowest and fastest growing culture. The shortest time difference (0.3 h was evaluated for the 96 cultures that were transferred with an 8-channel pipette from a thawed and mixed cryoculture and the longest time difference (6.9 h for cultures that were transferred with a steel replicator with fixed pins from a frozen cryoculture. The on-line monitoring of a simulated high-throughput cultivation process revealed strong variances in growth kinetics and a twofold difference in product formation. Another experiment showed that varying growth kinetics, caused by varying initial biomass concentrations (OD600 of 0.0125 to 0.2 led to strongly varying product formation upon induction at a defined point of time. Conclusions To improve the reproducibility of high-throughput cultivation processes and the comparability between different applied cultures, it is strongly

  14. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and differentiation of ginseng roots according to cultivation age using variable selection. (United States)

    Park, Hae Eun; Lee, Seok-Young; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Da Yeon; Marriott, Philip J; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon


    Ginseng roots are an important herbal resource worldwide, and the adulteration of ginseng with age is recognized as a serious problem. It is therefore crucial to develop objective criteria or standard protocols for differentiating ginseng root samples according to their cultivation age. The reported study used GC/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis with variable selection to obtain metabolic profiling and an optimal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model for the differentiation of ginseng according to cultivation age. Relative levels of various metabolites, such as amino acids, alcohols, fatty acids, organic acids, and sugars, were measured for various ginseng cultivation ages. Increasing cultivation age resulted in the production of higher levels of panaxynol and panaxydol, which are active polyacetylene compounds in ginseng. In addition, optimized PLS-DA models for the prediction of ginseng age were obtained by selecting variables based on a variable importance in the projection cut-off value of 1.3. Proline, glucaric acid, mannose, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, myoinositol, panaxydol, and panaxynol are suggested as key and relevant compounds with which to differentiate the age of ginseng samples. The findings of this study suggest that GC/MS-based metabolic profiling can be used to differentiate ginseng samples according to cultivation age.

  15. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild relatives, Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara. Results The overall methylation level of rice genomes is four times higher than that of Arabidopsis. Consistent with the results reported for Arabidopsis, methylation in promoters represses gene expression while gene-body methylation generally appears to be positively associated with gene expression. Interestingly, we discovered that methylation in gene transcriptional termination regions (TTRs can significantly repress gene expression, and the effect is even stronger than that of promoter methylation. Through integrated analysis of genomic, DNA methylomic and transcriptomic differences between cultivated and wild rice, we found that primary DNA sequence divergence is the major determinant of methylational differences at the whole genome level, but DNA methylational difference alone can only account for limited gene expression variation between the cultivated and wild rice. Furthermore, we identified a number of genes with significant difference in methylation level between the wild and cultivated rice. Conclusions The single-base resolution methylomes of rice obtained in this study have not only broadened our understanding of the mechanism and function of DNA methylation in plant genomes, but also provided valuable data for future studies of rice epigenetics and the epigenetic differentiation between wild and cultivated rice.

  16. Ginseng authenticity testing by measuring carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope compositions that differ based on cultivation land and organic fertilizer type. (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lee, Taek-Jun; Oh, Yong-Taek; Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Jang, In-Bae; Kim, Seung-Hyun


    The natural ratios of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) stable isotopes can be varied in some specific living organisms owing to various isotopic fractionation processes in nature. Therefore, the analysis of C, N, and S stable isotope ratios in ginseng can provide a feasible method for determining ginseng authenticity depending on the cultivation land and type of fertilizer. C, N, and S stable isotope composition in 6-yr-old ginseng roots (Jagyeongjong variety) was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The type of cultivation land and organic fertilizers affected the C, N, and S stable isotope ratio in ginseng (p land and type of organic fertilizers in ginseng cultivation than the δ13CVPDB value. The combination of δ13CVPDB, δ15NAIR, or δ34SVCDT in ginseng, except the combination δ13CVPDB-34SVCDT, showed a better discrimination depending on soil type or fertilizer type. This case study provides preliminary results about the variation of C, N, and S isotope composition in ginseng according to the cultivation soil type and organic fertilizer type. Hence, our findings are potentially applicable to evaluate ginseng authenticity depending on cultivation conditions.

  17. Population Set based Optimization Method (United States)

    Manekar, Y.; Verma, H. K.


    In this paper an population set based optimization method is proposed for solving some benchmark functions and also to solve optimal power flow problem like `combined economic and emission dispatch problem (CEED)' with multiple objective functions. This algorithm has taken into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. The proposed algorithms have been compared with the other methods like GA, PSO etc reported in the literature. The results are impressive and encouraging. The study results show that the proposed method holds better solutions in CEED problems.

  18. Cultivating the Spatial Politics of Community-Based Literacy Practices in Hip-Hop (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.


    In this article, the social imagination of community-based sites of urban resistance enable out-of-school literacy practices in Black popular culture to foreground the contemporary context in which youth empowerment is nurtured in out-of-school learning settings. Second, the author chronicles how youth advocates in hip-hop--based community…

  19. Species accumulation curves and incidence-based species richness estimators to appraise the diversity of cultivable yeasts from beech forest soils. (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Kemler, Martin; Begerow, Dominik


    Yeast-like fungi inhabit soils throughout all climatic zones in a great abundance. While recent estimations predicted a plethora of prokaryotic taxa in one gram of soil, similar data are lacking for fungi, especially yeasts. We assessed the diversity of soil yeasts in different forests of central Germany using cultivation-based techniques with subsequent identification based on rDNA sequence data. Based on experiments using various pre-cultivation sample treatment and different cultivation media we obtained the highest number of yeasts by analysing mixed soil samples with a single nutrient-rich medium. Additionally, several species richness estimators were applied to incidence-based data of 165 samples. All of them predicted a similar range of yeast diversity, namely 14 to 16 species. Randomized species richness curves reached saturation in all applied estimators, thus indicating that the majority of species is detected after approximately 30 to 50 samples analysed. In this study we demonstrate that robust species identification as well as mathematical approaches are essential to reliably estimate the sampling effort needed to describe soil yeast communities. This approach has great potential for optimisation of cultivation techniques and allows high throughput analysis in the future.

  20. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Jingde; Hu, Fengyi


    DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild...

  1. The effect of the PROSPER partnership model on cultivating local stakeholder knowledge of evidence-based programs: a five-year longitudinal study of 28 communities. (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve R


    A substantial challenge in improving public health is how to facilitate the local adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). To do so, an important step is to build local stakeholders' knowledge and decision-making skills regarding the adoption and implementation of EBIs. One EBI delivery system, called PROSPER (PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience), has effectively mobilized community prevention efforts, implemented prevention programming with quality, and consequently decreased youth substance abuse. While these results are encouraging, another objective is to increase local stakeholder knowledge of best practices for adoption, implementation and evaluation of EBIs. Using a mixed methods approach, we assessed local stakeholder knowledge of these best practices over 5 years, in 28 intervention and control communities. Results indicated that the PROSPER partnership model led to significant increases in expert knowledge regarding the selection, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. Findings illustrate the limited programming knowledge possessed by members of local prevention efforts, the difficulty of complete knowledge transfer, and highlight one method for cultivating that knowledge.

  2. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid


    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R 2 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  3. Cultivating Preservice Secondary Teachers for Project-Based Learning: A Four-Step Model (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoming; Ridgway, Angelia J.; Sachs, Deb


    This article describes four different mechanisms for preparing teacher candidates from a liberal arts institution to teach in project based learning (PBL) classrooms: Observe it, Experience it, Create it, and Become it. For each of the four mechanisms, the authors also provide concrete examples of candidates' PBL experiences and candidates'…

  4. An agent-based model on disease management in potato cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Hofstede, G.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.


    In this project the host-pathogen system of potato (Solanum tuberosum) - late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was analysed as a model system to study management of crop-disease interactions. Resistant cultivars play an important role in sustainable management of the disease. We used an agent-based

  5. Cultivating strategic thinking skills. (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R


    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  6. Method for gesture based modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A computer program based method is described for creating models using gestures. On an input device, such as an electronic whiteboard, a user draws a gesture which is recognized by a computer program and interpreted relative to a predetermined meta-model. Based on the interpretation, an algorithm...... is assigned to the gesture drawn by the user. The executed algorithm may, for example, consist in creating a new model element, modifying an existing model element, or deleting an existing model element....

  7. Calculus Based On Contextual Learning Model To Cultivate Students Activity Interest And Mathematical Connection Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Sepriyanti


    Full Text Available The preliminary study on Calculus classes in Department of Mathematics of Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang reveals that the instructional process and materials that the lecturer used not yet facilitated the students to construct their own learning in calculus. The effectiveness of learning calculus is still low and the learning process is still conventional. So that it needs for the development of calculus-based contextual learning model. The purposes of this research were to develop a model of calculus based contextual learning CBCL that is valid practical and effective. But in this article it just discussed about the effectiveness of this model. A Design research was conducted to develop a model of calculus instruction through contextual based adapted from the model suggested by Plomp 18. The design research phases involved preliminary research prototyping phase and assessment phase. The research data were qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data were collected through observation and questionnaires and quantitative data were obtained through testing and observation activities of students. The result of prototype phase showed that the Syntax calculus-based contextual learning model consists of five phases namely 1 Phase 1. Delivering objective Giving Motivation and Apperception 2 Phase 2. Organize the students into groups and Delivering learning how to learn 3 Phase 3. Guided group work 4 Phase 4. Guiding and Class Discussion 5 Phase 5. Reflection and Evaluation. The improvement of the model of CBCL at the effectivity test show that the all four aspects of assessment obtain the effectivity percentage value with effective category that is the result of students activity observation of the model of CBCL is 705 with effective category students learning interest questionnaire of the model of CBCL is 765 with effective category the IWS score is 7439 with effective category. The students mathematical connection ability taught by

  8. A one-stage cultivation process for lipid- and carbohydrate-rich biomass of Scenedesmus obtusiusculus based on artificial and natural water sources. (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Reinhardt, Jakob; Wurster, Martina; Ortiz-Tena, José Guillermo; Sieber, Volker; Mundt, Sabine


    A one-stage cultivation process of the microalgae Scenedesmus obtusiusculus with medium based on natural water sources was developed to enhance lipids and carbohydrates. A medium based on artificial sea water, Baltic Sea water and river water with optimized nutrient concentrations compared to the standard BG-11 for nitrate (-75%), phosphate and iron (-90%) was used for cultivation. Although nitrate exhaustion over cultivation resulted in nitrate limitation, growth of the microalgae was not reduced. The lipid content increased from 6.0% to 19.9%, an increase in oleic and stearic acid was observed. The unsaponifiable matter of the lipid fraction was reduced from 19.5% to 11.4%. The carbohydrate yield rose from 45% to 50% and the protein content decreased from 32.4% to 15.9%. Using natural water sources with optimized nutrient concentrations could open the opportunity to modulate biomass composition and to reduce the cultivation costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilah Abdul Khalil


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4 biomass and β-galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β-galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol and 2.31% (wt/vol, respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract.

  10. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed


    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth

  11. Recommendations for the Regionalizing of Coffee Cultivation in Colombia: A Methodological Proposal Based on Agro-Climatic Indices (United States)

    García L., Juan Carlos; Posada-Suárez, Húver; Läderach, Peter


    The Colombian National Federation of Coffee Growers (FNC) conducted an agro-ecological zoning study based on climate, soil, and terrain of the Colombian coffee-growing regions (CCGR) located in the tropics, between 1° and 11.5° N, in areas of complex topography. To support this study, a climate baseline was constructed at a spatial resolution of 5 km. Twenty-one bioclimatic indicators were drawn from this baseline data and from yield data for different coffee genotypes evaluated under conditions at eight experimental stations (ESs) belonging to the National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ). Three topographic indicators were obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM). Zoning at a national level resulted in the differentiation of 12 agro-climatic zones. Altitude notably influenced zone differentiation, however other factors such as large air currents, low-pressure atmospheric systems, valleys of the great rivers, and physiography also played an important role. The strategy of zoning according to coffee-growing conditions will enable areas with the greatest potential for the development of coffee cultivation to be identified, criteria for future research to be generated, and the level of technology implementation to be assessed. PMID:25436456

  12. Heavy Metal Uptake by Novel Miscanthus Seed-Based Hybrids Cultivated in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil (United States)

    Krzyżak, Jacek; Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Clifton-Brown, John; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Kiesel, Andreas; Mangold, Anja; Mos, Michal


    When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2) `time-zero' soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction) concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest) and winter (March, brown harvest) to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

  13. Robot-based Learning : Toward Cultivation of Information Technology Skills for Mechanical Engineering Students (United States)

    Hanajima, Naohiko; Yamashita, Mitsuhisa; Kazama, Toshiharu; Yuasa, Tomonori; Niida, Yoichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Hikita, Hiromitsu

    Today there is increasing development of products in which embedded microprocessors are installed in a wide variety of industrial fields including mechanical industries. Mechanical engineers will be asked to develop such embedded systems in the future. To educate mechanical engineering students who possess information technology skills, for five years we have offered practical classes in which the students build a mobile robot with an embedded microprocessor and compete in a robot-triathlon race. The students have an incentive to program their robot to finish the race. We call this style of learning “robot-based learning.” In this paper, we discuss the efficiency of and problems in our practical classes as derived from information gained in surveys. In addition, we verify how the engineering design abilities of the students are improved through their participation in these classes.

  14. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Bøcher, Peder Klith


    the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature...... field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v......) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME...

  15. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union. (United States)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P N; Szaraz, Luca R; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen


    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultivation of students' engineering designing ability based on optoelectronic system course project (United States)

    Cao, Danhua; Wu, Yubin; Li, Jingping


    We carry out teaching based on optoelectronic related course group, aiming at junior students majored in Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering. " Optoelectronic System Course Project " is product-designing-oriented and lasts for a whole semester. It provides a chance for students to experience the whole process of product designing, and improve their abilities to search literature, proof schemes, design and implement their schemes. In teaching process, each project topic is carefully selected and repeatedly refined to guarantee the projects with the knowledge integrity, engineering meanings and enjoyment. Moreover, we set up a top team with professional and experienced teachers, and build up learning community. Meanwhile, the communication between students and teachers as well as the interaction among students are taken seriously in order to improve their team-work ability and communicational skills. Therefore, students are not only able to have a chance to review the knowledge hierarchy of optics, electronics, and computer sciences, but also are able to improve their engineering mindset and innovation consciousness.

  17. Population-based resequencing reveals that the flowering time adaptation of cultivated barley originated east of the Fertile Crescent. (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Leigh, Fiona J; Mackay, Ian; Bower, Mim A; Smith, Lydia M J; Charles, Michael P; Jones, Glynis; Jones, Martin K; Brown, Terence A; Powell, Wayne


    Gene resequencing and association analysis present new opportunities to study the evolution of adaptive traits in crop plants. Here we apply these tools to an extensive set of barley accessions to identify a component of the molecular basis of the flowering time adaptation, a trait critical to plant survival. Using an association-based study to relate variation in flowering time to sequence-based polymorphisms in the Ppd-H1 gene, we identify a causative polymorphism (SNP48) that accounts for the observed variation in barley flowering time. This polymorphism also shows latitude-dependent geographical distribution, consistent with the expected clinal variation in phenotype with the nonresponsive form predominating in the north. Networks, genealogies, and phylogenetic trees drawn for the Ppd-H1 haplotypes reveal population structure both in wild barley and in domesticated barley landraces. The spatial distribution of these population groups indicates that phylogeographical analysis of European landraces can provide information relevant to the Neolithic spread of barley cultivation and also has implications for the origins of domesticated barley, including those with the nonresponsive ppd-H1 phenotype. Haplotypes containing the nonresponsive version of SNP48 are present in wild barley accessions, indicating that the nonresponsive phenotype of European landraces originated in wild barley. The wild accessions whose nonresponsive haplotypes are most closely similar to those of landraces are found in Iran, within a region suggested as an area for domestication of barley east of the Fertile Crescent but which has previously been thought to have contributed relatively little to the diversity of European cultivars.

  18. Yield-enhancing and tuber-downsizing effects of transplantation cultivation method of case-held tuber seedlings in the sweet potato cultivar Beniharuka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Adachi


    Full Text Available We developed transplantation cultivation method of case-held tuber seedlings (CTS, which was derived from direct planting method of seed tubers, and applied this method to the sweet potato cultivar Beniharuka. A plastic case made of polypropylene was designed for cultivation of CTS. Seed tubers of cultivar Beniharuka in the range of 30–80 g were cut in half. The half-cut tubers were placed inside the plastic cases, and the cases were filled with a commercial soil mix. The case-held tubers were incubated under natural sunlight in a glass house. After 3–4 wk, the CTS were transplanted into a field. Mother tuber (seed tuber enlargement was suppressed by the plastic confinement of the cases, and daughter tubers were formed above the case as vine-root-originated tubers. In the field experiments in 2012 and 2013, daughter tuber yields were increased 19% and 21% by case-held tuber seedling transplanting (CTST over conventional vine-planting (VP, the number of daughter tubers per plant in CTST were 36 and 68% higher than in VP, and the mother tuber yields were limited to 2.1 and 4.3% of the total fresh yield of mother and daughter tubers, respectively in 2012 and 2013. Application of CTST method to cultivar Beniharuka enhanced tuber yield, increased the number of daughter tubers per plant, downsized daughter tubers compared to VP, and mother tuber enlargement was suppressed by case-holding. The CTST method is expected to produce more and smaller good in shape tubers of cultivar Beniharuka compared to VP.

  19. Edible Cyanobacterial Genus Arthrospira: Actual State of the Art in Cultivation Methods, Genetics, and Application in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda A. Furmaniak


    Full Text Available The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation, or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions. Factors like the light intensity and quality, the nitrogen source, or different modes of growth (auto-, hetero-, or mixotrophic have been studied in detail. The scaling-up of the biomass production using photobioreactors, either closed or open, was also investigated to increase the production of useful compounds. The richness of nutrients contained in the genus Arthrospira can be used for promising applications in the biomedical domain. Ingredients such as the calcium spirulan, immulina, C-phycocyanin, and γ-linolenic acid (GLA show a strong biological activity. Recently, its use in the fight against cancer cells was documented in many publications. The health-promoting action of “Spirulina” has been demonstrated in the case of cardiovascular diseases and age-related conditions. Some compounds also have potent immunomodulatory properties, promoting the growth of beneficial gut microflora, acting as antimicrobial and antiviral. Products derived from Arthrospira were shown to successfully replace biomaterial scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Supplementation with the cyanobacterium also improves the health of livestock and quality of the products of animal origin. They were also used in cosmetic preparations.

  20. Bacterial diversity assessed by cultivation-based techniques shows predominance of Staphylococccus species on coins collected in Lisbon and Casablanca. (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria José


    Money is usually considered a source of infections, yet survival of bacteria on dry metal surfaces is limited. The aim of this work was to assess the bacterial numbers and diversity on coins collected in Casablanca and Lisbon as these two cities, on different continents and only 585 km apart, have diverse cultural habitats, but have similar climate. A cultivation-based characterisation of the bacterial community showed that a relatively low number of cells per area of coin were found on both Moroccan Dirhams and Euros (0.014 and 0.125 colony-forming units (CFU) mm(-2) , respectively). Most of the bacterial isolates were located near the rim of the coins, and coins collected in Europe contained more CFU/area of coin. Coins collected in Europe and transported in pockets presented a higher number of bacterial isolates (maximum 0.125 CFU mm(-2) ) than coins transported in wallets (maximum 0.042 CFU mm(-2) ), regardless of the gender of the person transporting them, suggesting that temperature and moisture might be key parameters for bacterial survival on metallic coins. Bacterial diversity was higher for coins collected in Casablanca relative to coins collected in Lisbon, and there was no evidence that it was dependent on the gender of the person transporting the coins or the place of transport (pockets or wallets). Curiously, the percentage of Staphylococcus strains was 44% of the total isolates on both currencies. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity – based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èuchranová Katarína


    Full Text Available Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework. and to determine which ones are candidates for reduction.A processes any activity that accepts inputs, adds value to these inputs for customers and produces outputs for these customers. The customer may be either internal or external to the organization. Every activity within an organization comprimes one or more processes. Inputs, controls and resources are all supplied to the process.A process owner is the person responsible for performing and or controlling the activity.The direction of cost through their contact to partial activity and processes is a new modern theme today. Beginning of this method is connected with very important changes in the firm processes.ABC method is a instrument , that bring a competitive advantages for the firm.

  2. Cultivating Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institute: Should CBNRM practitioners read this literature and see what alternative methods of natural resource conflict management they can borrow? ..... The anthropological question that needs to be raised here is twofold: should the principle of equality and equal representation allow for variations in its cultural ...

  3. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.


    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  4. Efficiency of Rz-1 based rhizomania resistance and molecular studies on BNYVV isolates from sugar beet cultivation in Geece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Prins, M.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.


    A survey was carried out to investigate the current situation concerning rhizomania disease incidence in sugar beet cultivation of Greece. A systematic field evaluation over locations and years revealed a consistent disease severity pattern according to favourable agroclimatic conditions and pointed

  5. Cannabis cultivation in Quebec: between space-time hotspots and coldspots. (United States)

    Chadillon-Farinacci, Véronique; Apparicio, Philippe; Morselli, Carlo


    Cannabis cultivation has become increasingly localized, whether soil-based or hydroponic growing methods are used. Characteristics of a given location, such as its climate and the equipment it requires may influence general accessibility or attract different types of offenders based on potential profits. The location of crops, especially hydroponic crops, suggests a certain proximity to the consumer market via semi-urban and urban environments, while making it possible to avoid detection. This article examines the cannabis market through its cultivation. The stability of temporal and spatial clusters of cannabis cultivation, hotspots, and coldspots between 2001 and 2009 in the province of Quebec, Canada, are addressed. Studying the geography of crime is not a new endeavor, but coldspots are rarely documented in drug market research. Using arrests and general population data, as well as Kulldorff's scan statistics, results show that the temporal distribution of cannabis cultivation is highly seasonal for soil-based methods. Hydroponic production shows adaptation to its soil-based counterpart. Stable patterns are found for both spatial distributions. Hotspots for soil-based cultivation are found near several urban centers and the Ontario border. For hydroponic cannabis cultivation, a new hotspot suggests the emergence of an American demand for Quebec-grown cannabis between 2007 and 2009. Curiously, the region surrounding Montreal, the largest urban center in Quebec, is a recurrent and stable coldspot for both methods of cultivation. For all periods, spatial clusters are stronger for soil-based methods than in the hydroponic context. Temporal differences and spatial similarities between soil-based cultivation and hydroponic cultivation are discussed. The role of the metropolis is also addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska


    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in

  7. [Xenogeneic protein free cultivation of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells]. (United States)

    Stehlík, D; Pytlík, R; Rychtrmocová, H; Veselá, R; Kopečný, Z; Trč, T


    The aim of this study was to compare the standard laboratory method of cultivation of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (MSC) and a novel technique of rapid MSC expansion focused on simple clinical use. Bone marrow mononuclear cells of donors were cultured for 14 days by the standard and the new cultivation method. The standard method (STD) was based on an alpha MEM medium supplemented with foetal calf serum (FCS). The new animal protein-free method (CLI) was based on the clinical grade medium CellgroTM, pooled human serum and human recombinant growth factors (EGF, PDGF-BB, M-CSF, FGF-2) supplemented with dexamethasone, insulin and ascorbic acid. The cell product was analyzed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the cell products of STD and CLI methods were differentiated in vitro, and histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, electron microscopy and elemental analysis were performed. Some cells were seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, in vivo implanted into immunodeficient mice for 6 weeks and evaluated by histological methods. Yields of the CLI method after 14 days of cultivation were 40-fold higher than those obtained by the STD technique (psystem cultivation in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. It seems to be easily transferable to good clinical practice compared to other protocols and should extend the possibilities of cell therapy and tissue engineering of cartilage and bone. The new method is protected by Czech patent 301 148 and by Europian patent EP 1999250 according to Czech and international laws.

  8. Rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production of cyanobacteria in non-sterilized outdoor cultivations with a bicarbonate-based pH-rising strategy. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Luan, Guodong; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haocui; Lu, Xuefeng


    Ethanol photosynthetic production based on cyanobacteria cell factories utilizing CO2 and solar energy provides an attractive solution for sustainable production of green fuels. However, the scaling up processes of cyanobacteria cell factories were usually threatened or even devastated by biocontaminations, which restricted biomass or products accumulations of cyanobacteria cells. Thus it is of great significance to develop reliable biocontamination-controlling strategies for promoting ethanol photosynthetic production in large scales. The scaling up process of a previously developed Synechocystis strain Syn-HZ24 for ethanol synthesis was severely inhibited and devastated by a specific contaminant, Pannonibacter phragmitetus, which overcame the growths of cyanobacteria cells and completely consumed the ethanol accumulation in the cultivation systems. Physiological analysis revealed that growths and ethanol-consuming activities of the contaminant were sensitive to alkaline conditions, while ethanol-synthesizing cyanobacteria strain Syn-HZ24 could tolerate alkaline pH conditions as high as 11.0, indicating that pH-increasing strategy might be a feasible approach for rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production in outdoor cultivation systems. Thus, we designed and evaluated a Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture System (BICCS) derived pH-rising strategy to rescue the ethanol photosynthetic production in non-sterilized conditions. In lab scale artificially simulated systems, pH values of BG11 culture medium were maintained around 11.0 by 180 mM NaHCO3 and air steam, under which the infection of Pannonibacter phragmitetus was significantly restricted, recovering ethanol production of Syn-HZ24 by about 80%. As for outdoor cultivations, ethanol photosynthetic production of Syn-HZ24 was also successfully rescued by the BICCS-derived pH-rising strategy, obtaining a final ethanol concentration of 0.9 g/L after 10 days cultivation. In this work, a novel product

  9. Plant growth and cultivation. (United States)

    Podar, Dorina


    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  10. Assessment of the Agronomic Feasibility of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on Marginal and Polluted Land: A GIS-Based Suitability Study from the Sulcis Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulighe


    Full Text Available In the context of environmental sustainability there has been an increasing interest in bioenergy production from renewable resources, and is expected that European biofuel production from energy crops will increase as a consequence of the achievement of policy targets. The aim of this paper is to assess the agronomic feasibility of biomass crop cultivation to provide profitable renewable feedstocks in a marginal and heavy-metal polluted area located in the Sulcis district, Sardinia (Italy. Results from literature review and unpublished data from field trials carried out in Sardinia were analysed to establish the main agronomic traits of crops (e.g., yield potential and input requirements. A Geographical Information System (GIS-based procedure with remotely sensed data is also used to evaluate the land suitability and the actual land use/cover, considering a future scenario of expansion of energy crops on these marginal areas avoiding potential conflicts with food production. The results of the review suggests that giant reed, native perennial grasses and milk thistle are the most suitable energy crops for this area. The land suitability analysis shows that about 5700 ha and 1000 ha could be available for feedstock cultivation in the study area and in the most polluted area, respectively. The results obtained from land suitability process and agronomic evaluation will serve as a base to support technical and economical feasibility studies, as well as for the evaluation of environmental sustainability of the cultivation in the study area.

