WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultivating edible fungi

  1. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  2. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  3. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  5. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  6. 韩国食用菌产业发展现状与趋势%Korean Edible Fungi Industry Development Current Situation and Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德贤; 刘姿彤; 史磊; 王延锋; 盛春鸽; 董雪梅

    2014-01-01

    Korean edible fungi cultivation history ,cultivar ,production mode ,production status and current situation of trade are described by Korean edible fungi industry development current situ-ation in this page .It is analysised Korean edible fungi industry trend in development .%从韩国食用菌栽培历史、栽培品种、生产模式、生产现状及贸易现状等5个方面,阐述了韩国食用菌产业发展现状,并分析了韩国食用菌产业发展趋势。

  7. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfu Chen

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  9. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  10. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  11. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  12. DNA marking of some quantitative trait loci in the cultivated edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivolapova, A.B.; Shnyreva, A.V.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Pleurotus, in particular, species Pleurotus ostreatus (common oyster mushroom) are among most cultivated fungi in the world. Due to intense rates of development of studies in this field, efficient breeding programs are highly required in the search for new P. ostreatus strains.

  13. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  14. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    40 K and 137 Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. 40 K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg -1 , dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The 137 Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of 40 K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for 137 Cs. (orig.)

  15. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. {sup 40}K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg{sup -1}, dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The {sup 137}Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of {sup 40}K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  16. ISOLATION OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TWO COMMON EDIBLE AQUATIC INSECTS, HYDROPHILUS PICEUS AND DYTISCUS MARGINALIS

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    Ozlem Gur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Insects are widely used for their potential source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates and certain vitamins in many parts of the world. As in terrestial ones, aquatic insects can also carry fungal structures. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated microfungal flora of internal and external surface of Hydrophilus piceus and Dytiscus marginalis collected from their natural habitats in Erzurum (Turkey. We isolated total 19 different species of fungi belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Beauveria, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Paecilomyces genera. The relationship between these fungi and edible insects was discussed further in the light of the existing literature. Among the isolated fungi, species that were recognized as pathogenic or toxigenic, and ones having biotechnological importance were found.

  17. Qualitative characterisation of cultivated and wild edible plants: Mineral elements, phenols content and antioxidant capacity

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    Grazia Disciglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the qualitative characteristics of several edible wild herbaceous species, including those most consumed in Foggia Province (southern Italy. Analysis of qualitative characteristics was performed for the edible parts of 11 wild species (Beta vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Centaurea solstitialis L., Cichorium intybus L., Scolymus hispanicus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Borago officinalis L., Diplotaxis erucoides L., Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L. DC, Sinapis arvensis L., Portulaca oleracea L. and three cultivated species (C. intybus, B. officinalis, D. tenuifolia. The plants were collected from areas in the Foggia countryside, and the edible part of each species was analysed for dry matter, protein, cation and anion contents as well as total phenols and antioxidant activities. Among the cations, calcium was the most differentiated among species, ranging 784 mg kg–1 fresh weight (Fw for B. vulgaris to 5886 mg kg–1 Fw for S. hispanicus. The nitrate contents were also highly variable, from 75 mg kg–1 Fw for C. intybus to 3874 mg kg–1 Fw for D. tenuifolia. Total polyphenols ranged from 1054 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg kg–1 Fw for C. solstitialis to 3664 mg GAE mg kg–1 Fw for S. arvensis. Antioxidant activities ranged from 839 mg Trolox equivalents (TE kg–1 Fw for B. vulgaris to 5658 mg TE kg–1 Fw for C. intybus. Significant differences were also noted between wild and cultivated plants in the qualitative parameters. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were higher in wild C. intybus and B. officinalis than in their cultivated counterparts. Multivariate analysis (cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed integration of the ANOVA data to determine the qualitative characteristics of the wild species that contribute most to group differences. The results of the present study aims to improve current knowledge about edible wild species as vegetable sources in the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Collection, identification and shelf life enhancement of wild edible fungi used by ethnic tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Singh; Alpana; Gautam, Satendra; Shukla, Shashita; Deshmukh, Reena

    2015-01-01

    An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)

  19. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  20. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  1. Collecting and learning to identify edible fungi in southeastern Poland: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj, Lukasz; Nieroda, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    The gathering of 17 folk taxa of edible fungi (most commonly Boletus edulis, Leccinum spp., Xerocomus spp., Suillus spp., Cantharellus cibarius, Armillaria spp., Russula spp., Lactarius salmonicolor, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus erythropus) was recorded in three villages in southeast Poland, but only 13 of them are gathered by children. Gender and age differences were small (apart from the fact that more adults than children collect non-Boletaceae species), and relatives of both sexes took part in teaching children about mushrooms, although fathers were most frequently mentioned as first teachers. Collecting mushrooms, mainly for own use, sometimes for sale, is still a culturally significant activity.

  2. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

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    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  3. Cellulase production by white-rot basidiomycetous fungi: solid-state versus submerged cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentil, Joseph A.; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2018-01-01

    fungi for improved enzyme expression, as well as on-site approaches for production of enzyme blends for industrial biomass conversion. The quantitative comparisons made have implications for selection of the most appropriate cultivation method for WRB fungi for attaining maximal cellulase production....... on different biomass residues in SSC or SmC systems. Although some variation in cellulase production yields have been reported for certain substrates, the analysis convincingly shows that SmC is generally more efficient than SSC for obtaining high cellulase production yields and high cellulase production rates......) or submerged cultivation (SmC) systems. In this review, we quantitatively assess the data available in the literature on cellulase production yields by WRB fungi cultivated by SSC or SmC. The review also assesses cellulolytic enzyme production rates and enzyme recovery when WRB fungi are cultivated...

  4. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  5. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on antimony phyto-uptake and compartmentation in vegetables cultivated in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Dumat, Camille; Maes, Arthur QuyManh; Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    1. Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated. Plants were grown under hydroponic conditions and half of the treatments received a concentrated spore solution to obtain mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. Three weeks before harvest, plants were exposed to 10 mg.L -1 of either Sb 2 O 3 or KSbO-tartrate (KSb). 3. The presence of AMF significantly increased its accumulation in carrots (all organs) with higher accumulation in roots. In lettuce, accumulation appeared to be dependent on the Sb chemical species. Moreover, it was observed for the first time that AMF changed the human bioaccessible fraction of Sb in edible organs. 4. The present results highlight a possible risk of Sb transfer from soil to edible plants cultivated in soil naturally containing AMF propagules, or when AMF are added as biofertilizers. After validating the influence of soil environment and AMF on Sb behavior in the field, these results should be considered in health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Yu; Rong, Chengbo; Wang, Shouxian

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE) and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust), T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull), and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob), exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull) was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  7. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  8. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  9. Bioremediation of recalcitrant chemical pollutant-contaminated soil. Applying edible mushroom cultivation waste to bioremediation; Kinoko kinsho ni yoru nanbunkaisei busshitsu osendo no bioremidiation. Kinoko kinsho no rigunin bunkai koso kassei to takan hokozoku tanka suiso no bunkaino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Oide, E.; Oshima, Y.; Tsuji, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    Bioremediation is a viable and cost effective method for soil contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants. White-rot fungi, with emitted extracellular free radicals, are known to be able to decompose lignin, which is usually nonbiodegradable by most bacteria. The decomposition mechanism has been shown to be attributed, at least in part, to lignolytic peroxidases. We examined a method that utilizes edible mushroom cultivation waste as the microbial source, and found that these waste materials have high lignolytic peroxidase activity and degradated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sands. (author)

  10. Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Kamal Prasad; Poudel, Sushmita; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Chettri, Nakul; Chaudhary, Pashupati; Ning, Wu; Kotru, Rajan

    2018-01-29

    Local people in the Himalayan region use a wide range of wild and non-cultivated edible plants (WNEPs) for food, spice, medicinal, and cultural purposes. However, their availability, use, status and contribution to livelihood security are poorly documented, and they have been generally overlooked in recent agro-biodiversity conservation and management programmes. The study aimed to investigate WNEP diversity and current status in a part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape-a transboundary landscape shared by Nepal, India and PR China-in terms of collection, use, management and conservation initiatives. Multiple methodologies and tools were used for data collection. A series of participatory tools (45 key informant interviews, 10 focus group discussions, a crop diversity fair, direct observation of species through a transect walk and rapid market assessments) was followed by a household survey (195 respondents) and complemented by a literature review. The study recorded 99 WNEPs belonging to 59 families of which 96 were angiosperms, one gymnosperm and two pteridophytes. Species were used for food, spice, medicine, rituals and income generation. Thirty-five species had multiple uses, including these: 40 species were used for fruit and 31 for vegetables. WNEPs contribute significantly to daily food requirements, especially the vegetables. The use value of Dryopteris cochleata was found highest (0.98) among frequently used vegetable species. The values of informant consensus factor were found maximum for worms in the stomach (0.99) and minimum for skin disease treatment (0.67). Nearly 85% of households depended exclusively on WNEPs for at least more than a month per year. Results on the importance and use of different species, gender roles in WNEP activities and conservation approaches are presented. People living in the Kailash Sacred Landscape depend significantly on WNEPs, and this is especially critical in times of food shortage. The WNEPs have considerable potential as

  11. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR

    An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production

  12. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  13. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

    OpenAIRE

    Albrechtova, Jana; Latr, Ales; Nedorost, Ludovit; Pokluda, Robert; Posta, Katalin; Vosatka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum) (M1) or the single-fungus inoculum ...

  14. Isolation and characterization of cultivable fermentative bacteria from the intestine of two edible snails, Helixpomatia and Cornu aspersum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAR YVONNE CHARRIER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota of the edible snails Cornu aspersum fSyn: H. aspersa, and Helix pomatia were investigated by culture-based methods, 16S rRNA sequence analyses and phenotypic characterisations. The study was carried out on aestivating snails and two populations of H. pomatia were considered. The cultivable bacteria dominated in the distal part of the intestine, with up to 5.10(9 CFU g -1, but the Swedish H. pomatia appeared significantly less colonised, suggesting a higher sensitivity of its microbiota to climatic change. All the strains, but one, shared ≥ 97% sequence identity with reference strains. They were arranged into two taxa: the Gamma Proteobacteria with Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Obesumbacterium, Raoultella and the Firmicutes with Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. According to the literature, these genera are mostly assigned to enteric environments or to phyllosphere, data in favour of culturing snails in contact with soil and plants. None of the strains were able to digest filter paper, Avicel cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Acetogens and methanogenic archaea were not cultivated, so the fate of hydrogen remains questionable. This microbiota could play important roles in the digestive process (fermentation and the energy supply of the snail (L-lactate, acetate. The choice of cereals and plants by snail farmers should take into account the fermentative abilities of the intestinal microbiota

  15. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic

  16. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m 3 of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m 3 extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Qurshi, I.A.; Liaqat, R.; Akhtar, S.; Aziz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  18. Cultivable fungi present in Antarctic soils: taxonomy, phylogeny, diversity, and bioprospecting of antiparasitic and herbicidal metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eldon C Q; Godinho, Valéria M; Silva, Débora A S; de Paula, Maria T R; Vitoreli, Gislaine A; Zani, Carlos L; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Emerson C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Oliveira, Fabio S; Carvalho, Camila R; Ferreira, Mariana C; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2018-05-01

    Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Mortierella parvispora, and Penicillium chrysogenum displayed antiparasitic activities, whilst extracts of P. destructans, Mortierella amoeboidea, Mortierella sp. 3, and P. tardochrysogenum showed herbicidal activities. Reported as pathogenic for bats, different isolates of P. destructans exhibited trypanocidal activities and herbicidal activity, and may be a source of bioactive molecules to be considered for chemotherapy against neglected tropical diseases. The abundant presence of P. destructans in soils of the four islands gives evidence supporting that soils in the Antarctic Peninsula constitute a natural source of strains of this genus, including some P. destructans strains that are phylogenetically close to those that infect bats in North America and Europe/Palearctic Asia.

  19. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  20. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake of heavy metals in berries and edible fungi, and changes in the floral composition after treatment with ashes on forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehling, Aa.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of treatment with ash on fungi and vascular plants, and on metal contents in berries and edible fungi, were studied in pine, spruce and birch forest stands in southern Sweden. Different types of ashes were studied. The changes to the vascular flora and the fungal flora that are today taking place in southern Sweden, and probably influenced by soil acidification and nitrogen deposition, are characterised by an impoverishment of mycorrhiza-forming species and thus cannot be corrected by supply of wood ashes. Instead, supply of at least raw ashes appears to hasten the process towards a nitrogen-favoured flora. It is known that raw ashes can cause nitrate-formation whereas granulated ashes have hardly increased the pH or lead to the formation of nitrate in any field experiment. The study has now been completed and has thus largely provided answers to the questions posed: Spreading of ashes does not lead to a general increase in the uptake of heavy metals in fungi and berries. The risk that berries and fungi will contain increased contents of heavy metals during the first season after spreading is small. The studies do not suggest that raw ashes can offer a short-term answer to counteracting the changes that are taking place to the composition of the fungal flora, probably as a result of soil acidification, or as a means of recreating conditions suitable for species requiring more alkaline conditions. 7 refs, 32 tabs

  2. Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2018-01-01

    been the focus of most ecological research. Some taxa of invertebrate pathogenic fungi have evolved adaptations for utilizing living plants as substrates, and these lifestyles have recently received increased attention from researchers following the initial documentations of such plant associations...

  3. Dual inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi applicable in sustainable cultivation improves the yield and nutritive value of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, Jana; Latr, Ales; Nedorost, Ludovit; Pokluda, Robert; Posta, Katalin; Vosatka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum) (M1) or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2) and (2) bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus) (S). The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r = 0.83) between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S + M2 treatments, resp.).

  4. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Albrechtova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum (M1 or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2 and (2 bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus (S. The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r=0.83 between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S+M2 treatments, resp..

  5. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  6. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  7. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  8. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  9. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma...

  10. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  11. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqi Zhang; Wei Geng; Yueqin Shen; Yanling Wang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD) in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing mor...

  12. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  13. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g -1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g -1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas n ) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  15. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  16. Edible Cyanobacterial Genus Arthrospira: Actual State of the Art in Cultivation Methods, Genetics, and Application in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda A. Furmaniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation, or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions. Factors like the light intensity and quality, the nitrogen source, or different modes of growth (auto-, hetero-, or mixotrophic have been studied in detail. The scaling-up of the biomass production using photobioreactors, either closed or open, was also investigated to increase the production of useful compounds. The richness of nutrients contained in the genus Arthrospira can be used for promising applications in the biomedical domain. Ingredients such as the calcium spirulan, immulina, C-phycocyanin, and γ-linolenic acid (GLA show a strong biological activity. Recently, its use in the fight against cancer cells was documented in many publications. The health-promoting action of “Spirulina” has been demonstrated in the case of cardiovascular diseases and age-related conditions. Some compounds also have potent immunomodulatory properties, promoting the growth of beneficial gut microflora, acting as antimicrobial and antiviral. Products derived from Arthrospira were shown to successfully replace biomaterial scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Supplementation with the cyanobacterium also improves the health of livestock and quality of the products of animal origin. They were also used in cosmetic preparations.

  17. Bioreactor design and implementation strategies for the cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites: from traditional methods to engineered systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musoni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites and conidia at an industrial scale requires an adequate yield at relatively low cost. To this end, many factors are examined and the design of the bioreactor to be used for the selected product takes a predominant place in the analysis. One approach to addressing the issue is to integrate the scaling-up procedure according to the biological characteristics of the microorganism considered, i.e. in our case filamentous fungi. Indeed, the scaling-up procedure is considered as one of the major bottlenecks in fermentation technology, mainly due to the near impossibility of reproducing the ideal conditions obtained in small reactors designed for research purposes when transposing them to a much larger production scale. The present review seeks to make the point regarding the bioreactor design and its implementation for cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites according to different developmental stages of fungi of industrial interest. Solid-state (semi-solid, submerged, fermentation and biofilm reactors are analyzed. The different bioreactor designs used for these three processes are also described at the technological level.

  18. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrechtová, Jana; Látr, A.; Nedorost, L.; Pokluda, R.; Posta, K.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 374091 (2012) ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E09053; GA MPO FR-TI1/299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi * dual inoculation * antioxidants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

  19. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  20. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension suppleme......The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...... hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass...

  1. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  2. A simple and quick model to study uptake and transfer of radionuclides and heavy metals from mycelium to the fruitbody of saprophytic edible fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjon, J.L.; Urban, P.L.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom culture, grown under stringent laboratory conditions, was developed to watch ecophysiological pathways of xenobiotics in saprophytic fungi. The investigated substances may be added in different stages of biological cycle of the fungus. It is emphasized that to obtain the fruitbodies, all the physiological needs of the species have to be fulfilled, i.e.: nutritional requirements, optimal temperature (according to the biological cycle), humidity, aeration (oxygen and CO 2 ), absence or presence of the light in each reproduction phase, as well as the control of infections and plaques through all the production stages. The described model serves for investigation of radionuclide and heavy metal uptake and transfer in fungi. Double and some multiple fructification from the same substrate is possible giving a possibility to investigate bioremediation by mycoextraction. (author)

  3. The cultivation bias: different communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi detected in roots from the field, from bait plants transplanted to the field, and from a greenhouse trap experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ineichen, Kurt; Wiemken, Andres; Redecker, Dirk

    2007-12-01

    The community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated in roots of four different plant species (Inula salicina, Medicago sativa, Origanum vulgare, and Bromus erectus) sampled in (1) a plant species-rich calcareous grassland, (2) a bait plant bioassay conducted directly in that grassland, and (3) a greenhouse trap experiment using soil and a transplanted whole plant from that grassland as inoculum. Roots were analyzed by AMF-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism screening, and sequence analyses of rDNA small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions. The AMF sequences were analyzed phylogenetically and used to define monophyletic phylotypes. Overall, 16 phylotypes from several lineages of AMF were detected. The community composition was strongly influenced by the experimental approach, with additional influence of cultivation duration, substrate, and host plant species in some experiments. Some fungal phylotypes, e.g., GLOM-A3 (Glomus mosseae) and several members of Glomus group B, appeared predominantly in the greenhouse experiment or in bait plants. Thus, these phylotypes can be considered r strategists, rapidly colonizing uncolonized ruderal habitats in early successional stages of the fungal community. In the greenhouse experiment, for instance, G. mosseae was abundant after 3 months, but could not be detected anymore after 10 months. In contrast, other phylotypes as GLOM-A17 (G. badium) and GLOM-A16 were detected almost exclusively in roots sampled from plants naturally growing in the grassland or from bait plants exposed in the field, indicating that they preferentially occur in late successional stages of fungal communities and thus represent the K strategy. The only phylotype found with high frequency in all three experimental approaches was GLOM A-1 (G. intraradices), which is known to be a generalist. These results indicate that, in greenhouse trap experiments, it is difficult

  4. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  5. Contenido de nutrientes e inoculación con hongos ectomicorrízicos comestibles en dos pinos neotropicales Nutrient contents and inoculation with edible ectomycorrhizal fungi on two neotropical pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-03-01

    stimulate their growth. Due to the ecological and physiological importance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi, this work evaluated the effect in terms of growth, dry weight, percentage of colonization and nutrient content as a result of the inoculation with six edible ectomycorrhizal fungi within the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma on Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. and P.pseudostrobus Lindl. under greenhouse conditions. 397 days after sowing, it was observed a beneficial effect in terms of growth and dry weight of aerial and radical parts, as well as a higher contents of N, P and K of both pines as a result of the inoculation. The percentage of mycorrhization in plants inoculated with the fungi species ranged from 57 % to 90 %. When combined inoculation of ectomycorrhizal species was carried out, dominance of one of the inoculated species, in terms of root colonization, was observed. In these treatments with simultaneous inoculation, the beneficial effects reported in the hosts were comparable with those observed in plants inoculated exclusively with the dominant fungal species. According to the results, the inoculation of P. patula and P. pseudostrobus with fungal species of the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma is recommended in the establishment of forest plantations.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis of some edible oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Miller (Taramira) was checked against bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion assay. ... potential of natural edibles that is, Clove, Kalonji and Taramira oils in order to ... Traditional medicine uses N. sativa seed and its oil for.