  11. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production. (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo


    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  12. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia


    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  13. Community-based management of cultivated biodiversity - A French initiative on forage crops to design agro-ecological systems


    Rey, Frederic; Hazard, Laurent


    The over-simplification of modern intensive agro-ecosystems in terms of cultivated biodiversity had dramatically increased their vulnerability to stresses and perturbations. In order to create and use a higher specific and genetic diversity several community management seed systems (or “Seed Houses”) are being currently set up in France. In this country where most farmers are used to buying commercial seeds, these initiatives are considered innovative. They also raise several issues such as: ...

  14. Implications of sludge liquor addition for wastewater-based open pond cultivation of microalgae for biofuel generation and pollutant remediation. (United States)

    Osundeko, Olumayowa; Pittman, Jon K


    The growth improvement of microalgal strains in municipal secondary-treated wastewater by addition of nutrient-rich activated sludge centrate liquor was examined. Two strains (Chlorella luteoviridis and Parachlorella hussii) were tolerant to liquor, with addition of 25% liquor providing the best growth, biomass productivity and nutrient removal values. The capability of C. luteoviridis and P. hussii for full seasonal cultivation in a 150 L open pond in a temperate climate was studied, using the optimised secondary wastewater +25% liquor medium. Each strain was capable of growth all year including in autumn and winter but with strongest growth, productivity and remediation characteristics in the summer and spring. Both strains could maintain monoculture growth with no significant contamination or culture crash, demonstrating the robustness of these strains for wastewater cultivation in a northern European climate. Each strain could also be efficiently cultivated in a semi-continuous system for steady production of biomass and nutrient removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biokinetic model-based multi-objective optimization of Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivation using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance. (United States)

    Sinha, Snehal K; Kumar, Mithilesh; Guria, Chandan; Kumar, Anup; Banerjee, Chiranjib


    Algal model based multi-objective optimization using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance was carried out for batch cultivation of Dunaliella tertiolecta using NPK-fertilizer. Optimization problems involving two- and three-objective functions were solved simultaneously. The objective functions are: maximization of algae-biomass and lipid productivity with minimization of cultivation time and cost. Time variant light intensity and temperature including NPK-fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO3 loadings are the important decision variables. Algal model involving Monod/Andrews adsorption kinetics and Droop model with internal nutrient cell quota was used for optimization studies. Sets of non-dominated (equally good) Pareto optimal solutions were obtained for the problems studied. It was observed that time variant optimal light intensity and temperature trajectories, including optimum NPK fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO3 concentration has significant influence to improve biomass and lipid productivity under minimum cultivation time and cost. Proposed optimization studies may be helpful to implement the control strategy in scale-up operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale-up bioprocess development for production of the antibiotic valinomycin in Escherichia coli based on consistent fed-batch cultivations. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jaitzig, Jennifer; Lu, Ping; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Neubauer, Peter


    Heterologous production of natural products in Escherichia coli has emerged as an attractive strategy to obtain molecules of interest. Although technically feasible most of them are still constrained to laboratory scale production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reasonable scale-up strategies for bioprocesses aiming at the overproduction of targeted natural products under industrial scale conditions. To this end, we used the production of the antibiotic valinomycin in E. coli as a model system for scalable bioprocess development based on consistent fed-batch cultivations. In this work, the glucose limited fed-batch strategy based on pure mineral salt medium was used throughout all scales for valinomycin production. The optimal glucose feed rate was initially detected by the use of a biocatalytically controlled glucose release (EnBase® technology) in parallel cultivations in 24-well plates with continuous monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen. These results were confirmed in shake flasks, where the accumulation of valinomycin was highest when the specific growth rate decreased below 0.1 h(-1). This correlation was also observed for high cell density fed-batch cultivations in a lab-scale bioreactor. The bioreactor fermentation produced valinomycin with titers of more than 2 mg L(-1) based on the feeding of a concentrated glucose solution. Valinomycin production was not affected by oscillating conditions (i.e. glucose and oxygen) in a scale-down two-compartment reactor, which could mimic similar situations in industrial bioreactors, suggesting that the process is very robust and a scaling of the process to a larger industrial scale appears a realistic scenario. Valinomycin production was scaled up from mL volumes to 10 L with consistent use of the fed-batch technology. This work presents a robust and reliable approach for scalable bioprocess development and represents an example for the consistent development of a process for a heterologously expressed natural

  17. Ochratoxin A contamination of coffee batches from Kenya in relation to cultivation methods and post-harvest processing treatments. (United States)

    Duris, Daniel; Mburu, Joseph K; Durand, Noël; Clarke, Renata; Frank, John M; Guyot, Bernard


    This study set out to assess the relative importance of sound and unsound beans in a batch of coffee with regard to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. Initially, unsound beans were found to account for 95% of contamination in a batch of coffee, whatever the methods used for post-harvest processing. It was also found that beans displaying traces of attacks by Colletotrichum kahawae were the greatest contributors to OTA contamination. In a second stage, the study compared the contamination of sound beans with that of beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae. On average, beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae had a statistically higher OTA content than sound beans (18.0 microg kg(-1) as opposed to 1.2 microg kg(-1)). In addition, the average OTA content in unsound beans varied depending on growing conditions.

  18. Large-Scale Cultivation of Euglena. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kengo


    From the middle of the twentieth century, microalgae have been exploited as a candidate biomass source of food and other products. One such candidate source is the fast-proliferating microalga Euglena gracilis. The commercial cultivation of E. gracilis began in 2007, after the success of its outdoor mass cultivation and improvement of the harvesting and drying methods suitable for Euglena cells. The commercialization of Euglena production is based on the strategy of "5Fs of Biomass," which refers to the development and production of commercial products including food, fiber, feed, fertilizer, and fuel from biomass." Although room for improvement remains in the productivity of Euglena biomass, the product with the highest value-food-is already profitable. By enhancing the productivity of its biomass, other Euglena products, including fiber, feed, fertilizer, and fuel, can be commercialized. Breeding and recombinant DNA technology studies are being conducted to accomplish more extensive application of Euglena. In addition, the search for a better place for outdoor mass cultivation of Euglena is ongoing.

  19. Methodical bases of geodemographic forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Сегіда


    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological features of the forecast of population size and composition. The essence and features of probabilistic demographic forecasting, methods, a component and dynamic ranks are considered; requirements to initial indicators for each type of the forecast are provided. It is noted that geo-demographic forecast is an important component of regional geo-demographic characteristic. Features of the demographic forecast development by component method (recursors of age are given, basic formulae of calculation, including the equation of demographic balance, a formula recursors taking into account gender and age indicators, survival coefficient are presented. The basic methodical principles of the demographic forecast are given by an extrapolation method (dynamic ranks, calculation features by means of the generalized indicators, such as extrapolation on the basis of indicators of an average pure gain, average growth rate and average rate of a gain are presented. To develop population forecast, the method of retrospective extrapolation (for the short-term forecast and a component method (for the mid-term forecast are mostly used. The example of such development by component method for gender and age structure of the population of Kharkiv region with step-by-step explanation of calculation is provided. The example of Kharkiv region’s population forecast development is provided by the method of dynamic ranks. Having carried out calculations of the main forecast indicators by administrative units, it is possible to determine features of further regional demographic development, to reveal internal territorial distinctions in demographic development. Application of separate forecasting methods allows to develop the forecast for certain indicators, however essential a variety, nonlinearity and not stationarity of the processes constituting demographic development forces to look +for new approaches and

  20. Statistical Methods for Base Inflation Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Partachi


    Full Text Available The purposes of the given research are the analysis of four alternative methods of measurement of base inflation and a choice of the parameter most precisely reflecting an actual inflationary trend in the Republic of Moldova. The estimation of the fact sheet on inflation in the Republic of Moldova is made with application of the approach based on methods of the statistical analysis, in particular: exclusion method, trimmed means method, standard deviation trimmed means method, percentile method.

  1. [Evaluation of Suppressiveness of Soils Exhibiting Soil-Borne Disease Suppression after Long-Term Application of Organic Amendments by the Co-cultivation Method of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Indigenous Soil Microorganisms]. (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu


    Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates. Soils treated with coffee residue compost or rapeseed meal showed suppressiveness against spinach wilt disease by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or spinach wilt and lettuce root rot diseases by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, respectively, and the growth of pathogenic Fusarium spp. on agar plates was suppressed when co-cultured with microorganisms in a suspension from these soils before crop cultivation. These results indicate the potential of the growth degree of pathogenic F. oxysporum estimated by this method as a diagnostic indicator of the suppressiveness of soil associated with the inhabiting microorganisms. A correlation was found between the incidence of spinach wilt disease in spinach and the growth degree of F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae by this co-cultivation method, indicating that suppressiveness induced by organic amendment applications against F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae is evaluable by this method. The co-cultivation method may be useful for predicting and diagnosing suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  3. Based on Penalty Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Baba


    Full Text Available The dual response surface for simultaneously optimizing the mean and variance models as separate functions suffers some deficiencies in handling the tradeoffs between bias and variance components of mean squared error (MSE. In this paper, the accuracy of the predicted response is given a serious attention in the determination of the optimum setting conditions. We consider four different objective functions for the dual response surface optimization approach. The essence of the proposed method is to reduce the influence of variance of the predicted response by minimizing the variability relative to the quality characteristics of interest and at the same time achieving the specific target output. The basic idea is to convert the constraint optimization function into an unconstraint problem by adding the constraint to the original objective function. Numerical examples and simulations study are carried out to compare performance of the proposed method with some existing procedures. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and has exhibited clear improvement over the existing approaches.

  4. Objective, Way and Method of Faculty Management Based on Ergonomics (United States)

    WANG, Hong-bin; Liu, Yu-hua


    The core problem that influences educational quality of talents in colleges and universities is the faculty management. Without advanced faculty, it is difficult to cultivate excellent talents. With regard to some problems in present faculty construction of colleges and universities, this paper puts forward the new objectives, ways and methods of…

  5. Spirulina cultivation in China (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui


    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  6. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant. (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B


    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production.

  7. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation. (United States)

    Yang, Kang; Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Feng, Wei; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Shunni; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong


    The micralgae-based biofuel obtained from dairy wastewater (DWW) is considered a promising source of energy. However, this process consumes water due to the concentration of wastewater being normally too high for some micoralgae cultivation, and dilution is always needed. In this work, the cultivation of microalgae has been examined in non-recirculated water (NR) and recirculated water systems (R). The growth of Chlorella zofingiensis and the nutrient removal of DWW have been recorded. The comparison indicates the R had a little more advantage in biomass and lipid output (1.55, 0.22 g, respectively) than the NR (1.51, 0.20 g, respectively). However, the total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) removals of the R were lower than those of the NR system during the culture. The highest removal of total COD, TKN, and TP were 85.05%, 93.64%, and 98.45%, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference has been observed in the higher heating value and lipid content of the biomass of the R and NR. The results show the R can save 30% of the total water input during the culture. All above results indicate the R system has great potential in industry.

  8. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu


    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  9. An Internet-based platform for the estimation of outcrossing potential between cultivated and Chilean vascular plants. (United States)

    Cid, Pablo; Aguirre, Carlos; Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Zamorano, Daniel; Mihoc, Maritza; Salazar, Erika; Chacón, Gustavo; Navarrete, Humberto; Rosas, Marcelo; Prieto, Humberto


    A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (, in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode). The scale for TOP results uses quintiles in order to define outcrossing potential between species as "very low," "low," "medium," "high," or "very high." In a coexistence analysis considering 256 species (207 genera), the 10 highest TOP values were for genera Citrus, Prunus, Trifolium, Brassica, Allium, Eucalyptus, Cucurbita, Solanum, Lollium, and Lotus. The highest TOP for species in this analysis fell at "high" potential, 4.9% of the determined values. In biodiversity mode, seven out of 256 cultivated species (2.7%) were native, and 249 (97.3%) corresponded to introduced species. The highest TOP was obtained in the genera Senecio, Calceolaria, Viola, Solanum, Poa, Alstroemeria, Valeriana, Vicia, Atriplex, and Campanula, showing "high" potential in 4.9% of the values. On the other hand, 137 genetically modified species, including the commercial and pre-commercial developments, were included and represented 100 genera. Among these, 22 genera had relatives (i.e., members of the same genus) in the native/introduced group. The genera with the highest number of native/introduced relatives ranged from one (Ipomea, Limonium, Carica, Potentilla, Lotus, Castanea, and Daucus) to 66 species (Solanum). The highest TOP was obtained when the same species were coincident in both groups, such as for Carica chilensis, Prosopis tamarugo, and Solanum tuberosum. Results are discussed from the perspective of

  10. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in raw caprine, ovine, buffalo, bovine, and camel milk using cell cultivation, cat bioassay, capture ELISA, and PCR methods in Iran. (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Borujeni, Mohammad Reza Haghighi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Abdizadeh, Rahman


    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. From a total of 395 dairy herds in three provinces of Iran, 66 bovine, 58 ovine, 54 caprine, 33 buffalo, and 30 camel herds were studied, and from these parts of Iran, 200 bovine, 185 ovine, 180 caprine, 164 buffalo, and 160 camel milk samples were collected from various seasons. Samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii by cell line culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Only the results of cell line cultivation were confirmed by bioassay in cat. Results indicated that all herds were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The culture method showed that 51 out of 889 milk samples (5.73%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, and all 51 positive culture results were positive with bioassay in cat. The Fars province had the highest prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (6.84%). The ELISA test showed that 41 milk samples (4.61%) were positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, while the PCR showed that 46 milk samples were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The results showed higher sensitivity of PCR and higher specificity of ELISA. Caprine had the highest (10%) and camel had the lowest (3.12%) prevalence rate of parasite. The summer season had the highest (76.47%) but winter (3.92) had the lowest incidence of Toxoplasma gondii. This study is the first prevalence report of direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran.

  11. Self-Compassion Online: A Pilot Study of an Internet-Based Self-Compassion Cultivation Program for Psychology Trainees. (United States)

    Finlay-Jones, Amy; Kane, Robert; Rees, Clare


    The current study sought to conduct a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness and feasibility of a novel, self-guided online self-compassion training for reducing psychological distress and increasing self-compassion and happiness among psychology trainees. A 6-week online self-compassion cultivation program was developed and delivered to Australian psychology trainees (n = 37), and a pre-experimental repeated-measures design was used to collect change data on self-compassion, happiness, perceived stress, emotion regulation difficulties as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants reported significant increases in self-compassion and happiness and significant decreases in depression, stress, and emotion regulation difficulties between pretest and posttest, with the majority of changes maintained at 3-month follow up.  This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness and acceptability of online self-compassion training as a positive, integrated, and meaningful way of reducing distress and promoting self-compassion and happiness among trainee psychologists. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pedagogical Scholarship in Public Health: A Call for Cultivating Learning Communities to Support Evidence-Based Education. (United States)

    Merzel, Cheryl; Halkitis, Perry; Healton, Cheryl

    Public health education is experiencing record growth and transformation. The current emphasis on learning outcomes necessitates attention to creating and evaluating the best curricula and learning methods for helping public health students develop public health competencies. Schools and programs of public health would benefit from active engagement in pedagogical research and additional platforms to support dissemination and implementation of educational research findings. We reviewed current avenues for sharing public health educational research, curricula, and best teaching practices; we identified useful models from other health professions; and we offered suggestions for how the field of public health education can develop communities of learning devoted to supporting pedagogy. Our goal was to help advance an agenda of innovative evidence-based public health education, enabling schools and programs of public health to evaluate and measure success in meeting the current and future needs of the public health profession.

  13. Development of a method for the control of an environmentally friendly cultivation of energy crops at provincial level using a differentiated premium payment; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Steuerung eines umweltschonenden Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Landesebene durch eine differenzierte Praemienzahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiff, Kathrin Britta


    Facing the global challenge of climate change and finiteness of fossil resources renewable resources are becoming more and more important at present. At the moment, biomass is the most important renewable resource in Germany. The rising cultivation of energy crops, supported by political instruments, has a negative environmental impact on the natural resources soil, water and biodiversity. The existing agricultural legislation can not avoid such negative environmental impact. Thus, it seems reasonable to realign the existing support scheme for energy crop use to a system that operates regional and crop specific but includes the whole agricultural sector as well. Such a newly designed system could be realised by a differentiated premium. This instrument is most suitable to prevent environmental damage due to the advantages of a regional use and a differentiation of crop species. The aim of this work has been to identify an easy applicable and transferable control mechanism for an environmental friendly support scheme of energy crops and also to develop and test a method as basis for this control mechanism. The design of a regional and crop specific premium has been described as a possible political instrument. The method has been developed and tested within a case study for Bavaria, one of Germany's federal states. For the investigation the level of agrarian production regions has been chosen. For each region it has been assessed which crops should and which ones should not be cultivated. For this, the actual environmental risk for the agricultural activity has been calculated by using landscape analysis on the basis of environmental risk assessment. Agrarian statistics (InVeKos) and digital GIS-based site data has been used as data base. With this data base it has been possible to illustrate the environmental risk for the natural resources soil, water and biodiversity in sufficient exactness. The comparison of the periods 1994-96 and 2005-07 approved that the

  14. Detection of microbial diversity in endocarditis using cultivation-independent molecular techniques. (United States)

    Wolff, Tine Y; Moser, Claus; Bundgaard, Henning; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Per H; Thomsen, Trine R


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) could be improved using molecular tools in addition to standard microscopy and cultivation methods. Cultivation was performed on blood or tissue samples as recommended in the modified Duke criteria. The molecular tools included a broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and a more detailed identification by constructing clone libraries followed by sequencing. Of 14 patients, 12 were positive by blood or tissue cultivation and all were monomicrobial. Molecular methods showed the presence of DNA from multiple bacterial species in 6 of the samples and indicated a larger variety of bacteria in the different samples than identified by cultivation. For 8 of the patients there was a good correlation between the results of cultivation and molecular methods, and for these samples the identified bacteria are known to be frequently involved with IE. Many of the additional bacteria only identified by the molecular methods are not reported as common causes of IE. Application of molecular tools in addition to cultivation indicated that polymicrobial infections might be of importance in IE. However, the significance of the more unknown microorganisms needs to be investigated further.

  15. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine]. (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying


    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković


    Full Text Available Asparagus is an interesting vegetable as a part of a healthy diet and has been widely studied due to the high nutritional value and potential positive effects on human health. Wild asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius L. grows along the Adriatic coast and islands, while the cultivated asparagus (A. officinalis L. is mostly grown in the eastern region of Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine total polyphenol content (measured spectrophotometrically and antioxidant activity (DPPH in wild and cultivated asparagus. No significant differences in total polyphenol content were found between wild and cultivated asparagus. The highest content of polyphenols in wild asparagus was 6.20 [mg GAE/g fresh weight] and 49.60 [mg GAE/g dry weight], and in cultivated asparagus it was 4.52 [mg GAE/g fresh weight] and 50.93 [mg GAE/g dry weight]. Antioxidant activity measured using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method showed statistically significant difference. Higher antioxidant activity was measured in cultivated than in wild asparagus. The results also indicate that increased polyphenol content leads to higher antioxidant activity, but more so in the cultivated asparagus. Based on the results, the cultivated asparagus is an excellent alternative to wild asparagus that should be protected from over-harvesting, thus preventing devastation of plant diversity of islands and coast.

  17. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite


    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables.

  18. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems. (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M


    cultivation in the DeepFlow negatively compared to substrate-based propagation. Water-based propagation resulted in frequent transient discolorations after transplanting in all cultivation systems, indicating a factor, other than irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen, influencing plant uptake. Plant uptake rates for water, nutrients, and oxygen are offered as a more fundamental way to compare and improve growing systems.

  19. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H. B.; Marcelis, Leo F. M.


    cultivation in the DeepFlow negatively compared to substrate-based propagation. Water-based propagation resulted in frequent transient discolorations after transplanting in all cultivation systems, indicating a factor, other than irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen, influencing plant uptake. Plant uptake rates for water, nutrients, and oxygen are offered as a more fundamental way to compare and improve growing systems. PMID:28443129

  20. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.


    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling

  1. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA


    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  2. City positioning method based on streetlight (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Jiang, Youyi; Yang, Yongchong; Lou, Ning


    The relation between city positioning and people's life & production is very close. City positioning method can reflect the city's management level and the city's modernization degree. By virtue of the example of digital city management system, the author first analyzed the traditional method of city positioning, then aiming at the characteristics of streetlight which distributes regular and neatly in city, put forward the method of city positioning based on streetlight. In this paper, the author mainly discussed the streetlight's encoding method, positioning method based on streetlight and its application requests.

  3. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová


    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  4. A new automatic baseline correction method based on iterative method (United States)

    Bao, Qingjia; Feng, Jiwen; Chen, Fang; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Zao; Liu, Kewen; Liu, Chaoyang


    A new automatic baseline correction method for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is presented. It is based on an improved baseline recognition method and a new iterative baseline modeling method. The presented baseline recognition method takes advantages of three baseline recognition algorithms in order to recognize all signals in spectra. While in the iterative baseline modeling method, besides the well-recognized baseline points in signal-free regions, the 'quasi-baseline points' in the signal-crowded regions are also identified and then utilized to improve robustness by preventing the negative regions. The experimental results on both simulated data and real metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks show the efficiency of this automatic method.

  5. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1 and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1 and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1 and 3.01± μg g(-1 being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include

  6. Diversity of cultivable actinobacteria in geographically widespread marine sediments. (United States)

    Maldonado, Luis A; Stach, James E M; Pathom-aree, Wasu; Ward, Alan C; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael


    Reports describing actinobacteria isolated from marine environments have been dominated by Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces species. Recent culture-independent studies have shown that marine environments contain a high diversity of actinobacterial species that are rarely, if at all, recovered by cultivation-based methods. In this study, it is shown that cultivation-independent methods can be used to guide the application of selective isolation methods. The detection of marine-derived actinobacterial species that have previously only been reported from terrestrial habitats is highlighted. This study provides good evidence that the previously described low diversity of actinobacterial species isolated from marine environments does not reflect an actual low species diversity, and that the use of informed selective isolation procedures can aid in the isolation of members of novel taxa.

  7. DNA-based taxonomic identification of basidiospores in hallucinogenic mushrooms cultivated in "grow-kits" seized by the police: LC-UV quali-quantitative determination of psilocybin and psilocin. (United States)

    Gambaro, Veniero; Roda, Gabriella; Visconti, Giacomo Luca; Arnoldi, Sebastiano; Casagni, Eleonora; Dell'Acqua, Lucia; Farè, Fiorenza; Paladino, Eleonora; Rusconi, Chiara; Arioli, Stefania; Mora, Diego


    The taxonomic identification of the biological material contained in the hallucinogenic mushrooms culture media, was carried out using a DNA-based approach, thus highlighting the usefulness of this approach in the forensic identification of illegal samples also when they are present as basidiospores mixed in culture media and spore-bearing fruiting body are not present. This approach is very useful as it allows the unequivocal identification of potentially illicit material before the cultivation and it enables to stop the material to the Customs and to destroy it due to its dangerousness without cultivating the "grow-kits" and without instructing a criminal case. In fact, even if psilocin and psilocybin and the whole mushrooms are illegal in many countries, there is no specific indication in the law about the so called "grow-kits", containing the spores. To confirm the data obtained by the taxonomic identification, a simple, reliable, efficient LC-UV method, using tryptamine as internal standard, suitable for the forensic quali-quantitative determination of psilocin and psilocybin in hallucinogenic mushroom was optimized, validated and applied to the mushrooms grown after the cultivation of the grow-kits seized by the judicial authority, with the authorization of the Ministry of Health. A cation exchange column was used in a gradient elution mode (Phase A: 50mMK2HPO4; 100mM NaCl pH=3 Phase B: methanol). The developed method was linear over the calibration range with a R(2)>0.9992 for both the analytes. The detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.01 and 0.1μg/mL for psilocybin and 0.05μg/mL and 0.1μg/mL for psilocin and the intra- and inter-day precision was satisfactory (coefficients of variation psilocybin in the mushrooms grown from the seized "grow-kits" ranged from 1.02 to 7.60mg/g of dry vegetable material, while the content of psilocin from 0.415 to 8.36mg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainability of current GM crop cultivation : Review of people, planet, profit effects of agricultural production of GM crops, based on the cases of soybean, maize, and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Breukers, M.L.H.; Broer, W.; Bunte, F.H.J.; Dolstra, O.; Engelbronner-Kolff, d' F.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Montfort, J.; Nikoloyuk, J.; Rutten, M.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Zijl, M.