  7. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  8. Edible macrofungi of Edremit Gulf (Balıkesir) in Turkey | Polat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi were investigated morphologically in the laboratory, and then samples were dried in the oven to preserve them as herbarium samples. 10 edible fungi species belonging to nine families were identified. Six of them are consumed by local people and sold in local markets. Key words: Edible macrofungi, Edremit Bay, ...

  9. Factors affecting the parasitic contamination of edible locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Public enlightenment is necessary to enhance the adoption of effective food safety ...

  10. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Risk evaluation of radioactive contamination in some species of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droujinina, I.; Schinner, F.; Dromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: edible mushrooms play an important role even in modern society - far beyond their value as food supply. The search for and gathering of edible mushrooms is one of the last possibilities of urbanized man to satisfy his drive as a hunter and collector in nature and thus an important part of the cultural heritage. Deprivation of this recreational activity due to radioactive contamination is considered simply a certain loss of quality of life and thus may have a strong emotional and sociological impact. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor on 26 April 1986 led to considerable amounts of radioactive material being distributed over a large area of Europe with Austria as one of the highest contaminated western countries. 13 years after the accident at Chernobyl, the long-lived isotopes such as cesium 137 (physical half-life of 30.2 years) and others are still of concern. Several publications suggest that the consumption of wild growing mushrooms has to be regarded as risky. The aim of our study is to provide some new investigations on the process of accumulation of radioactive Cs in ecosystems with the focus of attention on fungi, Therefore factors and processes limiting isotope accumulation of edible mushrooms are being determined, using standard microbiological and physical methods. Through a series of experiments and evaluations some factors limiting the accumulation of radionuclides in mycelia and in fruit bodies of selected mushrooms with a main emphasis placed on taxonomic position of each species and type of metabolism are being defined. On this basis careful extrapolation to the industrially cultivated species and to the most popular objects amongst mushroom-collectors is to be achieved. Our approach of assessing the risk of radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms, which is applicable for any assumed scenario, will be discussed. (authors)

  12. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible

  13. CULTIVATION OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM OUDEMANSIELLA CANARII (JUNGH. HÖHN. IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES Cultivo do cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn. em substratos lignocelulósicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Silveira Ruegger

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn is common in the Brazilian territory, being found in different biomas, where they colonize several plant species. In this study, the O. canarii cultivation was evaluated in polypropilene bags containing sugar-cane bagasse (200 g or eucalyptus sawdust (200 g supplemented with wheat bran (50 g. The composts were sterilized at 121ºC for 1 hour, after cooling they were inoculated with 3 g of spawn and then remained incubated at 25ºC until the basidiomata primordia formation. The mushrooms, harvested after the pilei opening, presented varied sizes reaching 9 cm of diameter and 10 cm of height. The fresh mushrooms presented mild taste and soft consistency. When kept at 4ºC, they maintained good appearance and good consistency for 7 days. In a period of 60 days, the largest basidiomata production was obtained in the compost with sugar-cane bagasse, showing greater productivity (4.47% ± 1.34, biological efficiency (55.66% ± 20.41 and compost consumption (38.78% ± 4.59 averages. Wilcoxon's non-parametric statistical analysis used to compare the biomass production in the two composts, showed significant differences at 5% significance level.O cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn., é comum no território brasileiro, sendo encontrado em diferentes biomas, onde colonizam várias espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, o cultivo deste basidiomiceto foi realizado em sacos plásticos contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (200 g ou serragem de eucalipto (200 g suplementados com farelo de trigo (50 g. Os substratos foram esterilizados a 121ºC por 1 hora, inoculados com 3 g de grãos de trigo colonizados por micélio do fungo e permaneceram incubados a 25ºC até a formação dos primórdios dos basidiomas. Os cogumelos, colhidos após a abertura do píleo, apresentaram tamanhos variados chegando a atingir 9 cm de diâmetro por 10 cm de altura. Os cogumelos frescos apresentaram paladar

  14. DEHYDRATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Carrero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have been subjected to thermal, chemical and thermal-chemical treatment. The results show that the chemical treatment produces a more effective enzymatic inactivation compared to the other two treatments. Also, the experimental study of fungi dehydration carried out at 55 ° C reveals that the critical moisture content is 10.4 kg water / kg dry solids, the equilibrium moisture is 0.22 kg water / kg of solid . Los hongos comestibles Pleurotus ostreatus...

  15. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  16. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genera Sparassis and Hericium cause wood decay. In the forests of Serbia and Montenegro 4 species are identified in the genus Sparassis, and 3 species in the genus Hericium. These fungi develop on physiologically weakened trees, recently killed trees and branch litter (windthrows, broken trees, logs, thick branches. Especially great damage in the stands of Pinus species can be caused by the fungus Sparassis crispa. This fungus colonizes the living trees through the root and causes the brown cubical rot of wood. The rot then spreads from the root to the heartwood and gradually occupies the lower, economically the most valuable part of the tree. In the young phase, the fruiting bodies of all the identified species are edible. Sparassis crispa and Hericium erinaceus excel by their nutritive value and today (in some countries they are even artificially cultivated.

  17. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  18. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community’s structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in

  19. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  20. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mayumi Yano de Melo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker e Scutellospora sp. A percentagem de colonização das raízes de bananeiras nas diferentes áreas foi em média 55%.In the region of the São Francisco Valley, where irrigated agriculture is responsable for high production of fruits for exportation, banana is one of the most expanded crops in cultivated areas. In order to know the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with this crop, samples from the rhizosphere of banana plants were collected in four areas with different soil characteristics, being identified the species: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker and

  1. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Carsten; Crescente, Oscar; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    A total of 227 marine isolates of ubiqituous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chlorofonn/methanol 3 : 2 : 1) characterized by HPLC. The fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of Venezuelan waters (0-10 m...

  2. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  3. In vitro culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: advances and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ecologically important for most vascular plants for their growth and survival. AM fungi are obligate symbionts. In recent years, there have been many attempts to cultivate in vitro. Some relevant results indicate efforts are not far from successful growth of AM fungi independent of a plant ...

  4. Insects associated with edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae cultivation in Brazil Insetos associados ao cultivo do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Paccola Meirelles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes has adapted itself well to the Brazilian climate and its cultivation techniques are accessible to small and large producers. As with any other crop, the shiitake faces insect and pest attack problems, both during the mycelia colonization period in the substrate and during the basidiocarp formation. There is no report up to now of the pests that may attack in the crop in Brazil. Consequently, this study was carried out as a preliminary survey of the insects associated with shiitake cultivation both in the growing substrate and in the fruiting bodies. The samples were taken from properties situated in Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR Nova Friburgo (RJ Sorocaba (SP and Viçosa (MG. As a result, insects from the orders Coleoptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae and Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae and Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae, were found. O cultivo de Lentinula edodes apresenta-se em crescente expansão no Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores é o ataque de insetos, tanto no substrato de crescimento do micélio, como durante o processo de formação do basidiocarpo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo fazer um levantamento preliminar dos insetos associados ao cultivo do shiitake. Deste modo, foram realizadas coletas de insetos invasores de culturas, por meio do uso de puçá e sugadores, em Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR, Nova Friburgo (RJ, Sorocaba (SP e Viçosa (MG. Como resultado, foram encontrados insetos das ordens Coleóptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae e Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae e Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae.  

  5. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  6. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene in the Mycelium and Fruit Body of the Edible Mushroom Flammulina velutipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Koo, Ja Sun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene is known to be expressed in plants, and is involved in the differentiation, growth and synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, its expression in fungi remains to be explored. To understand its expression in mushroom fungi, the PAL gene of the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes (Fvpal) was cloned and characterized. The cloned Fvpal consists of 2,175 bp, coding for a polypeptide containing 724 amino acids and having 11 introns. The translated amino acid sequence of Fvpal shares a high identity (66%) with that of ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake. Distinctively, the Fvpal expression in the mycelium was higher in minimal medium supplemented with L-tyrosine than with other aromatic amino acids. During cultivation of the mushroom on sawdust medium, Fvpal expression in the fruit body correspondingly increased as the mushroom grew. In the fruiting body, Fvpal was expressed more in the stipe than in the pileus. These results suggest that F. velutipes PAL activity differs in the different organs of the mushroom. Overall, this is first report to show that the PAL gene expression is associated with mushroom growth in fungi. PMID:26539050

  7. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  8. Phosphate-solubilizing fungi isolated from a semiarid area cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine Fungos solubilizadores de fosfato isolados de área semiárida cultivada com melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that little is known about the occurrence of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from areas cultivated with melon, the phosphate solubilization ability of filamentous fungi isolated in these areas was evaluated. Three hundred and eighteen filamentous fungal isolates belonging to 23 genera were evaluated, besides Aphyllophorales and Mycelia sterilia. From those, 52 were able to solubilize P: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 and Rhizopus (6. These results will contribute to subsidizing further research regarding the capacity of these fungi to solubilize other sources of phosphate applied to the melon crop, as well as indicate the need for a screening program to select those with higher capacity and potential for solubilization.Considerando que pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de fungos solubilizadores de fosfato de áreas cultivadas com melão, foi avaliada a habilidade de solubilização desse nutriente por fungos filamentosos isolados dessas áreas. Foram avaliadas 318 amostras de fungos filamentosos pertencentes a 23 gêneros, além de Aphyllophorales e Mycelia sterilia. Dessas amostras, 52 apresentaram habilidade para solubilizar o fosfato: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 e Rhizopus (6. Esses resultados contribuem para subsidiar pesquisas que testem a capacidade desses fungos em solubilizar outras fontes fosfatadas aplicadas na cultura do melão, assim como indicam a necessidade de selecionar isolados com maior capacidade e potencial para solubilização.

  9. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  11. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  12. Molecular Identification and Characterization of the Edible and Medicinal Morchellaceae Germplasm Collection of "Mulch Morels"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondřej, V.; Havránek, P.; Kitner, M.; Němcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), s. 369-375 ISSN 1521-9437 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : morel s * edible and medicinal fungi * ITS and AFLP analyses Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2011

  13. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  14. Fight Fungi with Fungi: Antifungal Properties of the Amphibian Mycobiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Kearns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases caused by fungal taxa are increasing and are placing a substantial burden on economies and ecosystems worldwide. Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd is linked to global amphibian declines. Amphibians have innate immunity, as well as additional resistance through cutaneous microbial communities. Despite the targeting of bacteria as potential probiotics, the role of fungi in the protection against Bd infection in unknown. We used a four-part approach, including high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities, cultivation of fungi, Bd challenge assays, and experimental additions of probiotic to Midwife Toads (Altyes obstetricans, to examine the overlapping roles of bacterial and fungal microbiota in pathogen defense in captive bred poison arrow frogs (Dendrobates sp.. Our results revealed that cutaneous fungal taxa differed from environmental microbiota across three species and a subspecies of Dendrobates spp. frogs. Cultivation of host-associated and environmental fungi realved numerous taxa with the ability to inhibit or facilitate the growth of Bd. The abundance of cutaneous fungi contributed more to Bd defense (~45% of the fungal community, than did bacteria (~10% and frog species harbored distinct inhibitory communities that were distinct from the environment. Further, we demonstrated that a fungal probiotic therapy did not induce an endocrine-immune reaction, in contrast to bacterial probiotics that stressed amphibian hosts and suppressed antimicrobial peptide responses, limiting their long-term colonization potential. Our results suggest that probiotic strategies against amphibian fungal pathogens should, in addition to bacterial probiotics, focus on host-associated and environmental fungi such as Penicillium and members of the families Chaetomiaceae and Lasiosphaeriaceae.

  15. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of two Nigerian edible macro-fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P< 0.05). The best inhibitory zone (24.0mm) was recorded in ethanol extract of L. giganteum with inhibitory zone of 21.0mm. The least inhibitory zone, (4.0mm) was recorded with the aqueous extract of L. pusilum against Proteus vulgaris.

  17. Community of endophytic fungi from the medicinal and edible plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received: 26 September 2016. Revised accepted: 12 ... against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli and. Pseudomonas .... macroscopic traits of the colonies (color, colony diameter, aspect ...

  18. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... they generate adverse environmental and economic effects related to their .... (i) Sisal decortication residue was used instead of cereal straws. ... diameter of 6 mm and there were 50 holes on the entire plastic sheet. The holes ...

  19. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... the medium to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Prior to addition to ... was used before any degradation had occurred. The dried biomass ... Each hole had a diameter of 6 mm and there were 50 holes on the entire plastic sheet.

  20. Utilization of seafood processing wastes for cultivation of the edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The substrates which were not mixed with CFW were treated as control. All the above materials were allowed to decompose partially for about 15 days. The partially composted materials were placed in heat resistant transparent sterilized polyethylene bags. Each sterile bag was then aseptically inoculated with P. flabellatus.

  1. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  2. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  3. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing

  4. Effect of water extract from spent mushroom substrate after Ganoderma balabacense cultivation by using JUNCAO technique on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Dongmei; Lin, Hui; Lin, Zhanxi

    2015-09-01

    The spent mushroom substrate of Ganoderma balabacense cultivation (SMSGB) contains a large amount of bioactive substances. However, the potentials of SMSGB for improving milk production in dairy cows have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the effects of hot water extract (HWE) from spent mushroom substrate after G. balabacense cultivated with JUNCAO, the herbaceous plants long-known to be suitable for cultivating edible and medicinal fungi, on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows, were determined. Holstein dairy cows were fed different doses of HWE. After a 60-day administration period with 100 g/day of HWE, milk yield, milk protein and triglyceride (TG) levels increased by 4.02% (P < 0.01), 4.49% (P < 0.05) and 32.65% (P < 0.05), respectively; somatic cell count (SCC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The production performance of dairy cows suggests that HWE with SMSGB treatment is effective in improving milk yield (P < 0.01) and hematology parameters of dairy cows, and may be useful as a functional feed additive. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  6. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  7. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin. PMID:22264307

  8. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-21

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  9. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Itterbeeck Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  10. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  11. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible. [41 FR 26852, June 30, 1976] ...

  12. Fungi in space--literature survey on fungi used for space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V D; Hock, B

    1993-09-01

    A complete review of the scientific literature on experiments involving fungi in space is presented. This review begins with balloon experiments around 1935 which carried fungal spores, rocket experiments in the 1950's and 60's, satellite and moon expeditions, long-time orbit experiments and Spacelab missions in the 1980's and 90's. All these missions were aimed at examining the influence of cosmic radiation and weightlessness on genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes. During the 2nd German Spacelab mission (D-2, April/May 1993), the experiment FUNGI provided the facilities to cultivate higher basidiomycetes over a period of 10 d in orbit, document gravimorphogenesis and chemically fix fruiting bodies under weightlessness for subsequent ultrastructural analysis. This review shows the necessity of space travel for research on the graviperception of higher fungi and demonstrates the novelty of the experiment FUNGI performed within the framework of the D-2 mission.

  13. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  14. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  15. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  16. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  17. Edible insects and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At

  18. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  19. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  20. Evaluation of maize cultivars for their susceptibility towards mycotoxigenic fungi under storage conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dawlal, P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize cultivation comprises the largest area of farmland in South Africa and it is the largest food crop consumed by the majority of its population. However, this food crop is frequently associated with mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  1. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  2. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  3. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  4. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  5. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  6. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  8. Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of yeasts and related fungi in the Ustilaginomycotina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q. -M.; Begerow, D.; Groenewald, M.; Liu, X. -Z.; Theelen, B.; Bai, F. -Y.; Boekhout, T.

    The subphylum Ustilaginomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) comprises mainly plant pathogenic fungi (smuts). Some of the lineages possess cultivable unicellular stages that are usually classified as yeast or yeast-like species in a largely artificial taxonomic system which is independent from and

  9. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  10. Filamentous fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of melon plants (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivated in soil with organic amendments Fungos filamentosos isolados da rizosfera de meloeiros (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivados em solo com compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere soil samples were collected in a semiarid area, in the region of the São Francisco River valley, Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, to study the diversity of filamentous fungi in a soil cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine and receiving different organic amendments: Treatment 1 (control, without organic compost; T2 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; T3 (10% Ricinus communis leaves and stems, 50% Pennisetum purpureum leaves and 40% goat manure; T4 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% termophosphate; T5 (47% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 50% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; and T6 (57% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 40% goat manure and 3% termophosphate. Fungal isolation was carried out by the serial dilution technique to 1:1000. The Sorensen index of similarity, frequency and distribution of the fungi were evaluated. Seventy-eight species of filamentous fungi were isolated and identified, plus several Basidiomycota (04 and Mycelia sterilia (02. The predominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with 15 and 13 species, respectively. A greater number of species was found in the sowing period (49, and in relation to the organic fertilization, treatment 6 provided the greatest species diversity (43 species. Most of the species are saprobes and only a few are considered to be potential pathogens on melon plants, such as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Myrothecium roridum.Foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico em uma área semiárida, na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer a diversidade dos fungos filamentosos presentes em solo cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo cv. Gold Mine e adubado com diferentes compostos orgânicos: Tratamento 1 (controle, sem adição de compostos orgânicos; T2 (77% de bagaço de côco, 20% de esterco de caprino e 3% de K2SO4; T3 (10% de torta de mamona, 50% de capim elefante e 40% de esterco de caprino; T4 (77% de

  11. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Adámek; Anna Adámková; Marie Borkovcová; Jiří Mlček; Martina Bednářová; Lenka Kouřimská; Josef Skácel; Michal Řezníček

    2017-01-01

    Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manusc...

  12. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  13. Preliminary researches regarding edible jet printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, M. R.; Brasoveanu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The automatic reproduction of images with edible materials is a new method used lately to decorate cakes. An important component of this technology is the ink. The paper presents the results obtained by using different physical methods for analysis of some jet printing inks types. The analysed inks were the Canon inks and edible inks from Thailand. The main considered methods were the spectrocolourymetrical, rheological, electrochemical. Choosing as a chromatic standard the Canon inks and for the physicochemical properties the edible inks from Thailand, it was prepared a yellow edible printing ink which was characterized by same methods

  14. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    of higher marine fungi which included 23 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 17 Deuteromycetes (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Hyde (1990a) listed 120 species from 29 mangroves from all over the World this includes 87 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 31...

  15. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: a preface to managing commercial harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Molina; Thomas O' Dell; Daniel Luoma; Michael Amaranthus; Michael Castellano; Kenelm. Russell

    1993-01-01

    The commercial harvest of edible forest fungi has mushroomed into a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The development of this special forest product industry has raised considerable controversy about how this resource should be managed, especially on public lands. Concerns center around destruction of forest habitat by repeated...

  16. Dissipation and Migration of Pyrethroids in Auricularia polytricha Mont. from Cultivation to Postharvest Processing and Dietary Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jing Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure raw consumption safety the dissipation behavior, migration, postharvest processing, and dietary risk assessment of five pyrethroids in mushroom (Auricularia polytricha Mont. cultivated under Chinese greenhouse-field conditions. Half-lives (t1/2 of pyrethroids in fruiting body and substrate samples were 3.10–5.26 and 17.46–40.06 d, respectively. Fenpropathrin dissipated rapidly in fruiting bodies (t1/2 3.10 d; bifenthrin had the longest t1/2. At harvest, pyrethroid residues in A. polytricha (except fenpropathrin were above the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs. Some migration of lambda-cyhalothrin was observed in the substrate-fruit body system. In postharvest-processing, sun-drying and soaking reduced pyrethroid residues by 25–83%. We therefore recommend that consumers soak these mushrooms in 0.5% NaHCO3 at 50 °C for 90 min. Pyrethroids exhibit a particularly low PF value of 0.08–0.13%, resulting in a negligible exposure risk upon mushroom consumption. This study provides guidance for the safe application of pyrethroids to edible fungi, and for the establishment of MRLs in mushrooms to reduce pesticide exposure in humans.

  17. "Those edibles hit hard": Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users' perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users' perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving edibles labeling, and testing their THC

  18. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  19. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. U.S. cannabis legalization and use of vaping and edible products among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Jacob T; Lee, Dustin C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Gabrielli, Joy L; Sargent, James D; Budney, Alan J

    2017-08-01

    Alternative methods for consuming cannabis (e.g., vaping and edibles) have become more popular in the wake of U.S. cannabis legalization. Specific provisions of legal cannabis laws (LCL) (e.g., dispensary regulations) may impact the likelihood that youth will use alternative methods and the age at which they first try the method - potentially magnifying or mitigating the developmental harms of cannabis use. This study examined associations between LCL provisions and how youth consume cannabis. An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook advertising, and data were collected from 2630 cannabis-using youth (ages 14-18). U.S. states were coded for LCL status and various LCL provisions. Regression analyses tested associations among lifetime use and age of onset of cannabis vaping and edibles and LCL provisions. Longer LCL duration (OR vaping : 2.82, 95% CI: 2.24, 3.55; OR edibles : 3.82, 95% CI: 2.96, 4.94), and higher dispensary density (OR vaping : 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12, 3.38; OR edibles : 3.31, 95% CI: 2.56, 4.26), were related to higher likelihood of trying vaping and edibles. Permitting home cultivation was related to higher likelihood (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.48) and younger age of onset (β: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.15) of edibles. Specific provisions of LCL appear to impact the likelihood, and age at which, youth use alternative methods to consume cannabis. These methods may carry differential risks for initiation and escalation of cannabis use. Understanding associations between LCL provisions and methods of administration can inform the design of effective cannabis regulatory strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  2. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  3. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  4. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  5. India Edible Oil Consumption: A Censored Incomplete Demand Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A Censored Incomplete Demand System is applied to household expenditures for edible oil in India. The results show that edible peanut oil is still a luxury good in India, whereas expenditure elasticities for other edible oils are relatively low. The food habit, location, education of household heads, and other demographic variables have significant effects on the choice of edible oils.

  6. POTENSI EDIBLE FILM ANTIMIKROBA SEBAGAI PENGAWET DAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskiyah (Maskiyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh meat are highly perishable due to their enriched nutrient composition which is easily contaminated by almost any microorganisms. The application of antimicrobial edible films is one of the effective method to extend the shelf life of fresh meat. This study aimed to get antimicrobial edible films formula that have the potential to preserve fresh meat. The study consisted of several steps: 1 research for making a fresh garlic extract, 2 extraction of gelatin from chicken feet, 3 formulation and manufacturing of antimicrobial edible films and 4 the application of edible films on fresh meat. Gelatin-based antimicrobial edible films was the best one that can be applied on fresh meat. Characteristics of the antimirobial edible film: color L 97.28; elongation: 20 mm; tensile strength <0.1 kgf; thickness 0.06 mm; WVTR 15.49 g/(mm.jam; Aw 0.526; moisture content: 22.73%, and has antimicrobial characteristic because of it’s inhibition ability to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. (Key words: Antimicrobial, Edible film, Meat

  7. Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Roya; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Rafati, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  9. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  10. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  11. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. The use of sensory analysis in biotechnology of the cultivation of macromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Vlasenko

    2016-08-01

    undertake the sensory analysis. First, using sensory analysis, the degustation commission determined the following descriptors of odour for the fruiting bodies of the fungi: mushroom, woody, grassy, sweet, sour. Then the intensity of the aroma of each sample was assessed on a five-point scale. The most characteristic mushroom aroma of the dried fruit bodies was obtained when oak bark was the substrate for cultivation. The samples of mushroom grown on sawdust and waste corn had a similar aroma. The samples obtained for sunflower husk and wheat straw had a slight mushroom aroma with grassy and sour notes. Thus, the use of the sensory profile method of analysis makes it possible to assess the degree of intensity of aroma of fruit bodies of higher edible mushrooms in relation to the conditions of their cultivation without having to use complicated instrumental methods of analysis. Moreover, sensory profile analysis can be used to monitor the odours and aromas of mushrooms, which are cultivated in artificial conditions, for the adjustment of the cultivation process and for conducting a rapid appraisal of the quality of mushroom products.

  13. An ethnobotanical study of the less known wild edible figs (genus Ficus) native to Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yinxian; Hu, Huabin; Xu, Youkai; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-09-24

    The genus Ficus, collectively known as figs, is a key component of tropical forests and is well known for its ethnobotanical importance. In recent decades an increasing number of studies have shown the indigenous knowledge about wild edible Ficus species and their culinary or medicinal value. However, rather little is known about the role of these species in rural livelihoods, because of both species and cultural diversity. In this study we 1) collected the species and ethnic names of wild edible Ficus exploited by four cultural groups in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, and 2) recorded the collection activities and modes of consumption through semi-structured interviews, 3) investigated the resource management by a statistical survey of their field distribution and cultivation, and 4) compared and estimated the usage intensities by the grading method. The young leaves, leaf buds and young or ripe syconia of 13 Ficus species or varieties are traditionally consumed. All the species had fixed and usually food-related ethnic names. All four cultural groups are experienced in the collection and use of edible Ficus species as vegetables, fruits or beverages, with the surplus sold for cash income. Different cultural groups use the Ficus species at different intensities because of differences in availability, forest dependency and cultural factors. Both the mountain and basin villagers make an effort to realize sustainable collection and meet their own and market needs by resource management in situ or cultivation. In comparison with reports from other parts of the world, ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna exploited more edible Ficus species for young leaves or leaf buds. Most of the edible species undergo a gradient of management intensities following a gradient of manipulation from simple field gathering to ex situ cultivation. This study contributes to our understanding of the origins and diffusion of the knowledge of perception, application and managing a group of

  14. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  15. Fungal conservation: Protected species of fungi in South Serbia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiković, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection and conservation of fungi has only recently became an issue of concern. Main motives for increased attention are uncontrolled, mass collecting of edible wild mushrooms and environmental pollution which leads to the rapid decline of their natural habitats, some of which are rich with rare and endangered species. By Serbian Nature Conservation Law 2010. there are 38 strictly protected fungal species of which 17 species are recorded in this paper. 11 of those recorded species are on European and/or National Red List of endangered fungal species. All investigated territories were in South Serbia region. This study is a contribution to conservation of protected and threatened fungi and their respective habitats in Serbia.

  16. Culture and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Xiao Jing; Wong, Shew Fung; Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi; Mak, Joon Wah

    2015-01-01

    Widespread food poisoning due to microbial contamination has been a major concern for the food industry, consumers and governing authorities. This study is designed to determine the levels of fungal contamination in edible bird nests (EBNs) using culture and molecular techniques. Raw EBNs were collected from five house farms, and commercial EBNs were purchased from five Chinese traditional medicine shops (companies A-E) in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungal contents in the raw and commercial EBNs, and boiled and unboiled EBNs were determined. Culturable fungi were isolated and identified. In this study, the use of these methods revealed that all EBNs had fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) that exceeded the limit set by Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) for yeast and moulds in EBNs. There was a significant difference (p 0.05). The types of fungi isolated from the unboiled raw EBNs were mainly soil, plant and environmental fungi, while the types of fungi isolated from the boiled raw EBNs, unboiled and boiled commercial EBNs were mainly environmental fungi. Aspergillus sp., Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Neurospora sp. and Penicillum sp. were the most common fungi isolated from the unboiled and boiled raw and commercial EBNs. Some of these fungi are mycotoxin producers and cause opportunistic infections in humans. Further studies to determine the mycotoxin levels and methods to prevent or remove these contaminations from EBNs for safe consumption are necessary. The establishment and implementation of stringent regulations for the standards of EBNs should be regularly updated and monitored to improve the quality of the EBNs and consumer safety.

  17. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  18. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  19. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  20. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  1. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils. PMID:25989372

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils.

  3. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  4. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  5. First record of entomopathogenic fungi on autumn leaf Caterpillar (Doleschallia bisaltide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanti, A. K.; Sholahuddin; Yunus, A.; Subositi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Caricature plant is one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia to cure hemorrhoids, menstruation, and others. The cultivation constraints of caricature plant is autumn leaf caterpillars (Doleschallia bisaltide). Utilization of synthetic insecticides is not allowed to avoid bioaccumulation of chemical residues. Entomopathogenic fungi is an alternative way to control D. bisaltide. The objective of the research was to obtain isolates of entomopathogenic fungi of D. bisaltide. The research conducted by two steps, which were exsploration of infecfted D. bisaltide. The second step was identification of the fungi. Exploration results of 16 pupae of D. Bisaltide were infected by fungi. Identification done by classify the mcroscopic and microscopic fungi isolate characteristic. One from five fungal isolates were entomopathogenic fungi from Verticillium genera.

  6. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  7. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

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    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  8. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  9. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2017-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  10. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vries, de Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2018-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  11. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  12. Successive cultivation of maize and agricultural practices on root colonization, number of spores and species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Cultivo sucessivo de milho e práticas agrícolas sobre a colonização radical, número de esporos e de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of propagules and a broad spectrum of species are two important components of ecosystem (including agroecosystem sustainability. Previous studies carried out in temperate areas showed that repeated monoculture leads to a decrease in the species abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. This study evaluated the influence of maize monoculture and its agricultural practices on AMF during three consecutive cropping years in a Brazilian field. At the end of each cycle, soil and root samples were evaluated for species composition, spore populations and root colonization by AMF. The AMF community present during this period was scored according to the Spearman rank correlation and Principal Components Analysis. The mean percent root colonization values for the three cultivation periods were: 66.9, 60.7 and 70.5, respectively. Seven species were detected in the first year, Scutellospora persica being the most abundant (24.1% of spores and Glomus macrocarpum the most observed (100% of samples. In the second year, Glomus etunicatum was the species with the greatest number of spores (24.7% and, like G. macrocarpum, the most frequently observed (90% in a community of thirteen. In the third year, twenty-three AMF species were identified, Scutellospora sp. 1 being the most abundant (17.4%, and Gigaspora decipiens and Glomus claroideum the most frequent (both with a relative frequency of 70%. The main soil factors influencing root colonization and sporulation by AMF were pH (and related properties, phosphorus and organic matter contents.Elevado número de propágulos e de espécies são componentes importantes para manter a sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas, incluindo agrossistemas. Estudos desenvolvidos em áreas temperadas indicaram que monocultivo prolongado conduziu ao decréscimo na abundância de esporos e de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA. O presente estudo avaliou a influência da monocultura de milho e de suas

  13. Detecção de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em raízes de cafeeiro e de crotalária cultivada na entrelinha Detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of coffee plants and crotalaria cultivated between rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNALDO COLOZZI FILHO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no solo rizosférico e nas raízes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e de Crotalaria breviflora DC., cultivada na entrelinha como adubo verde. Amostras de solo rizosférico e raízes foram coletadas em julho de 1997, em parte de um experimento de longa duração conduzido no campo pelo Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, no município de Mirasselva, PR. Determinou-se a diversidade de FMAs, por meio da identificação morfológica dos esporos, a freqüência de ocorrência de populações de FMAs por meio da contagem direta de esporos no solo, e a colonização radicular. Extraiu-se DNA de raízes de cafeeiro colonizadas e não-colonizadas e de esporos de Acaulospora longula e Scutellospora gilmorei, coletados na rizosfera, realizando-se a PCR ("Polimerase chain reaction" com primers ITS ("Internal transcribed spacer" e comparando os perfis de bandas obtidos. O cultivo de crotalária na entrelinha do cafeeiro aumentou a concentração de esporos de FMAs na rizosfera do cafeeiro. A crotalária e o cafeeiro estimularam populações diferentes de FMAs. O gênero Acaulospora predominou na rizosfera do cafeeiro, e Scutellospora e Gigaspora na rizosfera da crotalária. Usando técnicas moleculares, foi possível caracterizar FMAs na rizosfera e nas raízes colonizadas do cafeeiro. O fungo micorrízico Scutellospora gilmorei, de ocorrência comum em cafeeiro e crotalária, não foi encontrado colonizando as raízes do cafeeiro. O uso de técnicas moleculares pode auxiliar no estudo da dinâmica populacional de FMAs no campo.The sporulation and occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in the coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. and Crotalaria breviflora DC. rhizosphere and roots. C. breviflora was intercropped for green manure of the coffee plants. Samples of rhizosphere soil and roots were collected in July of 1997 in a long-time experiment localized at the Instituto Agron

  14. Caracterização da produção em toros do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo = Characterization of log cultivation of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in western São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Ferreira de Queiroz Neves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Dracena, Junqueirópolis,Mirandópolis, Alianças, Ilha Solteira, Castilho, Araçatuba, Birigui e Guararapes, Estado de São Paulo, aplicando-se um questionário para 17 produtores. As informações sobre as etapas do cultivo de Shiitake em toros, catalogando e caracterizando os produtores e o cultivo,foram tabuladas no software Microsoft Excel for Windows. Os resultados evidenciaram que o cultivo de Shiitake, nesta região, é recente, está em franca expansão e os produtores possuem alto grau de escolaridade. O cultivo está localizado principalmente na zona rural eé realizado tanto por brasileiros descendentes de japoneses como por brasileiros nativos. O eucalipto e a mangueira são as árvores mais utilizadas. A alta ocorrência de contaminação nos toros pode ser por causa do cultivo realizado em ambientes sem controle de temperatura e umidade relativa e à ausência de um manejo adequado. A região contava, em 2004, com 45 mil toros inoculados e uma produtividade média de 200 g cogumelo fresco/toro. Os cogumelos embalados em bandejas de 200 g são vendidos principalmente para o Ceasa em feiras livres.This study was carried out in the towns of Dracena, Junqueirópolis, Mirandópolis, Alianças, Ilha Solteira, Castilho, Araçatuba, Birigui and Guararapes, São Paulo State, by surveying 17 Shiitakegrowers through a questionnaire. Data pertaining to the stages of log-Shiitake growing, recording and characterization of growers and growing systems were entered into Microsoft Excel for Windows. The results showed that Shiitake cultivation is recent and increasing inthis region, and that growers have a high education level. Shiitake cultivation is mainly located in rural areas, with both Brazilians of Japanese descent and native Brazilians growing it. The most commonly used trees are eucalyptus and mango. The high level of log contamination is perhaps due to growing without temperature or moisture

  15. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  16. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  17. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  18. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V.C.; Moreno, J.P.; Lizaola, R.Q.; Moreno, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  20. The effect of environmental contamination on the community structure and fructification of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qibiao; Liu, Yaping; Yuan, Huatao; Lian, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an essential component of forest ecosystems, most of which can form edible and medical fruiting bodies. Although many studies have focused on the fructification of ectomycorrhizal fungi in phenology, the impact of environmental contamination, especially living garbage, on the formation of fruiting body is still unknown. A field investigation, combined with a high-throughput sequencing method, was used to study the effect of living garbage pollution on the fructification and hypogeous community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiosing with cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don). The results showed that garbage significantly altered soil abiotic and biotic properties, increasing soil urease activity, decreasing the soil exchangeable metal content and phosphatase activity, and ultimately inhibiting the formation of fruiting bodies. The pollution of garbage also changed the community structure of hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungi where ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes dominated. In unpolluted sites, the relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were almost equal. Although no fruiting bodies were observed in that soil polluted by living garbage, the sequencing result showed that various ectomycorrhizal fungi were present underground, suggesting that these taxonomic fungi had the potential to cope with adverse conditions. This study not only provided a deeper understanding of the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal communities and prevailing environmental conditions, but provided a new pathway for the excavation and utilization of the resource of antistress ectomycorrhizal fungi. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Change in hyphal morphology of Aspergillus Oryzae during fed-batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Hansen, K

    2006-01-01

    the batch phase from 2.8-2.9 up to 4.0-4.4 mu m. The diameter of the hyphal elements remained constant, around 4 mu m, after the feed was started. However, the diameter of the immediate hyphal tip, where the enzyme secretion is thought to take place, increased dramatically with up to a factor 2.5 during......Industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. During cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. The morphology of a recombinant lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated...

  3. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rego

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous surveys conducted in commercial nurseries found that different wood fungi, namely Cylindrocarpon spp., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infect grapevine cuttings. Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin + metiram, fludioxonil and cyprodinil to prevent or reduce natural infections caused by such fungi. Rootstock and scion cuttings were soaked in fungicidal suspensions for 50 min prior to grafting. After callusing, the grafted cuttings were planted in two commercial field nurseries with and without a previous history of grapevine cultivation. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted and analysed for the incidence and severity of the wood fungi. Plants uprooted from the field without a previous history of grapevine cultivation were generally less strongly infected by wood fungi. Under this condition, only the mixture cyprodinil + fludioxonil simultaneously reduced the incidence of Cylindrocarpon and Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, as well as the severity of Cylindrocarpon infections. Treatments did not produce significant differences in the incidence and severity of P. viticola, and Pa. chlamydospora. For plants grown in the field with a grapevine history, all fungicides except cyprodinil significantly reduced the incidence and severity of Cylindrocarpon fungi. Also, the incidence and severity of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens were significantly decreased both by cyprodinil + fludioxonil and by cyprodinil. No significant differences were noticed for P. viticola incidence and severity, and Pa. chlamydospora was not detected again. These results suggest that the practice of soaking grapevine cuttings in selected fungicides prior to grafting significantly reduces Cylindrocarpon spp. and Botryosphaeriaceae infections, thus improving the quality of planting material.

  4. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  5. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJA RISHI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Rishi R, Borah D. 2013. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India. Biodiversitas 14: 67-72. Non-timber forest products constitute an important source of livelihood for rural households from forest fringe communities across the world. Utilization of wild edible tuber plants is an integral component of their culture. Mycorrhizal associations influence the establishment and production of tuber plants under field conditions.The aim of present study is to explore the diversity and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF colonization of wild edible tuber plants grown in wet evergreen forest of Assam, India. A survey was conducted in 2009-10 in Sunaikuchi, Khulahat, and Bura Mayong reserved forest of Morigaon district of Assam to determine the AMF spore population in rhizosphere soils and root colonization of 14 tuberous edible plants belonging to five families. The results revealed AMF colonization of all selected species in all seasons. The percent colonization and spore count was less in summer, moderate in winter and highest in rainy season. Seventeen species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded in four genera viz. Acaulospora (7 species, Glomus (5 species, Sclerocystis (3 species and Gigaspora (2 species.