    This report adresses the question whether the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops abroad for import in the Netherlands, as compared to the cultivation of their conventional (non-GM) counterparts, is in line with Dutch policy and societal aims striving after more sustainable forms of

  9. Profile Review of Grapes Horticulture Cultivation in the Buleleng


    Mulyani, Sri; Admadi, Bambang; Satriawan, Ketut; Mardiana, Made Hendra


    Buleleng as a centre of grape commodity in Bali has experienced a decrease in the number of grapes production. Grapes horticultural profile should be made based on 6 (six) pillars of the horticulture development. The aim of this study is to determine cultivation profile of the grapes horticulture in Buleleng. This research uses purposive sampling method to determine sample location. The respondents consist of farmers, stakeholders and other relevant agencies which chosen by using random sampl...

  10. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation. (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  11. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun


    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  12. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim


    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  13. Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design (United States)


    Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design José A. Camberos, David J. Moorhouse, &tc Multidisciplinary Science & Technology...SUBTITLE Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...of Exergy Case Studies 3 MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AFRL Air Vehicles In-House Research Centers 4 Multidisciplinary Science

  14. Positive selection of Wharton's jelly-derived CD105(+) cells by MACS technique and their subsequent cultivation under suspension culture condition: A simple, versatile culturing method to enhance the multipotentiality of mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Halabian, Raheleh; Dehgan Harati, Mozhgan; Bahadori, Marzie; Mehdipour, Ahmad; Mohammadi Roushandeh, Amaneh; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar


    Wharton's jelly (WJ), an appropriate source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), has been shown to have a wide array of therapeutic applications. However, the WJ-derived MSCs are very heterogeneous and have limited expression of pluripotency markers. Hence, improvement of their culture condition would promote the efficiency of WJ-MSCs. This study aims to employ a simple method of cultivation to obtain WJ-MSCs which express more pluripotency markers. CD105(+) cells were separated by magnetic-associated (activated) cell sorting from umbilical cord mucous tissue. CD105(+) cells were added to Methocult medium diluted in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) and seeded in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA)-coated plates for suspension culture preparation. Differentiation capacity of isolated cells was evaluated in the presence of differentiation-inducing media. The expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 was also analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Moreover, immunocytochemistry was performed to detect alpha-smooth muscle actin (antigene) (α-SMA) protein. WJ-MSCs grew homogeneously and formed colonies when cultured under suspension culture conditions (Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs). They maintained their growth ability in both adherent and suspension cultures for several passages. Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 both at transcriptional and translational levels in comparison to those cultured in conventional adherent cultures. They also expressed α-SMA protein. In this study, we isolated WJ-MSCs using a slightly modified culture condition. Our simple non-genetic method resulted in a homogeneous population of WJ-MSCs, which highly expressed pluripotency markers. In the future, more multipotent WJ-MSCs can be harnessed as a non-embryonic source of MSCs in MSC-based cell therapy.

  15. Color image definition evaluation method based on deep learning method (United States)

    Liu, Di; Li, YingChun


    In order to evaluate different blurring levels of color image and improve the method of image definition evaluation, this paper proposed a method based on the depth learning framework and BP neural network classification model, and presents a non-reference color image clarity evaluation method. Firstly, using VGG16 net as the feature extractor to extract 4,096 dimensions features of the images, then the extracted features and labeled images are employed in BP neural network to train. And finally achieve the color image definition evaluation. The method in this paper are experimented by using images from the CSIQ database. The images are blurred at different levels. There are 4,000 images after the processing. Dividing the 4,000 images into three categories, each category represents a blur level. 300 out of 400 high-dimensional features are trained in VGG16 net and BP neural network, and the rest of 100 samples are tested. The experimental results show that the method can take full advantage of the learning and characterization capability of deep learning. Referring to the current shortcomings of the major existing image clarity evaluation methods, which manually design and extract features. The method in this paper can extract the images features automatically, and has got excellent image quality classification accuracy for the test data set. The accuracy rate is 96%. Moreover, the predicted quality levels of original color images are similar to the perception of the human visual system.

  16. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh


    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  17. [Ion-exchange substrate as a source of nitrogen mobile forms in the conveyor method of vegetables cultivation on artificial soil]. (United States)

    Velichko, V V; Ushakova, S A; Tikhomirov, A A


    The investigation had the objective to evaluate the applicability of ion-exchange substrate to maintaining the mobile nitrogen content in irrigation solution and artificial coil during cultivation of a mixed (in term of age) vegetable container. Objects of the investigation were radishes and leaf cabbage crops with the period of vegetation of 28 days. A 120-day experiment showed that single introduction of the ion-exchange substrate promoted nitrogen stabilization in the irrigation solution and, consequently, yielding of higher crops as compared with the control.

  18. A novel plant-based-sea water culture media for in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the halophyte microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Saleh


    Full Text Available The plant-based-sea water culture medium is introduced to in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the microbiome of halophytes. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was used, in the form of juice and/or dehydrated plant powder packed in teabags, to supplement the natural sea water. The resulting culture medium enjoys the combinations of plant materials as rich source of nutrients and sea water exercising the required salt stress. As such without any supplements, the culture medium was sufficient and efficient to support very good in vitro growth of halotolerant bacteria. It was also capable to recover their in situ culturable populations in the phyllosphere, ecto-rhizosphere and endo-rhizosphere of halophytes prevailing in Lake Mariout, Egypt. When related to the total bacterial numbers measured for Suaeda pruinosa roots by quantitative-PCR, the proposed culture medium increased culturability (15.3–19.5% compared to the conventional chemically-synthetic culture medium supplemented with (11.2% or without (3.8% NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, representative isolates of halotolerant bacteria prevailed on such culture medium were closely related to Bacillus spp., Halomonas spp., and Kocuria spp. Seed germination tests on 25–50% sea water agar indicated positive interaction of such bacterial isolates with the germination and seedlings’ growth of barley seeds.

  19. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms (United States)

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline


    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  20. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne


    of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  1. Cultivating the Grapevine. (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen


    Although administrators may view grapevines as threats to established leadership, informal communication is necessary to keep an organization functioning smoothly. No one can completely control the grapevine or its accuracy, but astute administrators can learn to cultivate and use informal communication systems wisely. (MLH)

  2. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating standards-based visual arts, math and literacy in high-poverty urban classrooms


    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline


    The Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization Studio in a School (STUDIO), in partnership with the New York City Department of Education, the Framing Student Success curriculum was designed by e...

  3. Metabolic profiling of Angelica acutiloba roots utilizing gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for quality assessment based on cultivation area and cultivar via multivariate pattern recognition. (United States)

    Tianniam, Sukanda; Tarachiwin, Lucksanaporn; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro


    Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to elucidate the profiling of primary metabolites and to evaluate the differences between quality differences in Angelica acutiloba (or Yamato-toki) roots through the utilization of multivariate pattern recognition-principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two metabolites consisting of sugars, amino and organic acids were identified. PCA analysis successfully discriminated the good, the moderate and the bad quality Yamato-toki roots in accordance to their cultivation areas. The results signified two reducing sugars, fructose and glucose being the most accumulated in the bad quality, whereas higher quantity of phosphoric acid, proline, malic acid and citric acid were found in the good and the moderate quality toki roots. PCA was also effective in discriminating samples derive from different cultivars. Yamato-toki roots with the moderate quality were compared by means of PCA, and the results illustrated good discrimination which was influenced most by malic acid. Overall, this study demonstrated that metabolomics technique is accurate and efficient in determining the quality differences in Yamato-toki roots, and has a potential to be a superior and suitable method to assess the quality of this medicinal plant.

  4. Need to reform education in graduate schools of public health in Japan: Toward outcome-based education to cultivate competencies. (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Yano, Eiji


    Japan, known for its good healthcare access via universal health insurance, leads the world in terms of life expectancy, and possesses a public health system that has improved health standards markedly in the 20th century. However, we currently face major challenges to maintain and promote people's health. Although these complicated problems pose numerous threats to public welfare, education of public health for health professionals still retains 20th-century standards. This also means that graduate education of public health in Japan is traditionally based on obtaining licensure as a medical professional, conducting research and writing papers, and on-the-job training. Since graduate school education is expected to produce competent public health leaders, Japan requires a reform toward a new education design that caters to the current societal needs. The current global trend in the education of health professionals leans toward outcome-based education to meet core competencies. Here, "competency" refers to a set of features or particular behavioral patterns possessed by highly qualified persons. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a general health professional competency standard that includes both management and leadership competencies. Moreover, the Lancet Commission concluded that there was a need for transformative education based on a "health system approach." In brief, this means that our education should correspond to the needs of the health system to allow for the resolution of problems by educated professionals with satisfactory levels of competencies. In addition, as "change agents," these competent professionals are expected to promote societal change toward the realization of better public health. In Japan, the Central Education Council has produced several reports on professional graduate school reform since 2000. These reports indicate that graduate school curricula require reform to allow the health professionals to work

  5. Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings. (United States)

    Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Vernelli, Valeria


    The aim of this research is to assess the sustainability of a natural fiber, such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), and its use as thermal insulator for building applications. The sustainability of hemp was quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA) and particular attention was given to the amount of CO2eq of the whole process, and the indicator greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) was selected to quantify CO2eq emissions. In this study also CO2 uptake of hemp was considered. Two different allocation procedures (i.e., mass and economic) were adopted. Other indicators, such as Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and EcoIndicator99 H were calculated. The production of 1 ha yielded 15 ton of hemp, whose global warming potential (GWP100) was equal to about -26.01 ton CO2eq: the amount allocated to the technical fiber (20% of the total amount of hemp biomass) was -5.52 ton CO2eq when mass allocation was used, and -5.54 ton CO2eq when economic allocation was applied. The sustainability for building applications was quantified by considering an insulation panel made by hemp fiber (85%) and polyester fiber (15%) in 1 m(2) of wall having a thermal transmittance (U) equal to 0.2 W/m(2)_K. The environmental performances of the hemp-based panel were compared to those of a rockwool-based one.

  6. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min


    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  7. Personnel Selection Based on Fuzzy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Cañós


    Full Text Available The decisions of managers regarding the selection of staff strongly determine the success of the company. A correct choice of employees is a source of competitive advantage. We propose a fuzzy method for staff selection, based on competence management and the comparison with the valuation that the company considers the best in each competence (ideal candidate. Our method is based on the Hamming distance and a Matching Level Index. The algorithms, implemented in the software StaffDesigner, allow us to rank the candidates, even when the competences of the ideal candidate have been evaluated only in part. Our approach is applied in a numerical example.

  8. Cross-feeding by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 during co-cultivation with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 in a mucin-based medium. (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe


    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that commonly inhabit the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 was previously shown to utilize a variety of plant/diet/host-derived carbohydrates, including cellodextrin, starch and galactan, as well as the mucin and HMO-derived monosaccharide, sialic acid. In the current study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize parts of a host-derived source of carbohydrate, namely the mucin glycoprotein, when grown in co-culture with the mucin-degrading Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. B. breve UCC2003 was shown to exhibit growth properties in a mucin-based medium, but only when grown in the presence of B. bifidum PRL2010, which is known to metabolize mucin. A combination of HPAEC-PAD and transcriptome analyses identified some of the possible monosaccharides and oligosaccharides which support this enhanced co-cultivation growth/viability phenotype. This study describes the potential existence of a gut commensal relationship between two bifidobacterial species. We demonstrate the in vitro ability of B. breve UCC2003 to cross-feed on sugars released by the mucin-degrading activity of B. bifidum PRL2010, thus advancing our knowledge on the metabolic adaptability which allows the former strain to colonize the (infant) gut by its extensive metabolic abilities to (co-)utilize available carbohydrate sources.

  9. Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: a review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). (United States)

    Irving, Julie Anne; Dobkin, Patricia L; Park, Jeeseon


    Demands faced by health care professionals include heavy caseloads, limited control over the work environment, long hours, as well as organizational structures and systems in transition. Such conditions have been directly linked to increased stress and symptoms of burnout, which in turn, have adverse consequences for clinicians and the quality of care that is provided to patients. Consequently, there exists an impetus for the development of curriculum aimed at fostering wellness and the necessary self-care skills for clinicians. This review will examine the potential benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs aimed at enhancing well-being and coping with stress in this population. Empirical evidence indicates that participation in MBSR yields benefits for clinicians in the domains of physical and mental health. Conceptual and methodological limitations of the existing studies and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Host plant resistance to aphids in cultivated crops: genetic and molecular bases, and interactions with aphid populations. (United States)

    Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Chovelon, Véronique; Boissot, Nathalie


    Host plant resistance is an efficient and environmentally friendly means of controlling insects, including aphids, but resistant-breaking biotypes have occurred in several plant-aphid systems. Our review of the genetic and molecular bases of aphid resistance in crop species emphasizes the limited number of aphid resistance genes and alleles. Inheritance of aphid resistance may be monogenic (dominant or recessive genes) or polygenic. Two dominant, aphid resistance genes have been isolated to date. They both encode NBS-LRR proteins involved in the specific recognition of aphids. Strategies to ensure aphid resistance effectiveness and durability are discussed. Innovative research activities are proposed. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Arts-Based Methods in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Du, Xiangyun


    This chapter introduces the field of arts-based methods in education with a general theoretical perspective, reviewing the journey of learning in connection to the arts, and the contribution of the arts to societies from an educational perspective. Also presented is the rationale and structure...

  12. Microbial cultivation and the role of microbial resource centers in the omics era. (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh; Jangid, Kamlesh; Kostka, Joel E


    Despite tremendous advances in microbial ecology over the past two decades, traditional cultivation methods have failed to grow ecologically more relevant microorganisms in the laboratory, leading to a predominance of weed-like species in the world's culture collections. In this review, we highlight the gap between culture-based and culture-independent methods of microbial diversity analysis, especially in investigations of slow growers, oligotrophs, and fastidious and recalcitrant microorganisms. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of microbial cultivation and the acquisition of the cultivation-based phenotypic data for the testing of hypotheses arising from genomics and proteomics approaches. Technical difficulties in cultivating novel microorganisms and how modern approaches have helped to overcome these limitations are highlighted. After cultivation, adequate preservation without changes in genotypic and phenotypic features of these microorganisms is necessary for future research and training. Hence, the contribution of microbial resource centers in the handling, preservation, and distribution of this novel diversity is discussed. Finally, we explore the concept of microbial patenting and requisite guidelines of the "Budapest Treaty" for establishment of an International Depositary Authority.

  13. Quality Evaluation Based on Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin


    Full Text Available Quality prediction models are constructed based on multivariate statistical methods, including ordinary least squares regression (OLSR, principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLSR, and modified partial least squares regression (MPLSR. The prediction model constructed by MPLSR achieves superior results, compared with the other three methods from both aspects of fitting efficiency and prediction ability. Based on it, further research is dedicated to selecting key variables to directly predict the product quality with satisfactory performance. The prediction models presented are more efficient than tradition ones and can be useful to support human experts in the evaluation and classification of the product quality. The effectiveness of the quality prediction models is finally illustrated and verified based on the practical data set of the red wine.

  14. Evidence for a Common Origin of Blacksmiths and Cultivators in the Ethiopian Ari within the Last 4500 Years: Lessons for Clustering-Based Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy van Dorp


    Full Text Available The Ari peoples of Ethiopia are comprised of different occupational groups that can be distinguished genetically, with Ari Cultivators and the socially marginalised Ari Blacksmiths recently shown to have a similar level of genetic differentiation between them (FST ≈ 0.023 - 0.04 as that observed among multiple ethnic groups sampled throughout Ethiopia. Anthropologists have proposed two competing theories to explain the origins of the Ari Blacksmiths as (i remnants of a population that inhabited Ethiopia prior to the arrival of agriculturists (e.g. Cultivators, or (ii relatively recently related to the Cultivators but presently marginalized in the community due to their trade. Two recent studies by different groups analysed genome-wide DNA from samples of Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators and suggested that genetic patterns between the two groups were more consistent with model (i and subsequent assimilation of the indigenous peoples into the expanding agriculturalist community. We analysed the same samples using approaches designed to attenuate signals of genetic differentiation that are attributable to allelic drift within a population. By doing so, we provide evidence that the genetic differences between Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators can be entirely explained by bottleneck effects consistent with hypothesis (ii. This finding serves as both a cautionary tale about interpreting results from unsupervised clustering algorithms, and suggests that social constructions are contributing directly to genetic differentiation over a relatively short time period among previously genetically similar groups.

  15. How to Design and Present Texts to Cultivate Balanced Regional Images in Geography Education (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Min; Ryu, Jaemyong


    This article examines possibilities associated with the cultivation of balanced regional images via the use of simple methods. Two experiments based on the primacy effect and the painting picture rule, or visual depiction of regions, were conducted. The results show significant differences in the formation of regional images. More specifically,…

  16. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset. (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A


    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  17. Cultivating Leaders of Indiana


    yaryyeva, Annagul; Sdunzik, Jennifer


    "Cultivating Leaders of Indiana" was developed to establish connections between the Purdue student body and the Frankfort community. By engaging high school students in workshops that focused on local, national, and global identities, the goal of the project was to encourage students to appreciate their individuality and to motivate them to translate their skills into a global perspective.Moreover, workshops centering on themes such as culture, citizenship, media, and education were designed ...

  18. Cultivation, photobioreactor design and harvesting of microalgae for biodiesel production: a critical review. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Aisyah, Rifka; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Microalgae have the ability to mitigate CO(2) emission and produce oil with a high productivity, thereby having the potential for applications in producing the third-generation of biofuels. The key technologies for producing microalgal biofuels include identification of preferable culture conditions for high oil productivity, development of effective and economical microalgae cultivation systems, as well as separation and harvesting of microalgal biomass and oil. This review presents recent advances in microalgal cultivation, photobioreactor design, and harvesting technologies with a focus on microalgal oil (mainly triglycerides) production. The effects of different microalgal metabolisms (i.e., phototrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic growth), cultivation systems (emphasizing the effect of light sources), and biomass harvesting methods (chemical/physical methods) on microalgal biomass and oil production are compared and critically discussed. This review aims to provide useful information to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for microalgae-based biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method. (United States)

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir


    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids.

  20. Deghosting based on the transmission matrix method (United States)

    Wang, Benfeng; Wu, Ru-Shan; Chen, Xiaohong


    As the developments of seismic exploration and subsequent seismic exploitation advance, marine acquisition systems with towed streamers become an important seismic data acquisition method. But the existing air–water reflective interface can generate surface related multiples, including ghosts, which can affect the accuracy and performance of the following seismic data processing algorithms. Thus, we derive a deghosting method from a new perspective, i.e. using the transmission matrix (T-matrix) method instead of inverse scattering series. The T-matrix-based deghosting algorithm includes all scattering effects and is convergent absolutely. Initially, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using synthetic data obtained from a designed layered model, and its noise-resistant property is also illustrated using noisy synthetic data contaminated by random noise. Numerical examples on complicated data from the open SMAART Pluto model and field marine data further demonstrate the validity and flexibility of the proposed method. After deghosting, low frequency components are recovered reasonably and the fake high frequency components are attenuated, and the recovered low frequency components will be useful for the subsequent full waveform inversion. The proposed deghosting method is currently suitable for two-dimensional towed streamer cases with accurate constant depth information and its extension into variable-depth streamers in three-dimensional cases will be studied in the future.

  1. Photosynthesis and Transpiration Rates of Rice Cultivated Under the System of Rice Intensification and the Effects on Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayati


    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI crop management method has been reported by many authors to significantly increase rice yield with lower inputs, but physiological bases of yielding improvement has not been studied. In this research we assessed some physiological parameters and the mechanism of rice yield improvement of rice plants under SRI cultivation method during both vegetative and generative phases compared to conventional rice cultivation methods. We measured photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, leaf temperature, chlorophyll content, N and P uptake, plant growth parameters and yield for those comparison. SRI methods significantly increased both vegetative and reproductive (generative parameters of rice plants compared to conventional cultivation methods. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, N and P uptake under SRI cultivation were significantly higher compared to those of the conventional rice cultivation, but no differences were found in transpiration rate and leaf temperature. With SRI method, plants in their generative phase (especially in the grain-filling phase had the highest photosynthetic and the lowest transpiration rates. Grain yield under SRI method was significantly higher (ca. 24% than that of conventional method.

  2. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation. (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel


    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  3. Cultivation strategies for growth of uncultivated bacteria. (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R


    The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation. Auxotrophic bacteria, with small genomes lacking in the necessary genetic material to encode for essential nutrients, frequently rely on close symbiotic relationships with other bacteria for survival, and may therefore be recalcitrant to cultivation in purity. Since in-vitro culture is essential for the comprehensive characterisation of bacteria, particularly with regard to virulence and antimicrobial resistance, the cultivation of uncultivated organisms has been a primary focus of several research laboratories. Many targeted and open-ended strategies have been devised and successfully used. Examples include: the targeted detection of specific bacteria in mixed plate cultures using colony hybridisation; growth in simulated natural environments or in co-culture with 'helper' strains; and modified media preparation techniques or development of customised media eg. supplementation of media with potential growth-stimulatory factors such as siderophores. Despite significant advances in recent years in methodologies for the cultivation of previously uncultivated bacteria, a substantial proportion remain to be cultured and efforts to devise high-throughput strategies should be a high priority.

  4. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  5. Assessment of the humification degree of peat soil under sago (Metroxylon sagu cultivation based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Sim


    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a tropical crop that can survive the acidic conditions of peat soil, which is cultivated at large scale in Sarawak (Malaysia. The performance of sago palm on deep peat is variable, and not all specimens are able to grow to maturity and produce a trunk. It is hypothesised that sago growth may be influenced by peat humification because a positive relationship between the fertility of peat soil and its degree of humification has been well reported. This article investigates the humification degree of peat soil used for cultivation of sago palms, as indicated by spectroscopic characteristics. The peat soil adjacent to trunking and non-trunking palms was sampled and compared with exposed uncultivated peat. The results showed that, where largely undecomposed woody material predominated in the underlying peat, degree of humification decreased with increasing depth. Uncultivated peat was more highly humified than cultivated peat because the latter was continuously replenished with new plant matter. On the basis of FTIR spectroscopy, no significant difference was found between cultivated peat sampled adjacent to trunking and non-trunking palms. On the other hand, the UV-Vis and FTIR data suggested lower humification degree in the underlying peat which may have led to inconsistent growth.

  6. Rice Cultivation Methods and Their Sustainability Aspects: Organic and Conventional Rice Production in Industrialized Tropical Monsoon Asia with a Dual Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Lin


    Full Text Available Options to tackle the sustainability challenges faced in the production of rice, including global and local environmental perspectives, need to be discussed. Here, the global warming potential, water consumption and cumulative energy demand were analyzed using a life-cycle assessment to highlight the sustainability aspects of rice production in Taiwan, where a mixed organic and conventional rice production with a dual cropping system is practiced. The results show that the conventional farming method practiced in Houbi district contributes less to global warming and annual water consumption and consumes less energy than the organic method practiced in Luoshan village on a grain weight basis. It is also more lucrative for farmers because of the higher rice yield. Considering the yield ratio based on the data from two districts, the regional characteristics are more responsible for these differences. Giving up dual cropping to avail water to other sectors by fallowing during the second cropping season is preferable from the GHG emission and productivity perspectives. However, because water shortages usually occur in the first cropping season, it is more realistic to fallow during the first cropping season when domestic and other industrial users have the higher priority. The results presented here can serve as the foundation for exploring the possibilities of options, such as new biorefinery technologies and water allocation policies, in relation to influences on GHG emissions and the national self-sufficiency of rice.

  7. High-throughput micro-scale cultivations and chromatography modeling: Powerful tools for integrated process development. (United States)

    Baumann, Pascal; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen


    Upstream processes are rather complex to design and the productivity of cells under suitable cultivation conditions is hard to predict. The method of choice for examining the design space is to execute high-throughput cultivation screenings in micro-scale format. Various predictive in silico models have been developed for many downstream processes, leading to a reduction of time and material costs. This paper presents a combined optimization approach based on high-throughput micro-scale cultivation experiments and chromatography modeling. The overall optimized system must not necessarily be the one with highest product titers, but the one resulting in an overall superior process performance in up- and downstream. The methodology is presented in a case study for the Cherry-tagged enzyme Glutathione-S-Transferase from Escherichia coli SE1. The Cherry-Tag™ (Delphi Genetics, Belgium) which can be fused to any target protein allows for direct product analytics by simple VIS absorption measurements. High-throughput cultivations were carried out in a 48-well format in a BioLector micro-scale cultivation system (m2p-Labs, Germany). The downstream process optimization for a set of randomly picked upstream conditions producing high yields was performed in silico using a chromatography modeling software developed in-house (ChromX). The suggested in silico-optimized operational modes for product capturing were validated subsequently. The overall best system was chosen based on a combination of excellent up- and downstream performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann


    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  9. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn


    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  10. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.