  6. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  8. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  9. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    NN

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this book, important developments in biotechnology and mushroom production made a new, revised version necessary. As it is written for the mushroom industry, it emphasizes on nutritional, medical, and cultivating aspects of edible and medicinal fungi. A short introduction deals with a definition of fungi and the world of fungi, including edible and poisonous species, and the relation between fungi and man. Two chapters deal with edible and medicin...

  10. [Nutrient transfer and growth of Pinus greggii Engelm. inoculated with edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in two substrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Chávez, María C; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Cetina-Alcalá, Víctor M; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    An ectomycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis of paramount importance in forestry and tree production. One of the selection criteria of ectomycorrhizal fungi that has currently gained importance is their edibility due to the economic, ecological and cultural relevance of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms as a non-timber forest product. The effect of the inoculation with three edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: Laccaria laccata, Laccaria bicolor y Hebeloma leucosarx, which are widely sold in Mexico, on the growth and nutrient contents of Pinus greggii grown in an experimental substrate and a commercial substrate enriched with a slow-release fertilizer, was evaluated. Two years after sowing, differences in terms of shoot and root biomass and macro and micronutrient contents between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, were recorded independently of the fungal species and the substrate. Despite the fact that plants grown in the commercial substrate had higher growth and nutrient contents, their ectomycorrhizal colonization percentages were smaller than those of the plants grown in the experimental substrate. The differences in the nutrient transfer to the inoculated plant shoots among the evaluated fungal species were recorded. Ca mobilization by L. laccata, Na by L. bicolor and Mn by H. leucosarx were observed in the plants growing in the experimental substrate. It has been demonstrated that the selection of substrates constitutes an important factor in the production of ectomycorrhizal plants and that the three evaluated species of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms have an enormous potential in the controlled mycorrhization of P. greggii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Wingfield, M.J.; Akulov, A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Gramaje, D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Guarnaccia, V.; Halleen, F.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Marincowitz, S.; Moslemi, A.; Mostert, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Schumacher, R.K.; Spies, C.F.J.; Thangavel, R.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Wilson, A.M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA

  12. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  13. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  14. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  15. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  16. Evaluation of biomass of some invasive weed species as substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintesnot, Birara; Ayalew, Amare; Kebede, Ameha

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.

  17. Integrated approaches for assessment of cellular performance in industrially relevant filamantous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The performance of filamentous fungi in submerged cultivation determines their suitability for large-scale industrial biotechnology processes and is the result of complex interplay between the physical and chemical parameters of the process and the cellular biology of the fungi. Filamentous fungi...... of these organisms. Increased future focus on multicellular physiology and relevant assays will lead to fungal cells and processes that are customizable to a greater degree, finally allowing the full potential of these complex organisms and their product diversity to unfold....

  18. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  19. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves the nutritional value of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Miranda; Ehret, David L; Krumbein, Angelika; Leung, Connie; Murch, Susan; Turi, Christina; Franken, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect many different micronutrients and macronutrients in plants and also influence host volatile compound synthesis. Their effect on the edible portions of plants is less clear. Two separate studies were performed to investigate whether inoculation by AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, or both) can affect the food quality of tomato fruits, in particular common minerals, antioxidants, carotenoids, a suite of vitamins, and flavor compounds (sugars, titratable acids, volatile compounds). It was found that AM fungal inoculation increased the nutrient quality of tomato fruits for most nutrients except vitamins. Fruit mineral concentration increased with inoculation (particularly N, P, and Cu). Similarly, inoculated plants had fruit with higher antioxidant capacity and more carotenoids. Furthermore, five volatile compounds were significantly higher in AM plants compared with non-AM controls. Taken together, these results show that AM fungi represent a promising resource for improving both sustainable food production and human nutritional needs.

  20. Incredible Edible: How to Grow Sustainable Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an outline of the basic ideas and approaches used by the Incredible Edible programme, a community enterprise that is based in the United Kingdom. To do this the author briefly (1) defines the context for the programme, (2) defines the concepts that inform the programme, (3) and illustrates some of the action of the…

  1. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manuscript describes the phases of edible insect culinary treatment and methods of distinguishing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and giant mealworm (Zophobas morio using simple electronic nose. These species were measured in the live stage, after killing with boiling water, after drying and after inserting into the chocolate.The sensing device was based on the Arduino Mega platform with the ability to store the recorded data on the SD memory card, and with the possibility to communicate via internet. Data analysis shows that even a simple, cheap and portable electronic nose can distinguish between the different steps of culinary treatment (native samples, dried samples, samples enriched with chocolate for cooking and selected species. Another benefit of the electronic nose could be its future introduction into the control mechanisms of food security systems (e.g. HACCP.

  2. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  3. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the ro...

  4. “Those edibles hit hard”: Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users’ perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Methods Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users’ perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. Results We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving

  5. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2015-03-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing worldwide demand for protein. Their preliminary work is promising, as it suggests that when compared to other sources of meat, insects can be an efficient, safe, and low-impact source of nutrients. Additionally, in many sites with endemic malnutrition, people find insects tasty. The problem these scientists are grappling with, however, is that insects that are easily mass-produced are not the insects people typically want to eat. This paper shows how the contingency of edibility complicates existing scientific models of travel that posit that singular objects spread peripherally outwards from a center into a globally connected, singular world. The scientists are finding that the production of successful food products necessitates that insects be constantly tinkered with: there is no "insect" that can be globally edible since "the global" itself is not a singular entity. This in turn complicates the vision of replicability and "scaling up" inherent in an OWOH vision of science. The researchers' process of moving their goods from the laboratory boxes they work with into the mealtime practices they seek to impact is compelling them to cultivate and articulate new ideals for research, methods of translation, and pathways by which goods can travel. They are finding that if they want to affect the health of "the world," they must engage with many different worlds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  7. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2014-06-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gracia region of Mexico. The aim of the present study was to elucidate their identity through the analysis of morphological characters and DNA phylogeny (based on the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and the ITS spacers and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon) of the fungi associated with these disease symptoms. Three species are newly described: Phaeococcomyces mexicanus sp. nov., a presumed epiphyte, and two species associated with leaf spots and defoliation, namely Coccomyces arctostaphyloides sp. nov. and Passalora arctostaphyli sp. nov. A fourth species is also associated with leaf spots and tip dieback is Harknessia arctostaphyli, for which an epitype is designated. All species can co-occur on the same shrub, which adds to the stress experienced by the plant, leading to further defoliation and dieback.

  8. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  9. Can fungi compete with marine sources for chitosan production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, V; Pathan, E K; Deshpande, M V

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source. Zygomycetous fungi such as Absidia coerulea, Benjaminiella poitrasii, Cunninghamella elegans, Gongrenella butleri, Mucor rouxii, Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus oryzae have been studied extensively. Isolation of chitosan are reported from few edible basidiomycetous fungi like Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Other organisms from mycotech industries explored for chitosan production are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other wine yeasts. Number of aspects such as value addition to the existing applications of fungi, utilization of waste from agriculture sector, and issues and challenges for the production of fungal chitosan to compete with existing sources, metabolic engineering and novel applications have been discussed to adjudge the potential of fungal sources for commercial chitosan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower fungi and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, M.

    1989-01-01

    Sorption activities for radioactive elements were observed in molds Penicillinum muszynsky, Aspergillus versicolor and Alternaria tenius. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were isolated in laboratory and cultivated on a modified substrate containing uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate. They were found to be capable of absorbing in the biomass some members of the uranium decay series. (E.J.). 4 tabs., 11 refs

  11. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the vegetative life stage of terrestrial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of terrestrial fungi produce fruiting bodies that contain high proportions of arsenobetaine (AB), an arsenic compound of no known toxicity. It is unknown whether fungi produce or accumulate AB from the surrounding environment. The present study targets the vegetative life stage (mycelium) of fungi, to examine the role of this stage in arsenic transformations and potential formation of AB. The mycelia of three different fungi species were cultured axenically and exposed to AB, arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinoyl acetic acid for 60 days. Agaricus bisporus was additionally exposed to hypothesized precursors for AB and the exposure time to As(V) and dimethlyarsinic acid was also extended to 120 days. The mycelia of all fungi species accumulated all arsenic compounds with two species accumulating significantly more AB than other compounds. Few biotransformations were observed in these experiments indicating that it is unlikely that the mycelium of the fungus is responsible for biosynthesizing AB. - Highlights: • Mycelia of terrestrial fungi were exposed to arsenobetaine (AB) and potential precursors. • Mycelium may be selectively accumulating AB and transporting it to fruiting bodies. • Mycelium did not biosynthesize AB. - Mycelia of edible mushrooms preferentially accumulate arsenobetaine but do not biosynthesize this non-toxic arsenical

  12. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L.; McGuinness, Keith A.; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. -- Highlights: ► Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media. ► Soil microorganisms isolated from the Ranger Land Application Areas (LAAs) were resistant to uranium. ► Bacillus was the most abundant cultivable genus retrieved from the Ranger LAAs soils. ► Uranium in LAAs soils is

  16. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  17. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase

  18. Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and t...

  19. A two-phase kinetic model for fungal growth in solid-state cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Hejazi, P.; Abbas Shojaosadati, S.; Hoogschagen, M.J.; Vasheghani-Farahani, E.; Rinzema, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new two-phase kinetic model including exponential and logistic models was applied to simulate the growth rate of fungi at various temperatures. The model parameters, expressed as a function of temperature, were determined from the oxygen consumption rate of Aspergillus niger during cultivation on

  20. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  1. Current perspectives on mitochondrial inheritance in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianping Xu,1,2 He Li2 1Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; 2The Key Laboratory for Non-Wood Forest Cultivation and Conservation of the Federal Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The mitochondrion is an essential organelle of eukaryotes, generating the universal energy currency, adenosine triphosphate, through oxidative phosphorylation. However, aside from generation of adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria have also been found to impact a diversity of cellular functions and organ system health in humans and other eukaryotes. Thus, inheriting and maintaining functional mitochondria are essential for cell health. Due to the relative ease of conducting genetic and molecular biological experiments using fungi, they (especially the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used as model organisms for investigating the patterns of inheritance and intracellular dynamics of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial inheritance patterns in fungi has contributed to our broad understanding of the genetic, cellular, and molecular controls of mitochondrial inheritance and their evolutionary implications. In this review, we briefly summarize the patterns of mitochondrial inheritance in fungi, describe the genes and processes involved in controlling uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance in sexual crosses in basidiomycete yeasts, and provide an overview of the molecular and cellular processes governing mitochondrial inheritance during asexual budding in S. cerevisiae. Together, these studies reveal that complex regulatory networks and molecular processes are involved in ensuring the transmission of healthy mitochondria to the progeny. Keywords: uniparental inheritance, biparental inheritance, mating type, actin cable, mitochore, mitochondrial partition 

  2. The Importance of Edible Landscape in the Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çelik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century sustainable city requires the merging of urbanism with sustainable food systems. The challenges industrial food system separates people from their food sources. The design strategies for edible landscape are about re-inviting food back into the city and re-connecting people with their local/regional food system to promote a healthier lifestyle. Edible landscapes are a movement in transition and sprouting up as a response to the slow food movement and living a greener lifestyle. These urban agricultural landscapes are fast becoming iconic media darlings and are demonstrating that they are far more than growing vegetables and fruits on abandoned lots. Edible landscaping is the use of food plants as design features in a landscape. These plants are used both for aesthetic value as well as consumption. Edible landscapes encompass a variety of garden types and scales but do not include food items produced for sale. Edible landscaping is the practical integration of food plants within an ornamental or decorative setting. Using edibles in landscape design can enhance a garden by providing a unique ornamental component with additional health, aesthetic, and economic benefits. In this study; emergence of edible landscape, edible landscape design and maintenance, samples of edible landscape, productive plants, importance of edible landscaping for urban environments have been explained.

  3. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  4. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiołkowska, Agnieszka; Księżniak, Andrzej; Gałązka, Anna; Hetman, Beata; Kopacki, Marek; Skwaryło-Bednarz, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabiting soil play an important role for vascular plants. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plants and soil microorganisms leads to many mutual advantages. However, the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi depends not only on biotic, but also abiotic factors such as physico-chemical properties of the soil, availability of water and biogenic elements, agricultural practices, and climatic conditions. First of all, it is important to adapt the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species to changing environmental conditions. The compactness of the soil and its structure have a huge impact on its biological activity. Soil pH reaction has a substantial impact on the mobility of ions in soil dilutions and their uptake by plants and soil microflora. Water excess can be a factor negatively affecting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi because these microorganisms are sensitive to a lower availability of oxygen. Mechanical cultivation of the soil has a marginal impact on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores. However, soil translocation can cause changes to the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance in the soil profile. The geographical location and topographic differentiation of cultivated soils, as well as the variability of climatic factors affect the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soils and their symbiotic activity.

  5. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  6. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  7. Enhancement of carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai: Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate and investigation of its biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of the carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai:Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate in canteen wastewater was investigated. Themass cultivation of the alga was conducted at ambient temperature and light intensity in dilutedcanteen wastewater enhanced with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate at 5-20 mg L-1. An increase intotal carotenoid and chlorophyll was observed. However, it had no effect on biomass production. Asa result of the algal cultivation, there was a dramatic improvement in the quality of canteen wastewater.

  8. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  9. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  11. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  12. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  13. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  14. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  15. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  16. Structural analysis of raw and commercial farm edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, P E; Wong, S F; Lim, P K; Mak, J W

    2014-03-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are consumed worldwide for various health benefits. EBNs are nests built from the saliva of swiftlets of Aerodramus species. The global market for EBNs is on the rise, especially from Hong Kong and mainland China. In the past, EBNs were harvested mainly from natural caves; however in the recent years, there has been a rapid growth of swiftlet farming. Little is known about the actual composition of EBNs except for protein, carbohydrate, ash and lipid contents, amino acids, vitamins and macro/ micronutrients. Besides the biochemical components of EBNs, are there any other structures that are associated with EBNs? This paper reports on the structural analysis of raw unprocessed farm and processed commercial EBNs. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms in five locations in Peninsula Malaysia: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis; 6° 16' 0"N, 100° 12' 0"E), Pantai Remis (Perak; 4º 27' 0" N, 100º 38' 0" E), Kluang (Johor; 02º 012 303N 103º 192 583E), Kajang (Selangor; 2º 59' 0"N, 101º 47' 0"E) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan; 6º 8' 0"N, 102º 15' 0"E). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E). A portion of each EBN was randomly broken into small fragments, attached to carbon tape and coated with gold and palladium particles for examination and photography under a scanning electron microscope. Structural analysis revealed the presence of mites, fungi, bacteria and feather strands on both the raw and commercial nests. Mite eggshells and faecal pellets, and body parts of other arthropods were seen only in the raw nests. The commercial nests had a variety of unidentified structures and substances coated on the nests' surfaces that were not found on the raw nests. The presence of these contaminants may jeopardise the quality of EBNs and pose health risks to consumers. Further identification of the mites and their allergens, fungi and bacteria are on-going and will be reported separately.

  17. Estimating demand and supply of edible oil in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Rashida

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for edible oil in Pakistan and a dynamic supply response model to show price responsiveness by sunflower oilseed farmers. The demand for edible oil is estimated by using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. It has been found that an increase in the consumption of edible oil is highly affected by urbanization, increase in per capita income, relative high price of its substitutes and the rapid growth of the population. In order to estimate supply response model ...

  18. Efficient CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Disruption System in Edible-Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Xiong Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is a well-known edible medicinal mushroom in East Asia that contains abundant and diverse bioactive compounds. Since traditional genome editing systems in C. militaris were inefficient and complicated, here, we show that the codon-optimized cas9, which was used with the newly reported promoter Pcmlsm3 and terminator Tcmura3, was expressed. Furthermore, with the help of the negative selection marker ura3, a CRISPR-Cas9 system that included the Cas9 DNA endonuclease, RNA presynthesized in vitro and a single-strand DNA template efficiently generated site-specific deletion and insertion. This is the first report of a CRISPR-Cas9 system in C. militaris, and it could accelerate the genome reconstruction of C. militaris to meet the need for rapid development in the fungi industry.

  19. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  20. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  1. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  2. A novel protein from edible fungi Cordyceps militaris that induces apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chun Bai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is a dietary therapeutic fungus that is an important model species in Cordyceps research. In this study, we purified a novel protein from the fruit bodies of C. militaris and designated it as Cordyceps militaris protein (CMP. CMP has a molecular mass of 18.0 kDa and is not glycosylated. Interestingly, CMP inhibited cell viability in murine primary cells and other cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Using trypan blue staining and a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, we showed that CMP caused cell death in the murine hepatoma cell line BNL 1MEA.7R.1. Furthermore, the frequency of BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cells at the sub-G1 stage was increased by CMP. Apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V and propidium iodide analysis, indicated that CMP could mediate BNL 1MEA.7R.1 apoptosis, but not necrosis. After coincubation with CMP, a decrease in mitochondria potential was detected using 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. These results suggest that CMP is a harmful protein that induces apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent pathway. Stability experiments demonstrated that heat treatment and alkalization degraded CMP and further destroyed its cell-death-inducing ability, implying that cooking is necessary for food containing C. militaris.

  3. Susceptibility of different parsley cultivars to infestation by pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nawrocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 on parsley seeds of 6 cultivars: Alba, Berlińska, Cukrowa, Kinga, Lenka, and Vistula. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. During the glasshouse investigations fungi Alternaria radicina, A. alternata and Fusarium avenaceum were the main reason for parsley damping-off. The highest number of infected seedlings was observed for Berlińska and Kinga, because in both years of experiments these cultivars had the lowest number of healthy seedlings. The highest number of healthy seedlings had cultivars Alba and Lenka, especially in the second year of experiments. In the field experiments not only fungi from genus Alternaria and Fusarium were the most often isolated from diseased parsley seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum was more often isolated from diseased field seedlings than from glasshouse parsley seedlings. Other fungies isolated often from parsley seedlings cultivated in the field were: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Stemphylium botryosum.

  4. Antagonism of rice phylloplane fungi against Cercospora oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, A.; Hadiwiyono

    2018-03-01

    Narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora oryzae Miyake is one of the important obstacle in rice cultivation that can decrease the productivity up to 40%. It has been known well that some phylloplane fungi are antagonistic to some leaf diseases. Phylloplane fungi of rice however haven’t been studied much and poorly understood as biological control agent of rice pathogen such C. oryzae. The research aimed to study the antagonism of some phylloplane fungi of rice against C. oryzae. At least 14 isolates of phylloplane fungi were collected which consisted of six pathogenic and eight nonpathogenic variants. All of nonpathogenic isolates were antagonistic against C. oryzae both in vitro and only one isolate could not inhibit the infection of the pathogen in vivo. Some isolates were identified as Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma. The isolate of Mucor and Fusarium could inhibit the highest growth of pathogen on potato dextrose medium that were at 36.0% and 35.5% respectively. Whereas on artificial inoculation on rice, some isolates such Penicillium and Fusarium could inhibit most effectively and were significantly different to Mencozeb application with dosage 5g L-1.

  5. Isolation of phosphate solubiliser fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Diana Fernanda; Perez, Hernando; Valencia Hernando

    2002-01-01

    Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region, which has been described as a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995). This plant has high productivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability. In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungi processed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were araza is cultivated at two regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizing phosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most important species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichoderma aureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichoderma strain 1 y Trichoderma strain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomyces strain 3, Gongronella butleri and Fusarium oxysporum

  6. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  7. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  8. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  9. Physical and antibacterial properties of açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia, Paula J P; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H; Soares, Nilda F F

    2014-05-01

    Thyme essential oil (TEO) and apple skin polyphenols (ASP) are natural compounds considered as generally recognized as safe by FDA, with biological effects against bacteria and fungi. This work aimed to evaluate physical and antimicrobial properties of açaí edible films formulated with TEO and ASP at 3% and 6% (w/w) individually or combined at 3% (w/w) each. Physical properties studied include mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability (WVP), color, and thermal resistance. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was determined using the overlay diffusion test. Addition of ASP resulted in improved mechanical properties. TEO at 6% (w/w) resulted in increased elongation. ASP films had significant higher WVP than control film. ASP films were lighter and had more red color than other films. Incorporation of ASP resulted in improved film thermal stability, whereas TEO caused rapid thermal decomposition. Presence of clusters was observed on the surface of films. Addition of ASP resulted in a smoother surface, whereas addition of TEO led to the formation of crater-like pits on the film surface. Açaí edible film incorporated with 6% (w/w) TEO presented the highest antimicrobial activity. However, both antimicrobials are necessary in the açaí films in order to obtain edible films with suitable physical-mechanical properties. The results of the present study showed that TEO and ASP can be used to prepare açaí edible films with adequate physical-mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity for food applications by direct contact. Developed açaí edible films presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and good physical-mechanical properties, showing the potential use of açaí edible films in food preservation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  11. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  12. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p airborne fungi ranged 2×102-1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF) method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Natalia Skrajda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Edible flowers has been used for thousands of years. They increase aesthetic appearance of food, but more often they are mentioned in connection with biologically active substances. The main ingredient of the flowers is water, which accounts for more than 80%. In small amounts, there are also proteins, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and minerals. Bioactive substances such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds determine the functional properties of edible flowers. Aim: The aim of this work was to characterize the phenolic compounds found in edible flowers and compare their antioxidant activity. Results: This review summarizes current knowledge about the usage of edible flowers for human nutrition. The work describes the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of some edible flowers. Based on literature data there is a significant difference both in content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity between edible flowers. These difference reaches up to 3075-fold in case of antioxidant potential. Among described edible flowers the most distinguishable are roses, peonies, osmanthus fragans and sambuco nero. Conclusions: Edible flowers are the new source of nutraceuticals due to nutritional and antioxidant values.

  16. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  17. Parametric Analysis of Presession Exposure to Edible and Nonedible Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Borrero, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the effects of individually defined small, medium, and large periods of presession access to edible and nonedible reinforcers on response rates during sessions in which responding produced access to identical reinforcers. Any presession access to an edible reinforcer decreased response rates for 1 participant, and small and medium…

  18. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  19. Notes on some Edible wild plants found in the Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Keith

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited work done on edible, indigenous plants to date, mainly concerns seasonal species. To develop a more reliable guide on food-plant sources for survival conditions in the field, a study directed at a survey of non-seasonal plants is conducted in the Kalahari. Descriptions of six edible non-seasonal plants for the Kalahari are given.

  20. Toxicological characteristics of edible insects in China: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Wang, Di; Xu, Meng-Lei; Shi, Shu-Sen; Xiong, Jin-Feng

    2018-04-10

    Edible insects are ideal food sources, which contain important nutrients and health-promoting compounds. With a rapid development of industrial insect farming, insect-derived food is a novel and emerging food industry. Edible insects have been traditionally consumed in various communities, while continuously gaining relevance in today's society; however, they currently remain underutilized. Although there are a large number of literature on edible insects, these literature primarily focus on the nutritional value edible insects. The toxicity assessment data of edible insects remain incomprehensive, especially for the new national standard that is currently in effect; and many data and conclusions are not accurately specified/reported. Therefore, we performed a literature review and summarized the data on the toxicological assessment of edible insects in China. The review first describes the research progress on safety toxicological assessment, and then offers references regarding the development of 34 edible insect species in China. These data can be a platform for the development of future toxicological assessment strategies, which can be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, possibly consisting of food engineers, agronomists, farmers, and so on, to improve the acceptability of edible insects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  2. A techno-economic evaluation of two non-edible vegetable oil based bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Ali, M.

    2010-01-01

    Technical evaluation of Bio diesel, produced from various non-edible oils, was carried out on the basis of emission profile, torque, engine brake power and exhaust temperatures at 10% blend ratio (by volume) with mineral diesel. The performance of engine parameters showed that the castor oil based bio diesel gave the best results. Economic feasibility for bio diesel production was carried out based on available data on cultivation of necessary plants on marginal lands. This economic analysis also included the value of by-products which would be available during the chemical process for the production of bio diesel. It was found that jatropha bio diesel could be produced at a comparable cost to mineral diesel, however, castor bio diesel required substantial subsidies or mass cultivation of plants on marginal lands to enable it to compete economically with mineral diesel. (author)

  3. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-01-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  4. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  5. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  6. Nutritional and fatty acid profiles of sun-dried edible black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the nutritional composition of sun-dried edible black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger cultivated in Zhejiang and Guizhou Provinces, China, was carried out. The Zhejiang and Guizhou ants contained 31.5% and 41.5% protein, 15.7% and 15.9% lipid, and 25.4% and 26.4% fibre respectively. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the most predominant fatty acids (71.472.7% of total fatty acids found in both ant samples, followed by saturated fatty acids (23.825.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.13.7%. A significant amount of n-3 fatty acids was detected: 87.4 mg/100g and 145.6 mg/100g in Zhejiang and Guizhou ants respectively. Phosphorus, iron and calcium were the main minerals found in the ant samples. A small amount of selenium was also found.

  7. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  8. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  9. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  10. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insects are for many nations and ethnic groups an indispensable part of the diet. From a nutritional point of view, insects have significant protein content. It varies from 20 to 76% of dry matter depending on the type and development stage of the insect. Fat content variability is large (2–50% of dry matter and depends on many factors. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids' content may be up to 70% of total fatty acids. Carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin, whose content ranges between 2.7 mg and 49.8 mg per kg of fresh matter. Some species of edible insects contain a reasonable amount of minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P as well as vitamins such as B group vitamins, vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. However their content is seasonal and dependent on the feed. From the hygienic point of view it should be pointed out that some insects may produce or contain toxic bioactive compounds. They may also contain residues of pesticides and heavy metals from the ecosystem. Adverse human allergic reactions to edible insects could be also a possible hazard. Keywords: Chitin, Entomophagy, Fat, Minerals, Proteins, Vitamins

  11. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  12. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  13. Specialized Fungal Parasites and Opportunistic Fungi in Gardens of Attine Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Pagnocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae comprise about 230 described species that share the same characteristic: all coevolved in an ancient mutualism with basidiomycetous fungi cultivated for food. In this paper we focused on fungi other than the mutualistic cultivar and their roles in the attine ant symbiosis. Specialized fungal parasites in the genus Escovopsis negatively impact the fungus gardens. Many fungal parasites may have small impacts on the ants' fungal colony when the colony is balanced, but then may opportunistically shift to having large impacts if the ants' colony becomes unbalanced.

  14. Chemometric analysis of in-line multi-wavelength fluorescence measurements obtained during cultivations with a lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Mortensen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, was cultivated in batch and fed-batch cultivations in order to investigate the use of multi-wavelength fluorescence for monitoring course of events during filamentous fungi cultivations. The A. oryzae strain applied expressed a fungal lipase from...... Thermomyces lanuginosus. Spectra of multi-wavelength fluorescence were collected every 5 min with the BioView system (DELTA, Denmark) and both explorative and predictive models, correlating the fluorescence data with cell mass and lipase activity, were built. During the cultivations, A. oryzae displayed...

  15. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  16. Effect of ionizing energy on extracts of Quillaja saponaria to be used as an antimicrobial agent on irradiated edible coating for fresh strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, G.E., E-mail: gustavo.zuniga@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Depto. de Biologia, Alameda 3363, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Junqueira-Goncalves, M.P., E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Depto. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Ecuador 3769, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Pizarro, M.; Contreras, R. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Depto. de Biologia, Alameda 3363, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Tapia, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Depto. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Ecuador 3769, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Silva, S. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Depto. de Aplicaciones Nucleares, Seccion Salud y Alimentos, La Reina, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-01-15

    Incorporating antimicrobial compounds into edible films or coatings provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. Diverse studies with Quillaja saponaria Mol. (popularly named quillay) extracts have demonstrated their potential as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Crosslinking induced by ionizing radiation is an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on milk proteins. However there are few reports about the effects of {gamma}-radiation on plant extracts. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 kGy) on extracts prepared from in vitro plants of Q. saponaria to be used as antimicrobial agent in irradiated edible coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolated, and also to establish the concentration of Q. saponaria extract to be added as an antifungal agent in the coating. Gamma irradiation since 15 kGy affects negatively the antimicrobial activity and metabolites composition of extract of Q. saponaria by reducing compounds of phenolic nature. Otherwise no effect on saponins profile was observed even at higher doses. It was possible to conclude that the antifungal activity of Q. saponaria extract is mainly related to phenolic compounds content. In addition, our work also shows that to obtain an efficient antifungal protection is necessary to add a minimum concentration of 6% of the extract after the coating irradiation. - Highlights: > Antimicrobial compounds into edible coatings improve food' safety and shelf life. > Q. saponaria extract is an antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. > Crosslinking induced by {gamma}-radiation over 30 kGy improves properties of the coatings. > {gamma}-radiation since 15 kGy affects the antimicrobial activity of Q. saponaria extract. > This extract should be added after the coating radiation, at a minimum of 6%.

  17. Effect of ionizing energy on extracts of Quillaja saponaria to be used as an antimicrobial agent on irradiated edible coating for fresh strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, G.E.; Junqueira-Goncalves, M.P.; Pizarro, M.; Contreras, R.; Tapia, A.; Silva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating antimicrobial compounds into edible films or coatings provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. Diverse studies with Quillaja saponaria Mol. (popularly named quillay) extracts have demonstrated their potential as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Crosslinking induced by ionizing radiation is an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on milk proteins. However there are few reports about the effects of γ-radiation on plant extracts. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 kGy) on extracts prepared from in vitro plants of Q. saponaria to be used as antimicrobial agent in irradiated edible coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolated, and also to establish the concentration of Q. saponaria extract to be added as an antifungal agent in the coating. Gamma irradiation since 15 kGy affects negatively the antimicrobial activity and metabolites composition of extract of Q. saponaria by reducing compounds of phenolic nature. Otherwise no effect on saponins profile was observed even at higher doses. It was possible to conclude that the antifungal activity of Q. saponaria extract is mainly related to phenolic compounds content. In addition, our work also shows that to obtain an efficient antifungal protection is necessary to add a minimum concentration of 6% of the extract after the coating irradiation. - Highlights: → Antimicrobial compounds into edible coatings improve food' safety and shelf life. → Q. saponaria extract is an antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. → Crosslinking induced by γ-radiation over 30 kGy improves properties of the coatings. → γ-radiation since 15 kGy affects the antimicrobial activity of Q. saponaria extract. → This extract should be added after the coating radiation, at a minimum of 6%.

  18. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  19. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  20. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  1. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  2. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; Perrier, X; Doležel, J; Hřibová, E; Christelová, P; Van den Houwe, I; Kilian, A; Roux, N

    2016-12-01

    Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  3. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  4. Edible Film from Polyblend of Ginger Starch, Chitosan, and Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariningsih, N.; Putra, Y. P.; Pamungkas, W. P.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Polyblend ginger starch/chitosan based edible film has been succesfully prepared and characterized. The purpose of this research was to produce edible film from polyblend of ginger starch, chitosan, and sorbitol as plasticizer. The resulted edible film were characterized by using FTIR, TGA and UTM. Edible film of ginger starch had OH vibration (3430 cm-1). Besides, edible film had elongation up to 15.63%. The thermal degradation of this material reached 208°C indicating high termal stability. The water uptake of the edible film was 42.85%. It concluded that edible film produce in this research has potential as a packaging.

  5. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  6. Liberalization of the energy market. Outline of the mushroom cultivation; Liberalisering energiemarkt. Verkenning champignonteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.J.; Bakker, R.

    2000-07-01

    As a result of a new Dutch Electricity Law and the liberalization of the natural gas market the mushroom cultivation business requires insight in the consequences of those developments for the energy costs. Also attention is paid to the consequences of the abolition of the limited exemption of the Regular Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch). Finally, insight is given into the consequences of changes in the government policy on the so-called long-range agreements on energy efficiency (sector edible mushrooms)18 refs.

  7. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  8. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  9. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  11. Community structure of endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Long Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in subtropical and tropical coastal ecosystems. Endophytic fungi are widely distributed in various ecosystems and have great contribution to global biodiversity. In order to better understand the effects of mangrove species and tissue types on endophytic fungal community, we investigated cultivable endophytic fungi in leaves and twigs of four mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Kandelia candel in Guangxi, China. The four tree species had similar overall colonisation rates of endophytic fungi (24–33%. The colonisation rates of endophytic fungi were higher in twigs (30–58% than in leaves (6–25% in the four plant species. A total of 36 endophytic fungal taxa were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, including 35 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota, dominated by Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Xylaria, Leptosphaerulina, and Pestalotiopsis. The diversity of endophytic fungi was higher in twigs than in leaves in the four plant species. Some endophytic fungi showed host and tissue preference. The endophytic fungal community composition was different among four mangrove species and between leaf and twig tissues.

  12. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Song-Wilson, Yi; Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denatu...

  14. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  15. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Huis, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and

  16. Nutritive, Value of Selected' Forest/woodland' Edible "Fruits, Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, reducing sugar and'vitamin'C of edible portioh:of fruit pulp of selected forest .... neuromuscular excitability, blood coagulation,. Uluguru Mountains in ..... for wider production of fruits, nuts or seeds. . Acknowledgement.

  17. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Food & Bioengineering Department, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003 ... Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. ... In food industry, starch phosphate.

  18. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL. N.D. Ndiaye, S Munier, Y Pelissier, F Boudard, C Mertz, M Lebrun, C Dhuique-mayer, M Dornier ...

  19. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vithanage, C R; Grimson, M J; Wills, P R [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Smith, B G, E-mail: cvit002@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Food Science Programmes, Department of Chemistry, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  20. Teen Use of Marijuana Edibles: A Focus Group Study of an Emerging Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D; Annechino, Rachelle; Battle, Robynn S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research indicates that marijuana-infused food product (i.e., edible) use is becoming nearly as common as smoking marijuana where medical marijuana is available. This study explores edible use among teens. We conducted four focus groups in the San Francisco Bay Area with youth, ages 15-17. The focus groups were divided by gender and whether they used marijuana. Some teens mentioned edible use at school. Youth reported that teens consume edibles, primarily to reduce the likelihood of getting caught. Edibles are also attractive to those who do not like to smoke or have concerns about smoking. Both male and female respondents suggested that females are more likely than males to prefer edibles over smoking, one reason for which may be to avoid smelling like marijuana smoke. For some young women, edibles may be a way to avoid publicly presenting themselves as marijuana users. Findings also suggest that youth have access to edibles through multiple sources. Youth reported that they can purchase edibles at school from other students who either make the edibles themselves or are reselling edibles obtained from dispensaries. Both users and non-users were aware of potentially negative consequences related to edible use. Some youth mentioned that they have heard of youth dying from edibles, and several reported being concerned about the high produced by edibles. Female non-users appeared to be more concerned than others about edibles and compared them to drinks that could be spiked with drugs. However, sentiment among some male marijuana users was that if you cannot handle edibles you should not be using them. These findings suggest that strategies to curb access to edibles and use among youth, such as restricting sales of edibles with strong youth appeal and educating youth on the risks of edibles, will need to be developed.

  1. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  2. Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Zita Šereš; Dragana Šoronja Simović; Ljubica Dokić; Lidietta Giorno; Biljana Pajin; Cecilia Hodur; Nikola Maravić

    2016-01-01

    Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore ...

  3. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in...

  4. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  5. Forgotten Edible alpine plants in the canton of Valais

    OpenAIRE

    Abbet, Christian Paul

    2014-01-01

    Tradition possesses plenty of forgotten wild edible plants and may help researchers in the quest for new food varieties. Swiss alpine cantons, especially the canton of Valais, have still had a viable tradition. However, societal changes and extensive urbanization have caused this knowledge to be confined to lateral valleys. This contribution aimed to document wild edible plants which were collected in the canton of Valais. 38 informants originating from four different valleys of the canton (V...

  6. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  7. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  8. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pektin Hasil Ekstraksi Kulit Pisang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sudirman Akili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel is a waste of banana processing industries which is obviously uneconomy and unfriendly to the environment. However, this material could be used as a source of important natural compounds, such as pectin. Owing to the fact that pectin has good gelling properties, it can be used to make edible film. The objectives of this research were to extract and characterize pectin from banana peel and to make edible film from the obtained pectin by using glycerol as plasticizer. Characterization of edible films were conducted in terms of color, thickness, elongation, tensile strength and water vapor transmission. The research used factorial completely randomized design. The results showed that yield of pectin made from ambon banana peel ripeness level one was 8.42% with the characteristics werewater content : 11.27% (<12%, ash content : 1.70%, low methoxil content : 4.15% (<7% and galacturonat content : 25.86% (65%. The addition of glycerol significantly increased elongation and decreased tensile strength of edible film. Based on edible film result, the recomended treatment is the addition with glycerol 20% as plasticizer of pectin based edible film.

  9. Fungos micorrízicos nativos e Glomus clarun no rendimento de trevo vesiculoso cultivado em condições naturais e modificadas pela calagem e aplicação de fósforo Glomus clarun and native mycorrhizal fungi on yield of Trifolium spp. cultivated under natural and modified soil contitions with addition by phosphorus and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos dos Santos Pessoa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento desenvolvido na casa de vegetação na UFSM-RS, avaliou-se o efeito da introdução de fungos micorrizicos arbusculares (fMA Glomus clarum e nativos no rendimento de massa seca (MS e absorção de P pelo trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium spp. e verificou-se a compatibilidade entre a espécie introduzida e os fMA nativos ocorrentes no solo estudado. Os tratamentos/oram constituídos defatorial 4x2x2 com quatro níveis de fMA: G. clarum, fungos nativos, mistura de ambas as populações e controle sem inoculação de fMA: com dois valores de pH: 4,4 e 5,4 e com dois níveis de fósforo disponível (Mehlich l: 6 e ISmg/kg de solo. A introdução de G. clarum isoladamente ou em conjunto com fMA nativos, na condição de pH 4,4, e em baixa disponibilidade de P, aumentou o rendimento de MS e absorção de P. Em disponibilidade intermediária de P (l5mg/kg de solo e pH 5,4 não ocorreu diferença entre os tratamentos inoculados com fMA, mas destes ocorreu diferença para o tratamento sem inoculação, evidenciando a dependência do trevo pela micorrizaçâo. Tratamentos inoculados com G. clarum apresentaram maiores rendimentos de MS, absorção de P, colonização micorrizica e esporulação, mostrando que a introdução dessa espécie pode ser viável quando espécies nativas não são eficientes para a cultura ou tornam-se ineficientes quando a fertilidade do solo é modificada por aplicação de P e/ou calagem.The experiment v/as conducted under greenhouse condition at the University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The objectives were to evaluate the introduction of arbuscular mycorrhizalfúngi (AMF Glomus clarum and natives fungi on the phosphorus uptake and dry matter (DM production from Trifolium spp. and Io verify lhe compatibilily between introduced specie and lhe nativo AMF occurence in lhe studied soil. The treatments was constituled of 4x2x2 factorial withfour AMF leveis: G. clarum, AMf native, mixture of both populations of AMF

  10. Biodiversity and Concentration of Airborne Fungi of Suburban Weekly Market Associated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K. Pathak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is supposed that the vegetable markets of tropical countries are the significant source of airborne fungal spores, which are generated during transportation, handling and putrefaction. The aim of this work was to monitor the prevalence of the airborne cultivable fungi in the air of weekly market associated environments to evaluate whether the vegetable trading zone of market is a source of airborne cultivable fungal spores of weekly market environment or not. Airborne cultivable fungal spore levels were monitored by using Andersen two-stage viable (microbial particle sampler. The Spearman correlation coefficients and stepwise linear regression analysis test was used to analyze the influence of meteorological factors on spore concentration and paired Student’s t-test was used to compare the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment, the percentage frequency and the percentage contribution of the individual genus was also reported. In both areas, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Penicillium, were the most abundant fungal types observed. The spp. of Candida was reported only at the vegetable trading area. The bioload of fungal spore presented maximum values during the Monsoon and lowest in the season of summer. There is no significant difference in quantity between the mean values of the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment were observed. For present environment, activities of animals and humans were supposed to be the key factor governing aerosolization of microorganism.