    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  11. Nontargeted metabolomics approach for the differentiation of cultivation ages of mountain cultivated ginseng leaves using UHPLC/QTOF-MS. (United States)

    Chang, Xiangwei; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Dekun; Zhou, Dazheng; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jincheng; Hu, Bing; Ju, Aichun; Ye, Zhengliang


    The adulteration or falsification of the cultivation age of mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG) has been a serious problem in the commercial MCG market. To develop an efficient discrimination tool for the cultivation age and to explore potential age-dependent markers, an optimized ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied in the global metabolite profiling of 156 MCG leaf (MGL) samples aged from 6 to 18 years. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to compare the derived patterns between MGL samples of different cultivation ages. The present study demonstrated that 6-18-year-old MGL samples can be successfully discriminated using two simple successive steps, together with four PLS-DA discrimination models. Furthermore, 39 robust age-dependent markers enabling differentiation among the 6-18-year-old MGL samples were discovered. The results were validated by a permutation test and an external test set to verify the predictability and reliability of the established discrimination models. More importantly, without destroying the MCG roots, the proposed approach could also be applied to discriminate MCG root ages indirectly, using a minimum amount of homophyletic MGL samples combined with the established four PLS-DA models and identified markers. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which 6-18-year-old MCG root ages have been nondestructively differentiated by analyzing homophyletic MGL samples using UHPLC/QTOF-MS analysis and two simple successive steps together with four PLS-DA models. The method developed in this study can be used as a standard protocol for discriminating and predicting MGL ages directly and homophyletic MCG root ages indirectly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae) (United States)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  13. In Situ Cultivation Allows for Recovery of Bacterial Types Competitive in Their Natural Environment. (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Epstein, Slava S


    Standard cultivation fails to grow most microorganisms, whereas in situ cultivation allows for the isolation of comparatively diverse and novel microorganisms. Information on similarities and differences in the physiological properties of isolates obtained from in situ cultivation and standard cultivation is limited. Therefore, we used the arctic sediment samples and compared two culture collections obtained using standard and novel cultivation techniques. Even though there was no temperature selection at the isolation step, isolates from each method showed different reactions to temperature. The results of the present study suggest that isolates from in situ cultivation are more competitive in their natural environment.

  14. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.


    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  15. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan


    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  16. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.


    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  17. Arts-based Methods and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This thematic volume explores the relationship between the arts and learning in various educational contexts and across cultures, but with a focus on higher education and organizational learning. Arts-based interventions are at the heart of this volume, which addresses how they are conceived, des....... Arts-based Methods and Organisational Learning: Higher Education Around the World will inspire and inform both scholars and practitioners who are dealing with the arts in education and organisations.......This thematic volume explores the relationship between the arts and learning in various educational contexts and across cultures, but with a focus on higher education and organizational learning. Arts-based interventions are at the heart of this volume, which addresses how they are conceived......, designed, carried out, and assessed in different higher educational and cultural contexts. Readers will discover diverse perspectives of the contributing authors from across the world and from a variety of settings: formal education, informal learning for adults and organisational learning. A necessary...

  18. The Cultivated Mind: From Mental Mediation to Cultivation. (United States)

    Josephs, Ingrid E.; Fuhrer, Urs


    Examines Simmel's principle of cultivation whereby the cultivated mind is constructed through ongoing transactions of people with their cultural environment, cultural forms currently overlooked. Cultural forms result from externalizations of former person-culture transactions. Argues that development is structured through person-culture…

  19. Effects of Temperature variations on the Super Fine Powderization of Korean Cultivated Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ho Kim


    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to find optimal conditions for producing red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng using the Turbo Mill. Methods : Characteristics of powdered cultivated wild ginseng based on various temperature settings of the Turbo Mill were observed, and changes in the content was measured by HPLC for various ginsenosides. Results : 1. The diameter of cultivated wild ginseng powder ground by the Turbo Mill was around 10㎛. 2. As the temperature rose, presusre, Specific Mechanical Energy(SME, and density decreased, whileas Water Solubility Index(WSI increased. 3. As the temperature rose, super fine powder showed tendency to turn into dark brown. 4. Measuring content changes by HPLC, there was no detection of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenosideRg1, Rb1, and Rh2 concentrations decreased with increase in temperature. Conclusions : Super fine powder of cultivated wild ginseng produced by the Turbo Mill promotes easy absorption of effective ingredients by breaking the cell walls. Using this mechanism to produce red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng, it yielded less than satisfactory results under the current experiment setup. Furtherresearches are needed to verify more suitable condition for the production of red ginseng.

  20. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) (United States)

    Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R


    Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness. PMID:22557340

  1. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul). (United States)

    Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R


    Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness.

  2. NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolic Profiling and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Cordyceps pruinosa Mycelia Cultivated under Different Media and Light Conditions (United States)

    Oh, Taek-Joo; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seul-Gi; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon


    Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources. PMID:24608751

  3. Starting from grape cultivation. (United States)

    Yoshida, A


    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  4. Graph-based Methods for Orbit Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Kamath, C


    An important step in the quest for low-cost fusion power is the ability to perform and analyze experiments in prototype fusion reactors. One of the tasks in the analysis of experimental data is the classification of orbits in Poincare plots. These plots are generated by the particles in a fusion reactor as they move within the toroidal device. In this paper, we describe the use of graph-based methods to extract features from orbits. These features are then used to classify the orbits into several categories. Our results show that existing machine learning algorithms are successful in classifying orbits with few points, a situation which can arise in data from experiments.

  5. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.


    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  6. Yield Estimation of Sugar Beet Based on Plant Canopy Using Machine Vision Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Latifaltojar


    Full Text Available Crop yield estimation is one of the most important parameters for information and resources management in precision agriculture. This information is employed for optimizing the field inputs for successive cultivations. In the present study, the feasibility of sugar beet yield estimation by means of machine vision was studied. For the field experiments stripped images were taken during the growth season with one month intervals. The image of horizontal view of plants canopy was prepared at the end of each month. At the end of growth season, beet roots were harvested and the correlation between the sugar beet canopy in each month of growth period and corresponding weight of the roots were investigated. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the beet yield and green surface area of autumn cultivated sugar beets. The highest coefficient of determination was 0.85 at three months before harvest. In order to assess the accuracy of the final model, the second year of study was performed with the same methodology. The results depicted a strong relationship between the actual and estimated beet weights with R2=0.94. The model estimated beet yield with about 9 percent relative error. It is concluded that this method has appropriate potential for estimation of sugar beet yield based on band imaging prior to harvest

  7. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  8. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.


    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  9. Aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of the microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus. (United States)

    Ji, Chunli; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong


    Biofilm cultivation of microalgae may be useful for biofuel production. However, many aspects for this cultivation method have not been well assessed. Accordingly, aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus has been explored. Biomass, lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity in increased S. dimorphus as the CO2 concentration increased within 0.038-0.5% and kept constant with further increases. The biomass, lipid and TAG productivity increased with the speed increasing and an obvious threshold point was observed at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1). The lipid and TAG content was unaffected by the aeration rate. Both the CO2 concentration as well as aeration speed affected the growth of S. dimorphus in biofilm cultivation. The optimized aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation was continuous air flow enriched with 1% CO2 (v/v) at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1).

  10. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva


    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  11. Filter-based reconstruction methods for tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, D.M.


    In X-ray tomography, a three-dimensional image of the interior of an object is computed from multiple X-ray images, acquired over a range of angles. Two types of methods are commonly used to compute such an image: analytical methods and iterative methods. Analytical methods are computationally

  12. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research. (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F


    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  13. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang


    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  14. A performance -based method for granular based method for granular -paste mix design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornahad, H.; Koenders, E.A.B.


    In this paper a performance-based method for the design of granular-paste mixtures will be proposed. Focus will be on the selection and proportioning of constituents to produce a mixture with a pre-defined shape holding ability. Shape holding ability of mixtures will be characterized by the shape

  15. Cultivated Sub-Populations of Soil Microbiomes Retain Early Flowering Plant Trait. (United States)

    Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Lee, Stacey; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny


    The collection of microorganisms found in the root zone of soil, termed the rhizosphere microbiome, has been shown to impact plant growth and development. Here, we tease apart the function of the cultivable portion of the microbiome from the whole microbiome in retaining plant traits modified through artificial selection on flowering time. Specifically, the whole microbiome associated with earlier flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was cultivated on four types of solid media to create cultivated fractions of the microbiome. These cultivated microbiomes were subsequently preserved in glycerol, frozen, and revived to yield a portion of the cultivable fraction to compare (1) whole microbiome, (2) cultivable microbiome, and (3) revived, cultivable microbiome controls on early flowering time. Plants grown in soils inoculated with bacteria grown on 25 % Luria broth and 10 % tryptic soy agar retained the early flowering trait. An increase in leaf biomass with two of the cultivated microbiomes (49.4 and 38.5 %) contrasted the lowered biomass effect of the whole microbiome. Inoculation with the cultivated microbiomes that were cryopreserved in glycerol showed no effect on flowering time or leaf biomass. The results indicate that the cultivable portion of a plant's microbiome retains the early flowering effect in A. thaliana, but cryopreservation of the cultivated microbiomes disrupts the microbial effects on flowering time. Furthermore, the contrasting effects on leaf biomass (an indirect response from selection on early flowering time), seen with the whole microbiome versus the cultivable portion, suggests versatility in using cultivation methods to modify multiple traits of plants.

  16. Literature Based Discovery: Models, methods, and trends. (United States)

    Henry, Sam; McInnes, Bridget T


    This paper provides an introduction and overview of literature based discovery (LBD) in the biomedical domain. It introduces the reader to modern and historical LBD models, key system components, evaluation methodologies, and current trends. After completion, the reader will be familiar with the challenges and methodologies of LBD. The reader will be capable of distinguishing between recent LBD systems and publications, and be capable of designing an LBD system for a specific application. From biomedical researchers curious about LBD, to someone looking to design an LBD system, to an LBD expert trying to catch up on trends in the field. The reader need not be familiar with LBD, but knowledge of biomedical text processing tools is helpful. This paper describes a unifying framework for LBD systems. Within this framework, different models and methods are presented to both distinguish and show overlap between systems. Topics include term and document representation, system components, and an overview of models including co-occurrence models, semantic models, and distributional models. Other topics include uninformative term filtering, term ranking, results display, system evaluation, an overview of the application areas of drug development, drug repurposing, and adverse drug event prediction, and challenges and future directions. A timeline showing contributions to LBD, and a table summarizing the works of several authors is provided. Topics are presented from a high level perspective. References are given if more detailed analysis is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An inpainting-based deinterlacing method. (United States)

    Ballester, Coloma; Bertalmío, Marcelo; Caselles, Vicent; Garrido, Luis; Marques, Adrián; Ranchin, Florent


    Video is usually acquired in interlaced format, where each image frame is composed of two image fields, each field holding same parity lines. However, many display devices require progressive video as input; also, many video processing tasks perform better on progressive material than on interlaced video. In the literature, there exist a great number of algorithms for interlaced to progressive video conversion, with a great tradeoff between the speed and quality of the results. The best algorithms in terms of image quality require motion compensation; hence, they are computationally very intensive. In this paper, we propose a novel deinterlacing algorithm based on ideas from the image inpainting arena. We view the lines to interpolate as gaps that we need to inpaint. Numerically, this is implemented using a dynamic programming procedure, which ensures a complexity of O(S), where S is the number of pixels in the image. The results obtained with our algorithm compare favorably, in terms of image quality, with state-of-the-art methods, but at a lower computational cost, since we do not need to perform motion field estimation.

  18. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting (United States)

    Ashby, Matthew [Mill Valley, CA


    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  19. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  20. Gamma camera based method for 131I capsule counting: an alternate method to Uptake probe method. (United States)

    Menon, Biju K; Uday, Awasare S; Singh, Baghel N


    The main objective of this study was to check the validity of using gamma camera as an alternate method to thyroid uptake probe, for counting 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules before administration to thyroid patients. Methods: - 10 sets each of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules received from Board Of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Department Of Atomic Energy, India (BRIT, DAE) have been counted individually using thyroid uptake probe for 10 seconds following institutional protocol and also by keeping individual capsule of a set with 8cm gap between each of them .These capsules were also scanned by Scintillation gamma camera for 100 seconds. Capsules having counts within the range of mean ±2 Standard Deviation (SD) were accepted for patient administration. After analysing both the data, correlation coefficient between these two methods has been evaluated. Results: Scanned images were analysed by drawing Identical ROI around each set of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules. Capsules with counts within 2 Standard Deviation from mean were accepted for patient administration. Good correlation coefficient (r >0.95) was observed between these two counts set. Conclusion: Gamma camera based 131I -capsule counting method is an easy and time saving method compared to probe based capsule counting method as we can scan a set of capsules in a single acquisition. It can provide uniformity information for a batch of 131I -capsules and avoid the time consuming method of individual capsule counting with the thyroid uptake probe. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Application of Fe(NO3)3-based as nitrogen source and coagulant for cultivation and harvesting of Chlorella sorokiniana. (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ah; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Seo, Yeong Hwan; Han, Jong-In


    In this study, Chlorella sorokiniana was successfully cultivated in the recycled medium whose nitrogen was supplied directly from the coagulant, Fe(NO3)3. With a dosage of 0.80g/L, harvesting efficiency of 95% could be achieved. What is more, this amount of nitrate in the coagulant was enough to fully support the growth of C. sorokiniana during the 8day cultivation period, almost as much as the initial nitrogen content in the BG11 culture medium. Other nutrients had to be supplemented, however, with at least 50% amount as in the BG11 recipe. C. sorokiniana culture grown in recycled medium replenished with 50% of nutrients showed much higher Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) productivity than the control, with 88.3mg/L/day. The recycle of the medium is certainly a way of reducing the water footprint for the purpose of microalgae-derived biodiesel production; better still, it may serve to lower the nutrient footprint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.

  3. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil. (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R


    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology


    Majidnezhad, Vahid


    Introduction: In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). Methods: In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov ...

  5. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI


    plot, no soil erosion, slow decline of soil fertility, availability of minerals, and resulting in high yield per unit area, which have collectively attained the highly productive cereal cultivation in the warm and humid region. Rice cultivation in marsh is also favorable to raise fish culture, both of which constituted a nutritionally balanced base. Development of irrigation technology to construct flooded farms gave strong bases for stable rice-cultivating society, which in the end formulated the rise of ancient kingdoms of Yue and Wu in China in BC 6th -5th centuries. They were direct descendents of those people who had developed the unique rice cultivation from the era of Hemudu culture, which is dated back to 5 000 BC. Their movement to the south is considered to have established rice-cultivating communities in South China and Southeast Asia, while to the north it transferred the rice-based technology to ancient Korea and Japan and had established there a base for a civilized society.

  6. Assessing the harms of cannabis cultivation in Belgium. (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Decorte, Tom; Kersten, Loes


    Since the 1990s, a shift from the importation of foreign cannabis to domestic cultivation has taken place in Belgium, as it has in many other countries. This shift has prompted Belgian policy-making bodies to prioritize the repression of cannabis cultivation. Against this background, the article aims to systematically map and assess for the first time ever the harms associated with cannabis cultivation, covering the whole spectrum of growers. This study is based on a web survey primarily targeting small-scale growers (N=1293) and on three interconnected sets of qualitative data on large-scale growers and traffickers (34 closed criminal proceedings, interviews with 32 criminal justice experts, and with 17 large-scale cannabis growers and three traffickers). The study relied on Greenfield and Paoli's (2013) harm assessment framework to identify the harms associated with cannabis cultivation and to assess the incidence, severity and causes of such harms. Cannabis cultivation has become endemic in Belgium. Despite that, it generates, for Belgium, limited harms of medium-low or medium priority. Large-scale growers tend to produce more harms than the small-scale ones. Virtually all the harms associated with cannabis cultivation are the result of the current criminalizing policies. Given the spread of cannabis cultivation and Belgium's position in Europe, reducing the supply of cannabis does not appear to be a realistic policy objective. Given the limited harms generated, there is scarce scientific justification to prioritize cannabis cultivation in Belgian law enforcement strategies. As most harms are generated by large-scale growers, it is this category of cultivator, if any, which should be the focus of law enforcement repression. Given the policy origin of most harms, policy-makers should seek to develop policies likely to reduce such harms. At the same time, further research is needed to comparatively assess the harms associated with cannabis cultivation (and

  7. A reference integrated map for cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) from three crosses, based on 283 SSR and 501 SNP-based markers. (United States)

    Vezzulli, Silvia; Troggio, Michela; Coppola, Giuseppina; Jermakow, Angelica; Cartwright, Dustin; Zharkikh, Andrey; Stefanini, Marco; Grando, M Stella; Viola, Roberto; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark; This, Patrice; Velasco, Riccardo


    We have developed an integrated map from five elite cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.; Syrah, Pinot Noir, Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling which are parents of three segregating populations. A new source of markers, SNPs, identified in ESTs and unique BAC-end sequences was added to the available IGGP reference set of SSRs. The complete integrated map comprises 1,134 markers (350 AFLP, 332 BESs, 169 ESTs, 283 SSRs) spanning 1,443 cM over 19 linkage groups and shows a mean distance between neighbouring loci of 1.27 cM. Marker order was mainly conserved between the integrated map and the highly dense SyrahxPinot Noir consensus map except for few inversions. Moreover, the marker order has been validated through the assembled genome sequence of Pinot Noir. We have also assessed the transferability of SNP-based markers among five V. vinifera varieties, enabling marker validation across different genotypes. This integrated map can serve as a fundamental tool for molecular breeding in V. vinifera and related species and provide a basis for studies of genome organization and evolution in grapevines.



    Candráková, Eva; Richard POSPIŠIL; ONDREJČÍKOVÁ, Zora


    The experiment with the crop rotation: winter wheat, pea, corn, spring barley and cow-grass were founded in 2001- 2004. We examined the effect of the preceding crop, the soil cultivation and fertilization on yield of grain of the main product. The methods of soil cultivation: tillage to the depth of 0.25 m, to the depth of 0.15 m and cultivation where we used disk tools to the depth of 0.10 m. In the variants of fertilization had been used fertilization of the artificial fertilizer with the b...

  9. Math-Based Simulation Tools and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arepally, Sudhakar


    ...: HMMWV 30-mph Rollover Test, Soldier Gear Effects, Occupant Performance in Blast Effects, Anthropomorphic Test Device, Human Models, Rigid Body Modeling, Finite Element Methods, Injury Criteria...

  10. Is GM Soybean Cultivation in Argentina Sustainable?


    Choumert, Johanna; PHELINAS, Pascale


    This paper explores the long term sustainability of Argentina’s specialization in genetically modified soybean cultivation. It is conceived as an evidence-based assessment of the most relevant economic, social, and environmental, implications of the “soybeanization” of Argentinian agriculture. We combine 2 sources of primary and secondary quantitative data: the National Agricultural Census, and farm level data from a field survey carried out in 2 provinces of the Argentinian Pampas. Our resul...

  11. Pilot scale land-based cultivation of Saccharina latissima Linnaeus at southern European climate conditions: Growth and nutrient uptake at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Isabel C.; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Silva, Diogo M.


    , for assessment of S. latissima growth at warmer temperatures. Average weekly yield ranged between 44.7 and 146.3 (average 110) g DW m− 2 from April to mid-May; from mid-May to mid-July a high variability was observed, when some negative values indicating biomass loss were obtained and from mid-July onwards....... This fact may be explained by their origin in populations located near the southern distribution boundary, which may have acquired adaptations that increased tolerance to high temperatures. Cultivation of S. latissima using tumble culture in outdoor tanks at southern latitudes appears to be feasible even...... during high temperature periods. Densities around 8 kg m− 3 were effective in keeping epiphytes development low. This system may be used for seaweed monoculture or as a biofilter component of IMTA systems....

  12. Enzyme controlled glucose auto-delivery for high cell density cultivations in microplates and shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleijn Marco G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a novel cultivation method, called EnBase™, or enzyme-based-substrate-delivery, for the growth of microorganisms in millilitre and sub-millilitre scale which yields 5 to 20 times higher cell densities compared to standard methods. The novel method can be directly applied in microwell plates and shake flasks without any requirements for additional sensors or liquid supply systems. EnBase is therefore readily applicable for many high throughput applications, such as DNA production for genome sequencing, optimisation of protein expression, production of proteins for structural genomics, bioprocess development, and screening of enzyme and metagenomic libraries. Results High cell densities with EnBase are obtained by applying the concept of glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation which is commonly used in industrial processes. The major difference of the novel method is that no external glucose feed is required, but glucose is released into the growth medium by enzymatic degradation of starch. To cope with the high levels of starch necessary for high cell density cultivation, starch is supplied to the growing culture suspension by continuous diffusion from a storage gel. Our results show that the controlled enzyme-based supply of glucose allows a glucose-limited growth to high cell densities of OD600 = 20 to 30 (corresponding to 6 to 9 g l-1 cell dry weight without the external feed of additional compounds in shake flasks and 96-well plates. The final cell density can be further increased by addition of extra nitrogen during the cultivation. Production of a heterologous triosphosphate isomerase in E. coli BL21(DE3 resulted in 10 times higher volumetric product yield and a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble product when compared to the conventional production method. Conclusion The novel EnBase method is robust and simple-to-apply for high cell density cultivation in shake flasks and microwell plates. The

  13. The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Citraresmini


    Full Text Available A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm. The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining the relation between P-uptake and plant growth

  14. Spectrophotometric methods based on charge transfer complexation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed methods were applied successfully for simultaneous determination of the cited drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision and without interferences from common additives. KEY WORDS: Fluconazole, Sertaconazole nitrate, Miconazole nitrate, Charge transfer complexes, ...

  15. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana


    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  16. Quantification and identification of particle-associated bacteria in unchlorinated drinking water from three treatment plants by cultivation-independent methods. (United States)

    Liu, G; Ling, F Q; Magic-Knezev, A; Liu, W T; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C


    Water quality regulations commonly place quantitative limits on the number of organisms (e.g., heterotrophic plate count and coliforms) without considering the presence of multiple cells per particle, which is only counted as one regardless how many cells attached. Therefore, it is important to quantify particle-associated bacteria (PAB), especially cells per particle. In addition, PAB may house (opportunistic) pathogens and have higher resistance to disinfection than planktonic bacteria. It is essential to know bacterial distribution on particles. However, limited information is available on quantification and identification of PAB in drinking water. In the present study, PAB were sampled from the unchlorinated drinking water at three treatment plants in the Netherlands, each with different particle compositions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total cell counts (TCC) with flow cytometry were used to quantify the PAB, and high-throughput pyrosequencing was used to identify them. The number and activity of PAB ranged from 1.0 to 3.5 × 10(3) cells ml(-1) and 0.04-0.154 ng l(-1) ATP. There were between 25 and 50 cells found to be attached on a single particle. ATP per cell in PAB was higher than in planktonic bacteria. Among the identified sequences, Proteobacteria were found to be the most dominant phylum at all locations, followed by OP3 candidate division and Nitrospirae. Sequences related to anoxic bacteria from the OP3 candidate division and other anaerobic bacteria were detected. Genera of bacteria were found appear to be consistent with the major element composition of the associated particles. The presence of multiple cells per particle challenges the use of quantitative methods such as HPC and Coliforms that are used in the current drinking water quality regulations. The detection of anoxic and anaerobic bacteria suggests the ecological importance of PAB in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. portfolio optimization based on nonparametric estimation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa ghandehari


    Full Text Available One of the major issues investors are facing with in capital markets is decision making about select an appropriate stock exchange for investing and selecting an optimal portfolio. This process is done through the risk and expected return assessment. On the other hand in portfolio selection problem if the assets expected returns are normally distributed, variance and standard deviation are used as a risk measure. But, the expected returns on assets are not necessarily normal and sometimes have dramatic differences from normal distribution. This paper with the introduction of conditional value at risk ( CVaR, as a measure of risk in a nonparametric framework, for a given expected return, offers the optimal portfolio and this method is compared with the linear programming method. The data used in this study consists of monthly returns of 15 companies selected from the top 50 companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during the winter of 1392 which is considered from April of 1388 to June of 1393. The results of this study show the superiority of nonparametric method over the linear programming method and the nonparametric method is much faster than the linear programming method.

  18. Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills


    Stralczynská, Anna


    Work name: Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills. Aim of work: Defining a set of basic self rescue swimming skills, motivation survey of women aged 18-60 years to cultivate these skills. Detection of awareness of theimportance of swimming skills of the interviewed women. Method: Literature search, questionnaire design, survey implementation, analysis and evaluation of data, graphical presentation of results. Results: The interviewed women realize the importance an...