  11. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  12. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  13. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  14. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits.

  15. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one. PMID:27800447

  16. Radio protectors from Thai edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-11-01

    Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane

  17. Bisphenol A in edible part of seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Repossi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC, epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015 on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  18. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-04-19

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  19. MERCURY IN EDIBLE WILD-GROWN MUSHROOMS FROM HISTORICAL MINING AREA – SLOVAKIA: BIOACCUMULATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we focused on assessment of the contamination levels of five species (n = 33 of edible wild mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Boletus reticulatus, Suillus grevillei, Russula xerampelina and Xerocomellus chrysenteron. We collected samples of above-ground parts of the macroscopic fungi species in historical mining and processing area surrounding Banská Bystrica (Central Slovakia in 2014. Within 2 m radius of the samples, we also took samples of underlying substrate. On the basis of the substrate, along with the monitored contaminant – mercury, we calculated bioaccumulation factors for individual species and their anatomical parts (cap and stipe. From the obtained results of the mercury content in the edible mushrooms, we then determined provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. The limit value for mercury (0.350 mg Hg kg-1 for an individual with average weight of 70 kg is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. Our results suggest that despite the relatively low level of Hg in the underlying substrate, the species Macrolepiota procera (1.98 mg kg-1 ± 68.2 (0.41 - 3.20 mg kg-1 DW is characterized by extremely high bioaccumulation ability, as confirmed by the bioaccumulation factors (BAFc = 15.3; BAFs = 8.02. PTWI value was exceeded by almost 20%. In case of the other studied edible wild mushroom species, we did not record any increased risk of mercury intake by consumers. Generally it can be stated that consumption of wild mushrooms represents a relatively small but significant risk of negative impact on the consumer´s health.

  20. The influence of co-cultivation on expression of the antifungal protein in Aspergillus giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Stahl, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The afp gene of Aspergillus giganteus encodes a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity, named Antifungal Protein (AFP). The protein is secreted by the mould and inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. In this paper we report that co-cultivation of A. giganteus with various microorganisms alters afp expression. It was found that co-cultivation modulates afp expression on the level of transcription, using a reporter system based on the beta-glucuronidase gene. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum triggered afp transcription whereas dual cultures of A. giganteus and A. niger resulted in suppression of afp transcription. Growth tests performed with several carbon and nitrogen sources, revealed that the influence of co-cultivation is strongly dependent on the medium composition.

  1. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  2. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  3. Consumers' Perceptions of Edible Marijuana Products for Recreational Use: Likes, Dislikes, and Reasons for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine M; Rains, Carrie; Cates, Sheryl C

    2018-03-21

    Edible marijuana products have become extremely popular in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of edible marijuana products, including why they prefer edibles relative to other forms of marijuana (e.g., smoking) and their concerns regarding the consumption of edibles. We conducted eight focus groups (four groups in Denver, Colorado, and four groups in Seattle, Washington) in February 2016 with 62 adult consumers of edibles. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NVivo 10.0 qualitative analysis software, and coding reports identified trends across participants. Most participants preferred edibles to smoking marijuana because there is no smell from smoke and no secondhand smoke. Other reasons participants like edibles included convenience, discreetness, longer-lasting highs, less intense highs, and edibles' ability to aid in relaxation and reduce anxiety more so than smoking marijuana. Concerns and dislikes about edibles included delayed effects, unexpected highs, the unpredictability of the high, and inconsistency of distribution of marijuana in the product. No participants in either location mentioned harmful health effects from consuming edibles as a concern. Conclusions/Importance: The present study was qualitative in nature and provides a good starting point for further research to quantify through surveys how consumers understand and use edibles. Such information will help guide policy makers and regulators as they establish regulations for edibles. Also, such research can help inform educational campaigns on proper use of edibles for recreational purposes.

  4. Differential Responses of Soil Microbial Community to Four-Decade Long Grazing and Cultivation in a Semi-Arid Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and cultivation are two important management practices worldwide that can cause significant soil organic carbon (SOC losses. However, it remains elusive how soil microbes have responded to soil carbon changes under these two practices. Based on a four-decade long field experiment, this study investigated the effects of grazing and cultivation on SOC stocks and microbial properties in the semi-arid grasslands of China. We hypothesize that grazing and cultivation would deplete SOC and depress microbial activities under both practices. However, our hypotheses were only partially supported. As compared with the adjacent indigenous grasslands, SOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC were decreased by 20% or more under grazing and cultivation, which is consistent with the reduction of fungi abundance by 40% and 71%, respectively. The abundance of bacteria and actinomycetes was decreased under grazing but increased under cultivation, which likely enhanced microbial diversity in cultivation. Invertase activity decreased under the two treatments, while urease activity increased under grazing. These results suggest that nitrogen fertilizer input during cultivation may preferentially favor bacterial growth, in spite of SOC loss, due to rapid decomposition, while overgrazing may deteriorate the nitrogen supply to belowground microbes, thus stimulating the microbial production of nitrogen acquisition enzymes. This decade-long study demonstrated differential soil microbial responses under grazing and cultivation and has important applications for better management practices in the grassland ecosystem.

  5. Chitosan produced from Mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Berger, Lúcia Raquel; Montenegro Stamford, Thayza Christina; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Adjane; de Lima, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Estevez Pintado, Maria Manuela; Saraiva Câmara, Marcos Paz; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41). Highest FuCS production (37.25mg/g) was achieved when C. elegans was cultivated in medium containing 9.43% CSL and 42.5% PPJ. FuCS obtained under these conditions showed a deacetylation degree of 86%, viscosity of 120cP and molecular weight of 4.08×10 4 g/mol. FuCS at 5000, 7500 and 10,000ppm inhibited the growth of all Colletotrichum species tested. FuCS also induced alterations in the morphology of C. fructicola hyphae. CSL-PPJ mixtures are suitable substrates for the cultivation of Mucorales fungi for FuCS production. Chitosan from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-PPJ medium is effective in inhibiting phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic gut fungi: Advances in isolation, culture, and cellulolytic enzyme discovery for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Charles H; Solomon, Kevin V; Henske, John K; Theodorou, Michael K; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi are an early branching family of fungi that are commonly found in the digestive tract of ruminants and monogastric herbivores. It is becoming increasingly clear that they are the primary colonizers of ingested plant biomass, and that they significantly contribute to the decomposition of plant biomass into fermentable sugars. As such, anaerobic fungi harbor a rich reservoir of undiscovered cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes that can potentially transform the conversion of lignocellulose into bioenergy products. Despite their unique evolutionary history and cellulolytic activity, few species have been isolated and studied in great detail. As a result, their life cycle, cellular physiology, genetics, and cellulolytic metabolism remain poorly understood compared to aerobic fungi. To help address this limitation, this review briefly summarizes the current body of knowledge pertaining to anaerobic fungal biology, and describes progress made in the isolation, cultivation, molecular characterization, and long-term preservation of these microbes. We also discuss recent cellulase- and cellulosome-discovery efforts from gut fungi, and how these interesting, non-model microbes could be further adapted for biotechnology applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Epiphitic microbiote and fungi contaminats from in vitro establishment of guajaba (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The studying of contaminats micobiote on guajaba (Psidium guajava L. could help for creating schedule treatment of donator plants and its explants to eliminate or prevent the fungi contamination during guajaba micropropagation. The present work were focused on: qualitative evaluation of epiphytic micobiote from explants of Enana Roja cubana EEA 18-40 plants (treated and not treated with fungicide, to isolate, characterize and identify the filamentous fungi from in vitro establishment of nodal segments. For the filamentous identification was used the wet chamber method and preparations were observed in optic microscopic. PDA Petri dishes were used to cultivate the filamentous fungi at 28ºC and dark during 7 to 14 days. The cultural and morphological characteristics were used to identifying each isolate. Nine filamentous fungi genera were identify on donator plants without any fungicide application, the principal genera’s were: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Penicillium and Trichoderma. The application of Mancozeb 80 PH (7.5g.l-1 and Benomyl 50 PH (4g.l-1 was not effective on epiphytic contaminants micobiote elimination. All these genera’s with the exception of Nigrospora were detected during the establishment of nodal segments. However the disinfection with hypochlorite at 3% for 10 minutes and HgCl2 solution at 0.05% and 0.1% could reduced the 50% of al contaminates genera’s. Key words: micropropagation, microbiote contamination,filamentous fungi, surface dessinfectants.

  8. Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Carlos; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Fonseca, João

    2018-01-01

    The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks. Therefore, we performed a systematic review aiming to analyse current data available regarding the allergic risks of consuming insects. We reviewed all reported cases of food allergy to insects, and studied the possibility of cross-reactivity and co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites. We analysed a total of 25 articles - eight assessing the cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites; three characterizing allergens in edible insects and 14 case reports, describing case series or prevalence studies of food allergy caused by insects. Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tumeric oil as the antioxidation agent in edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. A.; Sharif, Z. I. M.; Jai, J.; Yusof, N. M.; Mustapha, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric oil (TO) has been studied for its potential as an antioxidation agent in starch edible coating for fresh cut apples and its degree of oxidation was analysed. TO incorporate with starch edible coating was examined using FT-IR Spectroscopy to determine the presence of secondary metabolites. The presence of alcohol and aromatic ring in the edible coating film proved that the secondary metabolites from TO were existed. The fresh cut apples were underwent the sensory test and six out of ten panellist concluded that coated fresh cut apples have good appearance and surface colour. Fresh cut apples were coated with edible coating incorporated with different concentrations of TO (uncoated, 0μL, 5μL, 10μL, 15μL. Percentage weight loss for 15μL were the least which were 1.98% (day 6) and 3.95% (day 12). Colour measurement were done for few days and it shows that the total colour difference (ΔΕ) for 15μL were the lowest. Thus, the oxidation activities for 15μL is the slowest compared to the others. These can be proved through the degree of oxidation analysis using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Uncoated fresh cut apples have the highest degree of oxidation while those with 15μL have the lowest. This study can be illustrated that the oxidation activities of fresh cut apples could be postponed using edible film incorporated with TO.

  10. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  11. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  12. Removal of radioactivity and safe vegetables cultivation from highly radioactivity polluted soil in Fukushima using photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kei; Okagawa, Masakazu; Takeno, Kenji; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The soil pollution caused by radioactive substances released from the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been still serious interference against agricultural reconstruction. This study used the soil contaminated with high radioactivity (13,602∼87,181 Bq/kg) in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture, and performed decontamination using photosynthetic bacteria in a simple outdoor practical test using a 60 L container. Using the soil after decontamination, the authors cultivated vegetables such as komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach), and bok choy, the results of which are reported. As photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter shaerodes SSI species was used. This paper describes the cultivation method of bacteria, preparation method of immobilization grain, decontamination method, and cultivation method of vegetables. As a result of the experiment, the decontamination efficient of the soil was between 59.5 to 73.3%, and cultured vegetables passed the edible reference value (edible criteria for infants: 50 Bq/kg FW), which was the success of the experiment. (A.O.)

  13. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  14. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  15. Isolation of phosphate solubilizer fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fernanda Vera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region which has been describedas a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995. This plant has highproductivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphatesolubilizazing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability.In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungiprocessed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were Araza is cultivated attwo regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizingphosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most importat species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichodermaaureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus,Trichodermastrain 1 y Trichodermastrain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae,Paecilomycesstrain 3, Gongronella butleri& Fusarium oxysporum

  16. [Effects of different endophytic fungi on seedling growth of Dendrobium devonianum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2016-06-01

    To obtain seedling growth-promoting fungi is a key step in restoration-friendly cultivation of medicinal Dendrobium species, since there are a large number of functionally-unknown endophytic fungi in the roots of Dendrobium plants.In this study, six functionally-unknown endophytic fungal strains were isolated from roots of D.devonianum using single peleton isolation technology, and used in inoculation experiments to test their effectiveness for seedling growth in D.devonianum.After 90 days of inoculation, comparing with the control treatment, FDdS-1, FDdS-2 and FDdS-4 showed strong pathogenic or fatal effects on seedlings; while, FDdS-12, FDdS-9 and FDdS-5 had different effects on seedling growth.FDdS-5 had significant promoting effects on height, fresh and dry weight, stem diameter and root numbers, while FDdS-9 only had significant promoting effect on seedling height, and FDdS-12 had a negative effect on seedling growth.According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, FDdS-5 fungi could infect the velamina of seedlings and the existence of symbiosis pelotons in the cortex cells, suggesting that FDdS-5 is a mycorrhiza fungi of D.devonianum.FDdS-5 and FDdS-9 were identified as Sebacina vermifera and Sebacina sp.by molecular technologies.By using FDdS-5 in the restoration-friendly cultivation of D.devonianum, it could effectively promote seedling growth and shorten the seedling growth periods.The results will aid in reintroduction and cultivation of D.devonianum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  18. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  19. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K and 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of 210 Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of 210 Po and 40 K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate 210 Po and/or translocate 210 Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by 210 Po, while for berries, 40 K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of 210 Po. - Highlights: ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were typically less than one for berries. ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were all greater than one for mushrooms. ► Dose rates from mushrooms were dominated by 210 Po and by 40 K for berries. ► Wild foods can give a significant contribution to total annual ingestion dose.

  20. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  1. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  2. Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliana Sitonio Eça

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of natural antioxidants into films and edible coatings can modify their structure, improving their functionality and applicability in foods, such as in fresh-cut fruits. This paper reviews the more recent literature on the incorporation of antioxidants from several sources into films and edible coatings, for application in fruits and vegetables. The use of synthetic antioxidants in foods has been avoided due to their possible toxic effects. Instead, a wide range of natural antioxidants (such as essential oils and plant extracts, as well as pure compounds, like ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol have been incorporated into edible films and coatings to improve their bioactive properties. Films and coatings containing added antioxidants help to preserve or enhance the sensory properties of foods and add value to the food products by increasing their shelf life.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  4. MEIMAN: Database exploring Medicinal and Edible insects of Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, Tourangbam; Lokeshwari, Rajkumari; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao

    2012-01-01

    We have developed MEIMAN, a unique database on medicinal and edible insects of Manipur which comprises 51 insects species collected through extensive survey and questionnaire for two years. MEIMAN provides integrated access to insect species thorough sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) Graphical interface of seasonality, b) Method of preparation, c) Form of use - edible and medicinal, d) habitat, e) medicinal uses, f) commercial importance and g) economic status. This database will be useful for scientific validations and updating of traditional wisdom in bioprospecting aspects. It will be useful in analyzing the insect biodiversity for the development of virgin resources and their industrialization. Further, the features will be suited for detailed investigation on potential medicinal and edible insects that make MEIMAN a powerful tool for sustainable management. The database is available for free at www.ibsd.gov.in/meiman.

  5. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  6. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  7. A Comparative Study of Temperature Optimal Control in a Solid State Fermentation Process for Edible Mushroom Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Gurubel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal control strategies for temperature trajectory determination in order to maximize thermophilic bacteria in a fed-batch solid-state fermentation reactor are proposed. This process is modeled by nonlinear differential equations, which has been previously validated experimentally with scale reactor temperature profiles. The dynamic input aeration rate of the reactor is determined to increase microorganisms growth of a selective substrate for edible mushroom cultivation. In industrial practice, the process is comprised of three thermal stages with constant input air flow and three types of microorganisms in a 150-hour lapse. Scytalidium thermophilum and actinobacteria are desired in order to obtain a final biomass composition with acceptable microorganisms concentration. The Steepest Descent gradient algorithm in continuous time and the Gradient Projection algorithm in discrete-time are used for the process optimal control. A comparison of simulation results in the presence of disturbances is presented, where the resulting temperature trajectories exhibit similar tendencies as industrial data.

  8. Comparative study of mycelial growth and basidiomata formation in seven different species of the edible mushroom genus Hericium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han Gyu; Park, Hyuk Gu; Park, Sang Ho; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Won Mok

    2005-09-01

    The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.

  9. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  10. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  12. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray. The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg. In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

  13. Use of nuclear techniques for mutation and selection of fungi for high protein yield utilizing carbon from inexpensive agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopulos, S.

    1976-12-01

    The report briefly describes work carried out on the following subjects: Determination of protein in fungal strains (including Fusarium and Aspergillus niger); induction and selection of mutants (Aspergillus niger) giving higher yields of biomass and/or higher protein content; ability of fungi (Candida tropicalis) to utilize water extracts of carob bean pods; growth of Fusarium monoliforme at the expense of carob sugars; the use of alternate oxidase-negative mutants (of Ustilago maydis), for better utilization of substrates for growth (electron transport pathways in reoxidation of reduced coenzymes); kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation of Fusarium moniliforme (cultivated on aqueous carob extracts)

  14. Cultivable microflora and endo mycorrhizas obtained in litter forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Eleonora; Celis, Sebastian; Galindez, Ximena; Moratto, Claudia; Sanchez, Jimena; Garcia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microorganisms and endo mycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the staphylococcus, bacillus, pseudomonas, micrococcus, penicillium and rhodotorulagenus and cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of glomus and acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems

  15. [Fatty acid composition of edible marine fish in Zhoushan, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-xiong; Yue, Bing; Yu, Xin-wei; He, Jia-lu; Shang, Xiao-hong; Li, Xiao-wei; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the main fatty acids in edible marine fish from Zhoushan, Zhejiang province. From September to October 2011, a total of 186 edible marine fish (31 species,6 individual fishes/species) were collected in local markets. Total lipids of edible part were extracted by Folch's method and fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatographic after the homogenization of edible part. The differences of composition of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA),saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) among fishes were analyzed. Among the 31 fishes, total lipids were highest in Auxis thazard ((13.2 ± 1.2)g/100 g edible part) and lowest in Thamnaconus modestus ((0.6 ± 0.1)g/100 g edible part). Total n-6 PUFA were highest in Mugil cephalus ((875.7 ± 506.4)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Seriola quinqueradiata((2.1 ± 1.9)mg/100 g edible part). Total n-3 PUFA were highest in Auxis thazard ((2623.8 ± 426.1)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Scoliodon sorrakowah ((82.0 ± 13.9)mg/100 g edible part). SFA were highest in Trachinotus ovatus((3014.9 ± 379.0)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Seriola quinqueradiata ((89.7 ± 5.8)mg/100 g edible part). MUFA were highest in Coilia nasus ((3335.7 ± 383.5)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Thamnaconus modestus ((32.1 ± 16.9)mg/100 g edible part). There were significant differences of composition of total lipids and of fatty acids among 31 edible marine fish species from Zhoushan.

  16. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems.

  17. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  18. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  19. FUNGI: A REVIEW ON MUSHROOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, F. Olawale; Ndamitso, M. Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, uses, side effects, nutritional and medicinal values, storage, marketing and other uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the review too it was observed that its usefulness surpasses the side effects. These side effects could be eliminated if proper ‘processing’ could be employed. Due to advances in both basic knowledge and practical technology relevant to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bior...

  20. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  1. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  2. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  3. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weeks in March 2002 in the Southern Regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa and Ruvuma) to study aspects of the extent of the distribution, diversity and density of edible orchids. Tools for identification included structured questionnaire, on-the-spot identification as well as using herbarium voucher samples and keys.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation Into the Use of Edible Fishery By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey, to measure the quantity of edible fish waste (gills and guts) available per year, was conducted on Unguja Island, Zanzibar between December 2003 and February 2004. Seventeen samples from commercially important fish genera and species were collected from five landing sites ('dikos') in five districts of the ...

  5. The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cami, J.; Cox, N. L.; Farhang, A.; Smoker, J.; Elyajouri, M.; Lallement, R.; Bacalla, X.; Bhatt, N. H.; Bron, E.; Cordiner, M. A.; de Koter, A..; Ehrenfreund, P.; Evans, C.; Foing, B. H.; Javadi, A.; Joblin, C.; Kaper, L.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Laverick, M.; Le Petit, F..; Linnartz, H.; Marshall, C. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Mulas, G.; Roueff, E.; Royer, P.; Salama, F.; Sarre, P. J.; Smith, K. T.; Spaans, M.; van Loon, J. T..; Wade, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) is a Large Programme that is collecting high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra with UVES of a large sample of O and B-type stars covering a large spectral range. The goal of the programme is to extract a unique sample of high-quality interstellar spectra from these data, representing different physical and chemical environments, and to characterise these environments in great detail. An important component of interstellar spectra is the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), a set of hundreds of unidentified interstellar absorption lines. With the detailed line-of-sight information and the high-quality spectra, EDIBLES will derive strong constraints on the potential DIB carrier molecules. EDIBLES will thus guide the laboratory experiments necessary to identify these interstellar “mystery molecules”, and turn DIBs into powerful diagnostics of their environments in our Milky Way Galaxy and beyond. We present some preliminary results showing the unique capabilities of the EDIBLES programme.

  6. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  7. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  8. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  9. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  10. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  11. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater in tropical savannah zone, Nigeria. HI Mustapha, OB Adeboye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  13. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  14. Protective influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa , an edible medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to examine the protective influence of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn) Malvaceae (an indigenous edible medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional Medicine in India, China and Thailand) on oxidative stress during ammonium chloride induced ...

  15. Sustainable Disposal of Edible Food Byproducts at University Research Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Sherill; Chung, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research at agricultural universities often generates food crops that are edible by-products of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that affect decision-making around the disposal of these crops. Understanding decision-making suggests how universities might include food crop production into campus…

  16. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Edible Frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Imnoi, Kamonchai

    2017-01-01

    Ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in Denmark and Italy. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), common midwife toad r...

  17. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  18. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Furthermore, extension agents should monitor beneficiaries of such loans to ensure ... Mushrooms belong to a group of living things ... environment, knowledge of simple and low cost .... =Taxes (naira) ... Inheritance ... Table 7 revealed that Alesi marketers made profit margin of N 60,000.00 per .... Guide to Edible Mushroom.

  19. Edible oils from microalgae: insights in TAG accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, A.J.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Draaisma, R.B.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising future source for sustainable edible oils. To make microalgal oil a cost-effective alternative for common vegetable oils, increasing TAG productivity and TAG content are of high importance. Fulfilling these targets requires proper understanding of lipid metabolism in

  20. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  1. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil oil oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  2. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  3. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems. PMID:28218635

  4. Nutritive value of Lepidoptara litoralia (edible caterpillar) found in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their potential is seriously being considered in food security and poverty alleviation strategies. The nutrient composition of some commonly eaten insects especially in South-western Nigeria has been determined and reported. The nutritional and economic potentials of the abundant edible caterpillars in the Northern region ...

  5. The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen species of edible insects representing nine families from south western Nigeria were analyzed for nutrient composition. They include the orders of Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Isoptera. Analeptes trifasciata, Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Zonocerus variegatus has the highest crude ...

  6. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heim and Coprinus disseminatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray. Among the local people, names of edible mushrooms are based on the substrates on which they grow, their association with insects, and unrelated taxa are given collective names. Rural people believe mushrooms have medicinal values and can serve as blood tonic, ...

  7. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  8. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  9. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi modulate phytochemical production and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) under metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, P; Wężowicz, K; Stojakowska, A; Malarz, J; Surówka, E; Sobczyk, Ł; Anielska, T; Ważny, R; Miszalski, Z; Turnau, K

    2014-10-01

    Cichorium intybus (common chicory), a perennial plant, common in anthropogenic sites, has been the object of a multitude of studies in recent years due to its high content of antioxidants utilized in pharmacy and food industry. Here, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants under toxic metal stress was studied. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and non-inoculated were grown on non-polluted and toxic metal enriched substrata. The results presented here indicate that AMF improves chicory fitness. Fresh and dry weight was found to be severely affected by the fungi and heavy metals. The concentration of hydroxycinnamates was increased in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants cultivated on non-polluted substrata, but no differences were found in plants cultivated on metal enriched substrata. The activity of SOD and H2O2 removing enzymes CAT and POX was elevated in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants regardless of the cultivation environment. Photochemical efficiency of inoculated chicory was significantly improved. Our results indicate that R. irregularis inoculation had a beneficial role in sustaining the plants ability to cope with the deleterious effects of metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of ligninolytic enzyme production in Ganoderma applanatum depending on cultivation type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćilerdžić Jasmina Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma applanatum belongs to the group of white-rot fungi, due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. White-rot fungi have attracted great scientific attention in recent years, especially with respect to their enzymatic potential for the bioremediation of persistent pollutants. Contrary to G. lucidum, which medicinal properties, as well as ligninolytic enzyme system have been extensively studied, enzymatic system of G. applanatum has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of laccase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase activity during submerged and solid state cultivation on two selected plant raw materials. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically after 7, 10 and 14 days of cultivation. The peak of laccase activity (220.14 Ul-1 was noted after 14 days of submerged wheat straw fermentation. Maximum level of Mn-dependent peroxidase (110.91 Ul-1 and versatile peroxidase (116.20 Ul-1 activity was obtained in the medium with oak sawdust after 14 days of submerged cultivation.

  12. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  13. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  14. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong

    2014-01-01

    Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel stirrer design and its application in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hu; Sun, Jiao; Tian, Baozhen; Wang, Honglin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a straight diagonal-pitched blade stirrer was designed, built and characterized in a 5-L fermenter. Compared with the six straight blade Rushton turbine, the power consumption of the new stirrer is lower at a given speed under conditions of no ventilation. The oxygen transference is poorer at the same agitation speed in the cultivation conditions and scales investigated, which confirms that the shear stress of the new stirrer is lower and the gas dispersion is weaker. The new stirrer was installed in a 5-L bioreactor and evaluated in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The results showed that the maximum dry weight of mycelium is increased by 47 % and reached 7.47 g/L, and the maximum laccase activity is increased by 15 % up to 2,277 U/L. Glucose consumption was also found to be relatively faster. The power consumption is 2.8 % lower than that of the Rushton turbine.

  16. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  17. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-08-15

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml).

  18. Cultivable microscopic fungi from an underground chemosynthesis-based ecosystem: a preliminary study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Valinová, Š.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2018), s. 43-55 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MOVILE CAVE * GROUNDWATER ECOSYSTEM * MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  19. Harvesting of Chlorella sp. by Co-cultivation with Some Fil-amentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana H. Hameed Al-Shammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae are play a major role as straight producers of biofuels, so expansion of a new. harvesting-technology is important to achieve economic feasibility of biofuel production from algae.. Fungal pelletization-assisted.. Microalgal harvesting has Emerged as new research area for decreasing the harvesting cost and energy inputs in the algae-to-biofuel method. The present study tried to opti-mize process circumstances as (substrate inputs, process time and pH. Through choice of a ro-bust fungal strain. Four fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma sp., Mucor sp. and Rhi-zopus sp. were screened for their pelletizing efficiency in fresh/supplemented chu-10 with select-ed media nutrient (glucose, nitrogen and phosphorous. Results showed that Aspergillus terreus was the most efficient strain for pelletizing in the nutrient supplemented chu-10 with its neutral pH (7 and acidic pH (5. Stimulatingly, A. terreus was capable to harvest nearly 100 % of the Clorella sp. cells (1×106 spore/ml at optical density (OD approximately 2.5 initial working algal concentration within only 24 h. at supplementation of (10 g/l glucose, 2.5 mg/l aNH4NO3 and 0.5 mg/l mK2HPO4 also performed well at lower glucose level (5 g/l can also results in similar har-vesting but its need relatively higher incubation time. The procedure kinetics in term of harvesting index (H. I as well as the variation of residual glucose and pH with time was also studied. The mechanism of harvesting process was studied through microscopic, examination. A. terreus strain investigated in this study could emerge as an efficient, sustainable and economically viable tool in microalgae harvesting for biofuel production and time conservation

  20. Detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of coffee plants and crotalaria cultivated between rows

    OpenAIRE

    COLOZZI FILHO, ARNALDO; CARDOSO, ELKE JURANDI BRAN NOGUEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) no solo rizosférico e nas raízes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) e de Crotalaria breviflora DC., cultivada na entrelinha como adubo verde. Amostras de solo rizosférico e raízes foram coletadas em julho de 1997, em parte de um experimento de longa duração conduzido no campo pelo Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, no município de Mirasselva, PR. Determinou-se a diversidade de FMAs, por meio da identificação morfológica dos esporos,...

  1. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

    2012-12-01

    Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 μmol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

  2. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  3. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  4. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Results: Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103–9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU/m3, while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103–2.9×105 CFU/m3. The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6–7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Conclusions: Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1:1–9

  5. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2017-02-28

    In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103-9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3), while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103-2.9×105 CFU/m3). The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6-7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-9. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel González-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  7. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawacka, M.; Gesek, M.; Michalik, D.; Murawska, D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge), divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication), raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW). Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick) increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  8. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Enhancement of β-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the β-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the β-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

  10. Fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes isolated from affected leaves of rhododendron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes occurring on affected leaves of rhododendron Rhododendron L. Mycological analyses were carried out on 200 leaves collected from green areas of Kraków from May till September 2005. Isolated fungi-like Oomycetes belonged to 67 taxa. The most frequently found fungi included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Coelophoma empetri, Nigrospora sphaerica, Pestalotia sydowiana, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phomopsis archeri, Septoria azalea and Sordaria fimicola. Among fungi-like organisms Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola were isolated.

  11. USE OF SAPROPHYTIC FUNGI SPECIMENS AS A PLANT PROTECTION AGENTS IN TOMATOE PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Trichoderma spp. fungi on the conditions and health of tomato plants. The experiments were conducted in pot cultures and controlled conditions. Commercial formula TRIFENDER containing Trichoderma asperellum spores and isolated from garden soil strain T12 Trichoderma viride were used. In one embodiment, the plants were treated with pathogenic strain of Fusarium sp. that commonly damages crops and against which the whole arsenal of chemicals is used. Preparations obtained from isolated and multiplied fungal cultures were used for the treatment of the above-ground (spraying and under-ground (sprinkling parts of tomatoes. Influence of the Trichoderma fungi was determined by comparing the presence of necrosis on leaves in various groups of cultivated tomatoes compared to control samples. The development of seedlings was checked by measuring the length of plants and the weight of fresh and dry plants. The results demonstrated the protective role of Trichoderma spp. fungi in relation to the Fusarium sp.. Leaves of tomato treated with solutions of saprophytic fungi had a statistically significant lower amount of necrotic changes caused by the pathogen. More effective in this regard was uncommercial isolate of T. viride. Formulation used in the experiments Trifender and isolate T. viride statistically significant influence on the growth and development of the tomato plants as evidenced by increased compared to the control fresh and dry weight of plants.

  12. Isolation and identification of soil fungi isolates from forest soil for flooded soil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwani Aziz, Nor; Zainol, Norazwina

    2018-04-01

    Soil fungi have been evaluated for their ability in increasing and recovering nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in flooded soil and in promoting the growth of the host plant. Host plant was cultivated in a mixture of fertile forest soil (nutrient-rich soil) and simulated flooded soil (nutrient-poor soil) in an optimized soil condition for two weeks. The soil sample was harvested every day until two weeks of planting and was tested for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration. Soil fungi were isolated by using dilution plating technique and was identified by Biolog’s Microbial Systems. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium was found to be increasing after two weeks by two to three times approximately from the initial concentration recorded. Two fungi species were identified with probability more than 90% namely Aspergillus aculeatus and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Both identified fungi were found to be beneficial in enhancing plant growth and increasing the availability of nutrient content in the soil and thus recovering the nutrient content in the flooded soil.

  13. Study of Geophilic Keratinophilic Fungi in Public Squares of Jaboticabal-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson César Abreu Bernardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the use of public parks as a source of leisure for the population, who maintain an intense and direct contact with the ground, which is a potential source of contamination by different causative agents of mycosis, the purpose of the research was to identify genera of keratinophilic geophilic fungi in the soil of squares in Jaboticabal-SP. 60 soil samples from 15 public squares, and 4 samples of each square were selected and collected. To isolate the soil fungi, we used the method of Vanbreuseghem (1952, modified by Machado (1977. Later the fungi were cultivated in Petri dishes containing Sabouraud Agar added to chloramphenicol, and were incubated at room temperature for about ten days. The grown colonies were isolated in test tubes to obtain pure culture. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of isolated colonies were made and they were identified at a gender level with the aid of an identification guide. From 60 soil samples collected, 39 were positive for keratinophilic fungi, of which 90 fungic colonies were isolated, being identified the genera Penicillium spp. Fonsecaea spp., Rhizopus spp., Microsporum spp., Fusarium spp., Phialophora spp., Aspergillus spp., Acremonium spp., Nigrospora spp., Trichoderma spp., Bipolaris spp., Aureobasidium spp., Curvularia spp., Mucor spp. and Mycelia sterilia. The results allowed us to conclude that these soils represent a diverse microflora capable of degrading keratin substrates, allowing an assessment of the epidemiological potential represented by the soil in the squares of the city of Jaboticabal-SP.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of filamentous fungi isolated from highly antibiotic-contaminated river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, K. Stefan; Göransson, Ulf; El-Seedi, Hesham; Bohlin, Lars; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Olsen, Björn; Chryssanthou, Erja

    2012-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi are well known for their production of substances with antimicrobial activities, several of which have formed the basis for the development of new clinically important antimicrobial agents. Recently, environments polluted with extraordinarily high levels of antibiotics have been documented, leading to strong selection pressure on local sentinel bacterial communities. In such microbial ecosystems, where multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely to thrive, it is possible that certain fungal antibiotics have become less efficient, thus encouraging alternative strategies for fungi to compete with bacteria. Methods In this study, sediment of a highly antibiotic-contaminated Indian river was sampled in order to investigate the presence of cultivable filamentous fungi and their ability to produce substances with antimicrobial activity. Results Sixty one strains of filamentous fungi, predominantly various Aspergillus spp. were identified. The majority of the Aspergillus strains displayed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of A. fumigatus led to the identification of gliotoxin. Conclusion This study demonstrated proof of principle of using bioassay-guided isolation for finding bioactive molecules. PMID:22957125

  15. Antimicrobial activity of filamentous fungi isolated from highly antibiotic-contaminated river sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stefan Svahn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Filamentous fungi are well known for their production of substances with antimicrobial activities, several of which have formed the basis for the development of new clinically important antimicrobial agents. Recently, environments polluted with extraordinarily high levels of antibiotics have been documented, leading to strong selection pressure on local sentinel bacterial communities. In such microbial ecosystems, where multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely to thrive, it is possible that certain fungal antibiotics have become less efficient, thus encouraging alternative strategies for fungi to compete with bacteria. Methods: In this study, sediment of a highly antibiotic-contaminated Indian river was sampled in order to investigate the presence of cultivable filamentous fungi and their ability to produce substances with antimicrobial activity. Results: Sixty one strains of filamentous fungi, predominantly various Aspergillus spp. were identified. The majority of the Aspergillus strains displayed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of A. fumigatus led to the identification of gliotoxin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated proof of principle of using bioassay-guided isolation for finding bioactive molecules.

  16. Rainforest Conversion to Rubber Plantation May Not Result in Lower Soil Diversity of Bacteria, Fungi, and Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Dong, Ke; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Large areas of rainforest in Asia have been converted to plantations, with uncertain effects on soil biodiversity. Using standard metagenetic methods, we compared the soil biota of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes at three rainforest sites in Malaysia with two rubber plantation sites with similar soils and geology. We predicted the following: (1) that the rubber sites would have a lower α- and β-diversity than the rainforest sites, due to the monospecific canopy cover and intensive management with herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, and (2) that due to differences in the physical and biotic environment associated with cultivation, there would be distinct communities of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. However, regarding (1), the results showed no consistent difference in α- and β-diversity of bacteria, fungi, or nematodes between rainforest and rubber plantation sites. It appears that conversion of rainforest to rubber plantations does not necessarily result in a decrease in diversity of soil biota. It may be that heterogeneity associated with the cultivation regimen compensates for loss of biotically imposed heterogeneity of the original rainforest. Regarding (2), as predicted there were statistically significant differences in community composition between rainforest and rubber plantation for bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. These differences could be related to a range of factors including light level, litter fall composition, pH, C and N, selecting a distinct set of soil taxa, and it is possible that this in itself would affect long-term soil function.

  17. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild edible plants (WEP provide staple and supplement foods, as well as cash income to local communities, thus favouring food security. However, WEP are largely ignored in land use planning and implementation, economic development, and biodiversity conservation. Moreover, WEP-related traditional knowledge is rapidly eroding. Therefore, we designed this study to fulfill a part of the knowledge gap by providing data on diversity, traditional knowledge, economic potential, and conservation value of WEP from Nepal. Methods The information was collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Percentage of general utility of the plants among the study communities was evaluated using the Chi-square (χ2 test of homogeneity. High priority species were identified after consultation with the local stakeholders followed by scoring based on defined criteria. Pairwise ranking was used to assess ethnoecological knowledge to identify the threats to WEP. Results We documented 81 species belonging to Angiosperms (74, Pteridophytes (5, and Fungi (2. Most of the species were used as fruits (44 species followed by vegetables (36. Almost half of the species (47% were also used for purposes other than food. From the species with market value (37% of the total, 10 were identified as high priority species. Pairwise ranking revealed that WEP are threatened mostly by habitat destruction, land-use change and over-harvesting. Some of these plants are crop wild relatives and could thus be used for crop improvement. Interestingly, our study also revealed that young people who spend most of the time in the forest as herdsmen are particularly knowledgeable of wild fruit plants. Conclusion We provide empirical evidence from a relatively large area of Nepal about diversity and status of WEP, as well as methodological insights about the proper knowledge holders to consult. Regarding the unique and important knowledge they have on WEP

  18. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora).

  19. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora.