  19. Long-term in vitro cultivation of Borrelia miyamotoi. (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Stockmeier, Sylvia; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Hepner, Sabrina; Fish, Durland; Dautel, Hans; Sing, Andreas; Dzaferovic, Eldina; Rieger, Melissa; Jungnick, Sabrina; Binder, Katrin; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker


    Borrelia are fastidious bacteria some of which are difficult to grow in vitro. Here, we report a method for successful continuous in vitro cultivation of the emerging pathogen Borrelia miyamotoi. The type and quantity of serum as well as the atmosphere were critical for successful in vitro cultivation. Optimal growth was achieved using 50% pooled human serum and an atmosphere of 6% CO2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory-Based Investigation of Denture Sonication Method in Patients with Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis. (United States)

    Perić, Mirjana; Radunović, Milena; Pekmezović, Marina; Marinković, Jelena; Živković, Rade; Arsić Arsenijević, Valentina


    Denture stomatitis (DS) is a disease characterized by inflammation and erythema of the oral mucosa areas covered by the denture. Multifactorial etiological factors contribute to DS, but it seems that Candida plays the key role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the denture sonication method to: (i) increase the possibility of diagnosing patients with Candida-associated DS; (ii) detect and identify the mixed Candida spp., and (iii) determine the Candida colony forming units (CFU) and its possible relationship with DS severity, based on Newton's classification. The cross-sectional study conducted at the Clinic for Dental Prosthetics, Belgrade (Serbia) from June 2013 to December 2014 enrolled edentulous patients with dentures (n = 250). Patients without DS (n = 20) were the control group (CG). The patients' data were collected, and patients with DS (study group/SG) were selected and divided into SG Candida+ and SG Candida-. Based on severity of DS, the SG patients were classified in 3 groups (Newton's classification). Four sampling methods were applied to detect patients with Candida-associated DS: mucosa swab, denture swab, oral rinse, and denture sonication method. The sensitivity and specificity of denture sonication method were shown using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC). In 97 (38.8%), out of 250 clinically examined patients, DS was diagnosed. In 82 (84.5%), out of 97 mycologically examined patients, Candida-associated DS was detected when denture sonication method was applied. Additionally, using the denture sonication method we observed: (i) the largest number of Candida positive patients compared to other sampling methods (p method is easy, accurate, and sensitive, and increases the possibility of diagnosing patients with Candida-associated DS. Additionally, yeast quantification, mixed Candida spp., and non-albicans Candida were detectable when cultivation on Candida CHROMagar was performed. It was not

  1. Development and application of a quantitative method based on LC-QqQ MS/MS for determination of steviol glycosides in Stevia leaves. (United States)

    Molina-Calle, M; Sánchez de Medina, V; Delgado de la Torre, M P; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D


    Stevia is a currently well-known plant thanks to the presence of steviol glycosides, which are considered as sweeteners obtained from a natural source. In this research, a method based on LC-MS/MS by using a triple quadrupole detector was developed for quantitation of 8 steviol glycosides in extracts from Stevia leaves. The ionization and fragmentation parameters for selected reaction monitoring were optimized. Detection and quantitation limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.5ng/mL and from 0.5 to 1ng/mL, respectively, were achieved: the lowest attained so far. The steviol glycosides were quantified in extracts from leaves of seven varieties of Stevia cultivated in laboratory, greenhouse and field. Plants cultivated in field presented higher concentration of steviol glycosides than those cultivated in greenhouse. Thus, the way of cultivation clearly influences the concentration of these compounds. The inclusion of branches together with leaves as raw material was also evaluated, showing that this inclusion modifies, either positively or negatively, the concentration of steviol glycosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Topology-Based Methods in Visualization 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Garth, Christoph; Weinkauf, Tino


    This book presents contributions on topics ranging from novel applications of topological analysis for particular problems, through studies of the effectiveness of modern topological methods, algorithmic improvements on existing methods, and parallel computation of topological structures, all the way to mathematical topologies not previously applied to data analysis. Topological methods are broadly recognized as valuable tools for analyzing the ever-increasing flood of data generated by simulation or acquisition. This is particularly the case in scientific visualization, where the data sets have long since surpassed the ability of the human mind to absorb every single byte of data. The biannual TopoInVis workshop has supported researchers in this area for a decade, and continues to serve as a vital forum for the presentation and discussion of novel results in applications in the area, creating a platform to disseminate knowledge about such implementations throughout and beyond the community. The present volum...

  3. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš


    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  4. HMM-Based Gene Annotation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussler, David; Hughey, Richard; Karplus, Keven


    Development of new statistical methods and computational tools to identify genes in human genomic DNA, and to provide clues to their functions by identifying features such as transcription factor binding sites, tissue, specific expression and splicing patterns, and remove homologies at the protein level with genes of known function.

  5. Message clusterization method based on archive transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Олександрович Сірий


    Full Text Available This article represents the method of the text’s parameters identification and their classification with the help of archiving. Using the direct bond between the archiving with LZ77 and Huffman algorithm and entropy, the text’s characteristics are identified, and they help to define its language, style, authorship, and cluster data files by their topic relevance

  6. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin


    The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution, as it req......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution......, as it requests memory transfers at well-defined instructions only. In this article, we present a new cache analysis framework that generalizes and improves work on cache persistence analysis. The analysis demonstrates that a global view on the cache behavior permits the precise analyses of caches which are hard...

  7. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise


    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  8. Refractive index measurement based on confocal method (United States)

    An, Zhe; Xu, XiPing; Yang, JinHua; Qiao, Yang; Liu, Yang


    The development of transparent materials is closed to optoelectronic technology. It plays an increasingly important role in various fields. It is not only widely used in optical lens, optical element, optical fiber grating, optoelectronics, but also widely used in the building material, pharmaceutical industry with vessel, aircraft windshield and daily wear glasses.Regard of solving the problem of refractive index measurement in optical transparent materials. We proposed that using the polychromatic confocal method to measuring the refractive index of transparent materials. In this article, we describes the principle of polychromatic confocal method for measuring the refractive index of glass,and sketched the optical system and its optimization. Then we establish the measurement model of the refractive index, and set up the experimental system. In this way, the refractive index of the glass has been calibrated for refractive index experiment. Due to the error in the experimental process, we manipulated the experiment data to compensate the refractive index measurement formula. The experiment taking the quartz glass for instance. The measurement accuracy of the refractive index of the glass is +/-1.8×10-5. This method is more practical and accurate, especially suitable for non-contact measurement occasions, which environmental requirements is not high. Environmental requirements are not high, the ordinary glass production line up to the ambient temperature can be fully adapted. There is no need for the color of the measured object that you can measure the white and a variety of colored glass.

  9. Inculcation Method of Character Education Based on Personality Types Classification in Realizing Indonesia Golden Generation (United States)

    Sunarto, M. J. Dewiyani; Sagirani, Tri


    "The rise of Indonesia Golden Generation" is the theme of National Education Day in 2012. In an effort to create a golden generation; education must be interpreted as a complex problem, in particular the cultivation of character education that was originally using indoctrination method. Given the shifting of the changing times,…

  10. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation. (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M


    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  11. A study on Heavy Metal Contents in Cultivated Wild Ginseng from Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objectives : Heavy metal contents in cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China were evaluated for the safety purpose. Methods : Arsenic(As, cadmium(Cd, lead(Pb, mercury(Hg, copper(Cu, chromium(Cr, and selenium(Se from the root, stem, and leaves of the Korean cultivated wild ginseng and the root of the Chinese cultivated wild ginseng were analyzed for the existence of heavy metal contents. Results : Most of heavy metals weren't detected in all the samples. Copper and lead were found in very minute volume and didn't reach the toxic concentration level of 10mg/kg. Samples used in the test were grown in non-contaminated areas, free from heavy metal contamination. Conclusions : Based on above results, cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China are relatively safe from the heavy metal exposure. But for more rigorous quality control, an epidemiological survey using the samples from more diverse areas should be conducted.

  12. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.


    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  13. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song


    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms cultivated on agricultural waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kérley Braga Pereira Bento Casaril


    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms were evaluated in four isolates of Lentinula edodes. Mushrooms were cultivated on artificial logs, based on eucalyptus sawdust enriched with 20% rice, wheat, or soybean bran, or combination of 10% of two of these supplements. The substrates were humidified with a 0.1% mate tea extract or water. Logs of Eucalyptus grandis were also used to cultivate the shiitake mushrooms. The antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract, corresponding to 40 mg of mushroom dry matter, was in some cases, depending on the isolate, able to inhibit both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12, independent of substrate composition or the growth stage of the mushrooms. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations varied according to the substrate on which the mushrooms were cultivated, being, generally, higher with cultivation on artificial rather than natural eucalyptus logs. It could be concluded that, in addition to the fungal isolate, substrate composition and, processing methods must be considered during the production of antimicrobial substance(s as well as in the mushroom nutritional composition.

  15. Vibration Based Methods For Damage Detection In Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoach E.


    Full Text Available Vibration based damage detection methods are among the most popular and promising approaches for health monitoring of structures. In this work a critical review of different methods for damage detection methods of structures is presented. The theoretical bases of the most popular methods based on the changes in the modal properties of the structures are deduced. The review includes the modal displacements, the mode shape slopes, the modal curvatures and the strain energy methods. The efficiency of all these methods is compared by using a finite element analysis of intact and damaged beams. The methods are tested experimentally by using a scanning laser vibrometer to measure the modal properties of specially prepared composite beams with defects. All this methods are compared with the damage detection method based on the analysis of the Poincaré maps of the motion of the structures. Conclusions concerning the advantages and the applicability of the considered methods are deduced.

  16. Statistical experimental methods for optimizing the cultivating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Burman design, central composite design, response surface methodology. INTRODUCTION. Aflatoxins (AFs) are a family of toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of the common molds Aspergillus flavus and ...

  17. Statistical experimental methods for optimizing the cultivating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central composite experimental design and response surface analysis were adopted to derive a statistical model for optimizing the culture conditions. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the optimum parameters were: temperature, 15.3°C; pH, 5.56; inoculum size, 4%; liquid volume, 70 ml in 250 ml flask; ...

  18. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities (United States)

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.


    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  19. Genotypic diversity among rhizospheric bacteria of three legumes assessed by cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques. (United States)

    Pongsilp, Neelawan; Nimnoi, Pongrawee; Lumyong, Saisamorn


    The genotypic diversity of rhizospheric bacteria of 3 legumes including Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea and Acacia mangium was compared by using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. For cultivation-dependent method, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic diversity of V. radiata and A. mangium rhizospheres was higher than that of A. hypogaea rhizosphere. For cultivation-independent method, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed the difference in bacterial community and diversity of rhizospheres collected from 3 legumes. The ribotype richness which indicates species diversity, was highest in V. radiata rhizosphere, followed by A. hypogaea and A. mangium rhizospheres, respectively. Three kinds of media were used to cultivate different target groups of bacteria. The result indicates that the communities of cultivable bacteria in 3 rhizospheres recovered from nutrient agar (NA) medium were mostly different from each other, while Bradyrhizobium selective medium (BJSM) and nitrogen-free medium shaped the communities of cultivable bacteria. Nine isolates grown on BJSM were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These isolates were very closely related (with 96% to 99% identities) to either one of the three groups including Cupriavidus-Ralstonia group, Bacillus group and Bradyrhizobium-Bosea-Afipia group. The rhizospheres were also examined for their enzymatic patterns. Of 19 enzymes tested, 3 rhizospheres were distinguishable by the presence or the absence of leucine acrylamidase and acid phosphatase. The selected cultivable bacteria recovered from NA varied in their abilities to produce indole-acetic acid and ammnonia. The resistance to 10 antibiotics was indistinguishable among bacteria isolated from different rhizospheres.

  20. Beam Parameters Measurement Based On Tv Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenkov, E; Milichenko, Yu; Voevodin, V


    The paper describes hardware and software used to control TV-cameras and to process TV-images of luminescent screens placed along the beam transfer lines. Industrial devices manually control the movements and focusing of the cameras. All devices are linked to PC via PCI interfaces with homemade drivers for Linux OS and provide both selection of camera and digitizing of video signal synchronized with beam. One part of software provides means to set initial parameters using PC consol. Thus an operator can choose contrast, brightness, some number of significant points on TV-image to calculate beam position and its size. Second part supports remote TV controls and data processing from Control Rooms of U-70 complex using set initial parameters. First experience and results of the method realization are discussed.

  1. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HS


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(hereafter HPLC. And the same analyses were conducted in the process of red ginseng. Results: 1. For content comparison of ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Rd, Rf, Rg1 and Rh1, wild ginseng showed high content, followed cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 2. For content comparison of ginsenoside Rb2 and Re, cultivated ginseng 4 years showed high content, followed wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 3. For content comparison of ginsenoside Rg3, wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were only showed low content. 4. For content comparison of ginsenoside Rh2, cultivated wild ginseng was only showed low content. 5. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3 and Rh1 were increased, and ginsenoside Re and Rg1 were decreased in cultivated wild ginseng. 6. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh1 were increased, and ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, and Re were decreased in cultivated ginseng 4 years. 7. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rf and Rh1 were increased, and ginsenoside Rc and Rd were decreased in cultivated ginseng 6 years. Conclusions: Distribution of ginsenoside contents to the cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng was similar and was not showed special characteristics between samples. And the change of ginsenoside to the process of red ginseng, cultivated

  2. Triptycene-based dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader


    A triptycene-based monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based monomer, a triptycene-based aromatic polyimide, a method of making a triptycene- based aromatic polyimide, methods of using triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, structures incorporating triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, and methods of gas separation are provided. Embodiments of the triptycene-based monomers and triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have high permeabilities and excellent selectivities. Embodiments of the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have one or more of the following characteristics: intrinsic microporosity, good thermal stability, and enhanced solubility. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides are microporous and have a high BET surface area. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides can be used to form a gas separation membrane.

  3. Controlling docks by stubble cultivation


    Dierauer, Hansueli; Siegrist, Franziska; Weidmann, Gilles


    The stubble cultivation cuts the dock roots below growth points. The vegetative plant parts are then cut off from the water and nutrient supply, and regrowth is inhibited. Practical recommendation • Summer dock treatment is especially worthwhile in dry summers with catch crop cultivation and after early maturing crops (winter barley, whole-crop silage) or with an early tillage of grass-clover. • After grass-clover lay or cereal harvest, undercut the dock plants at a depth of 12-15 cm...

  4. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado


    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  5. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.


    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  6. PCLC flake-based apparatus and method (United States)

    Cox, Gerald P; Fromen, Cathy A; Marshall, Kenneth L; Jacobs, Stephen D


    A PCLC flake/fluid host suspension that enables dual-frequency, reverse drive reorientation and relaxation of the PCLC flakes is composed of a fluid host that is a mixture of: 94 to 99.5 wt % of a non-aqueous fluid medium having a dielectric constant value .di-elect cons., where 1sigma., where 10.sup.-9>.sigma.>10.sup.-7 Siemens per meter (S/m), and a resistivity r, where 10.sup.7>r>10.sup.10 ohm-meters (.OMEGA.-m), and which is optically transparent in a selected wavelength range .DELTA..lamda.; 0.0025 to 0.25 wt % of an inorganic chloride salt; 0.0475 to 4.75 wt % water; and 0.25 to 2 wt % of an anionic surfactant; and 1 to 5 wt % of PCLC flakes suspended in the fluid host mixture. Various encapsulation forms and methods are disclosed including a Basic test cell, a Microwell, a Microcube, Direct encapsulation (I), Direct encapsulation (II), and Coacervation encapsulation. Applications to display devices are disclosed.

  7. Algebraic Verification Method for SEREs Properties via Groebner Bases Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou


    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient solution using computer algebra system to perform linear temporal properties verification for synchronous digital systems. The method is essentially based on both Groebner bases approaches and symbolic simulation. A mechanism for constructing canonical polynomial set based symbolic representations for both circuit descriptions and assertions is studied. We then present a complete checking algorithm framework based on these algebraic representations by using Groebner bases. The computational experience result in this work shows that the algebraic approach is a quite competitive checking method and will be a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  8. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven


    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods...

  9. Automated measurement and quantification of heterotrophic bacteria in water samples based on the MPN method. (United States)

    Fuchsluger, C; Preims, M; Fritz, I


    Quantification of heterotrophic bacteria is a widely used measure for water analysis. Especially in terms of drinking water analysis, testing for microorganisms is strictly regulated by the European Drinking Water Directive, including quality criteria and detection limits. The quantification procedure presented in this study is based on the most probable number (MPN) method, which was adapted to comply with the need for a quick and easy screening tool for different kinds of water samples as well as varying microbial loads. Replacing tubes with 24-well titer plates for cultivation of bacteria drastically reduces the amount of culture media and also simplifies incubation. Automated photometric measurement of turbidity instead of visual evaluation of bacterial growth avoids misinterpretation by operators. Definition of a threshold ensures definite and user-independent determination of microbial growth. Calculation of the MPN itself is done using a program provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For evaluation of the method, real water samples of different origins as well as pure cultures of bacteria were analyzed in parallel with the conventional plating methods. Thus, the procedure described requires less preparation time, reduces costs and ensures both stable and reliable results for water samples.

  10. [Construction and promotion of prosthodontics based on health sciences: for the achievement of a long life and good health cultivated by occlusion and mastication]. (United States)

    Hirai, Toshihiro


    Prosthodontics is a practical science based on life sciences and health sciences, and takes a role to contribute to the improvement of people's health and welfare. It is true the main field of prosthodontics and/or prosthodontic treatments is oral rehabilitation including recoveries of morphological defects and the functional disability caused by teeth loss. From this point of view, I am sure that the ultimate target of prosthodontics and/or prosthodontic treatments is maintenance and improvement of patient's QOL. To achieve this purpose, I think research, education, and clinical practice to be inseparable and integral in prosthodontics. This ensures that prosthodontics become more academic which can contribute to the society more greatly. Advertisement disclosure of "Prosthodontic Specialist certified by Japan Prosthodontic Society" is our earnest wish. The specialist system is regarded to be effective for the improvement of the medical treatment level, the information provision to the patient, and the promotion of cooperation hospital and clinic. On the other hand, the high quality treatments are severely requested and the specialists are strictly evaluated by the many people more than before. We have to be aware of our responsibility as Prosthodontic Specialists. In addition, Japan Prosthodontic Society is a corporate judicial person, and there is obligation and a responsibility that transmit necessary information to the society certainly and promptly, and present various proposals based on EBM as the opinion leader. Concretely, it is necessary to promote basic researches as well as clinical researches on prosthodontic treatments, and to examine the improvement of educational methods of prosthodontics. Let's reconfirm the purpose of our Society written in the article of incorporation and make an effort to achieve this purpose!

  11. Fast calculation method of a CGH for a patch model using a point-based method. (United States)

    Ogihara, Y; Sakamoto, Y


    Holography is three-dimensional display technology. Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) are created by simulating light propagation on a computer, and they are able to display a virtual object. There are mainly two types of calculation methods of CGHs, a point-based method and the fast Fourier-transform (FFT)-based method. The FFT-based method is based on a patch model, and it is suited to accelerating the calculations as it calculates the light propagation across a patch as a whole. The calculations with the point-based method are characterized by a high degree of parallelism, and it is suited to accelerating graphics processing units (GPUs). The point-based method is not suitable for calculation with the patch model. This paper proposes a fast calculation algorithm for a patch model with the point-based method. The proposed method calculates the line on a patch as a whole regardless of the number of points on the line. When the proposed method is implemented on a GPU, the calculation time of the proposed method is shorter than with the point-based method.

  12. Laboratory Cultivation and Maintenance of Borrelia miyamotoi. (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Brissette, Catherine A


    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever tick-borne pathogen found in Ixodes spp. (hard) ticks. In vitro culturing has proven difficult despite initial reports of cultures maintained in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-II (BSK-II) medium. The ability to culture in vitro opens many avenues for investigating the genetics and physiology of bacterial species. This unit describes methods for the maintenance and cultivation of B. miyamotoi in liquid medium. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. High-throughput cultivation and screening platform for unicellular phototrophs. (United States)

    Tillich, Ulrich M; Wolter, Nick; Schulze, Katja; Kramer, Dan; Brödel, Oliver; Frohme, Marcus


    High-throughput cultivation and screening methods allow a parallel, miniaturized and cost efficient processing of many samples. These methods however, have not been generally established for phototrophic organisms such as microalgae or cyanobacteria. In this work we describe and test high-throughput methods with the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The required technical automation for these processes was achieved with a Tecan Freedom Evo 200 pipetting robot. The cultivation was performed in 2.2 ml deepwell microtiter plates within a cultivation chamber outfitted with programmable shaking conditions, variable illumination, variable temperature, and an adjustable CO2 atmosphere. Each microtiter-well within the chamber functions as a separate cultivation vessel with reproducible conditions. The automated measurement of various parameters such as growth, full absorption spectrum, chlorophyll concentration, MALDI-TOF-MS, as well as a novel vitality measurement protocol, have already been established and can be monitored during cultivation. Measurement of growth parameters can be used as inputs for the system to allow for periodic automatic dilutions and therefore a semi-continuous cultivation of hundreds of cultures in parallel. The system also allows the automatic generation of mid and long term backups of cultures to repeat experiments or to retrieve strains of interest. The presented platform allows for high-throughput cultivation and screening of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The platform should be usable for many phototrophic microorganisms as is, and be adaptable for even more. A variety of analyses are already established and the platform is easily expandable both in quality, i.e. with further parameters to screen for additional targets and in quantity, i.e. size or number of processed samples.

  14. A New Color-based Lawn Weed Detection Method and Its Integration with Texture-based Methods: A Hybrid Approach (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a color-based weed detection method specifically designed for detecting lawn weeds in winter. The proposed method exploits fuzzy logic to make inference from color information. Genetic algorithm is adopted to search for the optimal combination of color information, fuzzy membership functions, as well as fuzzy rules used in the method. Experimental results show that the proposed color-based method outperforms the conventional texture-based methods when testing with a winter dataset. In addition, we propose a hybrid system that incorporates both texture-based and color-based weed detection methods. It can automatically select a better method to perform weed detection, depending on an input image. The results show that the use of the hybrid system can significantly improve weed control performances for the overall datasets.

  15. Cultivators of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr I. Neklessa


    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the dependence of worldbuilding oiconomics on the formation of the European worldview to comprehend the role of elites and social mentality in the worldbuilding process and in relation to the formation of the Russian reality and its current state. Methods an integrated approach to the analysis determined the range of specific research methods systemic and value analysis from the standpoint of geoeconomics geoculture and geoanthropology hermeneutic comparative analysis philosophical reasoning. Results the paper substantiates the critical role of elites and knowledge systems in the genesis of the complicated organization of the society the features of worldbuilding practices in Catholic Protestant Orthodox mentality are defined the role of geoeconomics as a relevant concept for the analysis of global processes and Russian reality is highlighted. Scientific novelty the article considers the specifics of Russia39s destiny as a continental geoeconomic space introduces into scientific circulation the concept of geoanthropology to determine the role of anthropological factor in the totality of processes and situations that arise in the allocation and reallocation of human resources on the planet with regard to their quality characteristics. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the research are relevant to the scientific research and pedagogical work as well as for the development of the methodology of the Social Sciences and Humanities. It is of interest when considering the prospects of Russia39s development in the challenging circumstances of the 21 century. nbsp

  16. Systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming

    KAUST Repository

    Rockwood, Alyn


    Embodiments of systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving an object function and a set of constraints associated with the objective function. The method may also include identifying a solution on the objective function corresponding to intersections of the constraints. Additionally, the method may include generating an interpolated surface that is in constant contact with the solution. The method may also include generating a vector field in response to the interpolated surface.

  17. Attached cultivation technology of microalgae for efficient biomass feedstock production. (United States)

    Liu, Tianzhong; Wang, Junfeng; Hu, Qiang; Cheng, Pengfei; Ji, Bei; Liu, Jinli; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Lin; Gao, Lili; Ji, Chunli; Wang, Hui


    The potential of microalgae biofuel has not been realized because of low productivity and high costs associated with the current cultivation systems. In this paper, an attached cultivation method was introduced, in which microalgae cells grew on the surface of vertical artificial supporting material to form algal film. Multiple of the algal films were assembled in an array fashion to dilute solar irradiation to facilitate high photosynthetic efficiency. Results showed that a broad range of microalgae species can grow with this attached method. A biomass productivity of 50-80 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained outdoors for Scenedesmus obliquus, corresponding to the photosynthetic efficiency of 5.2-8.3% (total solar radiation). This attached method also offers lots of possible advantages over traditional open ponds, such as on water saving, harvesting, contamination controlling and scale-up. The attached cultivation represents a promising technology for economically viable production of microalgae biofuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya. (United States)

    Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji


    Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya.

  19. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation. (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K


    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  20. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (¤Daucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke


    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...... of markers specific to the cultivated carrot makes it possible to detect introgression from cultivated to wild types....

  1. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC


    D. Muralidharan; R.Muthaiah


    Network on Chip (NoC) reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC). The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless...

  2. Study on diversified cultivation orientation and pattern of optoelectronic major undergraduates (United States)

    Liu, Zhiying


    To improve the research quality preparation for graduate study and looking for job competition ability of undergraduates students, the education orientation objective need to be explicit. Universities need develop undergraduates' cultivation plan according to students' classification. Based on analysis of students export characteristic, there will be corresponding cultivation plan. Keep tracking study during the cultivation plan implantation process, the Curriculum system and related manage documents are revised corresponding to exist problems. There are mainly three kinds of undergraduates' career direction plan for opto-electronic major undergraduates. In addition to the vast majority university graduates opting for direct employment, nearly one third of university students choose to take part in the postgraduate entrance exams and other further education abroad, and also one-tenth choose their own businesses, university chooses are diversified. The exports are further studying as graduates, working and study abroad. Because national defense students are also recruited, the cultivation plan will be diversified to four types. For students, who go to work directly after graduation, the "Excellence engineers plan" is implemented to enhance their practice ability. For students, who will study further as graduate student, the scientific innovation research ability cultivation is paid more attention to make good foundation for their subsequent development. For students, who want to study abroad after graduation, the bilingual teaching method is introduced, and the English environment is built. We asked foreign professionals to give lectures for students. The knowledge range is extending, and the exchange and cooperation chance is provided at the same time. And the cultivation plan is revised during docking with Universities abroad. For national defense students, combat training and other defense theory courses are added to make them familiar with force knowledge. And

  3. A novel library-independent approach based on high-throughput cultivation in Bioscreen and fingerprinting by FTIR spectroscopy for microbial source tracking in food industry. (United States)

    Shapaval, V; Møretrø, T; Wold Åsli, A; Suso, H P; Schmitt, J; Lillehaug, D; Kohler, A


    Microbiological source tracking (MST) for food industry is a rapid growing area of research and technology development. In this paper, a new library-independent approach for MST is presented. It is based on a high-throughput liquid microcultivation and FTIR spectroscopy. In this approach, FTIR spectra obtained from micro-organisms isolated along the production line and a product are compared to each other. We tested and evaluated the new source tracking approach by simulating a source tracking situation. In this simulation study, a selection of 20 spoilage mould strains from a total of six genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Peyronellaea and Phoma) was used. The simulation of the source tracking situation showed that 80-100% of the sources could be correctly identified with respect to genus/species level. When performing source tracking simulations, the FTIR identification diverged for Phoma glomerata strain in the reference collection. When reidentifying the strain by sequencing, it turned out that the strain was a Peyronellaea arachidicola. The obtained results demonstrated that the proposed approach is a versatile tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination. Thus, it has a high potential for routine control in the food industry due to low costs and analysis time. The source tracking of fungal contamination in the food industry is an important aspect of food safety. Currently, all available methods are time consuming and require the use of a reference library that may limit the accuracy of the identification. In this study, we report for the first time, a library-independent FTIR spectroscopic approach for MST of fungal contamination along the food production line. It combines high-throughput microcultivation and FTIR spectroscopy and is specific on the genus and species level. Therefore, such an approach possesses great importance for food safety control in food industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. A model based method for retinal blood vessel detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K. A.; Vos, F. M.; Lemij, H. G.; Vossepoel, A. M.


    Retinal blood vessels are important structures in ophthalmological images. Many detection methods are available, but the results are not always satisfactory. In this paper, we present a novel model based method for blood vessel detection in retinal images. It is based on a Laplace and thresholding

  5. A Fusion Link Prediction Method Based on Limit Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiteng Wu


    Full Text Available The theoretical limit of link prediction is a fundamental problem in this field. Taking the network structure as object to research this problem is the mainstream method. This paper proposes a new viewpoint that link prediction methods can be divided into single or combination methods, based on the way they derive the similarity matrix, and investigates whether there a theoretical limit exists for combination methods. We propose and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for the combination method to reach the theoretical limit. The limit theorem reveals the essence of combination method that is to estimate probability density functions of existing links and nonexistent links. Based on limit theorem, a new combination method, theoretical limit fusion (TLF method, is proposed. Simulations and experiments on real networks demonstrated that TLF method can achieve higher prediction accuracy.

  6. A visual saliency based method for vehicle logo detection (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Shen, Yiping; Chang, Hongxing


    This paper presents a novel method based on visual saliency and template matching for detecting vehicle logo from images captured by cross-road cameras. To detect the logo, such method first generates a saliency map based on the modified Itti's saliency model, and then obtains regions of interest (ROI) by thresholding the saliency map, at last performs an edge-based template matching to locate the logo. Experiments on more than 2400 images validate both high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and demonstrates our method suitable for real-time application.

  7. An amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion (United States)

    Kong, Xuan-Lin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jin-Long; Hu, Zhi-quan; Xu, Dan; Li, Lu-Ming


    To suppress the strong noise in seismic data with wide range of amplitudes, commonly used methods often yield unsatisfactory denoising results owing to inappropriate thresholds and require parametric testing as well as iterations to achieve the anticipated results. To overcome these problems, a data-driven strong amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion in the wavelet domain (ISANA) is proposed. The method determines the denoising threshold based on the decibel criterion and statistically analyzes the amplitude index rather than the abnormally high amplitudes. The method distinguishes the frequency band distributions of the valid signals in the time-frequency domain based on the wavelet transformation and then calculates thresholds in selected time windows, eventually achieving frequency-divided noise attenuation for better denoising. Simulations based on theoretical and real-world data verify the adaptability and low dependence of the method on the size of the time window. The method suppresses noise without energy loss in the signals.

  8. Imaging quality analysis of computer-generated holograms using the point-based method and slice-based method (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Siqing; Zheng, Huadong; Sun, Tao; Yu, Yingjie; Gao, Hongyue; Asundi, Anand K.


    Computer holography has made a notably progress in recent years. The point-based method and slice-based method are chief calculation algorithms for generating holograms in holographic display. Although both two methods are validated numerically and optically, the differences of the imaging quality of these methods have not been specifically analyzed. In this paper, we analyze the imaging quality of computer-generated phase holograms generated by point-based Fresnel zone plates (PB-FZP), point-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (PB-FDA) and slice-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (SB-FDA). The calculation formula and hologram generation with three methods are demonstrated. In order to suppress the speckle noise, sequential phase-only holograms are generated in our work. The results of reconstructed images numerically and experimentally are also exhibited. By comparing the imaging quality, the merits and drawbacks with three methods are analyzed. Conclusions are given by us finally.

  9. Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out the dehydration process and suitability of use on the basis of energy requirement. These methods are Triethylene Glycol (TEG) ...

  10. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.


    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  11. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB


    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  12. Power quality events recognition using a SVM-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Ferreira, Danton Diego; Ribeiro, Moises Vidal; Duque, Carlos Augusto [Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, 36036 900, Juiz de Fora MG (Brazil)


    In this paper, a novel SVM-based method for power quality event classification is proposed. A simple approach for feature extraction is introduced, based on the subtraction of the fundamental component from the acquired voltage signal. The resulting signal is presented to a support vector machine for event classification. Results from simulation are presented and compared with two other methods, the OTFR and the LCEC. The proposed method shown an improved performance followed by a reasonable computational cost. (author)

  13. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A


    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals.

  14. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.


    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  15. A power function method for estimating base flow. (United States)

    Lott, Darline A; Stewart, Mark T


    Analytical base flow separation techniques are often used to determine the base flow contribution to total stream flow. Most analytical methods derive base flow from discharge records alone without using basin-specific variables other than basin area. This paper derives a power function for estimating base flow, the form being aQ(b) + cQ, an analytical method calibrated against an integrated basin variable, specific conductance, relating base flow to total discharge, and is consistent with observed mathematical behavior of dissolved solids in stream flow with varying discharge. Advantages of the method are being uncomplicated, reproducible, and applicable to hydrograph separation in basins with limited specific conductance data. The power function relationship between base flow and discharge holds over a wide range of basin areas. It better replicates base flow determined by mass balance methods than analytical methods such as filters or smoothing routines that are not calibrated to natural tracers or empirical basin and gauge-specific variables. Also, it can be used with discharge during periods without specific conductance values, including separating base flow from quick flow for single events. However, it may overestimate base flow during very high flow events. Application of geochemical mass balance and power function base flow separation methods to stream flow and specific conductance records from multiple gauges in the same basin suggests that analytical base flow separation methods must be calibrated at each gauge. Using average values of coefficients introduces a potentially significant and unknown error in base flow as compared with mass balance methods. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Fusion Segmentation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory for Color Images (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Huang, G.; Zhang, J.


    The image segmentation method based on two-dimensional histogram segments the image according to the thresholds of the intensity of the target pixel and the average intensity of its neighborhood. This method is essentially a hard-decision method. Due to the uncertainties when labeling the pixels around the threshold, the hard-decision method can easily get the wrong segmentation result. Therefore, a fusion segmentation method based on fuzzy theory is proposed in this paper. We use membership function to model the uncertainties on each color channel of the color image. Then, we segment the color image according to the fuzzy reasoning. The experiment results show that our proposed method can get better segmentation results both on the natural scene images and optical remote sensing images compared with the traditional thresholding method. The fusion method in this paper can provide new ideas for the information extraction of optical remote sensing images and polarization SAR images.

  17. Language Practitioners' Reflections on Method-Based and Post-Method Pedagogies (United States)

    Soomro, Abdul Fattah; Almalki, Mansoor S.


    Method-based pedagogies are commonly applied in teaching English as a foreign language all over the world. However, in the last quarter of the 20th century, the concept of such pedagogies based on the application of a single best method in EFL started to be viewed with concerns by some scholars. In response to the growing concern against the…

  18. Conceptual bases of the brand valuation by cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Studinska


    Full Text Available The necessity of valuing intangible assets in accordance with international trends is substantiated. The brand is seen as more important component of intangible assets, as an effective management tool company. The benefits and uses of brand evaluation results are investigated. System monocriterion cost brand evaluation methods is analyzed. In particular, methods that require evaluation by the time factor (current and forecast methods and methods for factor comparison base (relative and absolute. The cost method of brand valuation through market transactions in accordance J.Common’s classification is considered in detail. The explanation of the difference between method a summation of all costs and method of brand valuation through market transactions is provided. The advantages and disadvantages considered cost method of brand valuation are investigated. The cost method as the relative-predicted of the brand valuation, «The method of determining the proportion of the brand from the discounted total costs» is grounded

  19. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming


    methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...... have two factors that are useful for segmentation and none of them can be used to segment the two types of meat. The kernel based methods have a lot of useful factors and they are able to capture the subtle differences in the images. This is illustrated in Figure 1. You can see a comparison of the most...... conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...

  20. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues


    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  1. The Use of Problem-Based Learning Model to Improve Quality Learning Students Morals (United States)



    Model of moral cultivation in MTsN Bangunharja done using three methods, classical cultivation methods, extra-curricular activities in the form of religious activities, scouting, sports, and Islamic art, and habituation of morals. Problem base learning models in MTsN Bangunharja applied using the following steps: find the problem, define the…

  2. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method. (United States)

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B


    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The microbial population in the air of cultivation facility of oyster mushrooms. (United States)

    Chun, Se Chul; Ahn, Yu Na; Khan, Sajid Mohamad; Chung, Il Min; Won, Hyang Yoen; Jhune, Chang Sung; Park, Yool Jin


    The microbial population in the air of mushroom cultivation facility was studied to understand the population structure and size depending on the cultivation methods and regions. The air contents of ten farmers' oyster mushroom cultivation facilities in Kyunggi province were sampled. The results indicated that there was no difference in population size depending on the regions of mushroom cultivation. In addition, the population size of bacteria in the growth room was bigger than that of the cooling room and outside of the mushroom house, but the fungal population was similar in size between cultivation stages. With regard to population structure, Pseudomonas and Penicillium species were most frequently isolated from the air of oyster mushroom cultivation facility.

  4. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery via Logic-Based Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Triantaphyllou, Evangelos


    There are many approaches to data mining and knowledge discovery (DM&KD), including neural networks, closest neighbor methods, and various statistical methods. This monograph, however, focuses on the development and use of a novel approach, based on mathematical logic, that the author and his research associates have worked on over the last 20 years. The methods presented in the book deal with key DM&KD issues in an intuitive manner and in a natural sequence. Compared to other DM&KD methods, those based on mathematical logic offer a direct and often intuitive approach for extracting easily int

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L. (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M


    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  6. A Precise-Mask-Based Method for Enhanced Image Inpainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxu Zhang


    Full Text Available Mask of damage region is the pretreatment step of the image inpainting, which plays a key role in the ultimate effect. However, state-of-the-art methods have attached significance to the inpainting model, and the mask of damage region is usually selected manually or by the conventional threshold-based method. Since manual method is time-consuming and the threshold-based method does not have the same precision for different images, we herein report a new method for automatically constructing the precise mask by the joint filtering of guided filtering and L0 smoothing. It can accurately locate the boundary of damaged region in order to effectively segment the damage region and then greatly improves the ultimate effect of image inpainting. The experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art methods in the step of constructing inpainting mask, especially for the damaged region with inconspicuous boundary.

  7. Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations? (United States)

    Singer, Randall S; Mayer, Anne E; Hanson, Timothy E; Isaacson, Richard E


    Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to biased conclusions about the dominant strain present in a sample with mixed Salmonella populations, but also to a low sensitivity for detecting a Salmonella strain in a sample with only a single strain present. The objective of this study was to determine whether cultivation media select preferentially for specific strains of Salmonella in heterogeneous cultures. In this study, four different Salmonella strains (one Salmonella Newport, two Salmonella Typhimurium, and one Salmonella Enteritidis) were competed in a broth-based experiment and a bovine fecal experiment with varied combinations and concentrations of each strain. In all experiments, the strain of Salmonella Newport was the most competitive, regardless of the starting concentration and cultivation protocol. One strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was rarely detected in competition, even when it was the only strain present in bovine feces. Overall, the probability of detecting a specific Salmonella strain had little to do with its starting concentration in the sample. The bias introduced by culture could be dramatically biasing Salmonella surveillance systems and hindering traceback investigations during Salmonella outbreaks. Future studies should focus on the microbiological explanations for this Salmonella interstrain variability, approaches for minimizing the bias, and estimations of the public health significance of this bias.

  8. Enhancements to Graph based methods for Multi Document Summarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengaramanujam Srinivasan


    Full Text Available This paper focuses its attention on extractivesummarization using popular graph based approaches. Graphbased methods can be broadly classified into two categories:non- PageRank type and PageRank type methods. Of themethods already proposed - the Centrality Degree methodbelongs to the former category while LexRank and ContinuousLexRank methods belong to later category. The paper goes on tosuggest two enhancements to both PageRank type and non-PageRank type methods. The first modification is that ofrecursively discounting the selected sentences, i.e. if a sentence isselected it is removed from further consideration and the nextsentence is selected based upon the contributions of theremaining sentences only. Next the paper suggests a method ofincorporating position weight to these schemes. In all 14methods –six of non- PageRank type and eight of PageRanktype have been investigated. To clearly distinguish betweenvarious schemes, we call the methods of incorporatingdiscounting and position weight enhancements over LexicalRank schemes as Sentence Rank (SR methods. Intrinsicevaluation of all the 14 graph based methods were done usingconventional Precision metric and metrics earlier proposed byus - Effectiveness1 (E1 and Effectiveness2 (E2. Experimentalstudy brings out that the proposed SR methods are superior toall the other methods.

  9. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah


    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Model-Based Methods in the Biopharmaceutical Process Lifecycle. (United States)

    Kroll, Paul; Hofer, Alexandra; Ulonska, Sophia; Kager, Julian; Herwig, Christoph


    Model-based methods are increasingly used in all areas of biopharmaceutical process technology. They can be applied in the field of experimental design, process characterization, process design, monitoring and control. Benefits of these methods are lower experimental effort, process transparency, clear rationality behind decisions and increased process robustness. The possibility of applying methods adopted from different scientific domains accelerates this trend further. In addition, model-based methods can help to implement regulatory requirements as suggested by recent Quality by Design and validation initiatives. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the state of the art of model-based methods, their applications, further challenges and possible solutions in the biopharmaceutical process life cycle. Today, despite these advantages, the potential of model-based methods is still not fully exhausted in bioprocess technology. This is due to a lack of (i) acceptance of the users, (ii) user-friendly tools provided by existing methods, (iii) implementation in existing process control systems and (iv) clear workflows to set up specific process models. We propose that model-based methods be applied throughout the lifecycle of a biopharmaceutical process, starting with the set-up of a process model, which is used for monitoring and control of process parameters, and ending with continuous and iterative process improvement via data mining techniques.

  11. Peer Tutoring with QUICK Method vs. Task Based Method on Reading Comprehension Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati


    Full Text Available This study is a quasi-experimental research analyzing the reading comprehension achievement of the eleventh graders of Senior High School in Surabaya. This experimental research is comparing the effects of peer tutoring with QUICK method and task-based method to help the students to increase the students’ reading achievement. Besides for increasing the students’ reading achievement, this study has the main purpose to give a variation in teacher’s teaching reading techniques. This study uses independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test to indicate the students’ significant difference in achieving the reading comprehension in peer tutoring with QUICK method and task based method. Keywords: Peer tutoring with QUICK method, Task-based method, T-test, Reading achievement

  12. Model-Based Method for Terrain-Following Display Design (United States)


    A model-based method for terrain-following display design and evaluation is described. The basic approach centers on the use of a pilot/ Terrain-following, Mathematical modeling, Aircraft display design , Optimal control model.

  13. Base oils and methods for making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohler, Nicholas; Fisher, Karl; Tirmizi, Shakeel


    Provided herein are isoparaffins derived from hydrocarbon terpenes such as myrcene, ocimene and farnesene, and methods for making the same. In certain variations, the isoparaffins have utility as lubricant base stocks.

  14. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal; dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers


    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  15. EEG feature selection method based on decision tree. (United States)

    Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun


    This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results.

  16. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo


    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation. (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H


    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  18. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  19. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  20. An Adaptive Background Subtraction Method Based on Kernel Density Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignon Park


    Full Text Available In this paper, a pixel-based background modeling method, which uses nonparametric kernel density estimation, is proposed. To reduce the burden of image storage, we modify the original KDE method by using the first frame to initialize it and update it subsequently at every frame by controlling the learning rate according to the situations. We apply an adaptive threshold method based on image changes to effectively subtract the dynamic backgrounds. The devised scheme allows the proposed method to automatically adapt to various environments and effectively extract the foreground. The method presented here exhibits good performance and is suitable for dynamic background environments. The algorithm is tested on various video sequences and compared with other state-of-the-art background subtraction methods so as to verify its performance.

  1. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals. (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping


    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping


    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27384566

  3. The afforestation problem: a heuristic method based on simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    This paper presents the afforestation problem, that is the location and design of new forest compartments to be planted in a given area. This optimization problem is solved by a two-step heuristic method based on simulated annealing. Tests and experiences with this method are also presented....

  4. Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  5. Qualitative Assessment of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Long, George; Owens, Katrina


    A new approach to teaching method assessment using student focused qualitative studies and the theoretical framework of mental models is proposed. The methodology is considered specifically for the advantages it offers when applied to the assessment of inquiry-based teaching methods. The theoretical foundation of mental models is discussed, and…

  6. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR using direct wideband radio frequency (RF digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Model based methods and tools for process systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Process systems engineering (PSE) provides means to solve a wide range of problems in a systematic and efficient manner. This presentation will give a perspective on model based methods and tools needed to solve a wide range of problems in product-process synthesis-design. These methods and tools...

  8. Genetic structure in cultivated grapevines is linked to geography and human selection. (United States)

    Bacilieri, Roberto; Lacombe, Thierry; Le Cunff, Loïc; Di Vecchi-Staraz, Manuel; Laucou, Valérie; Genna, Blaise; Péros, Jean-Pierre; This, Patrice; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel


    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important and ancient horticultural plants in the world. Domesticated about 8-10,000 years ago in the Eurasian region, grapevine evolved from its wild relative (V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris) into very diverse and heterozygous cultivated forms. In this work we study grapevine genetic structure in a large sample of cultivated varieties, to interpret the wide diversity at morphological and molecular levels and link it to cultivars utilization, putative geographic origin and historical events. We analyzed the genetic structure of cultivated grapevine using a dataset of 2,096 multi-locus genotypes defined by 20 microsatellite markers. We used the Bayesian approach implemented in the STRUCTURE program and a hierarchical clustering procedure based on Ward's method to assign individuals to sub-groups. The analysis revealed three main genetic groups defined by human use and geographic origin: a) wine cultivars from western regions, b) wine cultivars from the Balkans and East Europe, and c) a group mainly composed of table grape cultivars from Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Middle and Far East countries. A second structure level revealed two additional groups, a geographic group from the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb, and a group comprising table grapes of recent origins from Italy and Central Europe. A large number of admixed genotypes were also identified. Structure clusters regrouped together a large proportion of family-related genotypes. In addition, Ward's method revealed a third level of structure, corresponding either to limited geographic areas, to particular grape use or to family groups created through artificial selection and breeding. This study provides evidence that the cultivated compartment of Vitis vinifera L. is genetically structured. Genetic relatedness of cultivars has been shaped mostly by human uses, in combination with a geographical effect. The finding of a large portion of admixed

  9. Examining the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning on Cultivating the 21st Century Skills among High School Students in a Global Context (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Syan; Ma, Jung-Tsan; Kuo, Karen Yi-Chwen; Chou, Chien-Tzu Candace


    The goal of the study is to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with Project-Based Learning strategy in a global context on the aspects of both fostering learning community of practices and nurturing the 21st century skills. For collecting empirical data, the study implements and administers an online international project-based…

  10. An Instructional Design Model with the Cultivating Research-Based Learning Strategies for Fostering Teacher Students' Creative Thinking Abilities (United States)

    Khuana, Khwanchai; Khuana, Tanthip; Santiboon, Toansakul


    Designing the instructional model with the innovative the "Research-Based Learning Strategy Lesson Plans" of the effectiveness of the processing performance and the resulting performance (E1/E2) with the IOC value determining standardized criteria of 80/80 were developed. Students' perceptions were assessed with the 30-item…

  11. A time series based method for estimating relative soil moisture with ERS wind scatterometer data


    Wen, J.; Su, Z.


    The radar backscattering coefficient is mainly determined by surface soil moisture, vegetation and land surface roughness under a given configuration of the satellite sensor. It is observed that the temporal variations of the three variables are different, the variation of vegetation and roughness are at the longer temporal scales corresponding to climate and cultivation practices, while soil moisture varies at a shorter temporal scale in response to weather forcing. Based on this hypothesis,...

  12. Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation: opportunities and challenges for biotechnology. (United States)

    Canter, Peter H; Thomas, Howard; Ernst, Edzard


    Consumption of herbal medicines is widespread and increasing. Harvesting from the wild, the main source of raw material, is causing loss of genetic diversity and habitat destruction. Domestic cultivation is a viable alternative and offers the opportunity to overcome the problems that are inherent in herbal extracts: misidentification, genetic and phenotypic variability, extract variability and instability, toxic components and contaminants. The use of controlled environments can overcome cultivation difficulties and could be a means to manipulate phenotypic variation in bioactive compounds and toxins. Conventional plant-breeding methods can improve both agronomic and medicinal traits, and molecular marker assisted selection will be used increasingly. There has been significant progress in the use of tissue culture and genetic transformation to alter pathways for the biosynthesis of target metabolites. Obstacles to bringing medicinal plants into successful commercial cultivation include the difficulty of predicting which extracts will remain marketable and the likely market preference for what is seen as naturally sourced extracts.

  13. Métodos para a climatização de bananas 'Prata-Anã' produzidas na Amazônia Setentrional Brasileira Methods of climatization of 'Prata-Anã' bananas cultivated in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Souza Prill


    Full Text Available O objetivo, neste trabalho, foi avaliar o uso da climatização para a uniformização de bananas 'Prata-Anã' produzidas em Boa Vista-RR. Após colhidos, os frutos foram selecionados no formato de buquês, sanitizados, climatizados por abafamento com lona plástica ou por imersão em solução de Ethrel®, embalados com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade e armazenados por quatro períodos de tempo (0; 10;20 e 30 dias a 12 ± 1 ºC e 93 ± 2% de UR. Após cada período de armazenamento refrigerado (AR os frutos foram submetidos ao armazenamento em condições ambiente (22 ± 1 ºC e 75 ± 3% UR, retirados das embalagens plásticas e sendo analisados após 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: perda de massa fresca, coloração da casca, produção de etileno e CO2, atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase, acidez titulável (AT, pectina total e solúvel, amido e sólidos solúveis (SS. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os métodos de climatização, porém verificou-se que, quanto maior o período de AR e de condicionamento, menor foi o período de conservação das bananas 'Prata-Anã'. Ficou evidenciado, também, que a climatização, independentemente do método utilizado, deve ser realizada em até 20 dias após a colheita, nas condições de AR aqui testadas. Nessas condições, foi possível manter a qualidade sensorial das bananas por até 3 dias após a retirada dos frutos do armazenamento refrigerado.The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of climatization on standardization of 'Prata-Anã' bananas cultivated in Boa Vista, Roraima. After harvested, fruits were selected in the shape of bouquets, sanitized, conditioned by muffling with plastic sheeting or by immersion in a Ethrel® solution, packed with low density polyethylene and stored for four time periods (0, 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 93 ± 2% RH. After each period of cold storage (CS, the fruits were taken

  14. Constraints and potential of Sweet Pepper cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunadi, N.; Everaarts, A.P.; Adiyoga, W.; Moekasan, T.


    At the start of a research project on the improvement of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia, an inventory of the present cultivation methods and constraints was made, together with an analysis of production costs and benefits. The inventory was carried out in

  15. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology. (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke


    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  16. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping


    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  17. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analysis of wild and cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 9, 2010 ... ed through interspecific hybridization of Asian and African rice, formed a cluster with Asian rice. Generally cultivated and wild species clearly observed to have separated groups in both UPGMA and neighbor joining analysis. The two methods showed almost the same tree topology with similar groupings ...

  18. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations (United States)

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan


    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  19. A comparative study of antibacterial activities of wild and cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers generally collect fresh plant materials from the wild for ethnoveterinary uses. They are encouraged to harvest with caution and dry or cultivate important materials in order to protect the biodiversity. These recommendations are not validated scientifically. The microplate method for minimum inhibitory concentration ...

  20. The Elaboration of Cultivating Learners' English Communicative Competence in China (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jiling


    The communicative competence is the ultimate goal of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which is thought to be the eclectic approach in the place of other approaches and methods and which begins to gain momentum in the recent years. Hence, the comprehensive understanding of the communicative competence is prerequisite to the cultivation of…

  1. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  2. On Design Experiment Teaching in Engineering Quality Cultivation (United States)

    Chen, Xiao


    Design experiment refers to that designed and conducted by students independently and is surely an important method to cultivate students' comprehensive quality. According to the development and requirements of experimental teaching, this article carries out a study and analysis on the purpose, significance, denotation, connotation and…

  3. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 4, 2009 ... Detection of food borne pathogen is of outmost importance in the food industries and related agencies. For the last few decades conventional methods were used to detect food borne pathogens based on phenotypic characters. At the advent of complementary base pairing and amplification of DNA, the.

  4. Application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to the processing of compost used in the cultivation of button mushroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Emilio Pardo; Diego Cunha Zied; Manuel Alvarez-Ortí; Jesús Ángel Peñaranda; Carmen Gómez-Cantó; Arturo Pardo-Giménez


    .... Methods In this paper, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system is applied to the processing line of compost used in the cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi...

  5. Rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production of cyanobacteria in non-sterilized outdoor cultivations with a bicarbonate-based pH-rising strategy


    Zhu, Zhi; Luan, Guodong; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haocui; Lu, Xuefeng


    Background Ethanol photosynthetic production based on cyanobacteria cell factories utilizing CO2 and solar energy provides an attractive solution for sustainable production of green fuels. However, the scaling up processes of cyanobacteria cell factories were usually threatened or even devastated by biocontaminations, which restricted biomass or products accumulations of cyanobacteria cells. Thus it is of great significance to develop reliable biocontamination-controlling strategies for promo...

  6. Biophysical Properties of Cultivated Pastures in the Brazilian Savanna Biome: An Analysis in the Spatial-Temporal Domains Based on Ground and Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Araújo


    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd in the world, with cattle ranching being particularly prominent in the 200-million ha, Brazilian neotropical moist savanna biome, known as Cerrado, one of the world’s hotspots for biodiversity conservation. As decreasing productivity is a major concern affecting the Cerrado pasturelands, evaluation of pasture conditions through the determination of biophysical parameters is instrumental for more effective management practices and herd occupation strategies. Within this context, the primary goal of this study was the regional assessment of pasture biophysical properties, through the scaling of wet- and dry-season ground truth data (total biomass, green biomass, and % green cover via the combined use of high (Landsat-TM and moderate (MODIS spatial resolution vegetation index images. Based on the high correlation found between NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and % green cover (r = 0.95, monthly MODIS-based % green cover images were derived for the 2009–2010 hydrological cycle, which were able to capture major regional patterns and differences in pasture biophysical responses, including the increasing greenness values towards the southern portions of the biome, due to both local conditions (e.g., more fertile soils and management practices. These results corroborate the development of biophysically-based landscape degradation indices, in support of improved land use governance and natural area conservation in the Cerrado.

  7. Human Detection System by Fusing Depth Map-Based Method and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le


    Full Text Available In this paper, the depth images and the colour images provided by Kinect sensors are used to enhance the accuracy of human detection. The depth-based human detection method is fast but less accurate. On the other hand, the faster region convolutional neural network-based human detection method is accurate but requires a rather complex hardware configuration. To simultaneously leverage the advantages and relieve the drawbacks of each method, one master and one client system is proposed. The final goal is to make a novel Robot Operation System (ROS-based Perception Sensor Network (PSN system, which is more accurate and ready for the real time application. The experimental results demonstrate the outperforming of the proposed method compared with other conventional methods in the challenging scenarios.

  8. Principles of the Kenzan Method for Robotic Cell Spheroid-Based Three-Dimensional Bioprinting. (United States)

    Moldovan, Nicanor I; Hibino, Narutoshi; Nakayama, Koichi


    Bioprinting is a technology with the prospect to change the way many diseases are treated, by replacing the damaged tissues with live de novo created biosimilar constructs. However, after more than a decade of incubation and many proofs of concept, the field is still in its infancy. The current stagnation is the consequence of its early success: the first bioprinters, and most of those that followed, were modified versions of the three-dimensional printers used in additive manufacturing, redesigned for layer-by-layer dispersion of biomaterials. In all variants (inkjet, microextrusion, or laser assisted), this approach is material ("scaffold") dependent and energy intensive, making it hardly compatible with some of the intended biological applications. Instead, the future of bioprinting may benefit from the use of gentler scaffold-free bioassembling methods. A substantial body of evidence has accumulated, indicating this is possible by use of preformed cell spheroids, which have been assembled in cartilage, bone, and cardiac muscle-like constructs. However, a commercial instrument capable to directly and precisely "print" spheroids has not been available until the invention of the microneedles-based ("Kenzan") spheroid assembling and the launching in Japan of a bioprinter based on this method. This robotic platform laces spheroids into predesigned contiguous structures with micron-level precision, using stainless steel microneedles ("kenzans") as temporary support. These constructs are further cultivated until the spheroids fuse into cellular aggregates and synthesize their own extracellular matrix, thus attaining the needed structural organization and robustness. This novel technology opens wide opportunities for bioengineering of tissues and organs.

  9. Comparing Methods for UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael


    We describe an approach to evaluating algorithmic and human performance in directing UAV-based surveillance. Its key elements are a decision-theoretic framework for measuring the utility of a surveillance schedule and an evaluation testbed consisting of 243 scenarios covering a well-defined space of possible missions. We apply this approach to two example UAV-based surveillance methods, a TSP-based algorithm and a human-directed approach, then compare them to identify general strengths, and weaknesses of each method.

  10. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya


    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  11. Optimizing distance-based methods for large data sets (United States)

    Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas


    Distance-based methods for measuring spatial concentration of industries have received an increasing popularity in the spatial econometrics community. However, a limiting factor for using these methods is their computational complexity since both their memory requirements and running times are in {{O}}(n^2). In this paper, we present an algorithm with constant memory requirements and shorter running time, enabling distance-based methods to deal with large data sets. We discuss three recent distance-based methods in spatial econometrics: the D&O-Index by Duranton and Overman (Rev Econ Stud 72(4):1077-1106, 2005), the M-function by Marcon and Puech (J Econ Geogr 10(5):745-762, 2010) and the Cluster-Index by Scholl and Brenner (Reg Stud (ahead-of-print):1-15, 2014). Finally, we present an alternative calculation for the latter index that allows the use of data sets with millions of firms.

  12. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński


    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  13. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology. (United States)

    Majidnezhad, Vahid


    In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov model Toolkit (HTK) for detecting vocal fold pathology in the Russian digits is developed which belongs to the second category. It employs a three state HMM for modeling each phoneme. According to the results of the experiments, the proposed method achieves the 90% of detection accuracy. The proposed method is one of the first works for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the Russian digits (from 1 to 10) for Belorussian people. The reported accuracy is rather good and therefore it is recommended to use it as an auxiliary tool in medical centers.

  14. Provenance graph query method based on double layer index structure (United States)

    Cai, Qing Qiu; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao


    Order to solve the problem that the efficiency of the existing source map is low and the resource occupancy rate is high, considering the relationship between the origin information and the data itself and the internal structure of the origin information, a method of provenance graph query based on double layer index structure is proposed. Firstly, we propose a two layer index structure based on the global index of the dictionary table and the local index based on the bitmap. The global index is used to query the server nodes stored in the source map. The local index is used to query the global index. Finally, based on the double-level index structure, a method of starting map query is designed. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only improves the efficiency of query and reduces the waste of memory resources.

  15. Dense Stereo Matching Method Based on Local Affine Model. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Shi, Wenxuan; Deng, Dexiang; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui


    A new method for constructing an accurate disparity space image and performing an efficient cost aggregation in stereo matching based on local affine model is proposed in this paper. The key algorithm includes a new self-adapting dissimilarity measurement used for calculating the matching cost and a local affine model used in cost aggregation stage. Different from the traditional region-based methods, which try to change the matching window size or to calculate an adaptive weight to do the aggregation, the proposed method focuses on obtaining the efficient and accurate local affine model to aggregate the cost volume while preserving the disparity discontinuity. Moreover, the local affine model can be extended to the color space. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to provide subpixel precision disparity maps compared with some state-of-the-art stereo matching methods.

  16. Residual-based model diagnosis methods for mixture cure models. (United States)

    Peng, Yingwei; Taylor, Jeremy M G


    Model diagnosis, an important issue in statistical modeling, has not yet been addressed adequately for cure models. We focus on mixture cure models in this work and propose some residual-based methods to examine the fit of the mixture cure model, particularly the fit of the latency part of the mixture cure model. The new methods extend the classical residual-based methods to the mixture cure model. Numerical work shows that the proposed methods are capable of detecting lack-of-fit of a mixture cure model, particularly in the latency part, such as outliers, improper covariate functional form, or nonproportionality in hazards if the proportional hazards assumption is employed in the latency part. The methods are illustrated with two real data sets that were previously analyzed with mixture cure models. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang


    Full Text Available As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance matrix as a descriptor of the time sequence. Riemannian distance is used as the similarity measure and the statistical process control diagram is applied to detect the abnormity of multivariate time series. And the visualization of the covariance matrix distribution is used to detect the abnormity of mechanical equipment, leading to realize the fault diagnosis. With wind turbine gearbox faults as the experiment object, the fault diagnosis method is verified and the results show that the method is reasonable and effective.

  18. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.


    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  19. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.


    , a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...

  20. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference (United States)

    Gao, Cun


    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  1. Exploration and Practice of Personnel Cultivation for Agricultural Mechanization and Automation Specialities


    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Lu-lu; Yu, Jian-qun; Sun, Yu-jing


    Firstly, based on significance of developing agricultural mechanization and automation and current situations of agricultural mechanization and automation specialities in colleges and universities, we put forward objectives of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities. Then, we analyze the exploration and practice of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities from four aspects, including course system setting, teachi...

  2. Methods and Design: Measuring Recognition Performance Using Computer- Based and Paper-Based Methods. (United States)


    struction. Journal of School Psychology , 8_315-316. computerized versions of the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices HEDL, J. I., O’NEIL, H. F.. a HANSEN...Johnson & Mihal, 1973) test takers do better on a computer-based system to take an intelligence test could quantitative tests when they are computer given...Holt. Rinehart & Winston. porary Educational Psvchulogy, 6, 314-322 ELWOOD, D. L., GRIFFIN, R. H. (1972). Individual intelligence test - KIRK. R. E

  3. Utilization of seafood processing wastes for cultivation of the edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine the utilization of seafood processing wastes for artificial cultivation of edible mushroom Pleurotus flabellatus in laboratory condition. Utilizing bioconversion technology such as the slow release of nutrients for agricultural based activities like producing mushroom will profitably reduce ...

  4. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 4, 2007 ... Accepted 14 May, 2007. Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally ... dual and mutual effects of controlled compost tempera- ture, and of locally available ...

  5. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally available casing materials such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara, and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with perlite were ...

  6. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...

  7. Progressive clustering based method for protein function prediction. (United States)

    Saini, Ashish; Hou, Jingyu


    In recent years, significant effort has been given to predicting protein functions from protein interaction data generated from high throughput techniques. However, predicting protein functions correctly and reliably still remains a challenge. Recently, many computational methods have been proposed for predicting protein functions. Among these methods, clustering based methods are the most promising. The existing methods, however, mainly focus on protein relationship modeling and the prediction algorithms that statically predict functions from the clusters that are related to the unannotated proteins. In fact, the clustering itself is a dynamic process and the function prediction should take this dynamic feature of clustering into consideration. Unfortunately, this dynamic feature of clustering is ignored in the existing prediction methods. In this paper, we propose an innovative progressive clustering based prediction method to trace the functions of relevant annotated proteins across all clusters that are generated through the progressive clustering of proteins. A set of prediction criteria is proposed to predict functions of unannotated proteins from all relevant clusters and traced functions. The method was evaluated on real protein interaction datasets and the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with representative existing methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie IGNAT


    Full Text Available The agriculture of the Republic of Moldova is particularly prone to natural risks, especially droughts. The purposeof this paper is to present the state of sustainable development of the agricultural sector and opportunities forimplementation of the innovative land cultivation technologies. There are a number of socio-economic constraintsfor increasing the productivity in the traditional agricultural systems. In order to meet the growing competition onthe regional markets of agricultural products, modernization of agriculture in the Republic of Moldova is veryimportant. For investigation of the actual state of implementation of the conservative land cultivation technologieswere used specific methods and techniques such as statistical and economic analysis of economic indicators, casestudy approach, semi-structured interviews of agricultural producers. The study is also based on the statisticsreceived from the National Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry of Moldova.Economic analysis confirms that implementation of the No Till technology will reduce essentially the directproduction costs compared to traditional technology. However a more visible effect occurs starting with the 5-6year of the conservative land cultivation technologies’ implementation.

  9. Application of special oligotrophic media for cultivation of bacterial communities originated from ultrapure water. (United States)

    Kéki, Zsuzsa; Grébner, Kitti; Bohus, Veronika; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika M


    Because of the selectivity of the commonly used media it is very difficult to cultivate bacteria inhabiting ultrapure waters under laboratory conditions. In this study 5 new media (synthetic and complex) were developed to reveal bacterial community of the ultrapure water originated from the water purification system of a Hungarian power plant which was studied already with using traditional media. Composition of the new media tends to reproduce the nutrient deficient conditions of the investigated water, therefore media were highly oligotrophic. Altogether 122 bacterial strains were isolated from the 5 different media. Based on ARDRA grouping 27 strains were chosen for the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that the applied media strongly influence the composition of the cultivable bacterial community. A larger scale of α-Proteobacteria (Mesorhizobium spp., Ancylobacter sp., Methylobacterium sp.) and many Actinobacteria (Leifsonia sp., Microbacterium spp., Mycobacterium spp.) could be isolated from the same ultrapure water system than with any other cultivation methods or media applied before. Moreover, two novel bacterial taxa could be isolated from the studied water purification system.

  10. Oil production towards biofuel from autotrophic microalgae semicontinuous cultivations monitorized by flow cytometry. (United States)

    da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Reis, Alberto; Medeiros, Roberto; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Gouveia, Luisa


    Two microalgae species (Scenedesmus obliquus and Neochloris oleoabundans) were cultivated in closed sleeve photobioreactors in order to select the best oil producer for further large-scale open raceway pond cultivations, aiming at biofuel production. Scenedesmus obliquus reached a higher maximum biomass concentration (1.41 g l(-1)) with a lower lipid content (12.8% w/w), as compared to N. oleoabundans [maximum biomass concentration of 0.92 g l(-1) with 16.5% (w/w) lipid content]. Both microalgae showed adequate fatty acid composition and iodine values as substitutes for diesel fuel. Based on these results, N. oleoabundans was selected for further open raceway pond cultivations. Under these conditions, N. oleoabundans reached a maximum biomass concentration of 2.8 g l(-1) with 11% (w/w) of lipid content. A high correlation between the Nile Red fluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and total lipid content assayed by the traditional gravimetric lipid analysis was found for both microalgae, making this method a suitable and quick technique for the screening of microalgae strains for lipid production and optimization of biofuel production bioprocesses. Medium growth optimization for enhancement of microalgal oil production is now in progress.

  11. A personalized-model-based central aortic pressure estimation method. (United States)

    Jiang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jian-Kang


    Central Aortic Pressure (CAP) can be used to predict cardiovascular structural damage and cardiovascular events, and the development of simple, well-validated and non-invasive methods for CAP waveforms estimation is critical to facilitate the routine clinical applications of CAP. Existing widely applied methods, such as generalized transfer function (GTF-CAP) method and N-Point Moving Average (NPMA-CAP) method, are based on clinical practices, and lack a mathematical foundation. Those methods also have inherent drawback that there is no personalisation, and missing individual aortic characteristics. To overcome this pitfall, we present a personalized-model-based central aortic pressure estimation method (PM-CAP)in this paper. This PM-CAP has a mathematical foundation: a human aortic network model is proposed which is developed based on viscous fluid mechanics theory and could be personalized conveniently. Via measuring the pulse wave at the proximal and distal ends of the radial artery, the least square method is then proposed to estimate patient-specific circuit parameters. Thus the central aortic pulse wave can be obtained via calculating the transfer function between the radial artery and central aorta. An invasive validation study with 18 subjects comparing PM-CAP with direct aortic root pressure measurements during percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention was carried out at the Beijing Hospital. The experimental results show better performance of the PM-CAP method compared to the GTF-CAP method and NPMA-CAP method, which illustrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng


    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  13. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey. (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Xiao, Wendong


    Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  14. A correlation based bullet identification method using empirical mode decomposition. (United States)

    Bigdeli, Saeed; Danandeh, Hamed; Ebrahimi Moghaddam, Mohsen


    The striations on bullet surface are 3D micro structures formed when a bullet is forcing its way out of barrel. Each barrel leaves individual striation patterns on bullets. Hence, the striation information of bullets is helpful for firearm identification. Common automatic identification methods process these images using linear time invariant (LTI) filters based on correlation. These methods do not consider the sensitivity of correlation based comparisons to nonlinear baseline drifts. The striations are undeniably random unique micro structures caused by random non-model-based imperfections in the tools used in rifling process, therefore any characteristic profile that is extracted from a bullet image is statistically non-stationary. Due to limitations of LTI filters, using them in smoothing bullet images and profiles may cause information loss and impact the process of identification. To address these problems, in this article, we consider bullet images as nonlinear non-stationary processes and propose a novel method which uses ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) as a preprocessing algorithm for smoothing and feature extraction. The features extracted by EEMD algorithm not only contain less noise, but also have no nonlinear baseline drifts. These improvements help the correlation based comparison methods to perform more robustly and efficiently. The experiments showed that our proposed method attained better results compared with two common methods in the field of automatic bullet identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  16. Quaternion-based discriminant analysis method for color face recognition. (United States)

    Xu, Yong


    Pattern recognition techniques have been used to automatically recognize the objects, personal identities, predict the function of protein, the category of the cancer, identify lesion, perform product inspection, and so on. In this paper we propose a novel quaternion-based discriminant method. This method represents and classifies color images in a simple and mathematically tractable way. The proposed method is suitable for a large variety of real-world applications such as color face recognition and classification of the ground target shown in multispectrum remote images. This method first uses the quaternion number to denote the pixel in the color image and exploits a quaternion vector to represent the color image. This method then uses the linear discriminant analysis algorithm to transform the quaternion vector into a lower-dimensional quaternion vector and classifies it in this space. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain a very high accuracy for color face recognition.

  17. MProfiler: A Profile-Based Method for DNA Motif Discovery (United States)

    Altarawy, Doaa; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Ghanem, Sahar M.

    Motif Finding is one of the most important tasks in gene regulation which is essential in understanding biological cell functions. Based on recent studies, the performance of current motif finders is not satisfactory. A number of ensemble methods have been proposed to enhance the accuracy of the results. Existing ensemble methods overall performance is better than stand-alone motif finders. A recent ensemble method, MotifVoter, significantly outperforms all existing stand-alone and ensemble methods. In this paper, we propose a method, MProfiler, to increase the accuracy of MotifVoter without increasing the run time by introducing an idea called center profiling. Our experiments show improvement in the quality of generated clusters over MotifVoter in both accuracy and cluster compactness. Using 56 datasets, the accuracy of the final results using our method achieves 80% improvement in correlation coefficient nCC, and 93% improvement in performance coefficient nPC over MotifVoter.

  18. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger) (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.


    In the dry tropics in general and, particularly in the African Sahel, agro-ecosystems and hydrosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In turn, it has been shown that soil moisture, vegetation and surface fluxes produce substantial feedback effects on rainfall-producing atmospheric convection. Therefore, it is of prime importance to understand and to model the dynamics of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in response to contrasted meteorological and terrestrial conditions for this area. The objective of this study is to produce a process-based model of water and energy transfers in the soil and land-atmosphere interface over an entire 5-year period, at local scale, for the two main land cover types of South-West Niger: millet-crop and fallow savannah. A comprehensive dataset is available over that whole period in two such fields of the Wankama catchment, making it a rather unique asset for West Africa. This area is typical of the central Sahel conditions, with ~400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 months wet season, followed by the 7-8 months dry season. Soils are essentially sandy and prone to surface crusting, which induces a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The dataset used here includes 5 years of atmospheric forcing (rainfall, wind speed, sun and atmosphere radiation, air temperature and moisture) and validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes and soil temperature and moisture profiles), recorded every 30 min. The seasonal course of vegetation phenology (LAI, height, biomass) and soil characteristics (particle size and density profiles) are also available. The SiSPAT (Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer, Braud et al., 1995) physically-based model is used for this study. It solves the mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, with vapour phase, coupled with a two-component (bare soil and one vegetation layer) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface

  19. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models: the case study of Denmark. (United States)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens H; Bøcher, Peder K; Greve, Mette B; Larsen, René; McCloy, Keith


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important carbon stocks globally and has large potential to affect global climate. Distribution patterns of SOC in Denmark constitute a nation-wide baseline for studies on soil carbon changes (with respect to Kyoto protocol). This paper predicts and maps the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, flow accumulation, specific catchment area, tangent slope, tangent curvature, steady-state wetness index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI) and Soil Color Index (SCI) were generated to statistically explain SOC field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME) and the lowest number of nodes (N) as well are: (i) the tree (T1) combining all of the parameters (ME=29.5%; N=54); (ii) the tree (T2) based on the parent material, soil type and landscape type (ME=31.5%; N=14); and (iii) the tree (T3) constructed using parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, tangent slope and SCI (ME=30%; N=39). The produced SOC maps at 1:50,000 cartographic scale using these trees are highly matching with coincidence values equal to 90.5% (Map T1

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of widely cultivated Ganoderma in China based on the mitochondrial V4-V6 region of SSU rDNA. (United States)

    Zhou, X W; Su, K Q; Zhang, Y M


    Ganoderma mushroom is one of the most prescribed traditional medicines and has been used for centuries, particularly in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In this study, different strains of Ganoderma spp and the genetic relationships of the closely related strains were identified and investigated based on the V4-V6 region of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA of the Ganoderma species. The sizes of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions from different Ganoderma species showed 2 types of sequences, 2.0 or 0.5 kb. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which revealed a high level of genetic diversity in Ganoderma species. Ganoderma lucidum G05 and G. eupense G09 strains were clustered into a G. resinaceum group. Ganoderma spp G29 and G22 strains were clustered into a G. lucidum group. However, Ganoderma spp G19, G20, and G21 strains were clustered into a single group, the G. lucidum AF214475, G. sinense, G. strum G17, G. strum G36, and G. sinense G10 strains contained an intron and were clustered into other groups.

  1. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer


    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  2. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods. (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian


    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  3. International Conference on Robust Rank-Based and Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    McKean, Joseph


    The contributors to this volume include many of the distinguished researchers in this area. Many of these scholars have collaborated with Joseph McKean to develop underlying theory for these methods, obtain small sample corrections, and develop efficient algorithms for their computation. The papers cover the scope of the area, including robust nonparametric rank-based procedures through Bayesian and big data rank-based analyses. Areas of application include biostatistics and spatial areas. Over the last 30 years, robust rank-based and nonparametric methods have developed considerably. These procedures generalize traditional Wilcoxon-type methods for one- and two-sample location problems. Research into these procedures has culminated in complete analyses for many of the models used in practice including linear, generalized linear, mixed, and nonlinear models. Settings are both multivariate and univariate. With the development of R packages in these areas, computation of these procedures is easily shared with r...

  4. Three Methods for Occupation Coding Based on Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gweon Hyukjun


    Full Text Available Occupation coding, an important task in official statistics, refers to coding a respondent’s text answer into one of many hundreds of occupation codes. To date, occupation coding is still at least partially conducted manually, at great expense. We propose three methods for automatic coding: combining separate models for the detailed occupation codes and for aggregate occupation codes, a hybrid method that combines a duplicate-based approach with a statistical learning algorithm, and a modified nearest neighbor approach. Using data from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS, we show that the proposed methods improve on both the coding accuracy of the underlying statistical learning algorithm and the coding accuracy of duplicates where duplicates exist. Further, we find defining duplicates based on ngram variables (a concept from text mining is preferable to one based on exact string matches.

  5. [Microbial diversity of Pyropia haitanensis phycosphere during cultivation]. (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qijun; Wang, Shugang; Ren, Jirui


    Pyropia haitanensis is of great commercial importance and wildly cultivated in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. To observe the characteristics and changes of phycosphere microbial communities during cultivation can help us monitor the potential pathogens and microbial factors affecting the health of cultivated seaweeds. The morphological characteristics and the diversity of phycosphere and surrounding seawater microbes were studied by pure culture method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Similarity analysis was carried out online with the 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 18S rDNA (fungi) sequences in GenBank. The phycosphere microbial diversity during different growth stages, cultivated areas and periods was studied. Totally 467 bacteria and 55 fungi were isolated during P. haitanensis cultivation. The diversity of fungi was smaller than that of bacteria. The bacteria were classified into 41 genera, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The dominant bacterial communities were Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Most of the fungi were classified into Ascomycota, only one strain belonging to the Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Bacteria of 19 specific genera were isolated from P. haitanensis while 13 specific genera were isolated from the surrounding seawater. Most actinomycetes and fungi were isolated from the conchocelis cultured indoors, which was different from the microbial communities of the thalli in intertidal zone. Within the isolated microbes, we found that some strains had very high similarity with those pathogens such as Cobetia marina (C. marina, P. haitanensis red-rotting disease), Phoma porphyrae (P. yezoensis disease) and saprotrophic fungi Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp.. The diversity of Pyropia phycoshpere microbes during cultivation was affected by the seaweed morphology, culture time and environmental factors. The strains that shared high

  6. Specific Features of Development of the Infectious Process Caused by Cultivable and Non Cultivable Bacteria in the Presence of Experimental Burn Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sakharov


    Full Text Available Objective: to study a trend in the development of the infectious process caused by cultivable and non cultivable bacteria in Chinchilla rabbits with burn disease. Materials and methods. The investigators examined 64 rabbits subcutaneously infected with cultivable and non cultivable Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at a dose of 105 microbial cells in the presence of burn injury in experimental groups and in two similar control groups of animals without thermal injury. Rabbits were exposed to IIIAB degree burn injury under anesthesia. The non cultivable bacteria were obtained by the procedure proposed by L. B. Kozlov et al., by applying a refrigerated heating circulator. The trend in the development of the infectious process was observed during 21 days. Dead animals were dissected; bacterial concentrations were estimated in their viscera and abnormal changes were determined in the histological specimens. The results of the investigations were statistically processed according to STATISTICA 6.0 using the mean arithmetic error (М±m. Differences were statistically evaluated by Student’s t test and the Mann Whitney test. A correlation analysis was made applying the software package Microsoft Excel 97 for IBM PC to compute correlation coefficients and their errors. Results. The cultivable bacteria in the animals with burn injury induced an infectious process in their viscera to develop sepsis on days 8—12 of the disease with a fatal outcome and the non cultivable bacteria in those with burn disease caused death due to brain injury on days 2—3, with P.aeruginosa isolated from brain tissue. Conclusion. Both the cultivable and non cultivable bacteria had significant effects in Chinchilla rabbits with burn disease. Non cultivable P.aeruginosa had a tropism for nerve tissue, which was not found in the cul tivable bacteria. 

  7. A Triangle Mesh Standardization Method Based on Particle Swarm Optimization. (United States)

    Wang, Wuli; Duan, Liming; Bai, Yang; Wang, Haoyu; Shao, Hui; Zhong, Siyang


    To enhance the triangle quality of a reconstructed triangle mesh, a novel triangle mesh standardization method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. First, each vertex of the mesh and its first order vertices are fitted to a cubic curve surface by using least square method. Additionally, based on the condition that the local fitted surface is the searching region of PSO and the best average quality of the local triangles is the goal, the vertex position of the mesh is regulated. Finally, the threshold of the normal angle between the original vertex and regulated vertex is used to determine whether the vertex needs to be adjusted to preserve the detailed features of the mesh. Compared with existing methods, experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the triangle quality of the mesh while preserving the geometric features and details of the original mesh.

  8. An XQDD-Based Verification Method for Quantum Circuits (United States)

    Wang, Shiou-An; Lu, Chin-Yung; Tsai, I.-Ming; Kuo, Sy-Yen

    Synthesis of quantum circuits is essential for building quantum computers. It is important to verify that the circuits designed perform the correct functions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which can be used to verify the quantum circuits synthesized by any method. The proposed algorithm is based on BDD (Binary Decision Diagram) and is called X-decomposition Quantum Decision Diagram (XQDD). In this method, quantum operations are modeled using a graphic method and the verification process is based on comparing these graphic diagrams. We also develop an algorithm to verify reversible circuits even if they have a different number of garbage qubits. In most cases, the number of nodes used in XQDD is less than that in other representations. In general, the proposed method is more efficient in terms of space and time and can be used to verify many quantum circuits in polynomial time.

  9. PENTECOSTAL BODY LOGICS: Cultivating a Modern Sensorium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      Pentecostals put intensive study into bodies, texts, practices, and their interrelationships so as to effectively cultivate a sensory culture -- sensorium -- and invite authoritative religious experience...

  10. The Efficient Method for Simultaneous Monitoring of the Culturable as Well as Nonculturable Airborne Microorganisms


    Barbara Hubad; Aleš Lapanje


    Cultivation-based microbiological methods are a gold standard for monitoring of airborne micro-organisms to determine the occupational exposure levels or transmission paths of a particular infectious agent. Some highly contagious microorganisms are not easily culturable but it is becoming evident that cultivation and molecular methods are complementary and in these cases highly relevant. We report a simple and efficient method for sampling and analyzing airborne bacteria with an impactor-type...

  11. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137 Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi


    Radiocesium (134 Cs and 137 Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137 Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant 137 Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137 Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg-1 ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Managerial Methods Based on Analysis, Recommended to a Boarding House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andreş


    Full Text Available The paper presents a few theoretical and practical contributions regarding the implementing of analysis based methods, respectively a SWOT and an economic analysis, from the perspective and the demands of a firm management which functions with profits due to the activity of a boarding house. The two types of managerial methods recommended to the firm offer real and complex information necessary for the knowledge of the firm status and the elaboration of prediction for the maintaining of business viability.

  13. Fuzzy-Based XML Knowledge Retrieval Methods in Edaphology


    K. Naresh kumar; Ch. Satyanand Reddy; N.V.E.S. Murthy


    In this paper, we propose a proficient method for knowledge management in Edaphology to assist the edaphologists and those related with agriculture in a big way. The proposed method mainly consists two sections of which the first one is to build the knowledge base using XML and the latter part deals with information retrieval by searching using fuzzy. Initially, the relational database is converted to the XML database. The paper discusses two algorithms, one is...

  14. Supplier selection based on multi-criterial AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pócsová


    Full Text Available This paper describes a case-study of supplier selection based on multi-criterial Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method.It is demonstrated that using adequate mathematical method can bring us “unprejudiced” conclusion, even if the alternatives (suppliercompanies are very similar in given selection-criteria. The result is the best possible supplier company from the viewpoint of chosen criteriaand the price of the product.

  15. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor


    Zhang Wei; Li Chun-li; Di Xiao-feng; Chen Mi; Tao Sheng


    In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm t...

  16. An Image Inpainting Technique Based on the Fast Marching Method


    Telea*, Alexandru


    Digital inpainting provides a means for reconstruction of small damaged portions of an image. Although the inpainting basics are straightforward, most inpainting techniques published in the literature are complex to understand and implement. We present here a new algorithm for digital inpainting based on the fast marching method for level set applications. Our algorithm is very simple to implement, fast, and produces nearly identical results to more complex, and usually slower, known methods....

  17. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  18. Local coding based matching kernel method for image classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on how to effectively and efficiently measure visual similarity for local feature based representation. Among existing methods, metrics based on Bag of Visual Word (BoV techniques are efficient and conceptually simple, at the expense of effectiveness. By contrast, kernel based metrics are more effective, but at the cost of greater computational complexity and increased storage requirements. We show that a unified visual matching framework can be developed to encompass both BoV and kernel based metrics, in which local kernel plays an important role between feature pairs or between features and their reconstruction. Generally, local kernels are defined using Euclidean distance or its derivatives, based either explicitly or implicitly on an assumption of Gaussian noise. However, local features such as SIFT and HoG often follow a heavy-tailed distribution which tends to undermine the motivation behind Euclidean metrics. Motivated by recent advances in feature coding techniques, a novel efficient local coding based matching kernel (LCMK method is proposed. This exploits the manifold structures in Hilbert space derived from local kernels. The proposed method combines advantages of both BoV and kernel based metrics, and achieves a linear computational complexity. This enables efficient and scalable visual matching to be performed on large scale image sets. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed LCMK method, we conduct extensive experiments with widely used benchmark datasets, including 15-Scenes, Caltech101/256, PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2011 datasets. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the relatively efficient LCMK method.

  19. XML-based product information processing method for product design (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu


    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  20. Connecting clinical and actuarial prediction with rule-based methods. (United States)

    Fokkema, Marjolein; Smits, Niels; Kelderman, Henk; Penninx, Brenda W J H


    Meta-analyses comparing the accuracy of clinical versus actuarial prediction have shown actuarial methods to outperform clinical methods, on average. However, actuarial methods are still not widely used in clinical practice, and there has been a call for the development of actuarial prediction methods for clinical practice. We argue that rule-based methods may be more useful than the linear main effect models usually employed in prediction studies, from a data and decision analytic as well as a practical perspective. In addition, decision rules derived with rule-based methods can be represented as fast and frugal trees, which, unlike main effects models, can be used in a sequential fashion, reducing the number of cues that have to be evaluated before making a prediction. We illustrate the usability of rule-based methods by applying RuleFit, an algorithm for deriving decision rules for classification and regression problems, to a dataset on prediction of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders from Penninx et al. (2011). The RuleFit algorithm provided a model consisting of 2 simple decision rules, requiring evaluation of only 2 to 4 cues. Predictive accuracy of the 2-rule model was very similar to that of a logistic regression model incorporating 20 predictor variables, originally applied to the dataset. In addition, the 2-rule model required, on average, evaluation of only 3 cues. Therefore, the RuleFit algorithm appears to be a promising method for creating decision tools that are less time consuming and easier to apply in psychological practice, and with accuracy comparable to traditional actuarial methods. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Equivalent Linearization Analysis Method for Base-isolated Buildings


    Liu, Tao


    Base isolation system, as one of the most popular means to mitigate the seismic risks, often exhibits strong nonlinearity. To simplify the procedure of structural design, bilinear force-deformation behavior is recommended for isolation systems in most modern structural codes. Although base isolation system can be analyzed through nonlinear time history method, solving of a system with a large number of degrees of freedom may require an exorbitant amount of time. As a substitute, the equiva...

  2. A online credit evaluation method based on AHP and SPA (United States)

    Xu, Yingtao; Zhang, Ying


    Online credit evaluation is the foundation for the establishment of trust and for the management of risk between buyers and sellers in e-commerce. In this paper, a new credit evaluation method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the set pair analysis (SPA) is presented to determine the credibility of the electronic commerce participants. It solves some of the drawbacks found in classical credit evaluation methods and broadens the scope of current approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are considered in the proposed method, then a overall credit score is achieved from the optimal perspective. In the end, a case analysis of China Garment Network is provided for illustrative purposes.

  3. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence assay performance of Bartonella henselae antigens obtained by co-cultivation in Vero and HeLa cells]. (United States)

    Ergin, Cağrı; Akkaya, Yüksel; Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Yılmaz, Cansev


    The laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection is mainly based on serological testing by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Cell line co-cultivation with B.henselae and agar derivated antigens are the two major procedures used for evaluation of anti-Bartonella antibodies. Vero and Hep-2 cell lines are the most commonly used media for co-cultivation both in-house and commercial diagnostic kits production. However, HeLa cells which are easily supplied and grown, also can easily be infected by B.henselae. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of antigens obtained by co-cultivation of B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1) in Vero and HeLa Cells in IFA serology. Out of 381 sera samples, 127 (33.3%) were found positive and 195 (51.2%) were found negative by IFA performed by both cell line co-cultivations. The total agreement between the methods were found as 84.5% (322/381), and Cohen kappa value was calculated as 0.68 (strong, coherent). As a result, He-La cells were found to be useful for the preparation of B.henselae antigens to be used in IFA for the serologic diagnosis of B.henselae infections. However different genotype strains and cross reactions with other infectious agents should be investigated by further studies before routine applications of HeLa cell co-cultivations procedure is established.

  4. Innovative design method of automobile profile based on Fourier descriptor (United States)

    Gao, Shuyong; Fu, Chaoxing; Xia, Fan; Shen, Wei


    Aiming at the innovation of the contours of automobile side, this paper presents an innovative design method of vehicle side profile based on Fourier descriptor. The design flow of this design method is: pre-processing, coordinate extraction, standardization, discrete Fourier transform, simplified Fourier descriptor, exchange descriptor innovation, inverse Fourier transform to get the outline of innovative design. Innovative concepts of the innovative methods of gene exchange among species and the innovative methods of gene exchange among different species are presented, and the contours of the innovative design are obtained separately. A three-dimensional model of a car is obtained by referring to the profile curve which is obtained by exchanging xenogeneic genes. The feasibility of the method proposed in this paper is verified by various aspects.

  5. Fast Radioactive Nuclide Recognition Method Study Based on Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Huo


    Full Text Available Based on pattern recognition method, applied the nuclear radiation digital measurement and analysis system platform, through synthetically making use of the radioactive nuclide’s ray information, selected radiation characteristic information of the radioactive nuclide, established the characteristic arrays database of radioactive nuclides, the recognition method is designed and applied to the identification of radionuclide radiation while using middle or low-resolution detector in this paper. Verified by experiments, when the count value of the traditional low-resolution spectrometer system is not reach single full energy peak’s statistical lower limit value, the three kinds of mixed radioactive nuclides’ true discrimination rate reached more than 90 % in the digital measurement and analysis system using fast radionuclide recognition method. The results show that this method is obviously superior to the traditional methods, and effectively improve the rapid identification ability to radioactive nuclide.

  6. A Localization Method for Multistatic SAR Based on Convex Optimization. (United States)

    Zhong, Xuqi; Wu, Junjie; Yang, Jianyu; Sun, Zhichao; Huang, Yuling; Li, Zhongyu


    In traditional localization methods for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), the bistatic range sum (BRS) estimation and Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are needed for the calculation of target localization. However, the DCE error greatly influences the localization accuracy. In this paper, a localization method for multistatic SAR based on convex optimization without DCE is investigated and the influence of BRS estimation error on localization accuracy is analysed. Firstly, by using the information of each transmitter and receiver (T/R) pair and the target in SAR image, the model functions of T/R pairs are constructed. Each model function's maximum is on the circumference of the ellipse which is the iso-range for its model function's T/R pair. Secondly, the target function whose maximum is located at the position of the target is obtained by adding all model functions. Thirdly, the target function is optimized based on gradient descent method to obtain the position of the target. During the iteration process, principal component analysis is implemented to guarantee the accuracy of the method and improve the computational efficiency. The proposed method only utilizes BRSs of a target in several focused images from multistatic SAR. Therefore, compared with traditional localization methods for SAR, the proposed method greatly improves the localization accuracy. The effectivity of the localization approach is validated by simulation experiment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Николаевич ГУЦА


    Full Text Available State-of-the-art decision support systems (DSS used in project management are mainly based on quantitative methods. However, formal methods of modern mathematics alone are not capable of being a universal means of solving all practical problems in this area. Due to their limited capabilities and lack of statistical and other relevant information, economic-mathematical methods find limited application in management and marketing. In addition, there are few reliable validation and verification methods available. On the other hand, expert assessment methods are free of these disadvantages and are almost the only way to solve this type of problem. Advantages of this approach include simplicity of prediction in nearly every case and excellent performance in incomplete information scenarios. This work presents a new information technology which generates a DSS, based on qualitative methods of verbal decision analysis. The authors propose certain modifications to the method of ordinary classification. The proposed technology is implemented as a web application, which is used to design a system that evaluates the probability of a successful project.

  8. Segmentation of pituitary adenoma: a graph-based method vs. a balloon inflation method. (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Zukić, Dženan; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher


    Among all abnormal growths inside the skull, the percentage of tumors in sellar region is approximately 10-15%, and the pituitary adenoma is the most common sellar lesion. A time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms is the manual segmentation of pituitary adenomas. In this contribution, two methods for pituitary adenoma segmentation in the human brain are presented and compared using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patient data from the clinical routine: Method A is a graph-based method that sets up a directed and weighted graph and performs a min-cut for optimal segmentation results: Method B is a balloon inflation method that uses balloon inflation forces to detect the pituitary adenoma boundaries. The ground truth of the pituitary adenoma boundaries - for the evaluation of the methods - are manually extracted by neurosurgeons. Comparison is done using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), a measure for spatial overlap of different segmentation results. The average DSC for all data sets is 77.5±4.5% for the graph-based method and 75.9±7.2% for the balloon inflation method showing no significant difference. The overall segmentation time of the implemented approaches was less than 4s - compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the average, 3.9±0.5min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method of coating an iron-based article (United States)

    Magdefrau, Neal; Beals, James T.; Sun, Ellen Y.; Yamanis, Jean


    A method of coating an iron-based article includes a first heating step of heating a substrate that includes an iron-based material in the presence of an aluminum source material and halide diffusion activator. The heating is conducted in a substantially non-oxidizing environment, to cause the formation of an aluminum-rich layer in the iron-based material. In a second heating step, the substrate that has the aluminum-rich layer is heated in an oxidizing environment to oxidize the aluminum in the aluminum-rich layer.

  10. A global view of shifting cultivation: Recent, current, and future extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heinimann

    Full Text Available Mosaic landscapes under shifting cultivation, with their dynamic mix of managed and natural land covers, often fall through the cracks in remote sensing-based land cover and land use classifications, as these are unable to adequately capture such landscapes' dynamic nature and complex spectral and spatial signatures. But information about such landscapes is urgently needed to improve the outcomes of global earth system modelling and large-scale carbon and greenhouse gas accounting. This study combines existing global Landsat-based deforestation data covering the years 2000 to 2014 with very high-resolution satellite imagery to visually detect the specific spatio-temporal pattern of shifting cultivation at a one-degree cell resolution worldwide. The accuracy levels of our classification were high with an overall accuracy above 87%. We estimate the current global extent of shifting cultivation and compare it to other current global mapping endeavors as well as results of literature searches. Based on an expert survey, we make a first attempt at estimating past trends as well as possible future trends in the global distribution of shifting cultivation until the end of the 21st century. With 62% of the investigated one-degree cells in the humid and sub-humid tropics currently showing signs of shifting cultivation-the majority in the Americas (41% and Africa (37%-this form of cultivation remains widespread, and it would be wrong to speak of its general global demise in the last decades. We estimate that shifting cultivation landscapes currently cover roughly 280 million hectares worldwide, including both cultivated fields and fallows. While only an approximation, this estimate is clearly smaller than the areas mentioned in the literature which range up to 1,000 million hectares. Based on our expert survey and historical trends we estimate a possible strong decrease in shifting cultivation over the next decades, raising issues of livelihood security

  11. A novel stepwise support vector machine (SVM) method based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Nov 23, 2011 ... began to use computational approaches, particularly machine learning methods to identify pre-miRNAs (Xue et al., 2005; Huang et al., 2007; Jiang et al., 2007). Xue et al. (2005) presented a support vector machine (SVM)- based classifier called triplet-SVM, which classifies human pre-miRNAs from pseudo ...

  12. Homotopy-based methods for fractional differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, I.


    The intention of this thesis is two-fold. The first aim is to describe and apply, series-based, numerical methods to fractional differential equation models. For this, it is needed to distinguish between space-fractional and time-fractional derivatives. The second goal of this thesis is to give a

  13. Graph-Based Methods for Discovery Browsing with Semantic Predications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Fiszman, Marcelo; Miller, Christopher M


    We present an extension to literature-based discovery that goes beyond making discoveries to a principled way of navigating through selected aspects of some biomedical domain. The method is a type of "discovery browsing" that guides the user through the research literature on a specified phenomen...

  14. Investigation of forming method based on flanging process (United States)

    Demyanenko, E. G.; Popov, I. P.


    In this paper the new method of forming based on flanging is investigated using computer simulation. The obtained results supported the theoretical conclusions and allowed us to create a mathematical model, to define geometric dimensions of a blank for forming of the thin axisymmetric parts with minimal thickness variation. This analysis serves as a foundation for further design of the technological process.

  15. Preparing Students for Flipped or Team-Based Learning Methods (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Clark, Michele; Restall, Gregory


    Purpose: Teaching methods such as Flipped Learning and Team-Based Learning require students to pre-learn course materials before a teaching session, because classroom exercises rely on students using self-gained knowledge. This is the reverse to "traditional" teaching when course materials are presented during a lecture, and students are…

  16. New methods for preparing mercury-based ferrofluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Rasmussen, L.H.; Mørup, Steen


    Metallic ferrofluids based on magnetic particles in mercury have been produced by two new methods. Alloy particles of Fe-B, Fe-Co-B, Fe-Ni-B, and Co-B were prepared by reduction of the transition metal ions in aqueous solutions by NaBH4 and subsequently suspended in mercury. In one preparation...

  17. Generating objects: a method bases on documents and scenarios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes an original method based on Froms and Scenarios analysis in the information systems( IS) Engineering domain with advantage of producing a conceptual object- oriented schema of the future IS. The advantages of our suggested approach consists in using simple elements (forms, information flowchart ...

  18. Planning of operation & maintenance using risk and reliability based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Operation and maintenance (OM) of offshore wind turbines contributes with a substantial part of the total levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The objective of this paper is to present an application of risk- and reliability-based methods for planning of OM. The theoretical basis is presented...

  19. A Novel Image Fusion Method Based on FRFT-NSCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiguang Wang


    fused image is obtained by performing the inverse NSCT and inverse FRFT on the combined coefficients. Three modes images and three fusion rules are demonstrated in the proposed algorithm test. The simulation results show that the proposed fusion approach is better than the methods based on NSCT at the same parameters.

  20. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh


    Full Text Available One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB. The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR, maximum unbiased validation (MUV and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  1. Transportation Mode Choice Analysis Based on Classification Methods


    Zeņina, N; Borisovs, A.


    Mode choice analysis has received the most attention among discrete choice problems in travel behavior literature. Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. This paper investigates performance of mode choice analysis with classification methods - decision trees, discriminant analysis and multinomial logit. Experimental results have demonstrated satisfactory quality of classification.

  2. Algorithm for Concrete Mix Design Based on British Method | Ezeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the algorithm were compared with those obtained based on the British method and the differences between them were found to be less than 10% in each example. Hence, the algorithm developed in this paper is working with minimum error. It is recommended for use in obtaining good results for ...

  3. Dynamic Frames Based Verification Method for Concurrent Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostowski, Wojciech


    In this paper we discuss a verification method for concurrent Java programs based on the concept of dynamic frames. We build on our earlier work that proposes a new, symbolic permission system for concurrent reasoning and we provide the following new contributions. First, we describe our approach

  4. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.


    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  5. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation. (United States)

    Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz


    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production.

  6. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation (United States)


    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  7. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong


    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  8. Fuzzy Critical Path Method Based on Lexicographic Ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Bushan Rao P


    Full Text Available The Critical Path Method (CPM is useful for planning and control of complex projects. The CPM identifies the critical activities in the critical path of an activity network. The successful implementation of CPM requires the availability of clear determined time duration for each activity. However, in practical situations this requirement is usually hard to fulfil since many of activities will be executed for the first time. Hence, there is always uncertainty about the time durations of activities in the network planning.  This has led to the development of fuzzy CPM.  In this paper, we use a Lexicographic ordering method for ranking fuzzy numbers to a critical path method in a fuzzy project network, where the duration time of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. The proposed method is compared with fuzzy CPM based on different ranking methods of fuzzy numbers. The comparison reveals that the method proposed in this paper is more effective in determining the activity criticalities and finding the critical path.   This new method is simple in calculating fuzzy critical path than many methods proposed so far in literature.  

  9. NIM: A Node Influence Based Method for Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang


    Full Text Available The classification of different cancer types owns great significance in the medical field. However, the great majority of existing cancer classification methods are clinical-based and have relatively weak diagnostic ability. With the rapid development of gene expression technology, it is able to classify different kinds of cancers using DNA microarray. Our main idea is to confront the problem of cancer classification using gene expression data from a graph-based view. Based on a new node influence model we proposed, this paper presents a novel high accuracy method for cancer classification, which is composed of four parts: the first is to calculate the similarity matrix of all samples, the second is to compute the node influence of training samples, the third is to obtain the similarity between every test sample and each class using weighted sum of node influence and similarity matrix, and the last is to classify each test sample based on its similarity between every class. The data sets used in our experiments are breast cancer, central nervous system, colon tumor, prostate cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lung cancer. experimental results showed that our node influence based method (NIM is more efficient and robust than the support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, C4.5, naive Bayes, and CART.

  10. [Galaxy/quasar classification based on nearest neighbor method]. (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Lu, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun


    With the wide application of high-quality CCD in celestial spectrum imagery and the implementation of many large sky survey programs (e. g., Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dF), Spectroscopic Survey Telescope (SST), Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) program and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program, etc.), celestial observational data are coming into the world like torrential rain. Therefore, to utilize them effectively and fully, research on automated processing methods for celestial data is imperative. In the present work, we investigated how to recognizing galaxies and quasars from spectra based on nearest neighbor method. Galaxies and quasars are extragalactic objects, they are far away from earth, and their spectra are usually contaminated by various noise. Therefore, it is a typical problem to recognize these two types of spectra in automatic spectra classification. Furthermore, the utilized method, nearest neighbor, is one of the most typical, classic, mature algorithms in pattern recognition and data mining, and often is used as a benchmark in developing novel algorithm. For applicability in practice, it is shown that the recognition ratio of nearest neighbor method (NN) is comparable to the best results reported in the literature based on more complicated methods, and the superiority of NN is that this method does not need to be trained, which is useful in incremental learning and parallel computation in mass spectral data processing. In conclusion, the results in this work are helpful for studying galaxies and quasars spectra classification.

  11. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects. (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng


    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  12. Stochastic Methods Based on VU-Decomposition Methods for Stochastic Convex Minimax Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lu


    Full Text Available This paper applies sample average approximation (SAA method based on VU-space decomposition theory to solve stochastic convex minimax problems. Under some moderate conditions, the SAA solution converges to its true counterpart with probability approaching one and convergence is exponentially fast with the increase of sample size. Based on the VU-theory, a superlinear convergent VU-algorithm frame is designed to solve the SAA problem.

  13. Cultivating the future based on science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR)......Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR)...

  14. A response-based time-dependent neutron transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounders, Justin M. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.ed [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)


    An efficient response-based solution to the time-dependent neutron transport equation in a semi-infinite slab is derived. The solution is based on polynomial expansions of the source terms and neutron flux in the time domain. The expansion coefficients of the flux solution are computed in terms of response functions, which are special cases of Green's functions for arbitrary in-volume and surface sources. The resulting response equation, which is a convolution integral equation in time, is reduced to a linear algebraic system of equations in the expansion coefficients. Two example problems are solved using the response-based method, and the extension of the method to general (finite, heterogeneous) problems is discussed.

  15. A Novel Assembly Line Balancing Method Based on PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu


    Full Text Available Assembly line is widely used in manufacturing system. Assembly line balancing problem is a crucial question during design and management of assembly lines since it directly affects the productivity of the whole manufacturing system. The model of assembly line balancing problem is put forward and a general optimization method is proposed. The key data on assembly line balancing problem is confirmed, and the precedence relations diagram is described. A double objective optimization model based on takt time and smoothness index is built, and balance optimization scheme based on PSO algorithm is proposed. Through the simulation experiments of examples, the feasibility and validity of the assembly line balancing method based on PSO algorithm is proved.

  16. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji


    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  17. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka


    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  18. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel


    BACKGROUND: Classification of bacteria within the genus Brucella has been difficult due in part to considerable genomic homogeneity between the different species and biovars, in spite of clear differences in phenotypes. Therefore, many different methods have been used to assess Brucella taxonomy....... In the current work, we examine 32 sequenced genomes from genus Brucella representing the six classical species, as well as more recently described species, using bioinformatical methods. Comparisons were made at the level of genomic DNA using oligonucleotide based methods (Markov chain based genomic signatures...... between the oligonucleotide based methods used. Whilst the Markov chain based genomic signatures grouped the different species in genus Brucella according to host preference, the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods reflected small differences between the Brucella species. Only minor differences...

  19. Cultivation of Angelica archangelica Linn.: evaluation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addition of manure (leaf litter in particular) and polyhouse cultivation further improved the yield. Economical viability of the cultivation was also observed and presented here. Keywords: Seedlings, economic yield, profit, observations, polyhouse. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences Vol. 2 (4) 2008: pp.

  20. Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Bapedi Traditional Healers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exotics Catharanthus roseus (54.9%) and. Carica papaya (15.6%) was the most cultivated. Threatened (11.6%) and protected (6.9%) species are also present in home-gardens, mostly due to their unavailability in natural areas. Conclusion: This study concludes that the practice of cultivating medicinal plant species in ...