  20. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  1. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Alkali metals in fungi of forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Taylor, A.; Rosen, K.; Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The high affinity of forest soil fungi for alkali metals such as potassium, rubidium, caesium as well as radiocaesium is shown and discussed. Good positive correlation was found between K: Rb concentration ratios in soil and in fungi, when correlation between K: Cs concentration ratios was less pronounced. (LN)

  3. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  4. The Activity of Cellulase from Thermophilic Fungi Isolated from CaneBagasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris-Toharisman; Akyunul-Jannah

    2000-01-01

    The activity of cellulase from thermophilic fungi isolated from canebagasses has been measured. This wild strain, named fungal strain PJ-2,secreted a large amount of cellulolytic enzyme components consisting of 0.46units of avicelase, 0.8 units of carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolizing enzyme(CMCase) and 0.5 units of β-glucosidase per ml of culture broth oncultivation in Mandels Reese medium for 7 days at 500 o C. These cellulasesproduction was lower than that of Trichoderma reesei NRRL 3653 producing 0.5units/ml avicelase, 1.6 units/ml CMCase and 0.4 units/ml ofβ-glucosidase cultivated in the same medium at 30 o C. However,thermophilic fungi may be potential to be exploited in lignocellulosedegradation at the tropical areas as the process usually needs temperature ofabove 50 o C. (author)

  5. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  6. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  7. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  8. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  9. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils.

  10. Biomass production by filamentous fungi in sugar cane vinasse medium supplemented with molasses; Producao de biomassa por fungos filamentosos em meio de vinhaca de cana de acucar suplementado com melaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegger, Marcelo Jose Silveira [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Tauk-Tornisielo, Samia Maria [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Ambientais

    1996-06-01

    Three species of filamentous fungi were selected and cultivated in vinasse media with different addition of molasses. The microorganisms, previously adapted to the respective medium, were cultivated in pure and mixed cultures with constant agitation with four repetition for each sample. The biomass was separated by vacuum filtration and dried in oven until right weight, and the obtained liquid was submitted to COD analysis. The data were statistically analysed. Results are presented 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Rico, O.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de

  12. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de

  13. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  14. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Lv

    Full Text Available Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  16. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  17. Initial studies of the populations of fungi and bacteria in the soil under the influence of the cuItivation of spring wheat and winter wheat in a growth chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the studies was to determine the populations of fungi and bacteria after the cultivation of spring wheat and winter wheat. As a result of the studies it was found out that winter wheat had a stimulating effect on the total number of bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. On the other hand, spring wheat had a smaller influence on the growth of bacteria, while stimulating the growth of the number of fungi. Among the bacteria and saprophytic fungi isolated from the soil after the c...

  18. Spores of most common airborne fungi reveal no ice nucleation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2013-06-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous biological aerosols, which are considered to show ice nucleation (IN) activity. In this study the respective IN activity was tested in oil emulsion in the immersion freezing mode. The focus was laid on species of economical, ecological or sanitary significance. For the first time, not only common moulds, but also edible mushrooms (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) were investigated, as they contribute massively to the total amount of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Only Fusarium avenaceum showed freezing events at low subzero-temperatures, while the other investigated fungal spores showed no significant IN activity. Furthermore, we selected a set of fungal strains from different sites and exposed them to occasional freezing stress during cultivation. Although the total protein expression was altered by this treatment, it had no significant impact on the IN activity.

  19. Mild Fe-deficiency improves biomass production and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Liu, Yue; Mao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Qian; Du, Shao-Ting

    2013-06-15

    It is of great practical importance to improve yield and quality of vegetables in soilless cultures. This study investigated the effects of iron-nutrition management on yield and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results showed that mild Fe-deficient treatment (1 μM FeEDTA) yielded a greater biomass of edible parts than Fe-omitted treatment (0 μM FeEDTA) or Fe-sufficient treatments (10 and 50 μM FeEDTA). Conversely, mild Fe-deficient treatment had the lowest nitrate concentration in the edible parts out of all the Fe treatments. Interestingly, all the concentrations of soluble sugar, soluble protein and ascorbate in mild Fe-deficient treatments were higher than Fe-sufficient treatments. In addition, both phenolic concentration and DPPH scavenging activity in mild Fe-deficient treatments were comparable with those in Fe-sufficient treatments, but were higher than those in Fe-omitted treatments. Therefore, we concluded that using a mild Fe-deficient nutrition solution to cultivate spinach not only would increase yield, but also would improve quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated Rubus species in Colombia using AFLP and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bibiana Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean blackberry belongs to the genus Rubus, the largest of the Rosaceae family and one of the mostdiverse of the plant kingdom. In Colombia Rubus glaucus Benth, known as the Andean raspberry or blackberry, is one of thenine edible of the genus out of forty-four reported species. In this study wild and cultivated genotypes, collected in the CentralAndes of Colombia were analyzed by AFLP and SSR markers. Sexual reproduction seems to play an important role inmaintaining the genetic variability in R. glaucus, and the viability of using the SSR of Rubus alceifolius to characterizeColombian Rubus species was clearly demonstrated. All species evaluated produced very specific banding patterns,differentiating them from the others. Both AFLP and SSR produced bands exclusive to each of the following species: R.robustus, R. urticifolius, R. glaucus, and R. rosifolius. The SSR markers differentiated diploid and tetraploid genotypes of R.glaucus.

  1. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  2. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  3. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  4. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  5. Cannabis Intoxication Case Series: The Dangers of Edibles Containing Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Kathy T; Horng, Howard; Li, Kai; Ho, Raymond Y; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis and its principal active constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are increasingly available as edibles resembling commercially available food products. In this case series, we describe a population of predominantly pediatric patients who were inadvertently exposed to a THC-containing product in San Francisco. Twelve children and 9 adults were identified, with 16 patients having detectable serum THC and THC metabolites. All patients presented to hospitals with a variety of constitutional symptoms and all were discharged home within 12 hours. In general, pediatric patients had more severe symptoms and longer hospital length of stay, and, uniquely, a majority presented with leukocytosis and elevated lactic acid levels. We recommend that efforts be made to increase general public awareness in regard to the potential hazards of THC-containing edibles resembling commercially available food products. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  7. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  8. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  9. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  10. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  12. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  13. The edible gelatin irradiation sterilization technology and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Shi Jianjun; Shen Weiqiao

    2000-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation sterilization technology was used in treating edible gelatin and the irradiation effects on viscosity, protein and amino acid were studied. The results demonstrated that the irradiation dose had negative correlation with viscosity, and there were no damage effects on the gelatin with 360 days storage under room temperature. According to D 10 Value, the suitable irradiation dose should be 3-5 kGy

  14. Phytochemical characterization of wild edible Boletus sp. from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Our research has been focused on the documentation of nutritional composition and nutraceutical potential of wild mushrooms, making the information available for a better management and conservation of these species and related habitats. In the present work, the chemical composition and bioactivity of three wild edible Boletus sp. (Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus reticulatus) from Northeast Portugal were evaluated, in order to valorise these species as sources of important...

  15. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  16. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  17. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  18. Estimation of uranium in some edible and commercial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, S.; Goswami, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA (particle track analysis) method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and p...

  20. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  1. Protocol for Enhanced in situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    through a two-step process where the ester linkages between the glycerol and the fatty acids are hydrolyzed releasing free fatty acids and glycerol to...interfacial tension of edible oils can be lowered by the addition of different surfactants including lecithin , mono and diglycerides, free fatty acids...in Table 3.2. The cumulative oil volume vs. droplet diameter for the different mixers is presented in Figure 3.4. The modified lecithin

  2. Pemanfaatan Biji Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill.) Untuk Pembuatan Edible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Yudiandani, Ana '; Efendi, Raswen '; Ibrahim, Ahmad '

    2016-01-01

    Avocado seed was found to have high starchs of content and yet it has not been optimally utilized. Therefore this research was aimed to utilized the starchs of avocado seed as material of edible film and to get the best formulations of addition of starchs avocado seed. This research was conducted experimentaly by used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatmens and three replications which followed by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) at level 5%. The treatmens in this researc...

  3. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring futu...

  4. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME UNCONVENTIONAL WILD EDIBLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan; Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2010-01-01

    The wild edible tubers, rhizome, corm, roots and stems were consumed by the tribal Valaiyans of Madurai district, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu were analysed for proximate and mineral composition, starch, vitamins, in vitro protein (IVPD), in vitro starch (IVSD) digestibility and certain antinutritional factors. The tubers of Kedrostis foetidissima and stem of Caralluma pauciflora contain higher contents of crude protein. The tubers of Decalepis hamiltonii and stems of Caralluma adscendens var at...

  5. The impact of the postharvest environment on the viability and virulence of decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Xie, Zhigang; Liu, Yiqing; You, Yuming; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenhua; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi

    2018-07-03

    Postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains by fungal pathogens causes significant economic losses. Infected produce presents a potential health risk since some decay fungi produce mycotoxins that are hazardous to human health. Infections are the result of the interplay between host resistance and pathogen virulence. Both of these processes, however, are significantly impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature, UV, oxidative stress, and water activity. In the present review, the impact of various physical postharvest treatments (e.g., heat and UV) on the viability and virulence of postharvest pathogens is reviewed and discussed. Oxidative injury, protein impairment, and cell wall degradation have all been proposed as the mechanisms by which these abiotic stresses reduce fungal viability and pathogenicity. The response of decay fungi to pH and the ability of pathogens to modulate the pH of the host environment also affect pathogenicity. The effects of the manipulation of the postharvest environment by ethylene, natural edible coatings, and controlled atmosphere storage on fungal viability are also discussed. Lastly, avenues of future research are proposed.

  6. Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production - A review of current work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. Currently, biodiesel is mainly prepared from conventionally grown edible oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm thus leading to alleviate food versus fuel issue. About 7% of global vegetable oil supplies were used for biodiesel production in 2007. Extensive use of edible oils may cause other significant problems such as starvation in developing countries. The use of non-edible plant oils when compared with edible oils is very significant in developing countries because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food, and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present. The production of biodiesel from different non-edible oilseed crops has been extensively investigated over the last few years. (author)

  7. Physiological limits to zinc biofortification of edible crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip John White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that almost one third of the world’s population lack sufficient Zn for adequate nutrition. This can be alleviated by increasing dietary Zn intakes through Zn-biofortification of edible crops. Biofortification strategies include the application of Zn-fertilisers or the development of crop genotypes that acquire more Zn from the soil and accumulate it in edible portions. Zinc concentrations in roots, leaves and stems can be increased through the application of Zn-fertilisers. Root Zn concentrations of up to 500-5000 mg kg-1 DM, and leaf Zn concentrations of up to 100-700 mg kg-1 dry matter (DM, can be achieved without loss of yield when Zn-fertilisers are applied to the soil. It is possible that greater Zn concentrations in non-woody shoot tissues can be attained using foliar Zn-fertilisers. By contrast, Zn concentrations in fruits, seeds and tubers are severely limited by low Zn mobility in the phloem and Zn concentrations higher than 30-100 mg kg-1 DM are rarely observed. However, genetically modified plants with improved abilities translocate Zn in the phloem might be used to biofortify these phloem-fed tissues. In addition, genetically modified plants with increased tolerance to high tissue Zn concentrations could be used to increase Zn concentrations in all edible produce and, thereby, increase dietary Zn intakes.

  8. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  9. Recent innovations in the area of edible films and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan; Shahamirian, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Edible films/coatings have been considered as one of the potential technologies that can be used to increase the storability of foods and to improve the existent packaging technology, helping to ensure the microbial safety and the preservation of food from the influence of external factors. Innovations constantly appear in food packaging, always aiming at creating a more efficient quality preservation system while improving foods' attractiveness and marketability. The utilization of renewable sources for packaging materials, such as hydrocolloids and lipids from biological origin, is one the main trends of the industry. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO2, O2, water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color and nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Nowadays, a great discussion exists about the potential applications of edible films/coatings on food products. The general trend is to find the correct combination between the food product and the edible film/coating, which will ensure the success of the technology.

  10. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  12. Physiological limits to zinc biofortification of edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that one-third of the world's population lack sufficient Zn for adequate nutrition. This can be alleviated by increasing dietary Zn intakes through Zn biofortification of edible crops. Biofortification strategies include the application of Zn-fertilizers and the development of crop genotypes that acquire more Zn from the soil and accumulate it in edible portions. Zinc concentrations in roots, leaves, and stems can be increased through the application of Zn-fertilizers. Root Zn concentrations of up to 500-5000 mg kg(-1) dry matter (DM), and leaf Zn concentrations of up to 100-700 mg kg(-1) DM, can be achieved without loss of yield when Zn-fertilizers are applied to the soil. It is possible that greater Zn concentrations in non-woody shoot tissues can be achieved using foliar Zn-fertilizers. By contrast, Zn concentrations in fruits, seeds, and tubers are severely limited by low Zn mobility in the phloem and Zn concentrations higher than 30-100 mg kg(-1) DM are rarely observed. However, genetically modified plants with improved abilities to translocate Zn in the phloem might be used to biofortify these phloem-fed tissues. In addition, genetically modified plants with increased tolerance to high tissue Zn concentrations could be used to increase Zn concentrations in all edible produce and, thereby, increase dietary Zn intakes.

  13. Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Birgit A; Schlüter, Oliver K

    2013-05-01

    Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nutritional composition and solubility of edible bird nest (Aerodramus fuchiphagus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Nurfatin Mohd; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Edible bird nest (EBN) produced by certain swiftlet species mainly, Aerodromus fuciphagus. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the proximate and amino acid composition of EBN obtained from two regions in Peninsular Malaysia (Pahang-A & Terengganu-B). The solubility of edible bird nest with varying pH, temperature and time was also investigated in this study. The results showed that, the EBN contained crude protein accounted to 58.55% (A) and 55.48% (B), carbohydrate at22.28% (A) & 25.79% (B), moisture content 15.90% (A) & 15.87% (B), fat, 0.67% (A) & and 0.29% (B) and ash contents 2.60% (A) & 2.57% (B) respectively. The major amino acids found in edible bird nest EBN were Glutamic acid (9.61%), Aspartic acid (6.34%), Lysine (5.44 %) and also Leucine (5.30%). The total solubility of EBN was also found to be increased when the temperature was increased increase with distilled water yielding the highest total solubility of EBN compared to others buffer (different pH) solutions.

  15. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  17. Edible films and coatings in seafood preservation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Samira; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-02-01

    Seafood is highly perishable and has a short shelf-life. During storage many reactions occur leading to changes in quality such as endogenous chemical and enzymatic reactions. The safety and shelf-life are related to the presence of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Despite improved manufacturing facilities and implementation of effective process control procedures such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system by seafood companies, the number of seafood-related foodborne illnesses has increased. Edible coatings can improve the quality of fresh and frozen products by retarding microbial growth, reducing lipid oxidation and moisture loss, and functioning as a carrier of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Biodegradable edible coatings have various advantages over synthetic coatings such as being edible and generally being more environmentally friendly. This paper reviews the application of various types of natural bio-polymer and different active ingredients incorporated into the films and their effects on seafood quality attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  19. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  20. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  1. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association.

  3. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zawacka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge, divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication, raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW. Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  6. Effect of Protein-Based Edible Coating from Red Snapper (Lutjanus sp.) Surimi on Cooked Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostini, I.; Ibrahim, B.; Trilaksani, W.

    2018-02-01

    Surimi can be used as a raw material for making protein based edible coating to protect cooked shrimp color. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers preference level on cooked shrimp which coated by surimi edible coating from red snapper and to know the microscopic visualization of edible coating layer on cooked shrimp. The treatments for surimi edible coating were without and added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract. Application of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp was comprised methods (1) boiled then coated and (2) coated then boiled. Edible coating made from surimi with various concentrations which were 2, 6, 10 and 14% of distillated water. The analysis were done using hedonic test and microscopic observation with microscope photographs. Effect of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp based on the hedonic and colour test results showed that the 14% surimi concentration, added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract on edible coating was the most preferable by panellist and giving the highest shrimp colour. The edible coating surimi application on cooked shrimp which gave the best result was processed by boiling followed by coating.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Cano, R D; Salcedo-Hernández, R; López-Meza, J E; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against micro-organism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Proteus vulgaris), phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Asperigillus niger) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.). It was shown that samples treated with proteolytic enzymes had a reduction of approximately 60% in antibacterial activity against Staph. xylosus, suggesting that proteinaceous compounds might play a role in the inhibitory effect. Antimicrobial components in crude extracts were thermoresistant and the highest activity was observed under acidic conditions. It was shown that antifungal activity of broccoli's crude extracts might not be attributed to chitinases. Organic broccoli cultivar Avenger has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and phytophatogenic fungi. Data suggest that this effect is partially due to AMPs. Broccoli's crude extracts have activity not only against pathogenic bacteria but also against phytophatogenic fungi of importance in agriculture. We suggest for first time that the inhibitory effect is probably due to AMPs. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  9. Molecular identification of fungi trichothecens producing in seeds madder and detection of their nivalenol gene synthesis using PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Alireza Esmailzadeh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madder is one of the most important crops that used for medical and industrial applications and is widely cultivated in Yazd province. During 2012, sampling was done form seeds madder in important areas planted in Yazd province, including Bafq and Ardakan. After culturing and purification of fungal isolates in PDA and CLA media, additional identification was performed by PCR with specific primers for each species. Detection of fungi mycotoxins producing potential such as Nivalenol (NIV using Tri13 primers was done. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to confirm the produce NIV mycotoxins potential in Fusarium species. 249 fungal strains were isolated from madder seed belonging to 6 genera of fungi including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizpous spp., that Fusarium isolates with 71 percent was the most frequency among fungi isolated. Among Fusarium fungi isolated, F. solani (55 isolates and F. oxysporum (41 isolates were the most frequency. F. poae, F. semitectum and F. equiseti ability to produce mycotoxins such as Nivalenol (NIV that are harmful to human health and animals as well as effect on the quantity and quality of madder color production. Tri13 gene involved in production NIV was detected in three Fusarium species that all isolates produce NIV. The results of HPLC showed that all studied Fusarium fungi, have the potential to produce NIV mycotoxins. The results of this study showed that fungi associated with seeds madder are able to produce trichothecene mycotoxins that they can be dangerous for consumers. Given that, this is the first report of fungi mycotoxins producing on seeds madder in Yazd province, thus should be measures to control and reduce fungal agents in these products.

  10. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  11. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  12. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  13. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  14. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    . Six new ST producing fungi were discovered: Aspergillus asperescens, Aspergillus aureolatus, Aspergillus eburneocremeus, Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus tardus, and Penicillium inflatum and one new aflatoxin producer: Aspergillus togoensis (=Stilbothamnium togoense). ST was confirmed in 23...

  15. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN MUDFISH (Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Clarias gariepinus (African mudfish) and 144 fish holding water samples were collected from ... Finding these fungi in the fish holding water might have occurred through the use ... This increased .... microbial profile of some fish ponds in the.

  16. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  17. Thraustochytrid fungi associated with marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Many of the diatoms collected from Arabian Sea were found to harbour thraustochytrid fungi on them. The fungus was identified as Ulkenia visurgensis and it could be grown on pine pollen in seawater. The fungus never infected healthy growing cultures...

  18. Classification and infection mechanism of entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Margy Alejandra Esparza; Castilho, Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro; Fraga, Marcelo Elias

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic fungi are important biological control agents throughout the world, have been the subject of intensive research for more than 100 years, and can occur at epizootic or enzootic levels in their host populations. Their mode of action against insects involves attaching a spore to the insect cuticle, followed by germination, penetration of the cuticle, and dissemination inside the insect. Strains of entomopathogenic fungi are concentrated in the following orders: Hypocre...

  19. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20 degrees C and a maximum temperature of growth extending Itp to 60 to 62 degrees C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45 degrees C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62 degrees C. Although wides...

  20. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested ...