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Sample records for cultivated watermelon citrullus

  1. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the...

  2. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-08-01

    Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries CE were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century CE and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century CE present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  3. Simple sequence repeats in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, R L; Merrick, L C; Holms, T; Evans, J; Aradhya, M K

    1997-08-01

    Simple sequence repeat length polymorphisms were utilized to examine genetic relatedness among accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). A size-fractionated TaqI genomic library was screened for the occurrence of dimer and trimer simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 96 (0.53%) SSR-bearing clones were identified and the inserts from 50 of these were sequenced. The dinucleotide repeats (CT)n and (GA)n accounted for 82% of the SSRs sequenced. PCR primer pairs flanking seven SSR loci were used to amplify SSRs from 32 morphologically variable watermelon genotypes from Africa, Europe, Asia, and Mexico and a single accession of Citrullus colocynthis from Chad. Cluster analysis of SSR length polymorphisms delineated 4 groups at the 25% level of genetic similarity. The largest group contained C. lanatus var. lanatus accessions. The second largest group contained only wild and cultivated "citron"-type or C. lanatus var. citroides accessions. The third group contained an accession tentatively identified as C. lanatus var. lanatus but which perhaps is a hybrid between C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides. The fourth group consisted of a single accession identified as C. colocynthis. "Egusi"-type watermelons from Nigeria grouped with C. lanatus var. lanatus. The use of SSRs for watermelon germplasm characterization and genetic diversity studies is discussed.

  4. Influência do agrotêxtil sobre a densidade populacional de Monosporascus cannonballus em solo cultivado com melancia (Citrullus lanatus Influence of the row cover on the population density of Monosporascus cannonballus in soil cultivated with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Valente de Medeiros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Monosporascus cannonballus é um importante patógeno radicular que ocasiona a síndrome denominada colapso em cucurbitáceas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se, avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de planta com agrotêxtil branco de 15 g m-2, sobre a densidade populacional de M. cannonballus, em solo cultivado com melancia [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsu & Nakai]. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por utilização ou não do agrotêxtil e as subparcelas pelas épocas de coleta de solo (0, 12, 24, 36, 48 dias após o transplantio. As variáveis analisadas foram densidade de ascósporos, temperatura do solo e do ar. Não houve influência da utilização da cobertura de agrotêxtil perante a densidade de ascósporos de M. cannonballus, no solo cultivado com melancia, mesmo que tenha proporcionado redução nas temperaturas médias do ar e do solo, sendo uma alternativa eficaz de manejo, na produção da melancia Mickylee.The fungus M. cannonballus is an important root pathogen that causes collapse in cucurbitaceas. The present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the row cover with white polypropylene of 15 g m-2 on the population density of M.cannonballus in soil cultivated with watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsu & Nakai]. The experimental design was of randomized blocks using parcels subdivided scheme with three replications. The parcels consisted of use or not row cover and subparcelas through the time of soil collected (0, 12, 24, 36, 48 days after the transplanting. The variables evaluates were ascospores density, soil temperature and air temperature. There was not influence of the characteristics gotten for the row cover before the ascospores density of M. cannonballus, in the soils cultivated with watermelon and proportioning reduction of soil temperature means and air temperature means

  5. Partial leaf chemical profiles of a desert watermelon species (Citrullus colocynthis) and heirloom watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and aphids [Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] are serious threats to watermelon by direct feeding and by transmitting viruses of important virus diseases. The desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) has been shown to exhibit resistance t...

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  9. Gene sequences present in Citrullus sp. having been lost during domestication of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide genetic diversity exists among Citrullus species, while watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base as a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit qualities. The recent international watermelon genome sequencing project reve...

  10. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  11. Genetic diversity in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces from Zimbabwe revealed by RAPD and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujaju, C; Sehic, J; Werlemark, G; Garkava-Gustavsson, L; Fatih, M; Nybom, H

    2010-08-01

    Low polymorphism in cultivated watermelon has been reported in previous studies, based mainly on US Plant Introductions and watermelon cultivars, most of which were linked to breeding programmes associated with disease resistance. Since germplasm sampled in a putative centre of origin in southern Africa may harbour considerably higher variability, DNA marker-based diversity was estimated among 81 seedlings from eight accessions of watermelon collected in Zimbabwe; five accessions of cow-melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and three of sweet watermelons (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Two molecular marker methods were used, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) also known as microsatellite DNA. Ten RAPD primers produced 138 markers of which 122 were polymorphic. Nine SSR primer pairs detected a total of 43 alleles with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 for the RAPD primers and from 0.39 to 0.97 for the SSR loci. Similarity matrices obtained with SSR and RAPD, respectively, were highly correlated but only RAPD was able to provide each sample with an individual-specific DNA profile. Dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS) produced two major clusters; one with the five cow-melon accessions and the other with the three sweet watermelon accessions. One of the most variable cow-melon accessions took an intermediate position in the MDS analysis, indicating the occurrence of gene flow between the two subspecies. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) attributed most of the variability to within-accessions, and contrary to previous reports, sweet watermelon accessions apparently contain diversity of the same magnitude as the cow-melons.

  12. Sequence variation at cpDNA regions of watermelon and related wild species: implications for the evolution of Citrullus haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Fenny; Lang, Ping

    2004-11-01

    Sequencing analysis of one coding and four noncoding cpDNA regions was conducted to infer biogeographic and evolutionary relationships in the genus Citrullus. Eighteen taxa from diverse geographical areas were included. A low number of parsimony informative characters (1.1%) was observed at the ∼4 kb section of cpDNA. Variability within Citrullus was detected primarily at noncoding regions of high A + T content. Substitution rates varied from 0-0.48% for ndhF with A + T content of 68.4% to 0.39- 1.69% for the intergenic region of atpA with A + T content of 82.8%, mainly resulting in indels and transversions. Indels at several regions acted as valuable parsimony informative markers. Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the cultivated watermelon, and C. ecirrhosus and C. rehmii from Namibia, lacked molecular variability. The genus Citrullus is supported monophyletically and shows two main clades, one of which contains C. colocynthis. In the other clade, C. rehmii is sister to a clade containing C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus. Two clades were recovered within C. lanatus, consisting of domesticated watermelon and wild citron, var. citroides. Five haplotypes within C. colocynthis were used to deduce colonization routes of the species. Biogeographic patterns point to separate colonization events into Africa and the Far East.

  13. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  14. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe; Salse, Jerome; Lucas, William J; Zhang, Haiying; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Linyong; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhiwen; Min, Jiumeng; Guo, Xiaosen; Murat, Florent; Ham, Byung-Kook; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Gao, Shan; Huang, Mingyun; Xu, Yimin; Zhong, Silin; Bombarely, Aureliano; Mueller, Lukas A; Zhao, Hong; He, Hongju; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Tan, Tao; Pang, Erli; Lin, Kui; Hu, Qun; Kuang, Hanhui; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jingan; Kou, Qinghe; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Klee, Kathrin; Schoof, Heiko; Huang, Ying; Hu, Xuesong; Dong, Shanshan; Liang, Dequan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Kui; Xia, Yang; Zhao, Xiang; Zheng, Zequn; Xing, Miao; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Bangqing; Lv, Tian; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yi, Hongping; Li, Ruiqiang; Wu, Mingzhu; Levi, Amnon; Zhang, Xingping; Giovannoni, James J; Wang, Jun; Li, Yunfu; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity and population structure of watermelon germplasm. Genomic regions that were preferentially selected during domestication were identified. Many disease-resistance genes were also found to be lost during domestication. In addition, integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses yielded important insights into aspects of phloem-based vascular signaling in common between watermelon and cucumber and identified genes crucial to valuable fruit-quality traits, including sugar accumulation and citrulline metabolism.

  15. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  16. Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. collected in southern Africa are a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resi...

  17. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  18. Comparative analysis of chloroplast DNA variability in wild and cultivated Citrullus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, F; Lang, P; Bakhtiyarova, R

    2004-03-01

    PCR amplification and restriction site analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNA regions was used to detect inter- and intraspecific differences in the genus Citrullus. More than 55 C. lanatus and 15 C. colocynthis accessions collected from diverse geographical areas, C. ecirrhosus and C. rehmii were used. Most of the cpDNA variation within Citrullus was the result of large indels and transitions and transversions. Indels at the ndhA, trnS- trnfM and trnC- trnD regions and several substitutions at restriction enzyme sites can be used to separate C. colocynthis from the other Citrullus species. A nucleotide substitution at a restriction enzyme site at the 3' flanking region of ndhF provided a diagnostic haplotype for C. lanatus var. lanatus, the cultivated watermelon. Similarly, a nucleotide substitution at an intergenic spacer region of the trnC- trnD region resulted in a diagnostic haplotype for citron, C. lanatus var. citroides. Several C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed the var. lanatus haplotype. C. rehmii showed almost the same haplotype as C. lanatus var. citroides with the exception of a unique insertion at a cpSSR site. Since C. ecirrhosus lacks the derived diagnostic nucleotide substitutions of C. lanatus, it is probably the progenitor of the cultivated watermelon. Intraspecific haplotypes detected within C. colocynthis were associated with geographic origin.

  19. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  20. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe;

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolut...

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  3. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) hydroperoxide lyase greatly increases C6 aldehyde formation in transgenic leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David F

    2005-03-23

    Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HL) is the key enzyme for the production of the "green note"compounds, leaf aldehyde [(2E)-hexenal] and leaf alcohol [(3Z)-hexenol], in plant tissues. A cDNA encoding HL was cloned from leaves of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The enzyme is 3 times more active with 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid than with 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. The activity against 9-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids is minimal. Enzyme activity of the watermelon HL in the transgenic leaves was approximately 50 times higher than endogenous HL activity in the wild-type N. tabacum plants. When compared with Arabidopsis HL also expressed in N. tabacum, the highest HL activity is 10 times higher in watermelon HL overexpressing leaves than in Arabidopsis HL overexpressers.

  4. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  5. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  6. Cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Okada, Rina; Harada, Yu; Ikushima, Kenji; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 24-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,25-dien-3beta-ol (1) and 25-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-3beta-ol (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 33.4-52.4 microM against HL-60 (human leukemia), P388 (murine leukemia), and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells. Compound 1 showed melanogenesis inhibitory activity (melanin content 80.0 %) with low cytotoxicity (cell viability 97.6%) at a low concentration (10 microM).

  7. Characterisation and functional properties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Singh, Preeti; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Shivhare, Uma S

    2011-01-15

    People in developing countries depend largely on non-conventional protein sources to augment the availability of proteins in their diets. Watermelon seed meal is reported to contain an adequate amount of nutritional proteins that could be extracted for use as nutritional ingredients in food products. Osborne classification showed that globulin was the major protein (≥500 g kg (-1)) present in watermelon seed meal, followed by albumin and glutelin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the polypeptides had low molecular weights ranging from 35 to 47 kDa. Isoelectric focusing revealed that the isoelectric point of most proteins was in the acidic range 4-6. These proteins are rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. An increase in pH (5-9) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the denaturation enthalpy of these proteins. Among functional properties, albumin exhibited a much higher dispersibility index (810.3-869.6 g kg(-1)) than globulin (227.8-245.4 g kg(-1)), glutelin (182.1-187.7 g kg(-1)) and prolamin (162.3-177.7 g kg(-1)). Digestibility was in the ranges 760.6-910.0 and 765.5-888.5 g kg(-1) for Mateera and Sugar Baby watermelon protein fractions respectively, while surface hydrophobicity ranged from 126.4 to 173.2 and from 125.8 to 169.3 respectively. The foaming and emulsifying properties of albumin were better than those of the other proteins studied. The good nutritional and functional properties of watermelon seed meal proteins suggest their potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  10. Sequence-characterized amplified polymorphism markers for selecting rind stripe pattern in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of foreground stripe pattern in rind of watermelon fruits [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated and the molecular markers for selecting the JT stripe pattern were developed based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Divergence in rind pattern among F2 progeny deri...

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K

    2010-06-01

    A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species.

  12. Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.] from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oils from different varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in Pakistan, namely Sugar Baby, Q-F-12, D-W-H-21 and Red Circle-1885. The oil and crude protein contents from watermelon seeds, within the range of 28.25 to 35.65% and 20.50 to 35.00%, respectively, varied significantly (p -1 of oil, saponification index (190.20-205.57 mg KOH g-1 of oil, unsaponifiable matter (0.54-0.82% and color (1.12-4.30 R + 12.20-33.40 Y. The oils revealed a reasonable oxidative parameter range as depicted by the determinations of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (2.90-4.40 and 2.05- 3.09, respectively, p-anisidine value (5.60-7.70 and peroxide value (2.90-5.06 meqO2 kg-1 of oil. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid found in all the seed oils with contributions of 45.30-51.80% of the total fatty acids (FA. Other fatty acids detected were known to be oleic acid (20.2- 23.5%, palmitic acid (15.1-16.9% and stearic acid (11.5- 14.4%. The contents of α- and δ-tocopherol in the oils accounted for 120.6-195.6 and 9.1-58.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The physicochemical attributes of the watermelon seed oils showed a wider variation among the varieties tested. The results of the present study indicate that the seeds of the tested watermelon varieties from Pakistan are a potential source of high-linoleic oil and thus can be explored for commercial use and value addition.Se presentan las características físico-químicas de aceites de diferentes variedades de semillas de sandías (Citrullus lanatus cultivadas en Pakistán: Sugar Baby, QF-12, DWH-21 y Círculo rojo-1885. El aceite y el contenido de proteína cruda de las semillas de sandía están dentro de los rangos: 28,25-35,65% y 20,50-35,00%, respectivamente y varian significativamente (p -1 de aceite, índice de saponificación (190,20-205,57 mg de KOH g-1 de aceite, insaponificable (0,54-0.82% y color (1.12-4.30 de I + 12.20- 33.40 y

  13. The genomic and biological characterization of Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus infecting watermelon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min; Cao, Mengji; Liu, Wenwen; Ren, Yingdang; Lu, Chuantao; Wang, Xifeng

    2017-03-15

    A dsRNA virus was detected in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) samples collected from Kaifeng, Henan province, China through the use of next generation sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus is comprised of dsRNA-1 (1603nt) and dsRNA-2 (1466nt), both of which are single open reading frames and potentially encode a 54.2kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a 45.9kDa coat protein (CP), respectively. The RdRp and CP share the highest amino acid identities 85.3% and 75.4% with a previously reported Israeli strain Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus (CiLCV), respectively. Genome comparisons indicate that this virus is the same species with CiLCV, whereas the reported sequences of the Israeli strain of CiLCV are partial, and our newly identified sequences can represent the complete genome of CiLCV. Futhermore, phylogenetic tree analyses based on the RdRp sequences suggest that CiLCV is one member in the genus Deltapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. In addition, field investigation and seed-borne bioassays show that CiLCV commonly occurs in many varieties and is transmitted though seeds at a very high rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx and supplementation (Tx groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P<0.05. Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  15. Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique; Carman, John G

    2010-11-01

    Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS(+), which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T(3) transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  17. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Yang

    Full Text Available Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  18. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  19. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus) x Citrullus colocynthis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, A.; Thomas, E.; Joobeur, T.; Zhang, X.; Davis, A.

    2002-09-01

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [Plant Accession Griffin 14113 ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x New Hampshire Midget (NHM; C. lanatus var. lanatus)] x U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 386015 ( Citrullus colocynthis). The map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker that was previously reported as linked (1.6 cM) to race-1 Fusarium wilt [incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F.Sm.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans] resistance in watermelon. The map consists of 25 linkage groups. Among them are a large linkage group that contains 22 markers covering a mapping distance of 225.6 cM and six large groups each with 10-20 markers covering a mapping distance of 68.8 to 110.8 cM. There are five additional linkage groups consisting of 3-7 markers per group, each covering a mapping distance of 36.5 to 57.2 cM. The 13 remaining linkage groups are small, each consisting of 2-11 markers covering a mapping distance of 3.5-29.9 cM. The entire map covers a total distance of 1,166.2 cM with an average distance of 8.1 cM between two markers. This map is useful for the further development of markers linked to disease resistance and watermelon fruit qualities.

  20. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  1. Peroxisomal membrane manganese superoxide dismutase: characterization of the isozyme from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Pastori, Gabriela M; Corpas, Francisco J; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) bound to peroxisomal membranes of watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) was purified to homogeneity and some of its molecular properties were determined. The stepwise purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Peroxisomal membrane Mn-SOD (perMn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified 5600-fold with a yield of 2.6 mug of enzyme g(-1) of cotyledons, and had a specific activity of 480 U mg(-1) of protein. The native molecular mass determined for perMn-SOD was 108 000 Da, and it was composed of four equal subunits of 27 kDa, which indicates that perMn-SOD is a homotetramer. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the enzyme showed a shoulder at 275 nm and two absorption maxima at 448 nm and 555 nm, respectively. By isoelectric focusing, a pI of 5.75 was determined for perMn-SOD. In immunoblot assays, purified perMn-SOD was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Mn-SOD from pea leaves, and the peroxisomal enzyme rapidly dissociated in the presence of dithiothreitol and SDS. The potential binding of the Mn-SOD isozyme to the peroxisomal membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The properties of perMn-SOD and the mitMn-SOD are compared and the possible function in peroxisomal membranes of the peripheral protein Mn-SOD is discussed.

  2. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Analysis of the level and pattern of genomic DNA methylation in different ploidy watermelons by MSAP (Citrullus lanatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun Guo; Gu, Yu; Chen, Cheng Bin; Jiao, Ding Liang; Xue, Zhen Yi; Song, Wen Qin

    2009-04-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications. It is very important to the regulation of gene expression. In present study, an autoploidy series (2x, 3x and 4x) in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was constructed and MSAP (Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism) analysis was conducted to elucidate the level and pattern of DNA methylation at CCGG sites in different ploidy watermelons. Totally, 1883 genetic loci were produced by 23 pairs of selective primers, of which 647, 655 and 581 sites were detected in diploid, autotriploid and autotetraploid, respectively. The methylation sites were 181, 150 and 159, and the corresponding total methylation ratios were 28.0%, 22.9% and 27.4% in 2x, 3x and 4x, respectively, of which the fully methylation sites were 121, 80 and 82, and the corresponding fully methylation ratios were 18.7%, 12.2% and 14.1%. Further analysis of the pattern of DNA methylation suggested that compared 4x with 2x, about half of detected sites (54.4%) shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Similarly, compared 4x with 3x, 45.4% sites also shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Moreover, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved increase of DNA methylation levels in 4x. However, compared 3x with 2x or 4x, although the changes of DNA methylation pattern also widely occurred, which involved 41.6% (compared 3x with 2x) and 45.4% (compared 3x with 4x) sites, respectively, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved decrease of DNA methylation levels in 3x. All these results indicated that DNA methylation events were widely existed in different ploidy watermelons. However, not only based on the total DNA methylation ratio or fully DNA methylation ratio, the results both implied that the DNA methylation levels were not closely associated with the autopolyploidy level in watermelon. Autotriploid watermelon shows obvious low level of DNA methylation. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns also suggested that

  4. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  5. Dynamic changes in the leaf proteome of a C3 xerophyte, Citrullus lanatus (wild watermelon), in response to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hoshiyasu, Saki; Inagaki, Naoyuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2011-05-01

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a xerophyte native to the Kalahari Desert, Africa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in this plant, we examined changes in the proteome in response to water deficit. Wild watermelon leaves showed decreased transpiration and a concomitant increase in leaf temperature under water deficit conditions. Comparison of the proteome of stressed plants with that of unstressed plants by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the intensity of 40 spots increased in response to the stress, and the intensity of 11 spots decreased. We positively identified 23 stress-induced and 6 stress-repressed proteins by mass spectrometry and database analyses. Interestingly, 15 out of the 23 up-regulated proteins (65% of annotated up-regulated proteins) were heat shock proteins (HSPs). Especially, 10 out of the 15 up-regulated HSPs belonged to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family. Other stress-induced proteins included those related to antioxidative defense and carbohydrate metabolism. Fifteen distinct cDNA sequences encoding the sHSP were characterized from wild watermelon. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the representative sHSP genes revealed strong transcriptional up-regulation in the leaves under water deficit. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed that protein abundance of sHSPs was massively increased under water deficit. Overall, these observations suggest that the defense response of wild watermelon may involve orchestrated regulation of a diverse array of functional proteins related to cellular defense and metabolism, of which HSPs may play a pivotal role on the protection of the plant under water deficit in the presence of strong light.

  6. Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) MATSUM & NAKAI] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, T; Shimamoto, I; Hirai, M

    2003-03-01

    We have been constructing linkage maps for watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus) on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and isozymes using an F(2) population derived from a crossing between a cultivated inbred line (H-7; C. lanatus) and an African wild form (SA-1; C. lanatus). A total of 120 F(2) plants was used for construction of a linkage map using 477 RAPDs, 53 RFLPs, 23 ISSRs and one isozyme markers. Linkage analysis revealed that 554 loci could be mapped to 11 linkage groups that extended for 2,384 centimorgans (cM). While a BC(1) population [(H-7 x SA-1) x H-7] consisting of 60 individuals was grown and scored for quantitative traits. Another linkage map with a total length of 1,729 cM was constructed in the BC(1) using genetic markers found to segregate in the F(2) population. A QTL analysis was applied by means of interval mapping for locating such agronomic traits as hardness of rind, Brix of flesh juice, flesh color (red and yellow) and rind color. The relative order of markers in the BC(1) map was essentially the same as that on the linkage map in the F(2). A total of five QTLs for four agronomic traits was detected. The QTL for hardness of rind was mapped on group 4. The linkage group 8 contained the QTL for sugar content of the flesh as expressed in Brix of the juice. The QTL for red flesh color was detected on groups 2 and 8. The QTL for rind color mapped on the group 3. The present map and QTL analysis may provide a useful tool for breeders by introducing valuable wild watermelon genes to cultivars.

  7. Combining ability analysis in complete diallel cross of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, M; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G B; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  8. Combining Ability Analysis in Complete Diallel Cross of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14 × P3 (6372-4, which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  9. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species.

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-03-04

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit.

  11. Analytical Characterization of Pure and Blended Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus oil: Impact of Blending on Oxidative Stability

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    Muhammad Waqar Azeem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L. kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B1, B2, B3 and B4 and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil. All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28oC for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The α tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. δ tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO2/kg in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil.

  12. Comparison of Three Methods of Planting Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in Varamin

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    P. Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best method of planting for two varieties of watermelon in Varamin (Charleston Gray and Mahbube through the three methods of planting (direct sowing of seeds, germinated seeds and transplanting of seedlings, a factorial experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates during two years (2007-2008 at the Agricultural Research Center, Varamin. The results indicated that planting methods and cultivars had significant effects on all traits including fruit yield, fruit weight and fruit yield of first cutting. Al though the method of transplanting resulted in fruit maturation of 14 days earlier than the direct planting, the mean fruit yield in this method was significantly lower than other methods. Among the various methods of cultivation, the highest mean yield was obtained from the using germinated seed with 30890 kg ha. In the germinated seed method, average fruit weight was significantly higher than the other two methods. The highest number of fruits per plant and the lateral branches were produced in the transplanting method but due to the low weight of fruit, it had the lowest fruit yield per hectare. The highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the fruit (8.2% were obtained in direct planting. Mahbube cultivar with 28,310 kg ha-1 of fruit yield, out yielded the Charleston Gray cultivar with 26250 kg ha-1. For the latter cultivar, first cutting yield and mean fruit weight were also superior compared to the cultivar Charleston Gray. Considering the significant interaction of cultivar and planting methods, maximum fruit yield (31750 kg ha-1 in this study was achieved with Mahbube cultivar when planted with germinated seed method. The results showed that seed germinated seed method is advantage ous compared with the other methods of planting.

  13. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.

  14. Influence of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides rootstocks and their F1 hybrids on yield and response to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in grafted watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are an important re-emerging pest of watermelon in the U.S. and worldwide. The re-emergence of root-knot nematodes (RKN) in watermelon and other cucurbits is largely due to the intensive cultivation of vegetable crops on limited agricultural land...

  15. Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most devastating watermelon diseases worldwide, Fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). Spread of the particularly virulent Fon race 2 in the United States, coupled with the lack of resistance in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lan...

  16. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  17. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  18. The effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extracts and L-citrulline on rat uterine contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munglue, Phukphon; Eumkep, Graingsak; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2013-04-01

    In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of watermelon and its citrulline content are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore, to determine the effects of watermelon extract and citrulline on the myometrium and to investigate their mechanisms of action. The effects of extracts of watermelon flesh and rind and L-citrulline (64 μmol/L) were evaluated on 3 types of contractile activity; spontaneous, those elicited by potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization, or oxytocin (10 nmol/L) application in isolated rat uterus. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and its mechanisms of action, N ω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L), LY83583 (1 μmol/L), and tetraethylamonium chloride (5 mmol/L), as well as Ca signaling pathways, were determined. Both flesh and rind extracts significantly decreased the force produced by all 3 mechanisms, in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts could also significantly decrease the force under conditions of sustained high Ca levels (depolarization and agonist) and when the force was produced only by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. L-citrulline produced the same effects on force as watermelon extracts. With submaximal doses of extract, the additive effects of L-citrulline were found. The inhibitory effects of extracts and L-citrulline were reversed upon the addition of NO inhibitors, and pretreatment of tissues with these inhibitors prevented the actions of both extracts and L-citrulline. Thus, these data show that watermelon and citrulline are potent tocolytics, decreasing the force produced by calcium entry and SR release and arising by different pathways, including oxytocin stimulation. Their major mechanism is to stimulate the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) relaxant pathway.

  19. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

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    Susana Manzano

    Full Text Available Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  20. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  1. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  2. High frequency oligonucleotides – targeting active gene (HFO-TAG) markers reveal wide genetic diversity among Citrullus spp. accessions useful for enhancing disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. Different U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus subsp. lanatus var. lanatus [also known as C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) col...

  3. Characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis of the MAPK and MAPKK genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiuming; Li, Dayong; Dai, Yi; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-12-23

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which consist of three functionally associated protein kinases, namely MEKKs, MKKs and MPKs, are universal signaling modules in all eukaryotes and have been shown to play critical roles in many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. However, little or nothing is known about the MPK and MKK families in watermelon. In the present study, we performed a systematic characterization of the ClMPK and ClMKK families including the identification and nomenclature, chromosomal localization, phylogenetic relationships, ClMPK-ClMKK interactions, expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic and biotic stress and transient expression-based functional analysis for their roles in disease resistance. Genome-wide survey identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes in watermelon genome and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of the ClMPK and ClMKK families can be classified into four distinct groups. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated significant interactions between members of the ClMPK and ClMKK families, defining putative ClMKK2-1/ClMKK6-ClMPK4-1/ClMPK4-2/ClMPK13 and ClMKK5-ClMPK6 cascades. Most of the members in the ClMPK and ClMKK families showed differential expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic (e.g. drought, salt, cold and heat treatments) and biotic (e.g. infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum) stresses. Transient expression of ClMPK1, ClMPK4-2 and ClMPK7 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and upregulated expression of defense genes while transient expression of ClMPK6 and ClMKK2-2 led to increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. Furthermore, transient expression of ClMPK7 also led to hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and significant accumulation of H2O2 in N. benthamiana. We identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes from watermelon and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, expression

  4. Genome-wide characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2013-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and adaptation. PAL enzymes are encoded by a gene family in plants. Here, we report a genome-wide search for PAL genes in watermelon. A total of 12 PAL genes, designated ClPAL1-12, are identified . Nine are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks located on chromosomes 4 and 7, and the other three ClPAL genes are distributed as single copies on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8. Both the cDNA and protein sequences of ClPALs share an overall high identity with each other. A phylogenetic analysis places 11 of the ClPALs into a separate cucurbit subclade, whereas ClPAL2, which belongs to neither monocots nor dicots, may serve as an ancestral PAL in plants. In the cucurbit subclade, seven ClPALs form homologous pairs with their counterparts from cucumber. Expression profiling reveals that 11 of the ClPAL genes are expressed and show preferential expression in the stems and male and female flowers. Six of the 12 ClPALs are moderately or strongly expressed in the fruits, particularly in the pulp, suggesting the potential roles of PAL in the development of fruit color and flavor. A promoter motif analysis of the ClPAL genes implies redundant but distinctive cis-regulatory structures for stress responsiveness. Finally, duplication events during the evolution and expansion of the ClPAL gene family are discussed, and the relationships between the ClPAL genes and their cucumber orthologs are estimated.

  5. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  6. A poliploidia artificial na obtenção de melancia sem sementes Artificial polyploidy in the production of seedless watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1958-01-01

    tetraplóides.Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. are in general provided with numerous seeds: large in the "American" varieties and small in the "Japanese" varieties. Triploids (2n=33 of the "Japanese" varieties are already under cultivation by American farmers who import the hybrid seeds from Japan and seedless fruits are being produced in ever increasing amounts. In Brazil the Japanese diploid (2n=22 varieties are only of recent introduction; among the American varieties (2n=22, "Keckley Sweet" is one of the best known and preferred for its good taste. For the obtention of seedless watermelons it seemed advisable to start the work with such a variety because of its commercial significance. The first step was the obtention of tetraploids (2n=44; the adopted method consisted in the treatment of germinating seeds in an aqueous colchicine solution; best results were achieved using an 0.1% solution for 8 to 12 hours. The tetraploids are of more stunted growth, with larger leaves and flowers; the fruits are smaller, round and few-seeded. In attempting to cross tetraploids with diploids, successfull results were obtained when ♀ 4n flowers were pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. Triploid (2n=33 plants, obtained from hybrid seeds, were completely male sterile but set fruits when pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. The triploid plants are somewhat intermediate between di- and tetraploids as to the size of leaves and growth habit; the fruits are less elongated than in the diploids and not round as in the tetraploids. Some fruits are seedless, i.e. with aborted seeds that can be eaten together with the pulp; others show from few to many empty seeds which are flacid, but not quite fit to be eaten. Comparative studies have been made of pollen, stomata and seeds of 2n, 3n and 4n plants. Studies are in progress to solve some problems encountered in the mass production and germination of tetraploid and triploid seed; up to now they are handicaps to the commercial

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... from Peru. Cantaloupe, netted melon, vegetable melon, and winter melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp....

  9. In vitro assessment of physiological changes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) upon iron oxide nanoparticles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Hu, Jing; Dai, Zhaoyi; Li, Junli; Huang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, developing nano iron fertilizer is an important strategy to alleviate Fe deficiency and elevate Fe fertilization effect in agricultural applications. In this study, watermelon seedlings were grown in soil amended with iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) at different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 mg/L). The content of soluble sugar and protein, content of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes of watermelon leaves were determined in five successive weeks to evaluate the physiological changes of watermelon plants after γ-Fe2O3 NPs exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter root cell of watermelon. Results showed that 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs didn't cause any oxidative stress on watermelon and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs could increase soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in the growth of plants. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs caused oxidative stress on watermelon leaves, but this NP-induced stress was removed with the growth of watermelon. It is noteworthy that we found γ-Fe2O3 NPs might possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The variation trend of physiological parameters was correlated with the nutritional requirements of plants. It can be concluded that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations have the ability to improve iron deficiency chlorosis and promote the growth of watermelon plants. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in long-term experiment of watermelon plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  11. 赤霉素处理对西瓜种子发芽率的影响%Influences of Gibberellin on the Germination Rate of Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于延球; 杨谦

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of gibberellin on the germination rate of watermelon, and provide a scientific basis for good quality and high effective breeding during watermelon cultivation. [Method] Five kinds of watermelon seeds( Jingxin No. 2, Jinlongbao, Xinhongbao, Jinzhongguanlong, Kangbingsumi) were treated with 5 different concentration gibberellin solutions(0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L) under the constant temperature of 30℃ , and then determined their germination rate. [Result] The most suitable gibberellin solution of different watermelon variety seeds was different. Jinxing No. 2 seeds treated with 100 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.000% ; Jinlongbao seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 84. 667% ; Xinhongbao seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.667% ; Jinzhongguanlong seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 72.667% ; Kangbingsumi seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 81.333%. [ Conclusion ] Using suitable concentration gibberellin solution to treat watermelon seeds improves their germination rate, and 50 - 150 mg/L gibberellin solution is better.%[目的]研究赤霉素对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)种子发芽率的影响,为西瓜栽培过程中优质高效育苗提供科学依据.[方法]在恒温30℃条件下,分别用5种不同浓度的赤霉素溶液(0、50、100、150、200、250 mg/L)处理5个西瓜品种(京欣2号、金龙宝、新红宝、金钟冠龙、抗病苏蜜)种子,测定发芽率.[结果]不同西瓜品种的种子所需最适赤霉素溶液浓度不同.用浓度100 mg/L赤霉素对京欣2号种子进行处理发芽率最高,为94.000%;浓度150 mg/L赤霉素对金龙宝来说发芽率最高,为84.667%;浓度50 mg/L赤霉素对新红

  12. Genetic Resources of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...

  13. Genetic analysis and chromosome mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) race 1 and race 2 in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Di Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) is the major soilborne disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.). The development and deployment of resistant cultivars is generally considered to be an effective approach to control FW. In this study, an F8 population consisting of 103 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the cultivar 97103 and a wild accession PI 296341-FR was used for FON race 1 and race 2 fungal inoculations. One major QTL on chromosome 1 for FON race 1 resistance was detected with a logarithm of odds of 13.2 and explained phenotypic variation R(2) = 48.1 %; two QTLs of FON race 2 resistance on chromosomes 9 and 10 were discovered based on the high-density integrated genetic map we constructed. The nearest molecular marker should be useful for marker-assisted selection of FON race 1 and race 2 resistance. One receptor kinase, one glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase precursors and three acidic chitinase located in the FON-1 QTL genomic region. In Qfon2.1 QTL region, one lipoxygenase gene, five receptor-like kinases and four glutathione S-transferase genes are discovered. One arginine biosynthesis bifunctional protein, two receptor kinase proteins and one lipid-transfer protein located in Qfon2.2 QTL region. Based on SNP analysis by using 20 re-sequenced accessions of watermelon and 231-plant F2 population generated from Black Diamond × Calhoun Grey, we developed a SNP marker Chr1SNP_502124 for FON-1 detection.

  14. Establishment of a transgenic hairy root system in wild and domesticated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) for studying root vigor under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Morikawa, Kaoru; Abe, Yosuke; Yokota, Akiho; Akashi, Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Root vigor is an important trait for the growth of terrestrial plants, especially in water-deficit environments. Although deserts plants are known for their highly developed root architecture, the molecular mechanism responsible for this trait has not been determined. Here we established an efficient protocol for the genetic manipulation of two varieties of watermelon plants: a desert-grown wild watermelon that shows vigorous root growth under drought, and a domesticated cultivar showing retardation of root growth under drought stress. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transgenic hairy roots were efficiently induced and selected from the hypocotyls of these plants. Transgenic GUS expression was detected in the roots by RT-PCR and histochemical GUS staining. Moreover, a liquid culture system for evaluating their root growth was also established. Interestingly, growth of the hairy roots derived from domesticated variety of watermelon strongly inhibited under high osmotic condition, whereas the hairy roots derived from wild variety of watermelon retained substantial growth rates under the stress condition. The new protocol presented here offers a powerful tool for the comparative study of the molecular mechanism underlying drought-induced root growth in desert plants.

  15. Expression analysis of β-glucosidase genes that regulate abscisic acid homeostasis during watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) development and under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Sun, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Dai, Shengjie; Chen, Pei; Duan, Chaorui; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain new insights into the mechanisms that regulate endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels by β-glucosidase genes during the development of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) and under drought stress conditions. In total, five cDNAs from watermelons were cloned by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). They included three cDNAs (ClBG1, ClBG2 and ClBG3) homologous to those that encode β-glucosidase l that hydrolyzes the ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA, ClNCED4, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, and ClCYP707A1, encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase. A BLAST homology search revealed that the sequences of cDNAs and the deduced amino acids of these genes showed a high degree of homology to comparable molecules of other plant species. During fruit development and ripening, the expressions of ClBG1, ClNCED4 and ClCYP707A1 were relatively low at an early stage, increased rapidly along with fruit ripening, and reached the highest levels at 27 days after full bloom (DAFB) at the harvest stage. This trend was consistent with the accumulation of ABA. The ClBG2 gene on the other hand was highly expressed at 5 DAFB, and then decreased gradually with fruit development. Unlike ClBG1 and ClBG2, the expression of ClBG3 was low at an early stage; its expression peak occurred at 15 DAFB and then declined to the lowest point. When watermelon seedlings were subjected to drought stress, expressions of ClBG1 and ClCYP707A1 were significantly down-regulated, while expressions of ClBG2 and ClNCED4 were up-regulated in the roots, stems and leaves. The expression of ClBG3 was down-regulated in root tissue, but was up-regulated in stems and leaves. In conclusion, endogenous ABA content was modulated by a dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism regulated by ClNCED4, ClCYP707A1 and ClBGs during development and under drought stress condition. It seems likely that β-glucosidase genes are

  16. Ethylene-induced gene expression, enzyme activities, and water soaking in immature and ripe watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Yasar; Huber, Donald J

    2004-04-01

    Watermelon fruit exhibit acute softening and placental-tissue water soaking following short exposure to exogenous ethylene. Experiments were performed to address transcript abundance and activities of cell wall and membrane hydrolases in placental tissue in response to treatment of watermelon fruit with ethylene. Watermelon fruit were harvested at immature and full-ripe stages and exposed to 50 microL L(-1) ethylene for 6 days at 20 degrees C. Ethylene affected the abundance of transcripts for PME (EC 3.2.1.11), and alpha-(EC 3.2.1.22) and beta-GAL (EC 3.2.1.23) but these effects were dependent on fruit maturity and appeared not to be associated with the water-soaking syndrome. PG (EC 3.2.1.15) and EXP mRNAs accumulated significantly in response to ethylene exposure. Additionally, the levels of mRNA and activities of LOX (EC 1.13.11.12), PLC (EC 3.1.4.3) and PLD (EC 3.1.4.4) were elevated in fruit of both maturity classes exposed to ethylene and were temporally associated with the visible symptoms of water soaking. The activity trends and transcript abundance in ethylene- compared with air-treated fruit indicate that PG, EXP, LOX, PLC and PLD levels increase with the onset and development of the water-soaking disorder and support the view that catabolic reactions targeting the membranes and cell-walls contribute to the disorder.

  17. Alternative Fungicide Spraying for the Control of Powdery Mildew Caused by Sphaerotheca fusca on Greenhouse Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative spraying was developed using fungicides and potassium phosphonate to control watermelon powdery mildew (WPM caused by Sphaerotheca fusca under greenhouse condition. In 2010 trial, a total of 9 combinations of 6 fungicides which are legally registered in Korea and currently used on watermelon farms were tested for the control efficacy against WPM. Though the combination of chlorothalonil (Chl-myclobutanil (My-fenarimol (Fen-hexaconazole (Hex was the most effective (82.6% in the first-year trial, it had the problem that My, Fen and Hex have the same mode of action. Therefore, in the second-year trial to improve the fungicide combination and to reduce fungicide application, fungicides and potassium phosphonate (P combinations were tested for WPM control using 500 ppm aqueous potassium phosphonate solution which is both eco-friendly and showing different mode of action from the fungicides tested. The P-My-Fen-Hex applied at 10-day intervals provided relatively high control (75.6%, whereas Chl-My-Fen-P provided 31.8% control. To improve the control, fungicides and P were applied at 7-day intervals in the third-year trial. Though Chl-My-Fen-Hex provided the highest control (89.6%, P-My-Fen-Hex also provided relatively high control (83.5% compared to 65.9 % control with Chl-My-Fen-P, which suggests that Chl-My-Fen-Hex could be replaced with P-My-Fen-Hex for WPM control.

  18. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  19. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. Resistance of Polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai] to Fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiader, Magdalena; Prończuk, Maria; Niemirowicz-Szczyt, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. Since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the Polish climate. This species is frequently at risk of Fusarium oxysporum infection. Between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of Polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. The test was conducted with the use of four isolates of F. oxysporum: three from Polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth from U.K. (F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum). In the three series of tests the control plants were Pannonia F(1) and Sugar Baby. No inbred line or hybrid was found to be highly resistant to the pathogen. However, it was possible to identify four lines and five hybrids showing a higher level of resistance as compared with the control. The level of hybrid resistance was determined by comparison with the parental genotypes.

  1. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  2. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  3. Próby uprawy Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. i wstępna ocena przydatności nasion [An attempt at Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. cultivation and the initial estimation of the seeds utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kostecka-Mądalska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trials of cultivating Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. were carried out in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Medical Academy to Wrocław. The seeds were obtained from Bucarest and stored for one year. The plants obtained from those seeds developed well, produced flowers and fruited. The seeds germinated in darknees in about 90%. Light distinctly inhibited germination. Urease activity was determinated initially in the seeds by the method of Sumner. One kilogram of whole seeds has an activity of about 12000 Summer units.

  4. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  5. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  6. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-01-01

    Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory. We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species. We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed. Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  8. Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, U G; Fernando, K S S P; Ranaweera, K K D S

    2009-11-01

    The carotenoid content and in vitro accessibility of the 'Sugar baby' variety of watermelon and the 'Horana red' variety of guava from Sri Lanka was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram showed that the Guava 'Horana red' variety contained almost exclusively lycopene (45.3 +/- 8.0 microg/g fresh weight (FW)), with a small amount of lutein (2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW), beta-carotene (2.0 +/- 0.2 microg/g FW) and beta-cryptoxanthin. As far as carotenoids in the sugar baby variety of watermelon are concerned, it contained lycopene, lutein and beta-carotene of 37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW, 2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW and 0.3 +/- 1 microg/g FW, respectively. The studies showed that guava contains more lycopene (45.3+/-8.0 microg/g FW) than watermelon (37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW), and that the in vitro accessibility of lycopene in guava (73%) is more than that in watermelon (25.8%). Therefore it can be concluded that guava can be used as a better lycopene source than watermelon.

  9. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  10. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O A; Odesanmi, O E; Oladele, F C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  11. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  12. Characterization of transcriptome dynamics during watermelon fruit development: sequencing, assembly, annotation and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Liu, Jingan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Mingyun; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; He, Hongju; Ren, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2011-09-21

    Cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is an important agriculture crop world-wide. The fruit of watermelon undergoes distinct stages of development with dramatic changes in its size, color, sweetness, texture and aroma. In order to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of these changes and significantly expand the watermelon transcript catalog, we have selected four critical stages of watermelon fruit development and used Roche/454 next-generation sequencing technology to generate a large expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset and a comprehensive transcriptome profile for watermelon fruit flesh tissues. We performed half Roche/454 GS-FLX run for each of the four watermelon fruit developmental stages (immature white, white-pink flesh, red flesh and over-ripe) and obtained 577,023 high quality ESTs with an average length of 302.8 bp. De novo assembly of these ESTs together with 11,786 watermelon ESTs collected from GenBank produced 75,068 unigenes with a total length of approximately 31.8 Mb. Overall 54.9% of the unigenes showed significant similarities to known sequences in GenBank non-redundant (nr) protein database and around two-thirds of them matched proteins of cucumber, the most closely-related species with a sequenced genome. The unigenes were further assigned with gene ontology (GO) terms and mapped to biochemical pathways. More than 5,000 SSRs were identified from the EST collection. Furthermore we carried out digital gene expression analysis of these ESTs and identified 3,023 genes that were differentially expressed during watermelon fruit development and ripening, which provided novel insights into watermelon fruit biology and a comprehensive resource of candidate genes for future functional analysis. We then generated profiles of several interesting metabolites that are important to fruit quality including pigmentation and sweetness. Integrative analysis of metabolite and digital gene expression

  13. Produtividade de sete genótipos de melancia em Dourados Yield of seven genotypes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in Dourados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane A.K. Leonel

    2000-11-01

    a dystrophic Red Latosol of clay texture, after liming. Dourados county has an average altitude of 430 m and it is located at 22º 13' 16" S latitude and 54º 17' 01" W longitude. The climate of Dourados region is classified as Wet Mesothermic, with an annual average temperature varying from 20 to 24ºC and an annual average precipitation, ranging from 1,250 mm to 1,500 mm. About 90% of watermelon crop in Mato Grosso do Sul is basically cultivated with the 'Crimson Sweet' genotype. For this reason this research has had the objective to evaluate the yield and quality of the following watermelon genotypes: Crimson Glory, Jetstream, Madera, Rubi, Starbrite, Verona and Crimson Sweet. The trial was carried out in a randomized block with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of a crop row with five plants, spaced 2 m apart. The main crop parameters measured at harvest as a function of fruits weight and number were total yield; commercial and non-commercial yield, and total soluble solid contents (°Brix of all fruit classes. Total yield of Rubi and Jetstream hybrids were superior to the others and only Crimson Glory was significantly different. Rubi hybrid produced 87% of commercial fruits, the highest yield, and it was superior in 429% to Crimson Glory yield, which had the smallest yield. In general, hybrids presented higher commercial yield than Crimson Sweet variety. The Rubi hybrid produced 77% more commercial fruits and it provided 214% profit higher than the Crimson Sweet cv. The total soluble solid contents of the fruits were dependent on genotypes and fruit classes. Verona and Starbrite hybrids presented the sweetest pulp.

  14. Effect of heat treatment around the fruit set region on growth and yield of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jaejong; Kim, Jeong Man; Sheikh, Sameena; Lee, So Geun; Lim, Jeong Hyeon; Seong, Moon Ho; Jung, Gi Tai

    2013-10-01

    The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of imposing modulated temperature treatments 14 °C and 18 °C, around the fruiting region of watermelon plants, and to estimate the economic feasibility of the temperature treatments based on energy consumption for heating. Watermelon cultivar 'Sambok-gul' was selected and sown on perlite beds in a plastic house under controlled conditions at Watermelon Farm, Jeongeup-Jeonbuk, longitude 35° 31' 47.51N, 126° 48'48.84E, altitude 37 m during the early spring season (2010-2011). The findings revealed that the temperature treatment at 18 °C caused significant increase in weight (2.0 kg plant(-1)), fruit weight (8.3 kg plant(-1)), soluble solid content (11.5 %), and fruit set rate (96.5 %) at harvest stage. Higher contents of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were observed in the 1st upper leaf of the fruit set node (79.3 mg L(-1)) and the 1st lower leaf of the fruit set node (12.0 mg L(-1)), respectively at 14 °C. The power consumption and extra costs of the temperature treatment 18 °C were suggested as affordable and in range of a farmer's budget (41.14 USD/22 days). Hence, it was concluded that modulating temperature treatments could be utilized successfully to optimize the temperature range for enhancing the fruit yield and quality in the winter watermelon crops.

  15. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  16. Genetic mapping of the LOBED LEAF 1 (ClLL1) gene to a 127.6-kb region in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunhua; Chen, Xiner; Wang, Zhongyuan; Liu, Qiyan; Li, Hao; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    The lobed leaf character is a unique morphologic trait in crops, featuring many potential advantages for agricultural productivity. Although the majority of watermelon varieties feature lobed leaves, the genetic factors responsible for lobed leaf formation remain elusive. The F2:3 leaf shape segregating population offers the opportunity to study the underlying mechanism of lobed leaf formation in watermelon. Genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant allele (designated ClLL1) controlled the lobed leaf trait. A large-sized F3:4 population derived from F2:3 individuals was used to map ClLL1. A total of 5,966 reliable SNPs and indels were identified genome-wide via a combination of BSA and RNA-seq. Using the validated SNP and indel markers, the location of ClLL1 was narrowed down to a 127.6-kb region between markers W08314 and W07061, containing 23 putative ORFs. Expression analysis via qRT-PCR revealed differential expression patterns (fold-changes above 2-fold or below 0.5-fold) of three ORFs (ORF3, ORF11, and ORF18) between lobed and non-lobed leaf plants. Based on gene annotation and expression analysis, ORF18 (encoding an uncharacterized protein) and ORF22 (encoding a homeobox-leucine zipper-like protein) were considered as most likely candidate genes. Furthermore, sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in cDNA sequences of ORF18; however, two notable deletions were identified in ORF22. This study is the first report to map a leaf shape gene in watermelon and will facilitate cloning and functional characterization of ClLL1 in future studies.

  17. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  18. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  19. Chemical control of ozone damage on watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieldhouse, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Foliar air pollution damage resulting from ambient ozone was essentially eliminated on watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, with the use of N-(2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl)-N'-phenylurea applied as a combination of soil and foliar applications. Use of this experimental plant protectant resulted in higher yields with Sugar Baby watermelon due to increased melon size and an increase in the number of marketable melons. Sugar content was also significantly increased.

  20. Cytogenetic relationships among Citrullus species in comparison with some genera of the tribe Benincaseae (Cucurbitaceae) as inferred from rDNA distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Peng; Wu, Yun-Xiang; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Yan; Lü, Xing-Ming; Wang, Ji-Ming; Xu, Yong; Li, Zong-Yun; Han, Yong-Hua

    2016-04-18

    Comparative mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is an excellent tool to determine cytogenetic relationships among closely related species. In this study, the number and position of 5S and 45S rDNA loci in all Citrullus species and subspecies were determined. The cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, C. colocynthis and C. naudinianus (or Acanthosicyos naudinianus) had two 45S rDNA loci and one 5S rDNA locus which was located syntenic to one of the 45S rDNA loci. C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus subsp. lanatus had one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, each located on a different chromosome. C. rehmii had one 5S and one 45S rDNA locus positioned on different chromosomes. The distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA in several species belonging to other genera in Benincaseae tribe was also investigated. The distribution pattern of rDNAs showed a great difference among these species. The present study confirmed evolutionary closeness among cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus and C. colocynthis. Our result also supported that C. lanatus subsp. lanatus was not a wild form of the cultivated watermelon instead was a separate crop species. In addition, present cytogenetic analysis suggested that A. naudinianus was more closely related to Cucumis than to Citrullus or Acanthosicyos, but with a unique position and may be a link bridge between the Citrullus and the Cucumis.

  1. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  2. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  3. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  4. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  5. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-09-01

    The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today.

  6. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  7. Serological Identification of Virus in Watermelon Production Fields in the Tocantins State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the world, has its largest output in China, and then, according to FAO data, Turkey, Iran and Brazil, being one of the main crops cultivated in State of Tocantins, Brazil. In this work was investigated the occurrence and distribution of the watermelon viruses, totaling 752 samples taken in a stratified experimental design in four representative regions of production: Gurupi (150, Lagoa da Confusao (232, Formoso do Araguaia (265 and Porto Nacional (105. The sampling and collecting the leaves of plants with the presence of symptoms were performed once a week during the entire cultivation cycle. As a result, were observed by Dot-ELISA method, different types of viruses, such as Papaya ringspot W (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (potyvirus, Cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV (Cucumovirus and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV (Tospovirus. Of these, PRSV-W was predominant (22%, followed by WMV (15%, ZLCV (11%, CMV (5% and ZYMV (4%. Mixed infections with PRSV-W + WMV and PRSV-W + ZLCV were also observed around 20% frequency (expressed with symptoms differently from a single infection. The results provide important support for the program management viruses.

  8. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  9. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  10. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  11. Effects of Grafting Combinations on the Plant Growth and Fruit Quality in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)%不同嫁接组合对西瓜植株生长及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小军; 别之龙; 孙德玺; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 刘君璞

    2011-01-01

    采用优质中大果型西瓜品种中科1号为接穗,常规一段嫁接用抗生王、超丰F1、西嫁强生、京欣砧3号、野生西瓜1号、野生西瓜2号为砧木,二段嫁接采用西嫁强生作基砧、超丰F1作中间砧,研究了常规一段嫁接法与二段嫁接法对西瓜生长发育及果实品质的影响.结果表明,采用二段嫁接的西瓜植株生长势、抗枯萎病能力、单果质量、小区产量、中心可溶性固形物含量、瓜瓤果胶含量在所有嫁接组合中表现最佳,果实脆度与对照差异不显著.南瓜类砧木西嫁强生、京欣砧3号在生产上可大量推广,同时二段嫁接法具有一定的推广价值.%Two different grafting methods,one-stage(one rootstock + one scion)and two-stage(rootstock 1 + rootstock 1 + scion),were used to test the effects of grafting combinations on watermelon plant growth and fruit quality. Watermelon cultivar Zhongke No.l ,a high quality seeded watermelon with large fruit size,was the scion for all rootstock varieties and combination. For one-stage grafting, Kangshengwang, Chaofeng F1, Xijia Qiangsheng,Jingxinzhen No.3, Wild Watermelon No. 1 and Wild Watermelon No.2 were used as rootstocks. For two-stage grafting,Xijia Qiangsheng was used as the base rootstock and Chaofeng F1 was used as the inter-stock. The results showed that plant growth,disease resistance,fruit weight,yield,central sugar content,flesh pectin content of the two-stage grafted watermelon were the best among all grafting combinations. The flesh crispness of the two-stage grafted watermelon was not significantly different from other combinations tested. Interspecific squash rootstocks Xijia Qiangsheng and Jingxinzhen No.3 are recommended for watermelon grafting production,and two-stage grafting method has some value for watermelon production.

  12. Whiteflies: Developing host plant resistance in watermelon from wild sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly (Aleyrodidae) Bemisia tabaci causes serious damage to horticultural crops, including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and it is known to transmit many plant viruses. This whitefly is highly polyphagous, with over 1,000 known species, and can adapt to the environment. Yet, th...

  13. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  14. Native host plant resistance to whiteflies in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), notably Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), are destructive pests on a global scale. B. tabaci is highly adaptive and polyphagous on taxonomically diverse species of plants with varying levels of infestations. It is a serious pest of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. ...

  15. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  16. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-02

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

  17. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon.

  18. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  19. A GBS-SNP-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Farnham, Mark W; Patrick Wechter, W

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 Mb interval using a high-density GBS-SNP linkage map, the first map of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides. Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, does not exist in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Cll) and has been well described in a few plant introductions of the wild subspecies of watermelon, C. lanatus var. citroides (Clc). Clc provides a vital source of genetic diversity, as well as resistance to numerous diseases. Unfortunately, both genetic diversity and disease resistance are lacking in Cll due to the narrow genetic base. Despite the importance of Clc to continued watermelon improvement, intra-variety genetic studies are lacking. Here, we present the first Clc genetic linkage map, generated with 2495 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and use it to identify quantitative trait loci associated with Fon race 2 resistance. Multiple QTL mapping in a Clc F2:3 population (N = 173) identified one major and four minor QTL. The major QTL explained 43% of the variation in Fon race 2 resistance and was delimited to a 1.2-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region spanning 44 genes.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE REACTION OF WATERMELON PARENT AND F1 PLANTS TO Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉIA SANTOS DAMACENO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of progenies from Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (cultivated watermelons when crossed with progenies from C. lanatus var. citroides (fodder watermelon with a historic of resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. The parents and their F1s were evaluated for resistance to this nematode. In the initial stages of eleven treatments, watermelon seedlings plantlets were transplanted to plastic bags of six kilograms once the first leaves developed. Ten inoculated plants with 5,200 eggs in the soil near the stem of the plant and four non-inoculated ones were used in each treatment, in a complete block design. Sixty-two days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: the length of the aerial part of the plant (LAP, in m, fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP, in g, root fresh mass (RFM, in g, egg number (EN and reproduction factor (RF. A comparison between the averages of inoculated and non-inoculated plants was performed using Scott-Knott test at 5% and the diallelic analysis was performed using the GENES program. The morphological characteristics did not allow for the identification of the parent plants or the F1s with respect to nematode resistance, but the variables EN and RF were useful for such identification. The analyses of the general and specific combining abilities indicate highly significant effects with respect to this resistance, showing additive gene effects as well as dominance and epistatic gene effects, allowing for identification of parents and F1s that can be used in watermelon breeding programs to improve resistance to the M. enterolobii.

  1. Bolos simples elaborados com farinha da entrecasca de melancia (Citrullus vulgaris, sobral: avaliação química, fisica e sensorial Simple cakes elaborated with flour of watermelon inner skin (Citrullus vulgaris, Sobral: chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rangel Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A farinha da entrecasca de melancia (FEM foi obtida, sua composição determinada e utilizada em formulação de bolos. Elaboraram-se bolos sem a FEM (controle e contendo 7 e 30% de FEM em substituição à farinha de trigo (experimentais. A composição química, características físicas, físico-químicas foram determinadas. Na avaliação sensorial, cem provadores não treinados receberam amostras em blocos balanceados e realizaram testes sensoriais, utilizando escala hedônica de 9 pontos e comparação múltipla. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados por estatísticas descritivas, ANOVA, testes de Tukey e Dunnet. Os resultados revelaram que 100 g da FEM continham 9,06 g de umidade, 12,72 g de cinzas, 0,7 g de lipídios, 1,20 g de proteínas, 31,01 g de fibras insolúveis, 45,21 g de glicídios totais e 192,75 kcal. Nos bolos experimentais, os pesos, alturas, diâmetros e rendimentos foram maiores e o índice de expansão menor, bem como, o volume aparente do bolo com 30% FEM foi menor. Os bolos experimentais apresentaram menor pH, maior acidez titulável, maiores teores de fibra e umidade, menores de glicídios totais e reduzido valor energético. Os bolos obtiveram boa aceitação e mais de 60% dos provadores comprariam os bolos. O bolo com 7% FEM foi ligeiramente melhor que o controle, diferindo no aroma e sabor do que continha 30% FEM. Portanto, o uso de FEM para produção de bolos, nas condições dessa pesquisa, é viável do ponto de vista tecnológico, nutricional e sensorial.The flour of watermelon inner skin was obtained, its composition was determined, and it was used in the cake formulation. Cakes without watermelon inner skin (control and others containing 7 and 30% of watermelon inner skin(experimental, a non-wheat flour substitute, were elaborated. The chemical composition, physical, and physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. In the sensory evaluation, one hundred non-trained panelists were assigned blocks of four

  2. An integrated genetic linkage map of watermelon and genetic diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is an important vegetable fruit throughout the world. A high number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers should provide large coverage of the watermelon genome and high phylogenetic resolution of germplasm acces...

  3. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SAYYARI; Fardin GHANBARI; Sajad FATAHI; Fatemeh BAVANDPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus) by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA) was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the see...

  4. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  5. Host resistance to phytophthora fruit rot in U.S. watermelon plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by P. capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then, the dise...

  6. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  7. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  8. Grass cover crop and tillage method on watermelon production on porous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Cogn.] production in the Southern Plains is often on well-drained soil, which makes conservation of water difficult. Established cover crops can conserve moisture, but it needs to be determined what cover and tillage method provides the most benefit to watermel...

  9. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector downstr

  10. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T4 on Bacterial Community in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rhizosphere Soil%生防菌哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum T4对西瓜根围土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 张于; 旭热; 王伟

    2013-01-01

      采用平板培养、末端限制性片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP)以及变性梯度凝胶电泳(denatured gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)的方法相结合探讨生防菌哈茨木霉 Trichoderma harzianum T4对大棚西瓜根围土壤细菌群落及氨氧化细菌群落的影响,为其在田间应用的生态安全性的评估提供支撑。末端限制性片段长度多态性以及变性梯度凝胶电泳的结果均表明哈茨木霉 T4施入田间约四周内对根围土壤细菌群落产生明显的影响,随后这种扰动现象逐渐减小。对 DGGE中受影响条带的测序结果表明,生防菌 T4促进了假单胞菌 Pseudomonas,芽孢杆菌 Bacillus,苍白杆菌Ochrobactrum 以及中慢生根瘤菌 Mesorhizobium 等细菌类群的生长,对短杆菌 Brevibacterium,克雷白氏肺炎杆菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae,根瘤菌 Rhizobium sp 等表现出抑制作用。生防菌 T4对根围土壤中氨氧化细菌群落并没有产生明显的影响。可见,生防菌木霉 T4引入初期对根围土壤中细菌群落产生明显的扰动,但这种干扰是短暂的,并没有对根围土壤细菌群落形成持续的影响。%The effects of biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum T4 on bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rhizosphere soil were studied using plate colony calculation, T-RFLP and DGGE method, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technique for assessing the microbial ecology risk of biocontrol agents application. Both T-RFLP and DGGE method demonstrated that T. harzianum T4 had short-term influence on rhizosphere soil bacterial communities which lasted about four weeks. Biocontrol strain T. harzianum T4 increased population of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum and Mesorhizobium. Meanwhile population of other bacteria such as Brevibacterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  12. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  14. 不同宽度地膜覆盖对西瓜栽培效果影响对比试验%Effects of Mulching Polythene Film with Different Widths on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信; 樊学军; 李凤梅; 张力; 黄金艳; 李桂芬; 覃斯华; 何毅; 李天艳; 洪日新

    2013-01-01

      采用田间栽培对比试验,研究分析了不同宽度地膜覆盖西瓜种植畦对西瓜植株生长状况、产量和品质形成的影响,寻找适合华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季多雨气候环境下,能很好调节土壤水分和肥料,满足西瓜植株正常健康生长所需的栽培技术方法。试验结果表明,在同等的栽培管理条件下,覆盖100 cm宽黑色地膜效果最好,在种植后遇到干旱或下雨季节,其对土壤的保水及防水能力,提高肥料的利用率,提高西瓜产量及品质等方面都有明显效果,可作为我国华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季雨水偏多气候环境露地西瓜生产栽培模式技术。%In this paper, we studied the effects of covering polythene film with different widths on the furrow on the growth, yield and quality of watermelon, to find out suitable cultivation methods which met the require of watermelon plants' normal and healthy growth through adjusting soil moisture and fertilizer well in the south China environment, where was droughty in winter, spring and autumn but rainy in summer. The results showed that the best effect was gained by covering 100 cm wide black film on the furrow under the same cultivation method, and it had good water holding and water-proof effects in the droughty or rainy climate after planting, meanwhile it could increase the utilization rate of fertilizer and improve the yield and quality obviously, so it could be recommended as a suitable open field cultivation method of watermelon in the south China where was rainy in summer and droughty in winter, spring and autumn.

  15. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  16. A high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F(8) population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits.

  17. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  18. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR and USVL020-PFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Phytophthora capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then...

  19. Phytophthora fruit rot-resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR are watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) germplasm lines that exhibit high levels of resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Resistance in these germplasm lines is ...

  20. Watermelon germplasm lines USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 tolerant to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two improved germplasm lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) designated USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 were released in 2012 by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Wechter et al. 2012). These lines are each highly uniform for growth characteri...

  1. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  2. Accumulation of nutrients and agronomic performance of grafted seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Simone dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizing is one of the main inputs that increase watermelon production costs. Watermelon grafting with compatible rootstocks and a vigorous root system may increase the efficiency of nutrients absorption. This study aimed at determining the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients, as well as the agronomic performance of grafted watermelon. The triploid 'Precious Petite' watermelon was used as graft and the Line BGCIA941 (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides as rootstock. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, in a split-plot, with six replicates. The 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA941, ungrafted 'Precious Petite' and ungrafted Line BGCIA941 were evaluated in the plot, while the subplot corresponded to the sampling time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after transplanting. 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA 941 accumulated more macro and micronutrients than the ungrafted plants, increasing fruit yield, flesh firmness and rind thickness, but it did not affect the soluble solids contents. The decreasing order for nutrient accumulation in the grafted plants was N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Fe > Mn > Zn > B > Cu, whereas for ungrafted 'Precious Petite' it corresponded to N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Mn > Fe > B > Zn > Cu.

  3. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

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    lalitha govindaraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt respectively. Consequently, the watermelon proved as a good source of antioxidant, could be used as a raw material in drug formulation.

  4. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

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    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  5. Screening of watermelon rootstocks resistant to physiological wilt disease%抗生理性凋萎症西瓜砧木筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志扬; 韦莉萍; 韦昌联; 覃泽林; 麻小燕; 何毅; 温国泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]筛选抗生理性凋萎症的西瓜嫁接砧木品种应用于生产.[方法]选用葫芦类、南瓜类、冬瓜类及野生西瓜类等17个砧木与广西三号无籽西瓜进行嫁接试验、田间栽培试验,观察嫁接成活率及嫁接栽培对西瓜生长势、抗病性、产量和果实品质的影响.[结果]嫁接成活率葫芦类91.20%~95.60%,南瓜类73.20%~80.40%,冬瓜类81.20%~86.40%,野生西瓜类82.40%~91.20%;嫁接组合生长势强的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、农友野生西瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;坐果容易的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;高抗生理性凋萎症的砧木品种为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、日本南瓜、广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、伙伴野生西瓜;产量在22500.00 kg/ha以上且按产量由高到低排序为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、广西本地葫芦、日本南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜;17个嫁接组合的西瓜果实在瓤色、果实质地、口感风味方面差别不明显,但在果实可溶性固形物含量、瓜形及剖面、皮厚等方面存在一定差异.[结论]广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜与广西三号无籽西瓜嫁接表现高抗西瓜生理性凋萎症,且综合性状表现优良,可进一步扩大试验和示范.%This research screened the grafted watermelon rootstock varieties resistant to physiological wilt disease in order to apply relevant information to watermelon production. [ Method]Seventeen different stocks of Lagenaria siceraria, squash, Benincasa, and wild Citrullus vulgaris were selected to undergo the grafting test and filed cultivation test with seedless watermelon Guangxi 3; the relevant

  6. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Cultivation techniques of new watermelon variety "Heibao"%西瓜新品种“黑宝”栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海滨; 许丽松; 陈丹

    2012-01-01

    A new watermelon variety "Heibao" was introduced from Taiwan.The results of planting trials in multi-sites for several years and participating in provincial quality competition showed that,it had the characteristics of wide suitability,high disease resistance,high yield and excellent quality.Detaired management practices for high-yielding cultural techniques of "Heibao" including its characteristics,sowing and seedling raising,land preparation and fertilization,field planting and management,pruning and pressing of vine,pest control,and so on,were summarized in this paper.%引进西台湾瓜新品种黑宝,经多年多地试种试验和参加省级品质比赛,表现适应性广、抗病力强、产量高、品质佳,该文总结黑宝西瓜高产栽培技术,包括特征特性、播种育苗、整地施肥、定植、田间管理、整枝压蔓、病虫害防治等管理细节。

  8. 沿海不同棚架构型温度变化规律及西瓜种植研究%Temperature Change Rules of Different Steel Greenhouses and Their Effects on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴祥; 林红梅

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we studied the temperature change rules of different types of steel greenhouses and their effects on the growth and development of watermelon. The results showed that, as the greenhouse depth-width ratio became larger, the atmospheric temperature in the greenhouses increased and reduced quicker, and the difference of the day and night earth temperature became larger, indicating their better maintaining effects on atmospheric temperature but worse maintaining effects on earth temperature. In the watermelon cultivation in coastal areas of Jiangsu, the greenhouse A4 possessed the best temperature maintaining effects and comprehensive evaluation, and the structure of greenhouse A4 was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 2.5 m, 2.4 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 7.0 m, 6.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively. The greenhouse A1 was more affordable, and its structure was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 1.8 m, 1.7 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 5.0 m, 4.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively.%  研究了不同棚型内的温度变化,以及其对西瓜生长和发育的影响.研究结果表明,棚高宽比大,棚内气温升高快,降低也快,日夜气温温差大,日夜地温温差大,气温保温性差,但地温保温性好;沿海地区大棚西瓜种植采用A4型棚(外棚顶高2.5 m、宽7.0 m,内棚顶高2.4 m、宽6.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)效果好,采用A1型棚(外棚顶高1.8 m、宽5.0 m,内棚顶高1.7 m、宽4.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)较为经济.

  9. Substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost in watermelon seedling production combined with fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papamichalaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in reusing organic residues as substrate medium in nurseries has increased worldwide as peat availability has been reduced over time. In this study, the effect of fertigation and/or a partial substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC on the emergence, growth, and nutrition of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. seedlings were tested. The MSWC extracts (MSWC:water at 10-1 and 10-2 dilutions maintained seedling germination. Under nursery conditions, six media prepared from commercial peat and MSWC were further assessed in conjunction with nutrient application as basic fertilizer (BF or hydro fertilizer (HF. Adding MSWC to the substrate inhibited seed emergence and mean germination time, whereas fertigation maintained seed emergence in 15% MSWC but decreased in 45% MSWC. Adding 45% MSWC reduced seedling height, leaf number, and fresh weight. The HF increased fresh weight (up to 44% and growth in seedlings cultivated in 15% MSWC. Leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased (up to 2.6-fold in MSWC-based (< 45% MSWC substrates, but no differences were observed in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoid content, and leaf fluorescence. The HF reduced chlorophyll a and total carotenoids, but increased chlorophyll b content. The K, N, and Na content increased (ranging from 2- to 5-fold when adding MSWC, whereas P content did not differ. Fertigation benefits seedling nutritive status. Low content (15% to 30% of MSWC may act as an alternative substitute for peat with more positive effects if minerals are provided through HF.

  10. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis transcriptome during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R; McElroy, J Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress.

  11. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-mediated Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩波; 高秀武; 郭金华; 黄群策; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 ℃ for 5 hours. By twogenerations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  12. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  13. Quality evaluation and prediction of Citrullus lanatus by 1H NMR-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachiwin, Lucksanaporn; Masako, Osawa; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2008-07-23

    (1)H NMR spectrometry in combination with multivariate analysis was considered to provide greater information on quality assessment over an ordinary sensory testing method due to its high reliability and high accuracy. The sensory quality evaluation of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) was carried out by means of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multivariate analyses by partial least-squares projections to latent structures-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and PLS-regression offered extensive information for quality differentiation and quality evaluation, respectively. The impact of watermelon and rootstock cultivars on the sensory qualities of watermelon was determined on the basis of (1)H NMR metabolic fingerprinting and profiling. The significant metabolites contributing to the discrimination were also identified. A multivariate calibration model was successfully constructed by PLS-regression with extremely high reliability and accuracy. Thus, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate analysis was considered to be one of the most suitable complementary techniques that could be applied to assess and predict the sensory quality of watermelons and other horticultural plants.

  14. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the ClTCP transcription factors in Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pibiao; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Wu, Weifang; Fang, Bingsheng; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-04-12

    The plant-specific TCP transcription factor family, which is involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, performs diverse functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no comprehensive analysis of the TCP family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) has been undertaken previously. A total of 27 watermelon TCP encoding genes distributed on nine chromosomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the genes into 11 distinct subgroups. Furthermore, phylogenetic and structural analyses distinguished two homology classes within the ClTCP family, designated Class I and Class II. The Class II genes were differentiated into two subclasses, the CIN subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass. The expression patterns of all members were determined by semi-quantitative PCR. The functions of two ClTCP genes, ClTCP14a and ClTCP15, in regulating plant height were confirmed by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis wild-type and ortholog mutants. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of the watermelon TCP gene family, which provides valuable information for understanding the classification and functions of the TCP genes in watermelon.

  15. Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Mifune, Yuki; Morita, Kaori; Ishitsuka, Souichi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  17. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of potassium starvation responsiveness in two contrasting watermelon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Molin; Huang, Yuan; Zhong, Yaqin; Kong, Qiusheng; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Xu, Yong; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-02-01

    Potassium (K) is one of the essential nutrients for crops, and K⁺ deficiency highly restricts crop yield and quality. Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop that often suffers from K⁺ deficiency. To elucidate the underlying tolerance mechanism of watermelon to K⁺ deficiency and to improve K efficiency of watermelon and other crops in the future, two watermelon genotypes, namely, YS and 8424, that exhibit contrasting K efficiencies were studied to compare their response mechanisms to K⁺ deficiency. YS was more tolerant of K⁺ deficiency and displayed less inhibited root growth than 8424. Roots of YS and 8424 seedlings with or without K⁺ supply were harvested at 6 and 120 h after treatment (HAT), and their transcriptomes were analyzed by Illumina RNA sequencing. Different regulation mechanisms of the root K⁺-uptake genes for short- and long-term stress were observed. Genes involved in jasmonic acid and reactive oxygen species production; Ca²⁺ and receptor-like kinase signaling; lignin biosynthesis; and other stress-related genes were repressed in YS, whereas a large number of such stress-related genes were induced in 8424 at 120 HAT. These results suggested that repressed defense and stress response can save energy for better root growth in YS, which can facilitate K⁺ uptake and increase K efficiency and tolerance to K⁺ deficiency. This study presents the first global root transcriptome in watermelon and provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to K⁺ deficiency of K-efficient watermelon genotypes.

  19. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  20. Fractionation, amino acid profiles, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Citrullus lanatus seed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Ghosh, Goutam

    2017-04-10

    In the present study, a modified Osborne fractionation method was followed to isolate albumin (Calb), globulin (Cglo), prolamin (Cpro) and glutelin (Cglu) successively from seeds of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon). This research work was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of isolated protein fractions of C. lanatus seed. Amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution were determined to establish their relationship with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions, Cpro was found to be most effective against A. baumannii followed by Calb and Cglo. The results showed that growth of inhibition of these protein fractions differ significantly from each other (p ≤ 0.05). In view of antioxidant potential, Cglo exhibited strongest antioxidant capacity while Cglu showed weakest antioxidant potential.

  1. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. Copyright © 2014 Reddy et al.

  2. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  3. Avaliação do número e posição de frutos de melancia produzidos em ambiente protegido Evaluation of the number and position of watermelon fruits cultivated in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santino Seabra Júnior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produção de melancia, cultivar New Kodama, avaliando 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 8º e 11º nó e 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 13º e 16º nó, no sistema tutorado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido na UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2000. Avaliou-se a produção total de frutos por planta, peso médio de frutos e teor em sólidos solúveis totais (ºbrix. A produção foi menor (2,04 kg/planta quando manteve-se apenas um fruto fixado do 8º ao 11º nó, do que quando manteve-se dois frutos (2,57 kg/planta, mas não houve diferença significativa quando manteve-se um ou dois frutos fixados do 13º ao 16º nó, produzindo cerca de 2 kg por planta. Observou-se também maior peso médio de frutos (2,05 kg/fruto e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,78ºbrix quando mantidos apenas um fruto por planta e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,21ºbrix nos frutos mantidos do 8º ao 11º nó.The fruit production of watermelon, cultivar New Kodama, grown in two positions along the stem (8th-11th node and 13th-16th node, with one or two fruits per position was evaluated, under protected cultivation. The experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October to December, 2000. The total fruit production (kg/plant, the average fruit weight (kg/fruit and the total soluble solids were evaluated. When only one fruit was allowed to grow between the 8th and 11th node, total fruit production was lower (2,04 kg/plant than keeping two fruits (2,57 kg/fruit. However, the fruit production was similar (2,0 kg/plant to one or two fruits when they were allowed to grow between the 13th and 16th node. The average fruit weight (2,05 kg/fruit and total soluble solids (8,78ºbrix were higher in fruits grown from plants with only one fruit, than two fruits per plant. Total soluble solids were also higher in fruits grown from 8th to 11th (8,21ºbrix

  4. Story: A Bleeding Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor bzang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bleeding Watermelon was written by Norsang (Nor bzang;b. 1988, a native of Dpa ris (Rab rgyas (Huazangsi 华藏寺 Township, Tianzhu 天祝 Tibetan Autonomous County,Gansu 甘肃 Province. Norsang writes: I heard that a university student opened an elevator door in a campus building still under construction. The elevator shaft was empty and he fell to his death. Many people had questions about his death. This inspired me to write this story.

  5. 春大棚小型西瓜“2蔓1绳”不同栽培密度比较试验%The study on the different cultivation density of small fruit watermelon under the conditions of“two vines and one line”in spring greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 曾剑波; 穆生奇; 李琳; 陈艳利; 李婷

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to find the optimum small fruit watermelon cultivation methods on conditions which used“two vine and one line”in spring greenhouse. The author has studied the different cultivation density. The results showed that the optimum cultivation density was 2 300 plants per 667 m2 with two rows pattern, using the pruning modes of“two vines and one line”. In this cultivation density condition, small fruit watermelon can get the highest yield of 4 327.86 kg per 667 m2 and 288.52 kg per plot. The weight of single fruit (1.72 kg) and the highest center sugar content (13.20%) were the highest. The harvesting time was June 1 which ranked as no. 2, and the fruit setting rate was 109.4%which ranked as no. 3. The deformed fruit rate of 0.78%was the lowest. Thus this cultivation density was the optimal density, and has wide extension prospects.%为筛选出北京地区春大棚小型西瓜在“2蔓1绳”高密度栽培条件下的最佳栽培密度,对不同种植密度进行比较试验。结果表明,在“2蔓1绳”整枝方式双行种植情况下,每667 m2定植2300株产量最高,为4327.86 kg;小区产量最高,为288.52 kg;中心糖含量最高,达到13.20%;始收期为6月1日,排名第二;坐果率为109.4%,排名第三;单果重最高,为1.72 kg;畸形果率较低,为0.78%。由此可见,每667 m2定植2300株为最佳栽培密度,具有较好的推广应用前景。

  6. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  7. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  8. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  9. Energy use and economical analysis of seedy watermelon production for different irrigation systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource and energy use efficiency is one of the principal requirements of eco-efficient and sustainable agriculture. Seedy watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris; Joboni population is irrigated by two methods including full and reduced irrigation systems in Iran. The objective of the present study was to compare seedy watermelon production in full (high input and reduced (low input irrigation systems in terms of irrigation water energy use efficiency (IWEUE, energy budget and economic analysis. Data were collected from 116 full irrigated and 93 reduced irrigated farms in northeast of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in 2011–2012. The results showed that the total energy consumed under high input systems was 25625.94 MJ ha−1, whereas under low input was 3129.3 MJ ha−1. IWEUE and all of the energy indexes were improved in the reduced irrigation system compared to the full condition. The direct and renewable energies in the reduced irrigation system were higher than full irrigation. The economical analysis indicated that higher return was gained by the full irrigation system due to higher yield compared to the reduced irrigation system. Human labor had the highest impact on seedy watermelon among the other inputs based on the Cobb–Douglas production function.

  10. Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.. The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C* showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

  11. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  12. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  13. A new cryptic virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae was found in watermelon co-infected with Melon necrotic spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Noa; Lachman, Oded; Reingold, Victoria; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    A novel virus was detected in watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) infected with Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) using SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis. In addition to the expected MSNV genome, two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments of 1,312 and 1,118 bp were also identified and sequenced from the purified virus preparations. These two dsRNA segments encode two putative partitivirus-related proteins, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and a capsid protein, which were sequenced. Genomic-sequence analysis and analysis of phylogenetic relationships indicate that these two dsRNAs together make up the genome of a novel Partitivirus. This virus was found to be closely related to the Pepper cryptic virus 1 and Raphanus sativus cryptic virus. It is suggested that this novel virus putatively named Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus be considered as a new member of the family Partitiviridae.

  14. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of conserved and novel microRNAs in grafted watermelon by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and

  15. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  16. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis, scl...

  17. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants.

  18. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants. PMID:27749935

  19. Inheritance of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Race 1W in Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a major disease of watermelon in Israel. In this study, 291 accessions of Citrullus spp. were evaluated for resistance against P. xanthii race 1W. Only eight accessions exhibited high level of resistance. Inheritance of resistance against P. xanthii race 1W was studied by crossing three resistant accession of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides BIU 119, PI 189225, or PI 482312 with the susceptible cultivar 'Malali' or 'Sugar Baby'. Parents, F1, F2, and back cross progenies were evaluated for resistance in growth chambers at the cotyledon stage and the 4-leaf stage and in the field, at the 15-leaf stage. Resistance at the cotyledon stage was controlled by a single, partially dominant gene, whereas at the 4-leaf stage or the 15-leaf stage resistance was controlled by three complimentary, partially dominant genes. Crosses made among these resistant accessions revealed that BIU 119 and PI 189225 carry the same genes for resistance, whereas PI 482312 shares two out of three genes with both BIU 119 and PI 189225. A breeding line with high resistance level and good fruit qualities was developed from BIU 119 × HA5500.

  20. 海南大棚西瓜枯萎病病原菌生物学特性及室内毒力测定%Biological Characteristics and Toxicity Determination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum on Watermelon Cultivated in Plastic Greenhouse in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范鸿雁; 周文静; 王祥和; 罗志文; 何凡

    2012-01-01

    fusarium wilt on watermelon cultivating in plastic greenhouse in Hainan was prepared. Keywords watermelon cultivated in plastic greenhouse in Hainan ; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum ; biological characteristics ; toxicity determination

  1. Sources of wild germplasm to improve whitefly resistance in commercial watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex is well known as a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive number of plant species (over 1,000). Yet, th...

  2. EST-SSRs of Watermelon (Citrullus sp.) Useful in Assessing Genetic Diversity among Lagenaria Siceraria Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) facilitated the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (termed EST-SSRs) in different plant species. EST-SSRs represent coding regions that are known to be more conserved than genomic regions represented by SSR markers generated from genomic DNA libraries...

  3. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-08-05

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops.

  4. In vitro organogenesis in watermelon cotyledons Organogênese in vitro em cotilédones de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziela Zagatto Krug

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in vitro organogenesis of Citrullus lanatus, by the induction of adventitious buds in cotyledon segments cultured in medium supplemented with cytokinin. Explants were collected from one, three and five-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings, considering the distal and proximal cotyledon regions. The data obtained showed that in vitro organogenesis of watermelon occurred with higher efficiency, when cotyledon segments from the proximal region collected from three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in medium MS, supplemented with BAP (1 mg L-1 and coconut water (10%. The histological study showed that the organogenesis occurs directly, without callus formation, on epidermal and subepidermal layers of the explants. Adventitious shoots were characterized by the development of shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. The formation of protuberances, that do not develop into adventitious buds, was also observed.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a organogênese in vitro de C. lanatus, pela indução de gemas adventícias, em segmentos de cotilédones, cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com citocinina. Os explantes consistiram de segmentos das regiões distal e proximal de cotilédones, coletados de plantas germinadas in vitro com um, três e cinco dias de idade. Os dados obtidos mostram que a organogênese de melancia, in vitro, ocorre com maior eficiência em segmentos da região proximal dos cotilédones, coletados de plântulas com três dias de idade e cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com a combinação BAP (1 mg L-1 e água de coco (10%. Pelo estudo histológico, verificou-se que a organogênese ocorre diretamente, sem a formação de calo, na epiderme e subepiderme do explante. As gemas adventícias foram caracterizadas pela presença de meristema apical e primórdios foliares. Observou-se, também, o desenvolvimento de protuberâncias que não se desenvolvem em gemas adventícias.

  5. Effects of Soil Depth and Season Variation on Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Greenhouse Soils Planted with Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run-Jin; LI Yan; DIAO Zhi-Kai; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure in various soil depths and growing seasons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) grown in commercial greenhouses in Daxing of Beijing and Weifang and Laiyang of Shandong,China were investigated using both morphological identification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.The sampled soils had been used for continuous greenhouse production of watermelon for 0,5,10,15,or 20 years.Glomus claroideum was the dominant species in the greenhouse soils planted for 5,10,and 15 years in Laiyang,while Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were dominant in the nearby open farmland soil.Sorenson's similarity index of AMF community composition ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 in the soils planted for 5 years,and from 0.29 to 0.33 for 20 years among the three locations.Spore abundance,species richness,and the Shannon index were highest near the soil surface (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth,and higher in June and October than in August and December.Canonical correspondence analysis showed that available P and the number of years that soil had been used for greenhouse production were the main factors contributing to the variance of AMF community composition.It was concluded that the community structure of AMF was mainly influenced by soil available P and planting time of watermelon as well as by soil depth and seasonal variation in the commercial greenhouse.

  6. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  7. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  8. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01) without modifying triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein values. Only carriers of the T allele (MTHFR C677T) showed decreasing concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01). No changes in anthropometric parameters analyzed were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the consumption of watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  10. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  11. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress.

  12. 无纺布限根栽培对西瓜根域温度、植株生长和果实品质的影响%Root zone temperature,plant growth and fruit quality of watermelon affected by nonwoven-fabric-root-restriction-cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿磊; 孙亮; 冷平; 许小茜; 崔萌萌; 刘姝彤

    2011-01-01

    以'香秀'西瓜为材料,研究了无纺布限根栽培对西瓜根域温度、植株生长和果实品质的影响.结果表明:与对照组相比,无纺布限根栽培显著提高了地表下5、15和25 cm处的根域温度,其平均根域温度提高了2.31℃.西瓜植株早期的生长过程中茎长、叶片数和相对叶面积与对照相比均有不同程度的提高.西瓜的根系也受到限根栽培的影响,限根组的根系主要分布在地表下28 cm内的耕作层,主根系较短,侧根系发达,单位根域体积内根系密度较大,根系活力高.限根栽培显著改善了果实的品质,果实的可溶性固形物含量、出汁率、Vc含量和类黄酮含量均与对照组达到了差异的极显著或显著水平.无纺布限根栽培对西瓜果实的大小、可滴定酸含量和番茄红素含量均没有显著影响.%Effect of nonwoven root restriction method on root temperature, plant growth and fruit quality of ‘Xiangxiu' watermelon were investigated.Results suggested that this method restriction dramatically increased temperature of the roots around 5- 25 cm below the soil surface,with a mean root temperature increase of 2.31 ℃.The stem length, leaf number and relative leaf area of the early stage of plant growth increased by comparing to the control group.Root of watermelon was mainly restricted in cultivated layer,or 0- 28 cm below the soil surface.The main root was very short and has a high root density and root activity.Root restriction also improved fruit quality dramatically,for example,the SSC,juice yield, Vc content and flavonoid content were improved under this condition.The significant difference was observed between RR and CK (P<0.05 or P<0.01).However, there is no effect on fruit fresh weight, TA and lycopene content.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes families in Citrullus lanatus under various abiotic stresses and grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenliang; Dong, Wenqi; Zhan, Yihua; Huang, Zong-An; Li, Zhimiao; Kim, Il Seop; Zhang, Chenghao

    2017-04-07

    Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in response to exogenous auxin and abiotic stresses in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. L) remained unknown. Here, the latest updated watermelon genome was used to characterise the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes from watermelon. The genome-wide analysis of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes, including chromosome localisation, gene structure, and phylogenic relationships, was carried out. Seven ClLAXs, 11 ClPINs and 15 ClABCBs were mapped on 10 watermelon chromosomes. The expression profiles of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, and cold stresses) treatments were performed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcriptional level of majority ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes were changed by abiotic stresses in both shoots and roots. We also analysed the expression levels of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes in graft response. Analysis of the expression patterns of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under salt, drought, cold treatment and grafting response helps us to understand the possible roles of auxin transporter genes in watermelon adaptation to environmental stresses.

  14. Taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho agronômico de melancia sob enxertia Grafted watermelon survival rate and agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Natália C de S Gama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia tem sido empregada para conferir resistência às plantas, possibilitando o cultivo em áreas contaminadas por patógenos do solo e quando realizada sobre porta-enxertos apropriados, oferece uma série de vantagens agronômicas em relação ao cultivo convencional. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência e o desempenho agronômico e qualitativo da cultivar BRS Opara enxertada por encostia em quatro genótipos de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata: BGC 186, BGC 217, BGC 830 e BGC 830.1; e em dois genótipos de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides: BGCIA 223 e BGCIA 857. Quantificou-se a taxa de sobrevivência, em casa de vegetação, sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado; a produtividade das plantas enxertadas e não-enxertadas, bem como os frutos foram caracterizados quanto às seguintes características: formato, coloração externa e interna, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis do centro da polpa e da polpa homogeneizada, acidez titulável, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável e pH. Para a avaliação agronômica e qualitativa dos frutos adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e parcelas com cinco plantas. A taxa de sobrevivência das mudas enxertadas, após o "desmame", variou em função do porta-enxerto, sendo as melhores taxas observadas em BGC 186 e BGC 830.1. Comparando-se ao rendimento da testemunha (23,5 t/ha, houve um incremento médio de 66,5% na produtividade das plantas enxertadas em BGCIA 223, BGC 830, BGC 217 e BGCIA 857. Para a cultivar BRS Opara, pode-se recomendar inicialmente, estes porta-enxertos que determinaram incremento na produtividade sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos.Grafting has been used in order to provide resistance to plants, allowing cultivation in areas contaminated by soil pathogens and, when performed on suitable rootstocks, offers a number of agronomic advantages when compared to

  15. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikau, Michael; Noah, Naumih M; Andala, Dickson M; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380-450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm.

  16. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikau, Michael; Andala, Dickson M.; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm.

  17. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress.

  18. 西瓜番茄红素测定方法的研究%Measurement of Lycopene Contents in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平丽; 路绪强; 刘文革; 赵胜杰; 芦金生; 阎志红; 何楠; 关立颖; 朱红菊

    2012-01-01

    西瓜果实中番茄红素含量很高,对人体保健和疾病的预防有着重要的意义.以同基因型不同倍性的西瓜果实为材料,分别用HPLC(高效液相色谱法)和分光光度法测定其中番茄红素的含量并进行比较,确定简便准确测定西瓜番茄红素的方法.结果认为:HPLC法用甲醇-乙腈-二氯甲烷(20∶75∶5)为流动相,502 nm为检测波长能较好的对西瓜样品中番茄红素做定性定量分析;分光光度法测得的番茄红素含量平均是HPLC法的1.45倍,2种方法结果基本一致,均可对不同品种间番茄红素含量高低进行比较;另外试验结果显示多倍体西瓜番茄红素的含量要高于二倍体.%Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus )is one of the few species that accumulate a large amount of lycopene in fruits with health-benefits to human. The contents of lycopene in different ploidy watermelon fruits were determined by HPLC and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods to develop an accurate and convenient method for watermelon lycopene content measurement. The HPLC method was simple and accurate with the mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile:dichloromethane at ratio of 20 : 75 : 5 and detected at 502 nm. The amount of lycopene measured by U. V. visible spectrophotomelric method was 1.45 times of that by HPLC. Both methods can be used to compare lycopene content in different watermelon cultivars. In addition, our results indicated that polyploidy watermelons have much more lycopene than diploid one.

  19. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides.

  20. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  1. Exogenous Melatonin Confers Salt Stress Tolerance to Watermelon by Improving Photosynthesis and Redox Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Chen, Hejie; Wang, Zhongyuan; Gu, Xiurong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin, a pleiotropic signal molecule, has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Since a few species have been investigated to unveil the effect of exogenous melatonin on salt stress, the underlying mechanism of melatonin-mediated salt stress tolerance in other plant species still remains largely unknown. In this study, the effects of melatonin on leaf photosynthesis and redox homeostasis in watermelon were examined under salt stress (300 mM NaCl) along with different doses of melatonin (50, 150, and 500 μM) pretreatment. NaCl stress inhibited photosynthesis and increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage in leaves of watermelon seedlings. However, pretreatment with melatonin on roots alleviated NaCl-induced decrease in photosynthetic rate and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of photosynthesis by melatonin was closely associated with the inhibition of stomatal closure and improved light energy absorption and electron transport in photosystem II, while the reduction of oxidative stress by melatonin was attributed to the improved redox homeostasis coupled with the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study unraveled crucial role of melatonin in salt stress mitigation and thus can be implicated in the management of salinity in watermelon cultivation. PMID:28298921

  2. AFLP Fingerprint and SCAR Marker of Watermelon Core Collection%西瓜核心种质的AFLP指纹图谱和SCAR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车克鹏; 许勇; 梁春阳; 宫国义; 翁曼丽; 张海英; 金德敏; 王斌

    2003-01-01

    西瓜(Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.)种质资源的鉴定与评价是对其有效利用的基础.以往的研究表明, 西瓜是一种遗传资源特别狭窄的作物,在用同工酶、RAPD及SSR技术对西瓜种质资源进行鉴定时,发现很难将品种完全区分开来.本研究利用高效可靠的AFLP技术,对30个西瓜核心种质材料进行了遗传分析,最终建立了这30个材料的DNA指纹图谱.在该图谱中,每个材料均有其独特的"指纹",材料之间可以相互区分开来.为了进一步利用AFLP分子标记,将重要抗病种质材料"PI296341"的AFLP特异带转化成了生产上可以直接利用的SCAR标记.%The identification of germplasm is an important step for effective utilization of the available germplasm. In previous studies, isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR techniques had been used to conduct the genetic identification of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.), but their effectiveness was limited due to the extremely narrow genetic background among watermelon genotypes. In this research, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), which was reported as a reliable technique with high efficiency in detecting polymorphism, was used to conduct genetic analysis and variety identification of thirty genotypes of watermelon core collection that represent a wide range of breeding and commercially available germplasm. As a result, a DNA fingerprint based on 15 bands amplified with four primer combinations was developed. In this fingerprint, each genotype has its unique fingerprint pattern and can be distinguished from each other. Furthermore, in order to facilitate the utilization of AFLP marker in practice, one specific AFLP band of genotype "PI296341" coming from fragment amplified by primer combination E-AT/M-CAT was successfully converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker.

  3. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eIF4E gene are closely associated with resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Kai-Shu; Harris, Karen R; Meyer, Jenelle D F; Levi, Amnon; Guner, Nihat; Wehner, Todd C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Havey, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E gene segments in watermelon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences between the ZYMV-resistant watermelon plant introduction PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon cultivar 'New Hampshire Midget' ('NHM') showed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Initial analysis of the identified SNPs in association studies indicated that SNPs in the eIF4E, but not eIF(iso)4E, were closely associated to the phenotype of ZYMV-resistance in 70 F(2) and 114 BC(1R) progenies. Subsequently, we focused our efforts in obtaining the entire genomic sequence of watermelon eIF4E. Three SNPs were identified between PI 595203 and NHM. One of the SNPs (A241C) was in exon 1 and the other two SNPs (C309A and T554G) were in the first intron of the gene. SNP241 which resulted in an amino acid substitution (proline to threonine) was shown to be located in the critical cap recognition and binding area, similar to that of several plant species resistance to potyviruses. Analysis of a cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) marker derived from this SNP in F(2) and BC(1R) populations demonstrated a cosegregation between the CAPS-2 marker and their ZYMV resistance or susceptibility phenotype. When we investigated whether such SNP mutation in the eIF4E was also conserved in several other PIs of C. lanatus var. citroides, we identified a different SNP (A171G) resulting in another amino acid substitution (D71G) from four ZYMV-resistant C. lanatus var. citroides (PI 244018, PI 482261, PI 482299, and PI 482322). Additional CAPS markers were also identified. Availability of all these CAPS markers will enable marker-aided breeding of watermelon for ZYMV resistance.

  4. Combined toxicity of Cassia senna and Citrullus colocynthis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

    2001-04-01

    Body weight loss, inefficiency of feed utilization, diarrhea, ruffled hair and enterohepatonephrotoxicity were effects on male Wistar rats fed diet containing 10% Cassia senna or 10% Citrullus colocynthis ripe fruits for 6w. Rats fed a 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) of fruits from these plants were more adversely affected and had deaths than rats fed the individual plants. The changes associated with the macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia were increased serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, increased urea, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium. Serum bilirubin concentration did not change.

  5. Cucurbitacins from the Leaves of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chawech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetracyclic cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis leaves together with four known cucurbitacins. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data (mainly NMR and mass spectrometry. Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against two human colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and Caco-2 and one normal rat intestine epithelial cell line (IEC6, revealed that one of the isolated compounds presented interesting specific cytotoxic activity towards colorectal cell lines.

  6. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  7. Tolerance to the Herbicide Clomazone in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pre-emergence herbicide clomazone (trade name: Command 3ME), is widely used in watermelon production in the US for suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds growing in between plastic beds. Exposure of young watermelon plants to clomazone can cause moderate or severe injury that is expr...

  8. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndikau, Michael; Noah, Naumih M; Andala, Dickson M; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    .... This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent...

  9. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  10. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  11. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  12. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  13. A New Flavone C-glycoside from Citrullus colocynthis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Jing; ZHANG Jie; DENG Shi-ming; DAI Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Citrullus colocynthis.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 and recrystallization as well.NMR spectra and physicochemical property were characterized for structural identification.Results Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as β-sitosterol (1), α-spinasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),α-spinasterone (3),bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (4),p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5),6-C-p-methylbenzoylvitexin (6),dihydrocucurbitacin E (7),cucurbitacin E (8),dihydro-epi-iso-cucurbitacin D (9),dihydroisocucurbitacin B-25-acaetate (10),and cucurbitacin E 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11).Conclusion Compound 6 is a novel compound.Compounds 1-5,7,9,and 10 are isolated from C.colocynthis for the first time.

  14. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Arnold; K. J. Musil

    1983-01-01

    The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to...

  15. USVL-360, a novel watermelon tetraploid germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tetraploid line “USVL-360” derived from the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 299379 that belong to Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. (CLC) was developed in this study. USVL-360 is a pure line selection from an autotetraploid plant generated by tr...

  16. Intense association of non-culturable endophytic bacteria with antibiotic-cleansed in vitro watermelon and their activation in degenerating cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken with a view to unravel the source of bacterial colony growth observed in a section of micropropagated triploid watermelon cultures that were supposedly cleansed of the associated endophytic bacteria through antibiotic treatment, and thereafter maintained under stringent sterility checks to prevent lateral intrusion of contaminants. Five different bacteria were retrieved from colony growth-displaying watermelon cultures that were previously treated with gentamycin and five isolates from cefazolin-treated stocks with the organisms showing tolerance to the respective antibiotic. These watermelon cultures were in degeneration phase (over 6 months after the previous sub-culturing), while the actively maintained counterpart stocks appeared healthy with no colony growth on different bacteriological media during tissue-screenings. The latter cultures, however, revealed abundant motile, tetrazolium-stained bacterial cells in microscopy, suggesting tissue colonization by non-culturable endophytes. PCR screening on healthy cultures endorsed tissue colonization by different bacterial phylogenic groups. A few organisms could be activated to cultivation from healthy watermelon stocks through host tissue extract supplementation, which also enhanced the growth of all the organisms. The study indicated that a fraction of antibiotic-tolerant bacteria survived intra-tissue in non-culturable form during the preceding cleansing activity, multiplied to substantial numbers thereafter, and turned cultivable in degenerating cultures contributed by tissue breakdown products. This study brings out the existence of a deep endophyte association in tissue cultures which is not easily dissociable. It also signifies the utility of in vitro system for investigations into plant-endophyte association and to bring normally non-culturable novel organisms to cultivation facilitating their future exploitation.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation.

  18. 76 FR 25619 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch..., advertising, and promotion designed to strengthen the watermelon's position in the market place and...

  19. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend the Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan (Plan)...

  20. Isolation and genetic mapping of NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-six watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) were isolated from genotypes possessing disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 0, 1, and 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain, cucumber mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Deg...

  1. Influence of fruit age on Phytophthora fruit rot development on susceptible and resistant watermelon germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in the southeastern United States. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers in GA, SC, and NC, and is considered a top-research priority by the National Watermelon Association. We releas...

  2. 76 FR 42009 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ..., advertising, and promotion designed to strengthen the watermelon's position in the market place and to... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and... changes the boundaries of all seven districts under the Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan (Plan)...

  3. FLAVONE C-GLYCOSIDES AND CUCURBITACIN GLYCOSIDES FROM CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBAS DELAZAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae is an Iranian medicinal plant that has traditionally been used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. As part of our on-going studies on Iranian medicinal plants, thorough phytochemical investigation was carried out on this plant. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC was employed to isolate compounds from the butanol fraction of the hydro-methanolic (70% extract of the fruits of the locally grown C. colocynthis. Structures of the isolated compounds [1-5] were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The antioxidant property of the flavonoids 1-3 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Three flavone glucosides, isosaponarin [1], isovitexin [2] and isoorientin 3’-O-methyl ether [3] and two cucurbitacin glucosides, 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin I [4 and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin L [5] were isolated and identified. Flavonoids 1-3 showed significant antioxidant properties. Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to tissue injury, inflammation, cancer and many other ailments, the antioxidant properties of 1-3 probably contribute, at least to some extent, to the pharmacological and traditional medicinal uses of the C. colosynthis.

  4. Nutritional status of watermelon fertirrigation with nitrogen and phosphorus rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sobreira de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of N and P2O5 rates through irrigation water on the uptake of macro and micronutrients by watermelon crop. The study was conducted at the farm Santa Luzia, in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (5° 05’ 57”S e 37° 33’ 16”W. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with strip cropping (4 x 4 x 2, resulting and thirty two treatments with three replicates. The treatments consisted in the application of four N rates (0; 48; 121; 218 kg ha-1 combined with four rates of P2O5 (0; 88; 220; 397 kg ha-1 with two cultivars of watermelon. No deficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn in the watermelon leaves was found in any treatment, excepting Cu and Zn. The N and P2O5 rates, as well as the interaction, provide significant effect on contents of macronutrients in the watermelon leaves. Macronutrients most absorbed by the leaves of watermelon were N>Ca>K>Mg>P.

  5. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when IAA and lead were used. About 100 % germination was recorded after seven days. This suggests that water melon seeds can initiate growth even in lead polluted environment. Optimum level of 5 ppm IAA with the different levels of lead treatments may be recommended. Most important was that higher concentrations of Pb in the control (without IAA did not inhibit seedling shoot nor root growth. Longest seedling shoot length (cm was 10.33 ± 1.24 and 12.13 ± 2.06 on the seventh and eighth day respectively with the combined treatment levels of 1 ppm IAA and 15 ppm Pb. On the ninth day, 15.27 ± 0.96 was obtained from 1 ppm IAA and 20 ppm Pb. Longest seedling root length (cm values were recorded from the combined treatment levels of 0 ppm IAA and 10 ppm Pb for the seventh (9.10 ± 0.47 and ninth (10.37 ± 1.81 day respectively and 0 ppm and 15 ppm Pb on the eighth (9.37 ± 0.84 day. Significant means were also obtained with the treatment level of 0 and 20 ppm IAA. This present study suggest the germination of C. lanatus under Pb polluted environment may be rescued with optimum IAA.

  6. Herança da resistência a Watermelon mosaic virus em melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Maria da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças que ocorrem na cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus, a virose ocasionada por Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV se destaca entre as principais, sendo a resistência genética a forma mais indicada de controle. Dessa forma, é importante o conhecimento do controle genético da resistência que se pretende trabalhar. Objetivando estudar a herança da resistência ao WMV em melancia, foram realizados cruzamentos entre o cultivar Crimson Sweet (CS suscetível e a linha L26 resistente. Populações segregantes e não segregantes obtidas dos cruzamentos foram inoculadas com um isolado de WMV e avaliadas quanto ao aparecimento de sintomas e à presença do vírus por testes de ELISA indireto contra antissoro específico para WMV. A hipótese de herança monogênica foi avaliada em diferentes graus médios de dominância e pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Foram obtidas variâncias genética (σ²G, ambiental (σ²E, fenotípica (σ²F2, aditiva (σ²A e de dominância (σ²D, herdabilidades nos sentidos amplo (h²a e restrito (h²r. A herança monogênica foi rejeitada. O grau médio de dominância indicou efeito de dominância completa. As herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram baixas; portanto, constatou-se que o controle da resistência a WMV nas populações de melancia estudadas é do tipo oligogênica, com presença de efeitos aditivos e não aditivos e presença de genes maiores e poligenes.

  7. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without

  8. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Tania

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal

  9. Effects of gibberellic Acid and gold light on germination, enzyme activities, and amino Acid pool size in a dwarf strain of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, K B; Loy, J B

    1978-07-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) promotes and continuous gold light inhibits germination of seeds of a dwarf strain (WB-2) of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsu. and Nakai]. Osmotic inhibition of germination with mannitol in light-grown seeds of WB-2 was only slightly reversed by GA(3) at the concentrations used, whereas, GA(3) substantially relieved osmotic inhibition in dark-grown seeds.The effects of GA(3) and gold light on development of catalase and invertase activities and on levels of free amino acids in germinating seeds of WB-2 were examined. Light depressed development of catalase and invertase activity. Levels of free amino acids increased more slowly in embryonic axes of light- than dark-incubated seeds, but in cotyledons higher levels of amino acids were maintained in light-grown seeds. GA(3) accelerated the development of catalase activity in whole embryos and invertase activity in embryonic axes, but did not significantly affect invertase activity in cotyledons during germination. GA(3) had little effect on amino acid pools in cotyledons and embryonic axes.

  10. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  11. Effect of climate change on Bemisia tabaci in Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional and molecular approaches can be used to improve cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex attacks many crops on a global scale. It is very adaptive, and it feeds on over 1,000 diverse species of...

  12. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-01-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV...

  13. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  14. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okunrobo O. Lucky; Uwaya O. John; Imafidon E. Kate; Osarumwense O. Peter; Omorodion E. Jude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract....

  15. Níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira em dietas para ovinos Levels of forage watermelon meal in diets for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz Nunes Vaz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a inclusão de 20, 35, 50, 65 ou 80% de farelo de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus cv. citroides (FMF em dietas à base de feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, foi realizado um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 20 cordeiros com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo de 11,2 ± 1,2 kg. O experimento constou de 20 dias de adaptação e 5 de coleta total de sobras e de fezes. O farelo de melancia forrageira e o feno de guandu apresentaram 95,3 e 95,75% de matéria seca (MS, 18,7 e 16,8% de proteína bruta (PB e 38,8 e 64,3% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira determinaram aumento quadrático nos consumos de MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA, hemicelulose e carboidratos totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo não foi alterado, mas o consumo de CNF teve aumento linear conforme aumentaram os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (58%, PB (69%, FDN (41% e EE (85% não foram influenciados pelo nível de farelo de melancia forrageira. As digestibilidades de MO (54 a 62%, FDA (36 a 49% e carboidratos totais (47 a 58% variaram linear e positivamente, enquanto a digestibilidade da hemicelulose teve comportamento inverso. As dietas proporcionaram consumo de matéria seca que atendeu a exigência dos animais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade observados foram satisfatórios. O farelo de melancia forrageira pode ser indicado para compor dietas à base de feno de guandu em níveis de 35 a 66% da matéria seca.In order to study the inclusion of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides meal (FWM in pigeon pea hay based diets (Cajanus cajan (PPH, a digestibility trial in sheep was carried out for testing five levels of FWM (20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%. Twenty lambs with an average age of six months and live weight of 11.2 kg (± 1.2 were used. The experimental period was twenty days for adaptation and five days for total refuses and feces collection. The chemical

  16. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  17. The Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract on the Liver of Diabetic Rats a Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.

  18. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  19. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  20. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    lalitha govindaraj; Suseela vivek

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt) respe...

  1. Traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. in Bou Saada (Algeria

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    Madani SARRI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The study area called gate to the desert, the oasis is the closest to the Algerian coastline luxuriant vegetation, lies at the Monts Ouled Nail of the Saharan Atlas. The latter is characterized by the presence of a fairly specific Algeria dunes, presents a sizeable floristic and ecological diversity. Objective: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Materials and Methods: Our study consists in the elaboration of a survey concerning the traditional use in the Bou Saada region especially Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. species. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in the study area during 2011-2012. His research has been conducted in collaboration with healers, herbalists and ordinary users. Results: This analysis of Citrullus colocynthis (L. has revealed its use by 69 people of different ages. In addition, it has multiple uses such as: rheumatism (50%, diabetes (24%, inflammation of skin (8%, bacterial infections (7%, diseases of prostates (8% and female infertility (4%. Conclusion: This study shows that the colocynth is traditionally used by people of both sexes belonging to age groups and socioeconomic levels and different intellectuals. At the end of this work the observations on traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. can be useful to guide a research work in the chemical and clinical side.

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  3. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  4. Effect of nitrogen doses on disease severity and watermelon yield Influência de doses de nitrogênio na severidade de doenças e na produtividade da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de

  5. Macronutrients in watermelon plants fertilized with potassium and cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. M. do Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Potassium is the nutrient required in greatest quantity by watermelon, especially during the production phase. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of potassium and cattle manure doses on the nutritional composition of ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon plants. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates and 21 plants per plot using a 3 × 5 + 1 factorial scheme, referring to three manure doses (0; 1,100 and 2,520 g hole-1, in order to increment the level of soil organic matter from 0.67 present in the soil to 3.0 and 6.0%, five potassium doses (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 kg ha-1 in the form of potassium chloride and one additional treatment (without organic and mineral fertilization. At the beginning of fruiting, leaves were collected to evaluate the nutritional status of the plants in macronutrients. According to the results, cattle manure stimulates the absorption of macronutrients by watermelon; in soil with 3.0% of organic matter, the best results corresponded to the K2O dose of 15 kg ha-1 and, for 6.0%, between 11 and 13 kg ha-1.

  6. Assessment of anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis Avaliação do efeito antihiperlipidêmico de Citrullus colocynthis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyieh Zamani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a well-known risk factor for several illnesses including atherosclerosis, heart and vascular diseases and stroke. In the search for potential anti-hyperlipidemic agents from plants to prevent these conditions, the pulp and the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis were assessed for their effects on the lipid profile of hyperlipidemic New Zealand rabbits. In the experimental groups that received the pulp of C. colocynthis or 100 mg/kg of seeds, the lipid profiles were significantly reduced when compared to the control group (PHiperlipidemia é um fator de risco bem conhecido para diversas doenças inclusive aterosclerose, doenças cardíacas e derrame cerebral. Na procura de potenciais agentes antihiperlipidêmicos a partir de plantas para prevenir essas doenças, a polpa e as sementes de Citrullus colocynthis foram testadas para verificar seus efeitos no perfil lipídico de coelhos Nova Zelândia hiperlipidêmicos. Nos grupos experimentais que receberam a polpa de C. colocynthis ou 100 mg/kg das sementes, os perfis lipídicos foram significantemente reduzidos quando comparados ao grupo de controle (P<0,05.

  7. Effects of Different Storage Factors on Pollen Viability of Watermelon Variety‘Zaojia’%不同保存因子对早佳西瓜花粉活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燚; 杨瑜斌; 王驰; 杨景华; 张明方

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied watermelon〔Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.)Matsum. et Nakai〕pollen cryopreservation methods and pollination technique.The result indicated that pollens of ‘Zaojia’ water-melon can be stored at -18 ℃ or -25 ℃under vacuum condition for 186 to 223 days with over 50% ac-tivity. Pollen activity can be varied under different storage conditions,of which -25 ℃ can have longer storage time than -18 ℃,and the pollen vitality is higher.The stored pollens should be activated at 25 ℃ for 30 min before usage,so as to achieve higher fruit setting rate.The application of stored pollen will not influence the quality of watermelon.%研究了西瓜花粉低温保存及授粉技术,结果表明:早佳西瓜花粉在-18℃或-25℃的温度下,真空保存186~223 d仍有50%以上的活力。花粉活力因花粉保存条件不同有较大差异,-25℃比-18℃保存的时间长、活力高。保存花粉使用前应在25℃条件下放置30 min激活活力,以取得较高的坐果率。使用保存花粉授粉不影响西瓜品质。

  8. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  9. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  10. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  11. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  12. Fruit age and development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. and has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers especially in GA, SC, and NC. We recently released four germplasm lines (USVL203-PFR, USVL020-PFR, USVL782-PFR,...

  13. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  14. MSW-28 a full flavor crisp watermelon line with high lycopene and medium brix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  16. Extraction And Isolation Of Lycopene From Solanum Lycopersicum And Citrullus Lanatus For Bioplastic Colouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes water melon and other fruits mostly red coloured. Due to its structure lycopene gives its deep red colour owing to its strong colour and non- toxic in nature. Lycopene is non-polar in nature due to which it stains any porous material including plastic. Lycopene diffuses into plastic making it difficult to remove with hot water or detergent. Since lycopene is insoluble in water but can be dissolved in organic solvent and oil. Extracting lycopene from natural source like tomato and watermelon which contains the highest amount of lycopene leads to a non-toxic colouring agent which can be used in bioplastic colouring. Identification of lycopene was carried out using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and HPLC. The lycopene content was found to be 5.50 and 11.1 mgkg fresh wt in tomato and watermelon respectively. The peaks of lycopene in UV-Visible spectrophotometer were found at 459 nm and 468 nm for tomato and watermelon respectively. HPLC of lycopene was carried out which showed the amp955Max at 473 nm for tomato and 471 nm for watermelon. The extracted lycopene was added while preparing the bioplastic as the colouring agent. Hence lycopene proves to be a potent biocolour for the bioplastic colouring.

  17. Use of Chitosan-PVA Hydrogels with Copper Nanoparticles to Improve the Growth of Grafted Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero González Gómez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture requires alternative practices that improve crop growth without negatively affecting the environment, as resources such as water and arable land grow scarcer while the human population continues to increase. Grafting is a cultivation technique that allows the plant to be more efficient in its utilization of water and nutrients, while nanoscale material engineering provides the opportunity to use much smaller quantities of consumables compared to conventional systems but with similar or superior effects. On those grounds, we evaluated the effects of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with absorbed copper nanoparticles (Cs-PVA-nCu on leaf morphology and plant growth when applied to grafted watermelon cultivar ‘Jubilee’ plants. Stomatal density (SD, stomatal index (SI, stoma length (SL, and width (SW were evaluated. The primary stem and root length, the stem diameter, specific leaf area, and fresh and dry weights were also recorded. Our results demonstrate that grafting induces modifications to leaf micromorphology that favorably affect plant growth, with grafted plants showing better vegetative growth in spite of their lower SD and SI values. Application of Cs-PVA-nCu was found to increase stoma width, primary stem length, and root length by 7%, 8% and 14%, respectively. These techniques modestly improve plant development and growth.

  18. Neural network modeling of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of watermelon production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine energy consumption, model and analyze the input–output, energy efficiencies and GHG emissions for watermelon production using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the Guilan province of Iran, based on three different farm sizes. For this purpose, the initial data was collected from 120 watermelon producers in Langroud and Chaf region, two small cities in the Guilan province. The results indicated that total average energy input for watermelon production was 40228.98 MJ ha–1. Also, chemical fertilizers (with 76.49% were the highest energy inputs for watermelon production. Moreover, the share of non-renewable energy (with 96.24% was more than renewable energy (with 3.76% in watermelon production. The rate of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy was calculated as 1.29, 0.68 kg MJ−1 and 11733.64 MJ ha−1, respectively. With respect to GHG analysis, the average of total GHG emissions was calculated about 1015 kgCO2eq. ha−1. The results illustrated that share of nitrogen (with 54.23% was the highest in GHG emissions for watermelon production, followed by diesel fuel (with 16.73% and electricity (with 15.45%. In this study, Levenberg–Marquardt learning Algorithm was used for training ANNs based on data collected from watermelon producers. The ANN model with 11–10–2 structure was the best one for predicting the watermelon yield and GHG emissions. In the best topology, the coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated as 0.969 and 0.995 for yield and GHG emissions of watermelon production, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the seed and human labor had the highest sensitivity in modeling of watermelon yield and GHG emissions, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  20. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  1. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

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    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  2. 11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜根区土壤的释放分布及在西瓜中的残留量分析%Release and distribution of 11 . 1% imidacloprid in root zone of watermelon field soil with applicaton of sustained release tablet formulation and its residue in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓静; 吴迪; 周春江; 恽友兰; 李松林; 田晓莉

    2014-01-01

    为了评价11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果和安全性,于2012-2013年通过田间试验于西瓜移栽时施药,研究了11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果,及其在瓜秧、果实和土壤中的残留量。结果表明:西瓜苗移栽时将11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂(吡虫啉有效成分0.08 g/株)施入其根部下方,施药后42 d对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果为83.3%,基本可满足全生育期防治的需要。2012和2013年,11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜采收期(药后/移栽后60 d)的累积释放率分别为15%和32%。与吡虫啉原药处理相比,片剂中的吡虫啉在土壤中的迁移范围较小,药后30 d,施药点下方10 cm外、水平方向6 cm外的吡虫啉残留量低于0.2 mg/kg。此外,施药点下方2~4 cm处、水平方向2~4 cm处土壤中吡虫啉的残留动态基本呈单峰曲线变化,峰值均出现在药后30 d,分别为1.91和0.10 mg/kg;药后120 d 分别为0.17和0.03 mg/kg。基部瓜秧中(2012年:0~30 cm;2013年:1~3节)吡虫啉的含量于药后14 d检出,其余时期均未检出;2年试验中,西瓜果实中的吡虫啉残留量均低于最低检测浓度(LOQ)0.05 mg/kg,也低于食品法典委员会( CAC)规定的西瓜中最大残留限量( MRL)0.2 mg/kg。%In order to evaluate the control effect of 11. 1% sustained release tablet ( SRT ) of imidacloprid on melon aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover ) in watermelon and its application safety to watermelon and environment, the experiments were conducted in open field during growing season of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) at Beijing in 2012 -2013 . The 11. 1% sustained release tablets of imidacloprid ( equivalent to 0. 08 g imidacloprid per plant) were applied under the roots of watermelon seedlings while transplanting. The results indicated that the control effect of imidacloprid SRT on melon aphid basically covered the whole growing season ( 60 d ) of watermelon

  3. Toxicity of colocynithin and hydrated colocynithin from alcoholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Naggar, M E; Abdel-Sattar, M M; Mosallam, S S

    1989-06-01

    The comparative toxicity of the alcoholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis pulp; colocynithin and hydrated colocynithin have been isolated and tried against seven insect species. The American cockroaches were more susceptible for both compounds than the German one, adult honey bee were more affected with Colocynithin than adult housefly. while hydrated colocynithin was more toxic to housefly than honey bee, cotton leafworm was less affected with both toxicants. Bed bug was less affected with Colocynithin than mosquito, but V.V. with hydrated Colocynithin. A direct parallel relation was found between toxicity and rate of penetration.

  4. Prediction of lycopene degradation during dehydration of watermelon pomace (cv Sugar Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Pal Singh Oberoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene retention in watermelon pomace during drying was investigated in fluidized-bed and cabinet dryer at 50–70 °C using 2–6 kg/m2 tray loads. Page’s model described the drying behaviour of watermelon pomace better than other models. Lycopene content of watermelon pomace dried in fluidized-bed dryer was 5.67–9.86 mg/100 g (db whereas in cabinet dryer 4.82–8.12 mg/100 g (db under experimental conditions. Lycopene retention was lower in cabinet dryer due to longer drying time. Degradation kinetics of lycopene in watermelon pomace followed first order model over 50–90 °C. Thermal degradation showed higher lycopene retention than drying under similar conditions of temperature and time indicating that circulating air increased the rate of lycopene degradation. Lycopene loss during drying of watermelon pomace was 19.02–60.57% whereas 7.46–43.28% was observed during thermal treatment of watermelon pomace. Fluidized bed dryer can be employed preferably over cabinet dryer to stabilize the watermelon pomace with higher lycopene retention.

  5. Thrips collected in watermelon crops in the semiarid of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Ewerton Marinho Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From August to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon production area with 10,000m2, using 20 Moericke traps. We captured a total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thripidae and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin (Phlaeothripidae. This is the first report of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil

  6. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Katia Leani [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman [Embrarad Ltda. Av. Cruzada Bandeirante, 269, 06700-000 Cotia, SP (Brazil); Teresa Destro, Maria [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, Mariza [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2008-06-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  7. Prediction of lycopene degradation during dehydration of watermelon pomace (cv Sugar Baby)

    OpenAIRE

    Davinder Pal Singh Oberoi; Dalbir Singh Sogi

    2017-01-01

    Lycopene retention in watermelon pomace during drying was investigated in fluidized-bed and cabinet dryer at 50–70 °C using 2–6 kg/m2 tray loads. Page’s model described the drying behaviour of watermelon pomace better than other models. Lycopene content of watermelon pomace dried in fluidized-bed dryer was 5.67–9.86 mg/100 g (db) whereas in cabinet dryer 4.82–8.12 mg/100 g (db) under experimental conditions. Lycopene retention was lower in cabinet dryer due to longer drying time. Degradation ...

  8. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

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    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  9. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (bitter apple fruit): a review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and nutritional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abdullah I; Rathore, Hassaan A; Sattar, Munavvar Z A; Chatha, Shahzad A S; Sarker, Satyajit D; Gilani, Anwar H

    2014-08-08

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad is a valuable cucurbit plant, widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. Citrullus colocynthis fruits are usually recognized for its wide range of medicinal uses as well as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. This review aims to appraise the published information on the ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, nutraceutical potential and safety studies of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) fruit, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies. A literature survey was performed by searching the scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ACS as well as published books. The plant has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including in diabetes, leprosy, common cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, jaundice, joint pain, cancer, toothache, wound, mastitis, and in gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion, constipation, dysentery, gastroenteritis, colic pain and different microbial infections. Several bioactive chemical constituents from fruits were recorded, such as, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and essential oils. The isolation and identification of curcurbitacins A, B, C, D, E, I, J, K, and L and Colocynthosides A, and B were also reported. The fruit of Citrullus colocynthis has been studied extensively for its wide range of biological activities, which include antioxidant, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, insecticide, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. The plant was also shown to be rich in nutritional value with high protein contents and important minerals as well as edible quality of seed oil. It is evident from the literature that Citrullus colocynthis possesses a wide range of medicinal uses and has been well studied for its antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, while its therapeutic potential for gut, airways and

  10. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic tetraploid plants have been used for production of seedless triploid watermelon lines being pollinated with diploid plants. When compared to their diploid or triploid counterparts, the tetraploid exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Though many factors, including alternative splicing (AS),...

  11. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...

  12. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  13. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  14. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L(-1)) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH(-1) and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst.

  15. Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pinto, Cleovan; Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Visintin da Silva Galdino, Tarcísio; Silvestre Pereira, Poliana; Gomes Barbosa, Breno; Henrique Oliveira Lima, Carlos; Rodrigues da Silva, Nilson; Coutinho Picanço, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was sampling). This has not been reported for watermelon before. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  17. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.

  18. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okunrobo O Lucky; Uwaya O John; Imafidon E Kate; Osarumwense O Peter; Omorodion E Jude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals;flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg). The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001). Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds ofCitrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  19. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okunrobo O. Lucky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals; flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg. The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001. Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  20. High-frequency Oligonucleotides in Watermelon Expressed Sequenced Tag-unigenes Are Useful in Producing Polymorphic Polymerase Chain Reaction Markers among Watermelon Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report a simple procedure for developing gene targeted primers, named high-frequency gene sequence (HFGS) primers, based on oligonucleotides that exist in high frequency in watermelon expressed sequence tag (EST)-unigenes. These HFGS primers were constructed by first screening for...

  1. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  2. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  3. Effect of chitosan solution on the inhibition of Acidovorax citrulli causing bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Shi, Yu; Shan, Changlin; Zhou, Qing; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Wu, Guoxing; Li, Hongye; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2013-03-30

    The production of watermelon in China has been seriously hampered by fruit blotch disease and limited control measures are now applied. Chitosan has been employed to control a variety of plant diseases and is considered to be the most promising biochemical to control this disease. The in vitro antibacterial effect of chitosan and its ability in protection of watermelon seedlings from bacterial fruit blotch were evaluated. Results showed that three types of chitosan, in particular, chitosan A at 0.40 mg mL⁻¹ significantly inhibited the growth of Acidovorax citrulli. The antibacterial activity of chitosan A was affected by chitosan concentration and incubation time. The direct antibacterial activity of chitosan may be attributed to membrane lysis evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation. The disease index of watermelon seedlings planted in soil and the death rate of seedlings planted in perlite were significantly reduced by chitosan A at 0.40 mg mL⁻¹ compared to the pathogen control. Fresh and dry weight of watermelon seedlings planted in soil was increased by chitosan seed treatment, but not by chitosan leaf spraying. The results indicated that chitosan solution may have a potential in controlling bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  5. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  6. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli) with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Sang Woo; Um, Young Hyun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Jeong Young; Kim, Hong Gi; Lee, Youn Su

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22), Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27) showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose), chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22) and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27) as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon.

  7. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time.

  8. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  9. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli) with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Sang Woo; Um, Young Hyun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Jeong Young; Kim, Hong Gi; Lee, Youn Su

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22), Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27) showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose), chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22) and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27) as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon. PMID:28381964

  10. Growth and Yield Response of Watermelon to in-row Plant Spacings and Mycorrhiza Respuesta del Crecimiento Vegetativo y Producción de Sandía a Diferentes Distancias entre Plantas y a Micorrizas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a significant increase in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai growing areas has been registered in the last few years. In-row plant spacing has a significant effect on the growth and yield of watermelon, and can enhance competition for water and nutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in-row plant spacing (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi Glomus mosseae inoculations on watermelon growth and yield under field conditions during 2003, 2004, and 2005 year. In 2003, the main vine length, number of leaves, and number of lateral branches were increased quadratically as the in-row plant spacing increased from 1.0 to 2.5. With an increase in the in-row plant spacing the early yield of watermelon decreased in 2004, while the fruit number decreased in 2003 and 2004. The total yield and fruit number decreased with an increase in the in-row plant spacing in all 3 yr; however, the fruit mass increased at wider plant spacings in 2003. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the main vine length and the number of lateral branches in 2003. Compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants presented higher early yield in 2005 and a higher early fruit number in 2003 and 2005. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total yield in 2005; however, the fruit weight was not affected by mycorrhizal inoculation during early or total harvest. In this study, an in-row plant spacing of 1.0 m provided the best early and total yield while maintaining high fruit weight. The growth and yield enhancement of watermelon due to mycorrhizal colonization was not consistent; therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation could not be recommended as a standard production practice.En los últimos años se ha registrado un significativo aumento en las áreas cultivadas con sandía (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai a nivel mundial. La distancia entre plantas en la hilera tiene un efecto significativo en su

  11. Configuration of watermelon fruit quality in response to rootstock-mediated harvest maturity and postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Marios C; Soteriou, Georgios A; Rouphael, Youssef; Siomos, Anastasios S; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    The configuration of watermelon fruit quality was analysed in a multi-factorial approach accounting for the effects of grafting, harvest maturity and postharvest storage. Diploid, seeded, hybrid cv. Pegasus, cultivated as scion on interspecific hybrid squash rootstock TZ148 and as non-grafted control, was stored at 25 °C following sequential harvests from the onset of ripening to over-maturity. Delayed rootstock-mediated climax in pulp lycopene and chroma was observed, while both were heightened by postharvest storage when harvest preceded full maturity. Pulp firmness was increased by 46.5% on TZ148, while postharvest decrease in firmness was non-significant. Non-grafted fruits attained their peak in pulp carbohydrate content earlier during ripening. Monosaccharide content declined and sucrose content increased both preharvest and postharvest; overall sugar content declined by 4.3% during storage. Pulp acidity decreased steadily with ripening but was moderately increased by grafting. Citrulline content increased by 12.5% on TZ148; moreover, it climaxed with ripening and declined with storage only in grafted fruit. Grafting enhances pulp texture and bioactive composition. Potential suppression of sugar content as a result of grafting is minimized at full commercial maturity. Brief postharvest ambient storage enhances pulp lycopene and chroma, especially in early-picked fruit, notwithstanding the depletion of monosaccharides and citrulline and a limited deterioration of texture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  13. PRÉ-MELHORAMENTO DE UMA POPULAÇÃO DE MELANCIA COM SISTEMA MISTO DE REPRODUÇÃO PRE-IMPROVEMENT OF A WATERMELON POPULATION WITH A MIXED REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A melancia, introduzida na região Nordeste do Brasil durante a escravatura, apresenta grande variabilidade genética, sendo importante o emprego de seu germoplasma em programas de pré-melhoramento. Este trabalho visou promover o prémelhoramento de uma população, sintetizada pelo cruzamento entre um acesso coletado no Nordeste e uma variedade comercial. As progênies, obtidas de polinização livre e de autofecundação, foram avaliadas no campo com respeito à: produção e número de frutos por planta; peso, diâmetro longitudinal, diâmetro transversal e formato de fruto; espessura, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa; número e peso de cem sementes. O potencial da população em produzir linhagens promissoras foi avaliado conforme o grau de depressão endogâmica e a resposta para os caracteres produção de frutos por planta, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa. A maioria das progênies foi superior às testemunhas para os caracteres relacionados à produção de frutos. Em média, a depressão endogâmica não foi drástica, contudo em algumas progênies obteve-se um efeito equivalente ao que ocorre em populações de espécies estritamente alógamas. Em 9,4% das progênies de polinização livre, a produção de frutos por planta, o teor de sólidos solúveis e a cor da polpa, foram superiores à média da população.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Citrullus lanatus; germoplasma; depressão endogâmica; cor da polpa; teor de açúcar.

    The watermelon introduced in the Northeast of Brazil during the slavery period, presents great genetic variability. This germplasm is important in pre-breeding programs. This work aimed to perform pre-breeding work in a population synthesized by crossing an accession collected access in the Northeast of Brazil and a commercial variety

  14. Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Food Science and Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic,. Abeokuta. 3 ... alkyl resin for manufacturing of paints or bar soap due to their low saponification values. .... be good for frying snacks and in soup preparation.

  15. MARKETING MARGIN AND DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURN OF WATERMELON MARKETING IN YENAGOA METROPOLIS OF BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted from May, 2013 to July, 2013 for determining the marketing margin and examines the determinants of net return of watermelon marketing in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was adopted in drawing the sample. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, and multiple regression models. The results showed that watermelon marketing was female dominated (73.3% with mean marketing experience of 5 years which can conclude that watermelon marketing in the Niger Delta Area is gaining ground. In age group, majority (70.0% were within the age of 21-40 years, while majority (38.3% had household size of 5–10, and (61.7% had secondary education. Marketing of watermelon in the area was profitable with monthly marketing margin and net return of N 16, 466.35 and N 14, 767.51 respectively. Marketing efficiency and benefit- cost ratio was 0.588 and 1.53 respectively, meaning that marketing of watermelon was inefficient (0.588 < 1.The study further showed that price of watermelon had positive and significant relationship with net return (t = 8.682; p<0.05, suggesting that the higher the price of watermelon, the higher the net returns. Major constraints of watermelon marketing were spoilage of fruits, .transport risk, small size watermelon, irregular supply, and inadequate capital. Thus improved storage facilities, electricity, good road network linking distributing centers, pooling of accumulated capital is imminent to sustain availability of watermelon and enhance price stability in the area

  16. Analysis on differentially expressed genes in watermelon rind color based on RNA-Seq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨侃侃; 梁志怀; 吴才君

    2016-01-01

    In order to screen the genes controlling watermelon rind color and luster, the experiment was carried out with yellow watermelon skin mutants as tester and green wild type watermelon as control, and transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were done. The results show that 34.27Gb clean data were got by transcriptome sequencing. There are 261 differentially expressed genes among Y1_vs_G1, Y2_vs_G2 and Y3_vs_G3.The pathways contenting most differentially expressed genes are plant hormone signal transduction pathway, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, photosynthesis pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (Cla002942), alcohol dehydrogenase (Cla004992), photosystem I reaction center subunit III, chloroplastic (precursor) (Cla009181), long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase (Cla017341), threonine dehydratase biosynthetic (Cla018352) candidates genes were screened out.

  17. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landrace types in Mali revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Andersen, Sven Bode; Jensen, Brita Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the genetic differentiation of a collection of 134 watermelon landrace accessions from Mali, representing red fleshed dessert and white fleshed seed and cooking type watermelons from five regions, plus three commercial dessert type cultivars with red flesh. The material...... the accessions into use groups (dessert, cooking, seed processing) explained 25 % of the variation. When categorising the accessions further into 10 landrace types, differentiated on the basis of use groups, local accession name, flesh colour and seed phenotype, these landrace types explained 26...... % of the variation. Analysis with the software Structure revealed that the accessions with confidence could be separated into two major genetic groups, related to flesh colour (red and white) of the watermelon fruits. The same analysis further indicated that the material may be differentiated into eight genetic sub...

  18. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  19. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  20. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  1. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  2. Extraction conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of lycopene from watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine, L S Vaughn; Edgar, C Clausen; Jerry, W King; Luke, R Howard; Julie, Carrier Danielle

    2008-11-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid linked to protection against certain forms of cancer, is found in produce such as papaya, red-fleshed tomatoes, grapefruit and watermelon. The preparation of a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) watermelon-lycopene extract could serve as a food grade source of this carotenoid. This study established preliminary conditions for enhancing SC-CO2 extraction of lycopene from watermelon. Freeze-dried watermelon was extracted with SC-CO2 and ethanol as an organic co-solvent. The lycopene concentration was determined by HPLC, with absorbance measured at 503 nm. In an initial set of experiments, the effects of extraction temperature (70-90 degrees C), pressure (20.7-41.4 MPa) and co-solvent ethanol addition (10-15%) were evaluated. A lycopene yield of 38 microg per gram of wet weight was obtained at 70 degrees C, 20.7 MPa, and 15% by volume ethanol. The extraction of fresh (non-freeze-dried) watermelon yielded 103+/-6 microg lycopene per gram fresh fruit weight. Of the parameters tested, temperature had the most effect on lycopene yield. Thus, in another set of experiments, the temperature was varied from 60-75 degrees C at an extraction pressure of 20.7 MPa in the presence of 15% ethanol. Studies showed that freeze-dried watermelon flesh loses lycopene in storage. In accounting for lycopene storage losses, lycopene yields at 60 degrees C extraction temperature were 14% greater than those obtained at 70 degrees C.

  3. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  4. Identification of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in citrullus lanatus var. citroides plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult, because the soil-borne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), produces resilient spores that remain infectious for many years. Although various levels of resist...

  5. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  6. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV): a new potyvirus species in the PRSV cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, Soumaya; Lecoq, Hervé; Desbiez, Cécile

    2008-08-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in Algeria in 1986. Biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as H4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). To establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of H4, its full-length genome sequence was established. H4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with MWMV and PRSV, respectively, indicating that H4 is a distinct species of the PRSV cluster. The name Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus species.

  7. Enhanced biocidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts by green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shawky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an attractive research area for their divers and potential implications in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, production of nanoparticles by biosynthetic method employing live plant or plant extract has emerged a simple and viable alternative to traditional methods. In the present study the biocidal; antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and larvicidal activities of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs in aqueous extracts (AEs of Citrullus colocynthis were investigated. SNPs Formed in C. colocynthis AEs were spherical and homogenous and their average mean sizes were 19.267 nm, 16.578 nm, 13.376.nm and 7.398 nm in AEs of fruits, seeds, leaves and roots respectively. The biosynthesized SNPs greatly enhanced the activities of C. colocynthis AEs. It showed  a significant inhibitory action against different bacterial species; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes; antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with inhibition zones ranging from 15.1 ± 0.44 to 25.2 ± 0.37 mm. Transmitted electron microscopic (TEM analysis of the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli cells revealed SNPs aggregated and located non-specifically on the cell wall, also, SNPs were seen within the cell wall or the cell of bacteria. The cells became severely distorted and disrupted showing a bactericidal action. Interestingly, a size dependence of SNPs' antiviral activity was observed. We found that the SNPs/ C. colocynthis roots AEs showed the strongest antiviral activity causing 70%, 73% and 75% reduction of the Cytopathic effect (CPE of hepatitis A virus, Herpes simplex virus type I and Herpes simplex virus type II respectively. Also, the SNPs/C. colocynthis showed a significant larvicidal activity against the 3

  8. 转基因西瓜研究进展%Progress of Research in Transgenic Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金超; 马三梅; 王永飞; 孙小武

    2014-01-01

    综述了西瓜转基因常用的方法、目前已获得的转基因西瓜性状以及转基因西瓜安全性等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后进一步的研究方向。西瓜转基因常用方法为叶盘转化法;将外源基因导入到西瓜基因组中常用的方法主要有农杆菌介导法和花粉管介导法;常采用PCR、Southern和Western等方法来检测和鉴定外源基因是否成功整合到西瓜基因组中;目前利用转基因技术改良的西瓜性状主要集中在培育抗病毒、抗枯萎病和耐旱、耐盐碱等方面;对转基因西瓜的安全性研究主要包括生态安全性和食品安全性2个方面。今后应利用转基因技术进一步提高西瓜营养品质、耐贮性和抗冻性等性状,并进一步加强对转基因西瓜安全性的研究。%In this paper,the general methods of transgenic watermelon were summarized,the transgenic watermelon suc-cessfully developed currently was introduced,the security concern of transgenic watermelon was reviewed. The further re-search directions of transgenic watermelon were proposed. The general method of transgenic watermelons was leaf disc trans-formation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and pollen-tube-mediated transformation were commonly used to intro-duce exogenous gene into the watermelon genome. PCR,Southern and Western methods were used to detect and identify if exogenous genes weresuccessfully integrated into the watermelon genome . Currently the watermelon characters that using transgenic technology to improve mainly included disease resistance,blight resistance,drought resistance and alkali resis-tance,etc. Research on the safety of transgenic watermelons mainly included the ecological safety and food safety. For the transgenic technology of watermelons,it should further be applied to improve the quality of the watermelon nutrition traits, and storage resistance and freeze resistance. And research on the safety of transgenic should be

  9. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel betaflexivirus infecting Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min; Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Wenwen; Ren, Yingdang; Cao, Mengji; Wang, Xifeng

    2017-07-05

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a novel positive single-stranded (+ss) RNA virus, tentatively named watermelon virus A (WVA), was determined using a combination of three methods: RNA sequencing, small RNA sequencing, and Sanger sequencing. The full genome of WVA is comprised of 8,372 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly (A) tail, and contains four open reading frames (ORFs). The largest ORF, ORF1 encodes a putative replication-associated polyprotein (RP) with three conserved domains. ORF2 and ORF4 encode a movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP), respectively. The putative product encoded by ORF3, of an estimated molecular mass of 25 kDa, has no significant similarity with other proteins. Identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that WVA is a new virus, closely related to members of the family Betaflexiviridae. However, the final taxonomic allocation of WVA within the family is yet to be determined.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Song, Yu-Rim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kang, Jum-Soon; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to minimize economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infected seeds, such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the real-time PCR have a critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. A hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400-1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria-infected watermelon seeds, which were then subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to classify bacteria-infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria-infected watermelon seeds with an accuracy > 90% (PLS-DA: 91.7%, LS-SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. The results of the present study show that it is possible to use the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swapnil; Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jain, Sonika

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  12. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  13. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  14. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Water Stress on the Carbohydrate Metabolism of Citrullus lanatus Seeds during Germination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Frederik C.; Small, Johannes G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis in Citrullus lanatus seeds is a post germinative event. Increases in isocitrate lyase activity and incorporation of radioactivity from [2-14C]acetate into sugars occur only after radicle emergence. During germination, the seeds appear to rely on carbohydrate as the respiratory substrate. At this time, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarbocyclic acid cycle seem to be functional. Utilization of raffinose during germination appears to be important. Water stress, which completely inhibits germination, has a marked effect on carbohydrate metabolism. The rate of 14CO2 release from [2-14C]acetate, [1-14C]glucose, and [6-14C]glucose is lower in the stressed seeds than the control seeds during the respiratory lag phase. However, in the stressed seeds neither glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, nor the tricarboxylic acid cycle is completely inhibited. In contrast to the control seeds in which raffinose content sharply declines after 12 h of incubation, raffinose content in the stressed seeds remains fairly constant. The respiratory lag phase of the control seeds coincides with a lower reducing substance content, glucose content, and fructose content than in the stressed seeds during the corresponding incubation period. PMID:16664032

  16. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger printing analysis of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumam Varghese; R. Narmadha; D. Gomathi; M. Kalaiselvi; K. Devaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To find out the secondary metabolites present in the various extracts ofCitrullus lanatus(C. lanatus)(Thunb.) and mineral content present in the plant material.Methods:The powdered plant material was extracted using different solvents.Phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprinting analysis were then carried out.Result:The ethanolic seed extract of C. lanatusshowed the presence of majority of secondary metabolites when compared to other solvent system.The quantitative analysis of the plant material also revealed the presence of various amount of carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, fibre, phosphorus and irons. TheHPTLC fingerprinting analysis was carried for flavonid and phenolic compounds by using CAMAGLINOMAT5 instrument which revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compound especially quercetin in the ethanolic seed extract ofC. lanatus.Conclusions:The results scientifically validate the use ofC. lanatusin the traditional medicine and it can be used to treat various disorders caused by free radical and chemical substances due to presence of secondary metabolites.

  17. Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats

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    Omolola R. Oyenihi

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of watermelon juice for fifteen (15 days prior to ethanol intoxication, significantly reduced the concentration of MDA in the liver and brain of rats. In addition, water melon pre-treatment increased the concentration of GSH and normalized catalase activity in both tissues in comparison to the ethanol control group. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and steroids in watermelon juice. Our findings indicate that watermelon juice demonstrate anti-oxidative effects in ethanol-induced oxidation in the liver and brain of rats; which could be associated with the plethora of antioxidant phyto-constituents present there-in.

  18. Evaluation of watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew and Phytophthora fruit rot, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of seeded and seedless commercial watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew (PM) and Phytophthora fruit rot as...

  19. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  20. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  1. Volatile profile and physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in fresh cut watermelon during storage

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    Andréa Luiza Ramos Pereira Xisto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing data about the aroma of fresh-cut watermelon and the metabolic changes that occur with minimal processing are scarce. Given the close relationship that exists between aroma, texture, and quality characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the changes in the volatile profile and texture of watermelon, a fruit extensively sold in supermarket chains throughout Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the volatile profile using solid phase microextraction (SPME as well as texture changes in fresh-cut watermelon stored at 5 °C for ten days. Chromatography associated with sensory analysis (sniffing led us to conclude that 9-carbon (C9 alcohols and aldehydes are the major responsible for the flavor and aroma of minimally processed watermelon stored at 5 ± 1 °C/90 ± 5% RH for ten days, and also that the aroma diminishes in intensity with storage, but it does not affect the final quality of the product. It was noted that the amount of drained liquid, soluble pectin, and weight loss increased during storage concurrently with a reduction in firmness and a structural breakdown of the cells. Pectin methyl esterase activity remained constant and polygalacturonase activity was not detected.

  2. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in Watermelon in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  3. Waste cotton as a biodegradable mulching material for transplanted watermelon and cantaloupe production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch is commonly used in transplanted vegetable crop production in the southeastern U. S. Cantaloupe and watermelon growers use a system of hybrid transplants, grown on narrow LDPE mulch-covered seedbeds with overhead irrigation, and use the mulch cover for only one...

  4. Presence and characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in watermelon in Serbia

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    Vučurović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV in two out of seven watermelon production localities in Serbia during 2011 was investigated by analyzing leaves sampled from symptomatic and asymptomatic watermelon plants and utilizing DAS-ELISA test. In the locality of Gornji Tavankut, ZYMV was detected in 23.08% of tested plants in single infections, and in the locality of Silbas it was detected in 35.29% of tested plants in mixed infections with Cucumber mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus. ZYMV was successfully mechanically transmitted from naturally infected watermelon plants to Cucurbita pepo 'Ezra F1'. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR and amplification of part of the gene for nuclear inclusions, gene of coat protein and part of 3' non-coding region, which confirmed the identification of the ZYMV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed grouping of the isolate originating from watermelon with other isolates from Serbia and Central Europe within A-I subgroup. Analysis of amino acid sequences of the N terminal end of the CP gene revealed that isolate 550-11 belongs to the Central European branch.

  5. Food safety in Thailand 1: it is safe to eat watermelon and durian in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-05-01

    The wide use of pesticides raises serious concerns regarding food safety and environmental impacts. There is increasing public concern about the potential health risks linked with exposure to pesticides. Regulation of maximum residue limits (MRL) of pesticide residues in food commodities has been established in many developed countries. For developing countries, like Thailand, this regulation often exists in law, but is not completely enforced in practice. Thus, pesticide residue levels in vegetables and fruits have not been thoroughly monitored. The present study aimed to examine potential health risks associated with pesticide exposure by determining the pesticide residues in two commonly consumed fruits, watermelon and durian. The fruit samples were purchased from markets in central provinces of Thailand and assayed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis of pesticides was performed by multiresidue extraction and followed by GC-MS/MS detection. Of 28 pesticides investigated, 5 were detected in 90.7% of the watermelon samples (n = 75) and 3 in 90% of durian samples (n = 30). Carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate and metalaxyl were found in watermelons, whereas dichlorvos, dimethoate and metalaxyl were detected in durians. However, their levels were much lower than the recommended MRL values. These pesticide levels detected in the fruits are unlikely to harm the consumers; therefore it is safe to eat watermelon and durian in Thailand. While our results found negligible risk associated with pesticide exposure from consuming these common tropical fruits, special precautions should be considered to decrease total exposure to these harmful pesticides from various foods.

  6. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  7. Evaluation of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN/PB induced hepatotoxicity

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    J Rajangam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:The present work was aimed to study the biochemical effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits (MECC against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatic damage in male rats.Rats received with DEN/PB showed the elevated levels of cholesterol (p<0.05, triglycerides (TG, p<0.01, free fatty acids (FFA, p<0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL, p<0.01, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, p<0.05 and decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL, urea and creatinine. Administration of MECC 200,400 mg/kg.p.o to rats orally for 28 days significantly reduced the biochemical alterations induced by DEN/PB. Moreover results from invitro antioxidant studies revealed that, maximum percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals by MECC was about 62% at 800 µg/mL. In the nitric oxide radical scavenging model, the maximum percentage inhibition by MECC is about 56% at 800µg/mL and in reducing power method, MECC demonstrated dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with Ascorbic acid. Thus, results from our preliminary studies clearly indicates that Citrullus colocynthis might be beneficial in attenuating the elevated biochemical parameters during DEN/PB induced hepatic damage and the results suggested the ability of the extract to combat oxidative stress by quenching free radicals which reveals that, the attenuation due to its anti-oxidant property. Industrial relevance: Citrullus Colocynthis fruits are traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. But the experimental background has not been sufficient. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of terpinoids,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,phytosterols,tannins and phenolics along with cucurbitacins, caffeic acid derivatives.In view of the above fact, the present study was designed to study the biochemical effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN

  8. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  9. Robotics in Protected Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.; Bac, C.W.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews robotics for protected cultivation systems. Based on a short description of the greenhouse crop production process, the current state in greenhouse mechanization and the challenges for robotics in protected cultivation are identified. Examples of current greenhouse robotics

  10. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  11. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Frequency and Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Mosaic Virus from Serbia

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    Ana Vučurović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is widespread in cucurbit crops, most commonly occuring in temperate and Mediterranean regions. In Serbia WMV has been detected in single and mixed infections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in field-grown pumpkin and squash crops. Among pumpkin-affecting viruses WMV is the most frequent one, both by the number of localities and its incidence at each location. During the growing season of 2009, samples from 583 plants of Cucurbita pepo cvs. Olinka, Belgrade zucchini and Tosca (Zucchini group, as well as from C. maxima and C. moschata showing symptoms of virus infection were collected from 12 commercial fields at eight localities and analyzed by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific to six most important cucurbit viruses. Interestingly, WMV was detected at fewer sites and had lower ncidence rate than in two previous years. In single infections, WMV was found in 11% of tested plants in three fields; in mixed infections with ZYMV, it was recorded in 9.9% of plants in five fields and with CMV in only 0.2% in one field. The partial coat protein gene and 3’ non-translated region from two representativeisolates of WMV originating from different localities and host plant species were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The PCR-amplified fragment of predicted size of approximately 1017 bp was obtained. The sequences of isolates 137-08 (Acc. No. GQ259958 and 159-08 (GU144020 proved to be 94-99% identical at the nucleotide level with those from other parts of the world. The sequences of these two isolates differed from each other only at two nucleotide positions, without any amino acid substitution. Phylogenetic analysis of 57 isolates based on 750 bp sequences of the coat protein gene showed no correlation between isolates and their geographic origin, and italso indicated that these isolates fell into three molecular groups of

  13. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

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    T Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2 cell line. Methods The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2, while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1. This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment.

  14. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually.

  15. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  16. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

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    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  17. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

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    José E. S. B. da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet, irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67 and 100%, and four replicates of 108 seedlings. Watermelon seeds were sown in plastic trays filled with commercial substrate and irrigated with different solutions of biosaline water. Seedlings were harvested for biometric analysis at 14, 21 and 28 days after sowing. The use of biosaline water did not affect emergence and establishment of seedlings until 14 days after sowing, the period recommended for transplantation. However, the use of biosaline water affected the development of seedlings with longer exposure time.

  18. Morphological feature's variability of the watermelon's collectional samples in the film hothouses

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    З. Д. Сич

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It was revealed perspective for further selective work and fast-ripening watermelon's varieties such as "Severnoye siyaniye", "Krimson svit", "Gyuj Bao", "Chernogorets", "Kitaiskaya skorospelka", "Borisfen",  "Kahovsky", Linii No 139", "Kitaj No132-4-1" among the watermelon's sample’s collection under conditions of film hothouses. The watermelon’s plants in the film hothouses are more affected by fusarial fading among the diseases. There were revealed the samples such as "Golopristanskij", "Legin", "Foton", "Fabiola", "Kitaj No132-4-1", "Panoniya No 12-Г', which are relatively resistible to that disease. There were selected the fast - ripening and resistible to diseases new heterodyne hybrids F1 51x62 and F1 53x69 of the Dnepropetrovsk Experimental Research Center EOB under the film hothouse’s conditions.

  19. Investigation on Morphological and Physiological diversityof Iranian Watermelon (CitrulluslanatusThunb. Accessions

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    ahmad hajiali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Watermelon (CitrulluslanatusThunbbelongs to Cucurbita genus and Cucurbitaceaefamily. Some people know Watermelon native to India and othersthought of it as native to African countries. The greatest diversity can be seen in West Africa, China and parts of India. Near East and Mediterranean countries are also good places to find relatives and ancestors of watermelon. Like all Cucurbita genuscrops,, Watermelon has a variety of flowers including base, male and female separately located on one slip. In terms of production atglobal level, China is located in the first place followed by America, Iran and the Republic of Korea, respectively. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate genetic diversity among Iranian watermelon landraces by morphological traits, 16 landraces alongwith two commercial watermelon cultivars were planted in completely randomized block design with three replications inAgricultural Research Center of Urmia in 2013. Morphological markers can be an effective means to determine genetic relationsamong cultivars and among selections used in watermelon breeding programs. 18 traits including cotyledon length, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit mass, fruit skin, rind thickness, flesh thickness, yield, seed length, seed width, weight of 100 seeds, vitamin C, pH, TSS, EC, chlorophyll content and plant length were assessed in the studied genotypes. During the fruit ripening,four fruits were selected randomly from each plot and according to the International Institute germplasms (IBPGR / IBGRI,solidscontent (TSSwas measured by using refractometer, pH by using pH meter, and fruit and seed weight by using digital scale. The amount of vitamin C (milligram per 100 grams was measured using iodometry. Results and Discussion: Results of variance analysis showed that there were significant differencesamong watermelon cultivars in terms of cotyledon length, fruit length, fruit weight, flesh weight, yield, seed length, seed width, seed

  20. Multifocal Gastric Neoplasia after Recurrent Laser Therapy for the Watermelon Stomach

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    Charles N Bernstein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated laser therapy has become an accepted therapeutic approach in the treatment of watermelon stomach, and to date no important negative sequelae have been reported. The case of a patient who underwent repeated sessions of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser therapy over a five-year period for the treatment of the watermelon stomach is presented. Postlaser therapy the patient developed deep ulcerations that would heal; however, he ultimately developed a nodular antrum. Random biopsies of antral nodules revealed carcinoma-in-situ. A Billroth I gastrectomy revealed two foci of carcinoma-in-situ/high grade dysplasia and multiple foci of lower grades of dysplasia. This case suggests a possible association between use of laser therapy and development of gastric neoplasia.

  1. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html.

  2. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html. PMID:28066557

  3. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila; Benariba; Rabeh; Djaziri; Wafaa; Bellakhdar; Nacera; Belkacem; Marcel; Kadiata; Willy; J.Malaisse; Abdullah; Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis(C.colocynthis)seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging.Methods:Phytochemical screening,total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C.colocynthis seeds extracts,including a crude aqueous extract(E1),a defatted aqueous extract(E2),a hydromethanolic extract(HM),an ethyl acetate extract(EA)and a n-butanol extract(n-B)was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.Results:None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid,quinone,antraquinone,or reducing sugar.Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1,MM and EA,whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM.Coumarins were found in E2,EA and n-B.Polyphenols,expressed as gallic acid equivalent,amounted,per 100 g plant matter,to 329,1002 and 150 mg in EA,HM an E1 respectively.Flavonoids,expressed as catechin equivalent,amounted.per 100 g plant matter to 620,241 and 94 mg in EA,HM and E1 respectively.Comparable values were found in n-B and E1,with lower values in E2.Quercetin,myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography,The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded,when tested at a concentration of 2000μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay,a reducing percentage of 88.8%with EA,74.5%with HM and 66.2%with E1,and corresponding IC50of 350,580and 500μg/mL as compared to 1.1μg/mL for ascorbic acid.Conclusions:These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C.colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity,as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  4. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila Benariba; Rabeh Djaziri; Wafaa Bellakhdar; Nacera Belkacem; Marcel Kadiata; Willy J Malaisse; Abdullah Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids ofC. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  5. The effect of watermelon frost on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in inflamed pulp tissue (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulp inflammation can be marked by the increase of prostaglandin E2(PGE2 level compared to normal pulp. The increase of PGE2 may lead to vasodilatation, increase of vascular permeability, pain and bone resorption. Watermelon frost has been well known in Chinese society for pain relief and inflammation in oral cavity and teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level. Method: 27 samples of pulp tissues used in this in-vitro study, were extirpated from the patients’ teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis referred to clinic of Conservative Dentistry, RSPGM Faculty of Dentistry, USU. Trial materials were applied to 27 samples i.e. watermelon frost as a trial material and commercial watermelon frost and eugenol to observe their effect on PGE2. PGE2 level of each material was detected through ELISA method by measuring and comparing the absorbance reading of the wells of the samples against standards with a micro plate reader at W1 = 650 nm and W2 = 490 nm. Result: The result showed the biggest effect was found in the third group (eugenol, mean 4.6933, followed by the first group (watermelon frost as a trial material, mean 18,1578 then the second group (commercial watermelon frost, mean 82,2689. OneWay ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among all trial materials (p < 0.001 on PGE2 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level in inflamed pulp tissue and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and natural products as an alternative form of dental care.

  6. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  7. Feasible sampling plan for Bemisia tabaci control decision-making in watermelon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Ho; Sarmento, Renato A; Pereira, Poliana S; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Santos, Fábio A; Silva, Joedna; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-05-23

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6(th) most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique. Crop pest densities fitted the negative binomial distribution and had a common aggregation parameter (Kcommon ). The sampling plan consisted of evaluating 103 samples per plot. This sampling plan was conducted for 56 min, costing US$ 2.22 per sampling and with a 10% maximum evaluation error. The sampling plan determined in this study can be adopted by farmers because it enables the adequate evaluation of B. tabaci populations in watermelon fields (10% maximum evaluation error) and is a low-cost (US$ 2.22 per sampling), fast (56 min per sampling) and feasible (because it may be used in a standardized way throughout the crop cycle) technique. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weining [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States); Tarafdar, Jagadish C. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute (India); Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d{sub p} < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  9. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  10. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of polygalacturonase genes in Cucumis sativus and Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Wu, Jian; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG, EC3.2.1.15), one of the hydrolytic enzymes associated with the modification of pectin network in plant cell wall, has an important role in various cell-separation processes that are essential for plant development. PGs are encoded by a large gene family in plants. However, information on this gene family in plant development remains limited. In the present study, 53 and 62 putative members of the PG gene family in cucumber and watermelon genomes, respectively, were identified by genome-wide search to explore the composition, structure, and evolution of the PG family in Cucurbitaceae crops. The results showed that tandem duplication could be an important factor that contributes to the expansion of the PG genes in the two crops. The phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggested that PGs could be classified into seven clades, and that the exon/intron structures and intron phases were conserved within but divergent between clades. At least 24 ancestral PGs were detected in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and Cucumis sativus. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most CsPGs exhibit specific or high expression pattern in one of the organs/tissues. The 16 CsPGs associated with fruit development could be divided into three subsets based on their specific expression patterns and the cis-elements of fruit-specific, endosperm/seed-specific, and ethylene-responsive exhibited in their promoter regions. Our comparative analysis provided some basic information on the PG gene family, which would be valuable for further functional analysis of the PG genes during plant development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy-use pattern and carbon footprint of rain-fed watermelon production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Mohammadi-Barsari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy-use patterns and carbon footprint is useful in achieving sustainable development in agriculture. Energy-use indices and carbon footprint for rain-fed watermelon production were studied in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Data were collected from 58 farmers using a self-structured questionnaire during the growing season of 2013. The Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the effects of energy input on rain-fed watermelon yield. The findings demonstrated that chemical fertilizers consumed the highest percentage of total energy input (75.2%, followed by diesel fuel (12.9%. The total energy input was 16594.74 MJ ha−1 and total energy output was 36275.24 MJ ha−1. The results showed that the energy-use ratio was 2.19, energy productivity was 1.15 kg MJ−1, energy intensity was 0.87 MJ kg−1, and net energy gain was 19680.60 MJ ha−1. Direct and indirect energy for watermelon production were calculated as 2374.4 MJ ha−1 (14.3% and 14220.3 MJ ha−1 (85.7%, respectively. The share of renewable energy was 1.4%. This highlights the need to reduce the share of non-renewable energy and improve the sustainability of rain-fed watermelon production in Northern Iran. The study of carbon footprint showed that the chemical fertilizer caused the highest percentage of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG followed by machinery with 52.6% and 23.8% of total GHG emissions, respectively. The results of the Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing one MJ of energy input of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, biocides, and seed changed the yield by 1.03, 0.96, 0.19, −0.97, 0.16, and 0.22 kg, respectively, in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Providing some of the nitrogen required for crop growth through biological alternatives, renewing old power tillers, and using conservation tillage machinery may enhance energy efficiency and mitigate

  13. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (Pbacterial survival in seed. This observation was confirmed when P. stewartii subsp. stewartii survived significantly longer in stigma-inoculated (embryo/endosperm-localized) watermelon seeds than in

  14. Produtividade da cultura da melancia em função de fontes e doses de potássio Yield of watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em propriedades rurais próximas à cidade de Borborema - SP, nos períodos de outubro a dezembro de 2001 e de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de melancia (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Tide, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto KCl, nitrato (KNO3 e sulfato de potássio (K2SO4 e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg de K2O ha-1. Foram avaliados o peso médio de fruto, o número de frutos e produção por planta e produtividade. O maior número de frutos por planta estimado foi obtido nas doses de 190 e 300 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, nas fontes KNO3 e KCl. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses para K2SO4. Para o peso médio de fruto, houve diferença significativa entre as fontes apenas no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002, quando o KCl proporcionou maior peso. A maior produção por planta foi obtida com K2SO4, seguido por KNO3 e KCl. Entretanto, as doses de potássio para as máximas produtividades foram de 132, 193 e 205 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, para as fontes K2SO4, KNO3 e KCl. O plantio de outubro a dezembro de 2001 proporcionou maior peso médio, produção de frutos por planta e produtividade, ao passo que o maior número de frutos por planta foi obtido no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002.Two field experiments were conducted in Borborema, State of São Paulo, from periods of October to December of the 2001 and February to April of 2002, with the objective of evaluate the yield of watermelon (Tide hybrid (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai in function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and

  15. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  16. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon, a traditional fermented food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI-SHENG CHEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Young watermelon fruit was peeled and pickled for fermentation to produce a unique fermented food named xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon in Taiwan. In this study, we investigated the LAB microflora in xi-gua-mian. A total of 176 LAB isolates were identified; 118 cultures were isolated from the xi-gua-mian sample collected from three different farmers markets and 58 from six young watermelon fruit samples. These isolates were characterized phenotypically and then divided into seven groups (A to G by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA and other genotypic analysis. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in xi-gua-mian samples collected in southern Taiwan, Tainan City and Pediococcuspentosaceus was the most abundant LAB in northern Taiwan, Taoyuan County. We found that LAB stains are similar in samples collected in the same geographic region but significant variationswere observed between samples collected among different regions. On the other hand, a greater LAB diversity was observed in the young watermelon fruit samples. In addition, 10 Lactococcuslactis subsp. lactis showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain L. sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T. This is the first report describing the distribution and varieties of LAB existing in the xi-gua-mian and the young watermelon fruits.

  17. 功能性西瓜醋酸饮料工艺研究%Study on Technology of Functional Watermelon Vinegary Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 翟金兰; 杨文侠; 颜海燕; 王利

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,using watermelon as a major material,watermelon vinegar was produced by way of alcoholic ferment and acetic acid ferment.The technology of functional watermelon drink by acetic acid ferment was introduced,that is mix watermelon juice,strawberry juice,sugar,etc.with watermelon vinegar.This drink is of great nutritive function.%介绍以西瓜为主要原料,经酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制成西瓜醋后,再与西瓜汁、蜂蜜、草莓汁、白糖等调配而成的功能性西瓜发酵醋酸饮料的工艺。

  18. 微培养条件下西瓜种子的萌发试验%Influence of Microcuiture on the Germination of Citrullus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 杨冬业; 靳振江

    2011-01-01

    为获得无菌西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)实生苗材料,对西瓜种子进行无菌微培养试验.结果表明,导去种皮的西瓜种子用无菌水浸泡30 min,以MS为基本培养基,在25~30℃的条件下暗培养3d,种子发芽率达100%.%The seeds of Citrullus vulgaris were germinated by microculture to obtain aseptic seedlings. The peeling seeds were decontaminated in steril water for 30 min and inoculated in MS base medium, and the coulture was performed in dark at 25~30 ℃ for 3d, 100% germination rate was achieved by the method.

  19. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Samar eRamzi

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are the heterogeneous proteins in plants that serve as storage proteins via defensive mechanisms against herbivores. In the current study, a lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae finding out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macrom...

  20. Mutation in the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4) led to andromonoecy in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gaojie; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Shi, Jianting; Tian, Shouwei; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Shen, Huolin; Gao, Junping; Xu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been reported previously that ethylene plays a critical role in sex determination in cucurbit species, how the andromonoecy that carries both the male and hermaphroditic flowers is determined in watermelon is still unknown. Here we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. Among four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and one InDel identified in the coding region of CitACS4, the C364W mutation located in the conserved box 6 was co-segregated with andromonoecy. Enzymatic analyses showed that the C364W mutation caused a reduced activity in CitACS4. We believe that the reduced CitACS4 activity may hamper the programmed cell death in stamen primordia, leading to the formation of hermaphroditic flowers. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidative stress in testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Fereshteh; Gol, Ali; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases in humans, affecting 100 million people around the world. Objective: Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidant and antioxidant factors of testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8) 1) N (normal) group, 2) N+C group, 3) D (diabetic) group and 4) D+C group. Groups N and D received normal saline 2 ml orally for two weeks and groups N+C and D+C received 10 mg/kg.bw Citrullus colocynthis pulp orally for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg. Results: D group had a significant increase in H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) concentrations, and CAT (catalase) activity, and also a significant decrease in Peroxidase (POD) activity compared to N group. D+C group had a significant decrease in H2O2 and MDA concentrations and, CAT activity and significant increase in POD activity compared to D group. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp in two weeks had beneficial effects on oxidants and antioxidants changes in reproductive system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:28280799

  2. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding.

  3. Temperatura base para emissão de nós e plastocrono de plantas de melancia Base temperature for node appearance and plastochron of watermelon plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionéia Daiane Pitol Lucas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da temperatura do ar sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas pode ser representado usando-se o método da soma térmica. Para o cálculo da soma térmica é necessário conhecer-se a temperatura base, abaixo da qual o desenvolvimento não acontece ou acontece a uma taxa desprezível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a temperatura base para emissão de nós, bem como comparar as datas de cultivo para a variável plastocrono para a cultura da melancia. Três experimentos em campo foram conduzidos em Santa Maria, RS, com oito datas de semeadura durante os anos agrícolas 2006-2007 (05/09/2006 e 21/09/2006, 2008/2009 (20/09/2008, 06/10/2008 e 20/10/2008 e 2009/2010 (20/09/2009, 21/10/2009 e 30 /11/2009. Usou-se o cultivar "Crimson Sweet" aleatorizado em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições por época. O número de nós acumulados na haste principal (NN da melancieira foi observado em três plantas por parcela, três vezes por semana. O plastocrono foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão entre NN e soma térmica acumulada. A temperatura base estimada usando a metodologia do menor valor de Quadrado Médio do Erro (QME foi de 7,0 °C. O plastocrono em melancieira não diferiu entre as datas de plantio nos três anos agrícolas, sendo em média 23,4 ºC dia nó-1. A implicação para a modelagem é que um único valor de plastocrono pode ser usado para estimar a emissão de nós da cultivar "Crimson Sweet", independente da data de semeadura.The air temperature effect on plant development can be represented using the thermal time approach. In order to calculate the thermal time, the base temperature, below when development stops or takes place at very low rates, is needed. This work was carried out to estimate the base temperature for node appearance and compared dates for cultivation for variable plastochron in watermelon crop. Three field experiments were conducted in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, with eight sowing dates

  4. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  5. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra JK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea Abstract: Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones. ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%, nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%, ABTS scavenging (29.42%, and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16% could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a

  6. Using Probabilistic-Risky Programming Models in Identifying Optimized Pattern of Cultivation under Risk Conditions (Case Study: Shoshtar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kelashemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Telser and Kataoka models of probabilistic-riskymathematical programming, the present research is to determine the optimized pattern of cultivating the agricultural products of Shoshtar region under risky conditions. In order to consider the risk in the mentioned models, time period of agricultural years 1996-1997 till 2004-2005 was taken into account. Results from Telser and Kataoka models showed that due to accepting the risk amounts, most of the optimized amounts suggest the tomato cultivation during the cultivation period of fall, and watermelon cultivation during the cultivation period of spring. On the basis of results, due to allocation of agricultural lands of Shoshtar to tomato and watermeloncultivation and specializing the farming activity in this province,gross profit of agricultural production system can be increasedto 6116047000 and 727782272 thousand Rials, respectively.The results of understudy models were investigated under different income scenarios and probabilistic levels of risk acceptance. Correct policy making in order to offer the suitable equipments for adjusting the effects of lack of certainty and risks due to the climatic unwanted conditions in production process of agricultural products of Shoshtar region improve the life situation of farmers of the mentioned region.

  7. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  8. Effect of processing parameters on fouling resistances during microfiltration of red plum and watermelon juices: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Alemi, Azam; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the total (R t ), reversible (R rev ), irreversible (R irr ), and cake (R c ) resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice (as a juice with colloid particles) and red plum juice (as a juice without colloid particles). Results showed that the total resistance decreased by about 45% when the feed velocity was increased during clarification of red plum juice due to change in cake resistance. Also, increasing the feed temperature from 20 to 30°C decreased the total fouling resistance by about 9% due to decreases in the irreversible and reversible fouling resistances. Also, mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane (which is hydrophilic) had a lower cake resistance compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (which is hydrophobic). Examination of the microfiltration of watermelon juice showed that R t decreased by about 54% when the feed temperature was increased from 20 to 50°C, partially due to the reduction of reversible fouling resistance by 78%. Also, increasing transmembrane pressures from 0.5 to 2.5 bars greatly increased total fouling resistance. The feed velocity had a different effect on fouling resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice compared to red plum juice: in contrast with red plum juice, increasing the feed velocity for watermelon juice increased cake resistance.

  9. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across Southeastern United States (NC, SC, and GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici has been documented as a pathogen on a wide variety of vegetable crops in the family Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and plants belonging to 23 other families. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelons caused by P. capsici is particularly severe in southeastern U.S where optima...

  10. The concentration of trans-lycopene in postharvest watermelon: An evaluation of analytical data obtained by direct methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrovski, D.; Bicanic, D.D.; Luterotti, S.; Twisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the newly proposed laser-based optothermal window (OW) method and colorimetry for quantification of trans -lycopene in 10 watermelon homogenates has been evaluated. Reverse phase HPLC served as an established reference method. Both, OW and colorimetry are direct methods as they, c

  11. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogy...

  12. Effects of watermelon supplementation on aortic blood pressure and wave reflection in individuals with prehypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-01-01

    Oral L-citrulline is efficiently converted to L-arginine, the precursor for endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Oral L-arginine supplementation reduces brachial blood pressure (BP). We evaluated the effects of watermelon supplementation on aortic BP and arterial function in individuals with prehypertension. Heart rate (HR), brachial systolic BP (bSBP), brachial pulse pressure (bPP), aortic SBP (aSBP), aortic PP (aPP), augmentation index (AIx), AIx adjusted for HR of 75 beats/min (AIx@75), amplitude of the first (P1) and second (P2) systolic peaks, reflection time (Tr), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were evaluated in the supine position in nine subjects (four men/five women, age 54 ± 3 years) with prehypertension (134/77 ± 5/3 mm Hg). Subjects were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of watermelon supplementation (L-citrulline/L arginine, 2.7 g/1.3 g/day) or placebo followed by a 4-week washout period and then crossover. There was a significant treatment effect (change in the value of watermelon minus placebo from baseline to 6 weeks) on bPP (-8 ± 3 mm Hg, P 0.05) on bSBP, brachial diastolic BP (DBP), aortic DBP, Tr, P1, HR, and carotid-femoral PWV. This pilot study shows that watermelon supplementation improves aortic hemodynamics through a decrease in the amplitude of the reflected wave in individuals with prehypertension.

  13. Development of Watermelon Peel Fruit Wine%西瓜皮果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 王林山

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon peel and sugar were used as main raw materials to produce watermelon peel fruit wine by yeast fermentation. The suitable technical parameters were determined by single factor experiments as follows: 18 %-22 % sugar content, 6 h alcoholic fermentation time, 3% yeast use level and pH value between 3.0-5.0. The optimum technical parameters were summed up as follows by orthogonal experiments: sugar content was 22 %, the use level of yeast was 3 % and pH value was 4.%以西瓜皮和白砂糖为主要原料,经酵母茵发酵后制成西瓜皮果酒。通过单因素实验确定了酒精发酵过程中较适宜的糖度为18%~22%,最佳酒精发酵时间为6h,酵母用量为3%,pH值为3.0-5.0。正交实验确定酒精发酵的最佳工艺组合为:糖度为22%,酵母茵用量为3%,pH值为4。

  14. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  15. Sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutant agents 60Co and EMS

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    Nikolay Velkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutagenic agents was carried out in 2013-2014. The goal was to establish effective doses for mutagenic treatment of dry seeds with 60Co gamma rays (80, 100, 200, 250, 350 and 450 Gy and swollen seeds with water for 24 hours were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS at a concentration of 2%. Dominant mutations were not observed in the M1 generation. Morphological changes in 14 of 1395 M2 plants were observed. Phenotypic variations changes were the colour of the seed coat, chlorophyll disorders of cotyledons, leaves, petals, and alterations of the location of the fruit set in the central stem. Visible changes of the morphological characteristics of the fruit were not observed. The doses induced certain morphological changes, however, higher doses or combined gamma rays 60Co and EMS treatments would induce mutations more efficiently. Subsequent experiments are required to obtain mutants with changes that affect flowers and fruits. The results are important for increasing mutation efficiency in watermelon breeding.

  16. Coupling of the chemical niche and microbiome in the rhizosphere: implications from watermelon grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SONG,Chen ZHU,Waseem RAZA,Dongsheng WANG,Qiwei HUANG,Shiwei GUO,Ning LING,Qirong SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is commonly used to overcome soil-borne diseases. However, its effects on the rhizodeposits as well as the linkages between the rhizosphere chemical niche and microbiome remained unknown. In this paper, significant negative correlations between the bacterial alpha diversity and both the disease incidence (r = -0.832, P = 0.005 and pathogen population (r = - 0.786, P = 0.012 were detected. Moreover, our results showed that the chemical diversity not only predicts bacterial alpha diversity but also can impact on overall microbial community structure (beta diversity in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, some anti-fungal compounds including heptadecane and hexadecane were identified in the rhizosphere of grafted watermelon. We concluded that grafted watermelon can form a distinct rhizosphere chemical niche and thus recruit microbial communities with high diversity. Furthermore, the diverse bacteria and the antifungal compounds in the rhizosphere can potentially serve as biological and chemical barriers, respectively, to hinder pathogen invasion. These results not only lead us toward broadening the view of disease resistance mechanism of grafting, but also provide clues to control the microbial composition by manipulating the rhizosphere chemical niche.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  18. A Novel Agricultural Waste Adsorbent, Watermelon Shell for the Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the application of Watermelon Shell, an agricultural waste, for the adsorptive removal of Cu(II from its aqueous solutions. This paper incorporates the effects of time, dose,temperature, concentration, particle size, agitation speed and pH. Analytical techniques have been employed to find pore properties and characteristics of adsorbent materials. Batch kinetic and isotherm studies have also been performed to understand the ability of the adsorbents. The adsorption behavior of the Cu(II has beenstudied using Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. The monolayer adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir adsorption equation has been found as 111.1 mg/g. Kineticmeasurements suggest the involvement of pseudo-second-order kinetics in adsorptions and is controlled by a particle diffusion process. Adsorption of Cu(II on adsorbents was found to increase on decreasing initial concentration, increasing pH up to 8, increasing temperature, increasing agitation speed and decreasing particlesize. Overall, the present findings suggest that watermelon outer shell is environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent which is useful for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous media.

  19. Production and quality of mini watermelon cv. Smile irrigated with saline water

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    Alan B. O. de Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salt tolerance of mini watermelon (cv. Smile. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the Department of Biosystems Engineering of ESALQ/USP. The experimental design was randomized blocks. The plants were irrigated with five levels of salinity (S1 = 1.0; S2 = 2.0; S3 = 3.0; S4 = 4.0 and S5 = 5.0 dS m-1. At 85 days after the beginning of the experiment, the plants and the physical and chemical variables of the fruit were evaluated. Salinity negatively affected the variables: length of the main stem, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of branches, leaf area, fresh and dry matter. Regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits, salinity reduced the mass, diameter and the pH of the fruit, but increased its vitamin C content. In general, the results suggest that the mini watermelon (cv. Smile is moderately sensitive to salinity.

  20. 西瓜交替氧化酶AOX2基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) gene in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李严曼; 朱磊; 杨景华; 张明方

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the possible functions of the alternative oxidase gene family in watermelon plants,high-quality RNA was extracted from cold-tolerant watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) germplasm IVSM No.9 and then cDNA was obtained through reverse transcription kit.A cDNA fragment of alternative oxidase was amplified using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the conserved domain of alternative oxidase genes in other plants.According to the cDNA fragment sequence,the 5' and 3' end fragment sequences were obtained using RACE technology respectively.The full length cDNA of ClAOX2 was obtained by DNAMAN5.22 from the above three sequences.The cDNA fragment exhibited high homology to the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) of other species and could be referred to as ClAOX2.Then the full lengths of cDNA and DNA were obtained by PCR according to the known cDNA sequence.The full-length cDNA of ClAOX2 was 1 263 bp in size with a 1050 bp open reading frame(ORF).The full-length DNA was 1 983 bp which has consisted of four exons interrupted by three introns.The accession number of ClAOX2 in GenBank database is ADD84880.Real-time PCR showed that the ClAOX2 gene expressed in root,stem,leaf,flower,and fruit of watermelon seedling and significantly higher in the fruit.These results demonstrated that ClAOX2 may play a role during fruit development.%为了研究西瓜交替氧化酶基因家族在西瓜植株中可能发挥的功能,以西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)耐冷种质IVSM9为材料,根据植物不同物种交替氧化酶基因核苷酸保守区序列设计兼并引物,得到西瓜交替氧化酶(alterna-tive oxidase)AOX基因的中间片段。在已知序列的基础上,分别设计5’和3’末端扩增的特异引物,采用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)的方法得到西瓜交替氧化酶基因的5’端和3’端序列,用DNAMAN5.22软件对3个序列进行拼接和分析,获得全长序列。得到的基因片段同其

  1. Avaliação de caracteres morfológicos úteis na identificação de plantas poliplóides de melancia Evaluation of morphological characters useful in the identification of poliploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de F. Souza

    2004-09-01

    watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated in three diploids, three tetraploids and three triploids hybrids, in relation to the number of chloroplasts per leaf stomata (NCF; width and length of the leaves (LFH e CFH; leaf width/length ratio (LF/CF; stem diameter (DCE; petal diameter in male and female flowers (DCM and DCF; ovary diameter (DOV; fruit weight (PMF; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF; fruit diameter axial/diameter transversal ratio (DL/DT and rind thickness (EMC. A randomized block design was employed with three replications and five plants per plot. A nested analysis was performed and the ploidy level was considered the main factor. The genotypes were clustered at a dendrogram based on generalized Mahalanobis distance and also plotted on Cartesian plain using scores of the first and second canonic variables. Relative contribution of the variables to clustering was estimated by the Singh Method and the matrix of correlation was obtained using the Principal Component Analysis. The NCF presented higher relative importance (41% to set divergence clusters, while DCF, DCM, DOV and DT/DL when analyzed together showed themselves efficient to discriminate diploids, triploids and tetraploid plants. So, they are recommended to aid watermelon breeding programs to obtain polyploid plants.

  2. Interferência de plantas daninhas no cultivo da melancia Weeds interference periods in watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de G Maciel

    2008-03-01

    crop is an agricultural activity explored regionally, representing one of the most important sources of family income in small cities of the Médio Paranapanema, São Paulo State, Brazil, where nowadays, significant changes in the yield process are verified, changing from intensive labor to the use of promising technologies, as weed management, for instance. An experiment was carried out at Oscar Bressane municipal district, São Paulo State, Brazil, to study the weed interference on watermelon cultivation, in 2002/2003. Statistical procedure was based on randomized blocks with ten treatments and four replications, represented by plots with useful area of 18 m², containing four water melon plants and infestation of Sidaspp, Brachiaria humidicola, Commelina benghalensisand Portulaca oleraceaspecies. Weed infestation was estimated through randomized samples from the plots, using an iron drained square with 0,5 m sides. Treatments consisted of checks with and without hand weeded and different periods of weeds control, so that, crop was sustained in weeds presence or absence up to 7; 14; 28; 56 and 63 days after emergency (DAE. Initial period occurrence of possible coexistence greater than the final period established the Critical Period of Interference Prevention from the 9th to the 13th days (CPIP = 9-13 DAE. The reduction in yield due to the weed interference during all water melon crop cycle was about 41,4%. The diameter and thickness of fruits peel were also influenced by the coexistence with weed infestation during all the crop cycle, with decreases of 7,9% and 23,3%, respectively, against the characteristics length and diameter of branch and ºBrix of fruits pulp, when significant differences were not observed.

  3. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  4. Identification of Watermelon silver mottle virus infecting watermelon in Yunnan%云南西瓜银灰斑驳病毒病害的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹跃艳; 卢训; 李婷婷; 李红祥; 郭淼; 赵丽玲; 张晓云; 丁铭

    2016-01-01

    应用DAS-ELISA和RT-PCR方法从褪绿和银色斑驳的西瓜叶片中检测到病毒分离物(WSMoV-YN),感病样品能与WSMoV/GBNV复合抗血清(Agdia)呈阳性反应.获得WSMoV N蛋白的多克隆抗体,抗体能与WSMoV血清组成员CaCV和TZSV反应,但不能与INSV、TSWV、HCRV和GYSV反应.为明确引起该病害的病毒种类,采用Tospovirus通用引物对样品的总RNA进行RT-PCR扩增,获得长度为3 554 nt的S RNA全序列,经Blastn比对分析与WSMoV中国台湾分离物同源性最高,为95.8%,其N和NSs蛋白氨基酸序列同源性分别为99%和97.6%.构建系统进化树发现,西瓜银灰斑驳病毒云南分离物(WSMoV-YN)与其他WSMoV聚为一支.确定引起云南西瓜病害的病毒为WSMoV.%Using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR,a viral isolate (WSMoV-YN) was detected in watermelon showing chlorotic and silver mottle.Diseased samples were positive for antibodies to Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (Agdia,USA).The polyclonal antiserum of N protein were obtained and could react with Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV),the members of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup,but not react with Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV),Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV),Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) and Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV).To further confirm the presence of WSMoV,the samples were examined by RTPCR using tospovirus universal primer pairs.Full-length sequence of WSMoV-YN S RNA with a length of 3 554 nt was obtained and sequence alignment indicated that WSMoV-YN shares 95.8% identity with WSMoV isolates from Taiwan,China (NC_003843) at the nucleotide level.The nucleocapsid protein (N) and non-structual (NSs) shared 99% and 97.6% amion acid identity with the Taiwan (China) isolates,respectively.Taken together,our results suggested that the WSMoV-YN formed a distinct cluster with the other WSMoV isolates.

  5. Phytochemical and in vitro total antioxidant capacity analyses of peel extracts of different cultivars of Cucumis melo and Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Shahzad, Muhammad Tahir; Nadeem, Iram; Ashraf, Chaudhry Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) and Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Cucurbitaceae) are desert vegetables popular for their nutritional value and year round availability. The pulp and seeds of these plants are used for dietary purposes or as medications for certain ailments in the folk medicinal system. Peels of the fruit are either wasted or used as feed of grazing animals. A detailed investigation regarding the chemical constituents and antioxidative analyses of the peel extract of fully ripened fruits from different cultivars of the two vegetables was carried out here for the first time. Chemical constituents of the peel extracts of C. melo and C. lanatus cultivars in methanol, 1-butanol, chloroform and n-hexane were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antioxidative properties were evaluated using standard in vitro antioxidative assays. The results demonstrated large variation in the chemical constituents of the extracts including alkanes, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and their esters, cyclic ketones, aldehydes, phenolic compounds and anthocyanin derivatives. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.96-0.85 mg/L gallic acid equivalents for different extracts. Employing GC-MS analyses and standard in vitro antioxidative assays, the data presented here clearly demonstrate the potency of C. melo and C. lanatus extracts as antioxidant and radical scavenger plants which may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants. The peels of both the plants can be added to the diet at various stages to compensate food shortage and dietary deficiency problems of living beings.

  6. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  7. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils.

  8. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  9. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  10. Breeding of A New Edible Seed Watermelon Hybrid——Linzi No.1%籽瓜杂交种林籽1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾; 林淑敏; 刘彤; 王诚忠; 丁禹琪; 陶东

    2011-01-01

    林籽1号是以92707为母本、88708为父本育成的早熟、优质、高产籽瓜杂交种.植株生长健壮,抗病抗逆性强,适应性广,易坐果.全生育期95~103d.果实圆形,果皮浅绿色覆深绿核桃纹;单瓜产籽250~480粒,种子纵、横径1.75 cm×1.13 cm,片面平整、黑白分明,翘片、二青片、秕籽极少,商品率在97%以上.667m2干籽产量160 kg.适宜在新疆、内蒙古、甘肃、宁夏以及东北部分地区种植.%Linzi No.1 is a new edible seed watermelon variety with early maturity, high quality and high yield.It was developed by using line 92707 as female and line 88708 as male parent.The variety produce plants with strong vigor,good resistance and adaptability.The plant set fruit easily.The whole growing period is 95-103 days.The fruit is globe shaped with light green skin and pencil lines.The single fruit can produce 250-480 seeds.The seed size is 1.75 cm×1.13 cm.The seed is white in center portion and dark at edges.More than 97% seed are marketable.667 m2 yield of dry seeds is 160 kg.It is suitable for cultivation in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia province and part areas of Northeast.

  11. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  12. 9个西瓜新品种在兰州的引种试验初报%A preliminary Report on Introduction Test of 9 New Watermelon Varieties in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张化生; 杨永岗; 苏永全; 李晓芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to select suitable Lanzhou area cultivated watermelon varieties,the introduction of the three large fruit varieties and six small watermelon fruit watermelon varieties Variety. The results showed that large watermelon fruit good performance Longkang 11 and Black Beauty . The Longkang 11 average fruit weight 5.32 kg,sugar content of 11.5%,good flavor,good storage, the average yield of 79 857.14 kg/hm2 . Black Beauty the average fruit weight 4.87 kg,the sugar content of 11.8%,good flavor, good crack resistance,very good storage,the average yield of 73 071.43 kg/hm2. Small Watermelon good performance Jinglei and Longfengzaoxin . The Jinglei average fruit weight 4.32 kg, sugar content of 12.3%, good flavor, representing storage and transportation,equivalent yield 64 857.14 kg/hm2. The Longfengzaoxin average fruit weight 3.65 kg,the sugar content of 10.5%, crisp and refreshing,crack,very good storage,equivalent yield of 60 785.71 kg/hm2 . The performance of the tested varieties and integrated regional market demand Lanzhou believe that the large fruit watermelon varieties Longkang 11,Black Beauty Jinglei and Longfengzaoxin suitable Lanzhou areas cultivated .%为了筛选适合兰州地区栽培的西瓜新品种,对引进的3个中大果型西瓜品种和6个小果型西瓜品种进行品种比较试验,结果表明,中大果型西瓜表现好的有陇抗11号、大果黑美人,其中陇抗11号属中晚熟品种,平均单瓜重5.32 kg,中糖含量为11.5%,风味好,贮运性好,平均产量达79857.14 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇抗9号、丰抗8号分别增产2.76%、8.97%。大果黑美人熟性较早,平均单瓜重4.87 kg,中糖含量为11.8%,风味好,抗裂性好,极耐贮运,平均产量达73071.43 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇抗9号、丰抗8号分别减产5.97%、0.29%。小果型西瓜表现好的有金雷、陇丰早欣,其中金雷平均单瓜重4.32 kg,中糖含量为12.3%,风味佳

  13. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  14. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  15. Novel Pathogenic Strain of Watermelon mosaic virus Occurred on Insam (Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kwon Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease, supposedly caused by a virus, was observed from Insam (Panax ginseng fields of Punggi in year 2006. It has long believed to be a physiological disorder. However, the incidence of the disease has increased every year. When several samples were observed under electron microscope, filamentous virus-like particles were observed. The nucleotide sequences of the virus were analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primer sets derived from the results of DNA chip. The results indicated that the disease was caused by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. It revealed that the result of the biological assay by the virus was different from that of WMV previously found in other crops. Therefore, this is the first report that WMV causes the disease in P. ginseng and the virus is named to be WMV-Insam.

  16. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  17. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  18. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz

    2017-02-16

    In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27-85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous) and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  19. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Azizi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27–85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  20. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seluk zmen; Rza Kanber; Nebahat Sar; Mustafa nl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in grafted and ungrafted watermelon. The study was conducted in Çukurova region, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, between 2006 and 2008, and employed 3 irrigation rates (ful irrigation (I100) with no stress, moderate irrigation (DI70), and low irrigation (DI50);DI70 and DI50 were considered deifcit irrigation) on grafted (CTJ, Crimson Tide+Jumbo) and the ungrafted (CT, Crim-son Tide) watermelon. The amount of irrigation water (IR) applied to the study plots were calculated based on cumulative pan evaporation that occurred during the irrigation intervals. Nitrogen consumption was 16%lower in CTJ plants than in CT plants. On the other hand, consumption of nitrogen was 28%higher in DI50 plants than in DI70 plants while it was 23%higher in DI50 plants than in I100 plants. By grafting, the average amount of nitrogen content in seeds, pulps and peels for CTJ was 30, 43 and 56%more than those of CT, respectively. The yield and the quality were not signiifcantly affected by the deifcit irrigation. In this respect, grafting of watermelon gave higher yield, but, it had a slight effect on fruit quality. The highest yield values of 16.90 and 19.32 kg plant–1 in 2008 were obtained with I100 and in CTJ plants, respectively. However, DI50 treatment could be taken into account for the development of reduced irrigation strategies in semiarid regions where irrigation water supplies are limited. Additional y, the yield increased by applying CTJ treatment to the watermelon production.

  2. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  3. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  4. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  5. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  6. A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Newport gastroenteritis in Europe associated with watermelon from Brazil, confirmed by whole genome sequencing: October 2011 to January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L; Fisher, I; Peters, T; Mather, A; Thomson, N; Rosner, B; Bernard, H; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Cowden, J; Aiyedun, V; Lane, C

    2014-08-07

    In November 2011, the presence of Salmonella Newport in a ready-to-eat watermelon slice was confirmed as part of a local food survey in England. In late December 2011, cases of S. Newport were reported in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland and Germany. During the outbreak, 63 confirmed cases of S. Newport were reported across all six countries with isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the watermelon isolate.A subset of outbreak isolates were whole-genome sequenced and were identical to, or one single nucleotide polymorphism different from the watermelon isolate.In total, 46 confirmed cases were interviewed of which 27 reported watermelon consumption. Further investigations confirmed the outbreak was linked to the consumption of watermelon imported from Brazil.Although numerous Salmonella outbreaks associated with melons have been reported in the United States and elsewhere, this is the first of its kind in Europe.Expansion of the melon import market from Brazil represents a potential threat for future outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing is rapidly becoming more accessible and can provide a compelling level of evidence of linkage between human cases and sources of infection,to support public health interventions in global food markets.

  7. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  8. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  9. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  10. 西瓜枯萎病土壤拮抗菌的筛选%Screening of Soil Antagonistic Bacteria for Watermelon Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芹; 张洪斌; 苏晓飞

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to screen bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt from soil and investigate the biological control of watermelon fusarium wilt by applying the antagonistic bacteria strains into soil. [Method] Actinomycete strains, fluorescent bacteria strains and bacillus strains were isolated from soil samples by the dilution-plate method, then its resistance was screened respectively by the improved confront culture method after colonies were purified. Finally, bacteria strains with better antagonistic effect were identified. [Result] 29 bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt were screened from 39 soil samples, which contained 15 fluorescent bacteria strains, 5 bacillus strains and 9 actinomycete strains. Furthermore, three antagonistic bacteria strains of FM2, FM3 and FM4 with the strongest antagonism were identified primarily. [Conclusion] According to cultural characteristics, morphological observation, biochemical and physiological tests, FM2 belongs to bacillus subtilis, while FM3 and FM4 belong to micrococcus.

  11. Cutin from watermelon peels: A novel inducer for cutinase production and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sandeep A; Singhal, Rekha S

    2015-08-01

    Cutin a polymeric biological macromolecule made up of esterified polyacids which acts as an inducer of cutinase. The present work was based on screening and characterization of newer cutin source from the agro industrial wastes as inducers of cutinase production by Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 2480. Cutin isolated from peels of multi green colored watermelon (WMC) yielded 6.77 U/mL as compared to that 9.64 U/mL of cutinase using apple cutin. The FTIR and (13)C CP-MAS solid state NMR studies indicated the nature of WMC to be an aliphatic polyester of polyhydroxy fatty acids. A further FTIR spectroscopic study on dewaxed cutin confirmed that the ester linkages in WMC were completely hydrolyzed during submerged fermentation. GC-MS data clearly indicated the critical structural feature of WMC viz. hydroxyl groups at ω-position and middle of the fatty acid chain. The amorphous nature of WMC was confirmed by XRD. DSC of WMC showed two endothermic transition peaks, one broad appearing at 30-60 °C and other at 145 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis of WMC suggested it to be thermally stable up to 200 °C. This study warrants further work on using WMC as a substrate for fermentative production of cutinase.

  12. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  14. Effect of diurnal temperature alternations on plant growth and mineral composition in cucumber, melon and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthichack, Phommy; Nishimura, Yasuyo; Fukumoto, Yasufumi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated plant growth and mineral composition in three cucurbit crops of cucumber, melon and watermelon grown under four constant day and night temperatures (DIF) of 25/15, 22.5/17.5, 17.5/22.5 and 15/25 degrees C. As expected, the growth and development of the three cucurbits were strongly temperature dependent. Plant height and relative chlorophyll content of the three crops decreased linearly along with decreases in day temperature. Leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly under negative DIFs and the lowest value was in DIF plot 15/25 degrees C. However, the negative DIF of 15/25 degrees C resulted in increased content of all mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu) in both the leaf and stem of the three cucurbit crops. The data suggest that a negative DIF as low as 15/25 degrees C may be beneficial to greenhouse-grown cucurbit crop producers, by controlling vegetative growth that facilitates crop management, with no negative effect on or enhancement of the uptake rates of mineral nutrients which are required to determine yield and fruit quality at the production stage. Effective utilization of diurnal temperature alternations is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses.

  15. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-04-01

    A recent outbreak linked to whole cantaloupes underscores the importance of understanding growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in cut melons at different temperatures. Whole cantaloupe, watermelon, and honeydew purchased from a local supermarket were cut into 10 ± 1 g cubes. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes from food related outbreaks was used to inoculate fruit, resulting in ~10(3) CFU/10 g. Samples were stored at 4, 10, 15, 20, or 25 °C and L. monocytogenes were enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was used to describe L. monocytogenes growth rate as a function of temperature. The model was compared to prior models for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on cut melon, as well as models for L. monocytogenes on cantaloupe and L. monocytogenes ComBase models. The current model predicts faster growth of L. monocytogenes vs. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 at temperatures below 20 °C, and agrees with estimates from ComBase Predictor, and a corrected published model for L. monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe. The model predicts ~4 log CFU increase following 15 days at 5 °C, and ∼1 log CFU increase following 6 days at 4 °C. The model can also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk assessments.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activities of cucurbitacin E isolated from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides: role of reactive nitrogen species and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Yagi, Sakina M Ahmed; Koko, Waleed S; Mohan, Syam; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2011-12-01

    The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  18. Study on Fertilizer Effect of Nanyang Biological Organic Fertilizer on Watermelon%南阳生物有机肥在西瓜上的肥效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文芳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索南阳生物有机肥对西瓜品质及产量的影响。[方法]以不施生物有机肥+常规施肥为对照,设置施用生物有机肥3000、4500和6000kg,hm。3个处理,分析有机肥对西瓜生长品质及产量的影响、[结果]增施南阳生物有机肥能有效促进西瓜植株生长发育,降低坐瓜节位.提高单个瓜重,提高西瓜中心糖分含量,改善西瓜口感和品质,达到增产增收的目的。[结论]南阳生物有机肥对西瓜生产有增产增收的效果,适合大面积推广。%[Objective] The aim was to explore the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yieht and quality of watermelon. [Method] The treatment of no biological organic fertilizer and conventional fertilizer was taken as control, analyzed the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yield and quality of watermelon by setting three treatments: applied Nanyang biological organic fertilizer 3 000,4 500,6 000 kg/hm2. [Result] The result indicated that increasing application of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer could effectively promote plant growth and development of watermelon, reduce fruiting node, improve single melon weight, raise watermelon center sugar content, improve the taste and quality of watermelon and achieve the purpose of increasing income. [Conclusion] Nanyang biological organic fertilizer was suitable to be popularized in large area for increasing production of watermelon.

  19. Regulation of plant growth, photosynthesis, antioxidation and osmosis by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in watermelon seedlings under well-watered and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eMo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and MDHAR in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2- compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances in the knowledge of AM-induced drought tolerance.

  20. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  1. Evapotranspiración del cultivo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus en la costa de Hermosillo, Sonora, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Román Román

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La sandía (Citrullus lanatus es una hortaliza que para su manejo demanda una mayor necesidad de agua; sin embargo no existen estudios que muestren las cantidades utilizadas de agua con cierta precisión y menos que utilicen técnicas como la covarianza de vórtices para medir la evapotranspiración (ET, debido al alto costo de la instrumentación. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la ET en sandía (Citrullus lanatus para una región árida en la Costa de Hermosillo Sonora (29° 00´ N y 111° 08´ O. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante los meses de agosto a Noviembre de 2014. Se utilizó la técnica de covarianza de vórtices para medir ET y se empleó la ecuación Penman-Monteith para determinar la evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo. El predio constaba de un sistema de riego por goteo, en el cual se aplicaron 166.1 mm de agua y tuvo una aportación por precipitación de 291.5 mm. La ET fue de 214.4 mm para todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que la ETo fue de 498.3 mm. Se observaron valores de Kc de 0.15, 0.65 y 0.35 para etapa inicial, intermedia y final del cultivo respectivamente.

  2. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...... microorganisms is still a promising venture, and conventional methodologies as well as considerations and modifications are presented here. An insight into new methodologies and devices as well as a discussion on future perspectives for the cultivation of anaerobes may open the prospects of the exploitation...

  3. Fruit protected cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huajun; Wang Saoming; Wang Jiaxi

    2003-01-01

    Protected fruit cultivation in China has developed very quickly from the early 1990s, and now it is animportant branch in fruit cultivation. A brief review including fruit species, developing history, growing area, output, anddistribution in the whole country is made in the paper. Characteristics of the dominant kinds of greenhouse,environmental control methods, and standards of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 for different fruit species arepresented. Information on varieties, growing benefits, special management practices and other aspects of the main fruitspecies used for protected cultivation are also presented.

  4. GRAFTING FOR CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON BELL PEPPER, TOMATO, AND MELONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, microplot, and field trials were conducted over three-years to evaluate rootstocks for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance. Rootstocks were evaluated for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum esculentum), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lan...

  5. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Eleven Corps of Engineers Habitat Development Field Sites Built of Dredged Material, 1974-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Phraginites australis Common spikerush Eleocharis palus tris Common velvetgrass Holcus lanatus Coontail Ceratophyliwn sp. Cowpea Vigna sp. Crabgrass Diqitaria...monnieri Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris Water parsnip Sium sauve Water pennywort Hydrocoty is bonariensis Water plantain

  6. Two weeks of watermelon juice supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability but not endurance exercise performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Williams, Ewan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Wylie, Lee J; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-09-30

    This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo. Participants reported to the laboratory on days 14 and 16 of supplementation to assess the effects of the interventions on blood pressure, plasma [l-citrulline], plasma [l-arginine], plasma [nitrite], muscle oxygenation and time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. Compared to control and placebo, plasma [l-citrulline] (29 ± 4, 22 ± 6 and 101 ± 23 μM), [l-arginine] (74 ± 9, 67 ± 13 and 116 ± 9 μM) and [nitrite] (102 ± 29, 106 ± 21 and 201 ± 106 nM) were higher after watermelon juice supplementation (P juice (130 ± 11) and placebo (131 ± 9) conditions compared to the control condition (124 ± 8 mmHg; P juice condition than the placebo and control conditions (P juice: 550 ± 143 s) was not significantly different between conditions (P juice supplementation increased baseline plasma [nitrite] and improved muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise, it increased resting blood pressure and did not improve time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. These findings do not support the use of watermelon juice supplementation as a nutritional intervention to lower blood pressure or improve endurance exercise performance in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  8. Genetic mapping and identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 1 and 2 in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). Fon race 1 is most prevalent throughout the U.S. while race 2 is more virulent. Our overall objective is to identify and utilize ...

  9. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions.

  10. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  11. Effects of Extraction and Purification Methods on Degradation Kinetics and Stability of Lycopene from Watermelon under Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Abu; Eun, Jong Bang; Sagor, Md Shafiul Azam; Rahman, Atikur; Akter, Mst Sorifa; Ahmed, Maruf

    2016-09-28

    Lycopene was extraction, isolation and purification using recrystallization, column chromatography, and preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods as well as degradation kinetics of lycopene were studied at refrigerated temperature and room temperature for 3 wk from watermelon. Higher lycopene degradation was observed at refrigerated temperature as compared to ambient temperature throughout the storage periods. The highest amount of lycopene retained in recrystallization (101.69 μg/g) followed by column chromatography (18.20 μg/g) and preparative TLC (15.57 μg/g). Color parameters, half-life time (t1/2 ), and color retention (%R) were dependent on extraction, isolation, and purification methods and storage life. Recrystallization and preparative TLC were followed by first order reaction model. Preparative TLC exhibited higher activation energy than did the recrystallization and column chromatography. Therefore, the result shows that recrystallization method could apply to extract and purify lycopene from watermelon that would also be used as a natural colorant as well as value-added product.

  12. Response of Watermelon to Gravel-Mulch and Supplementary Irrigation:Yield,Water Use Efficiency and Root Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-shan; LI Xin-rong; ZHANG Pei-dong; ZHANG Jing-guang; WANG Xin-ping; LIU Li-chao

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementary irrigation on watermelon (Citullus lanatus) yield, water-use efficiency (WUE) and root distribution in gravel-mulched field in northwest Loess Plateau, China, during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. The results showed that gravel mulch significantly improved seedling emergence,increased yield and WUE, and alleviated the influence of drought on plant growth. Regardless of gravel mulch application, supplementary irrigation increased watermelon yields, average fruit weight and number of fruit, especially yield increased as the amount of irrigation increased (P<0.05). Generally, WUE of irrigated treatments were higher than that of non-irrigation treatment in gravel-mulched field. The effect of water supply on root distribution was different in two years. In 2001, average root length density (RLD) and root weight density (RWD) whole the soil profile increased. In 2002, however, RLD and RWD decreased as water supply increased. The average RLD and RWD in 2001 were significantly higher than those in 2002. Maybe we can interpret the phenomenon with the theory that there is a need to optimize root distribution (in termsof water relations) and aboveground biomass for a given water supply. The yield may not depend as much on root growth as on the amount of water required at critical stages. A significant effect of soil depth on RLD and RWD were observed in both years, but did not rapidly decrease with depth.

  13. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  14. 西瓜汁的澄清工艺及营养成分变化研究%Watermelon Juice Clarification Technology and Nutrition Changes Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋波

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon deep processing which could digest part and greatly enhance the added value of agricultural products was reseached to solve the difficult problem of watermelon seasonal storage. Chitosan and filter aid diatomite in different ratio were selected to clarify the watermelon juice. Watermelon juice clarification experiments showed that, the clarification effect of 400 ppm of chitosan and diatomite was good. The analysis filter, light transmission rate of fruit juice was 96.03%. Clarification and watermelon juice nutritious component analysis shows, vitaminC, total sugar, soluble solid content and protein content decreased slightly. Watermelon juice pH increasing, watermelon juice concentrated fructose content reached 26.5% which could be refered in further development and utilization.%为了解决西瓜应季储存困难的问题,试验拟从西瓜深加工入手,既能消化掉一部分又能极大提高农产品附加值。研究了西瓜汁的澄清及澄清前后的营养成分变化及浓缩后果糖的含量。试验选用壳聚糖和助滤剂硅藻土按照不同的配比澄清西瓜汁。西瓜汁的澄清试验结果表明,壳聚糖和硅藻土含量均为400×10-6时澄清效果好,再经分析滤纸过滤,果汁透光率达到96.03%。澄清前后的西瓜汁营养成分分析表明,维生素C、总糖、可溶性固形物和蛋白质的含量略微降低。西瓜汁pH有升高,西瓜汁浓缩后果糖含量达到26.5%,可供进一步开发利用。

  15. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Technique for Watermelon Seed Oil%西瓜籽油微波辅助提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昌贵; 孟宇竹; 蔡花真

    2013-01-01

    以西瓜籽为原料,研究了微波辅助提取西瓜籽油的工艺条件,通过单因素试验和正交试验,探讨了溶剂种类、微波功率、提取温度、料液比、以及提取时间对西瓜籽油得率的影响.确定最佳提取剂为正已烷,最佳工艺条件为:微波功率200 W,提取温度80℃,料液比1∶12,提取时间21 min,此条件下西瓜籽油得率可达51.77%.西瓜籽油中的脂肪酸以不饱和脂肪酸为主,尤以亚油酸质量分数最高,达62.30%.%Taking watermelon seeds as the raw materials, we studied the technical conditions for extracting watermelon seed oil by microwave - assisted method, discussed solvent types, microwave power, extraction temperature, solid - liquid ratio and the influence of extraction time on watermelon seed oil yield through single factor and orthogonal experiments. As the experimental results showed,the optimal extractant was n -hexane,and the optimal technical conditions were as follows: microwave power of 200 W, extraction temperature of 80℃ , solid - liquid ratio of 1: 12 and extraction time of 21 min. The extraction yield of watermelon seed oil could reach 51.77% in the optimal conditions. The major component of fatty acid in watermelon seed oil was unsaturated fatty acid with the highest linoleic acid content proportion of up to 62. 30% particularly.

  16. Separation and Analysis of Carotenoids in Watermelon Flesh%西瓜中类胡萝卜素的分离与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡利强; 郭晓伟; 赵文恩; 王军伟; 张广瑞

    2011-01-01

    采用超声波辅助提取法从不同瓤色西瓜果肉中提取类胡萝卜素,经柱色谱分离和重结晶纯化,获得纯度为90%左右的番茄红素、β-胡萝卜素和ζ-胡萝卜素,用作分析的标样.采用高效液相色谱法,通过特征吸收光谱和保留时间鉴别,初步分析西瓜中类胡萝卜素的组成.结果表明,红瓤西瓜中的类胡萝卜素以番茄红素(18.55%)和β-胡萝卜素为主(11.71%);黄瓤西瓜中含较多新黄质(52.02%);白瓤西瓜中不含番茄红素.%Carotenoids were extracted from the fruit flesh of five watermelon varieties using ultrasonic method,and separated by open-column chromatography using recryctallization. Lycopene, β-carotene,and ζ-carotene in 90% purity were obtained and used in analysis of watermelon carotenoids as the standard samples. Watermelon carotenoids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with the photodiode array detector. The results showed that lycopene (18. 55%) and p-carotene (11. 71%) were the major pigments in the red-fleshed watermelon. In the yellow-fleshed watermelon,the neoxanthin content(52. 02%) was relatively high. Lycopene was not detected in the white-fleshed wtaremelon.

  17. Three improved Citrullus lanatus var. citroides lines USVL246-FR2, USVL252-FR2, and USVL335-FR2, with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt (FW) is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult because the soil-borne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) produces chlamydospores that remain infectious in the soil for many years. Although, various le...

  18. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  19. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  20. Cultivating archives: meanings and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar

    2012-01-01

    By cultivating archives through successive activations, people and communities define their identities. In these activations, the meanings of archives are constructed and reconstructed. Archives are not a static artifact imbued with the record creator’s voice alone, but a dynamic process involving a

  1. The Dynamics of Intensive Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Bidard

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the demand for agricultural goods leads to the use of more intensive cultivation methods. Though Ricardo sees no difficulties in the intensification process, their existence is revealed by the possible occurrence of multiple equilibria. A general theory of intensive rent is based on a formal parallel with single-product systems without land.

  2. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfa- tos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.

  3. Genotype Main Effect and Genotype x Environment (GGE Bi-Plot Model of Multi-Environmental Trial of Melon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Olaniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of yield data of eighteen accessions of "egusi" melon across four environments was determined. Genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE biplot method has been described as a very efficient tool for the analyses of multi-environment yield trial of crop varieties, especially where there exists a genotype x environment interaction. Thus, eighteen accessions of “egusi” melon (Citrullus lanatus were evaluated in four environments in Southwest Nigeria. Strong genotype x environment interaction was confirmed. Among the accessions, DL99/75, DL 99/76 and DD98/506 performed best in Abeokuta 2 environment while L1, DD98/4, DD98/3, 131DA and L4 performed best in Abeokuta 1, Ilaro 1 and Ilaro 2. Accession DD98/550, DD98/7, DD98/533, DD98/511, DD95/549, L3, DL99/71, V2, L2 and L6 did not perform well in all the environments. GGE biplot also ranked the accessions in their order of greater value. Accession DL99/75 was ranked first followed by DD98/506 and the least performed accession was DD98/511.

  4. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar eRamzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are the widespread and heterogeneous proteins of plants that serve as storage proteins in defensive mechanisms against herbivores. A lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae to find out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the individuals fed on 2% of CCA. Larval survivals on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities in larvae but TAG-lipase activity had no significant changes. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased versus control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.

  5. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting...... this landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  6. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  7. On the Cultivation of Intensive Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪琴

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the importance of the cultivation of reading skills,the characteristics of intensive reading and how to cultivate the intensive reading skills.Since the focus of this papre is how to cultivate the intensive reading skills,we make a systematic exposition from three points: word study,grammar patterns and text.

  8. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...

  9. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  10. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  11. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Rootstock on the Yield and Development of Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常高正; 张慎璞; 杨红丽; 赵卫星; 徐小利; 李晓慧; 张四普; 杨帆

    2009-01-01

    研究了豫园砧木王(Citrullus lanatus var.citroides cv.Yuyuanzhenmu)、超丰F1(Lagenaria siceraria cv.Chaofeng F1)、新土佐(Cucurbita maxima xC.moschata,Sintozwa)3个西瓜砧木嫁接对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus)生长发育、根系的分布及产量的影响.结果表明,3种不同砧木西瓜嫁接苗与自根苗相比,根系发达,茎叶生长旺盛,且有增产作用.其中豫园砧木王和新土佐砧木的嫁接效果最好,其能明显增强嫁接苗的长势,可分别使西瓜增产21.4%和25.0%.因此,建议选择豫园砧木王和新土佐嫁接西瓜为好,以达到丰产的目的.%Effects of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides cv. Yuyuanzhenmu,Lagenaria siceraria cv. Chaofeng Fl and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) on the development,distinction of the roots and the yield of C. lanatus var. lanatus were studied. The results showed that,compared with non-grafted seedling,the roots and shoots of the grafted seedlings with three rootstocks developed faster,and the yield increased. Of the three rootstocks,the grafting effect of C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) was better. The growth vigor and yields of grafted seedlings increased by 21.4% and 25.0% respectively. So,to grain high production,C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) were recommended to be used as rootstocks of C. lanatus var. lanatus.

  12. Contribution à l’étude de l’effet antidiabétique des extraits de graines de Citrullus colocynthis Chez le rat Wistar rendu diabétique par la streptozotocine

    OpenAIRE

    Benariba, Nabila

    2014-01-01

    L’ethnopharmacologie, une discipline qui se partage entre la tradipratition et l’expérimentation aux laboratoires, a pour but d’argumenter scientifiquement les effets thérapeutiques des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Parmi ces plantes Citrullus colocynthis ou coloquinte, plante de la famille des cucurbitacées, anciennement utilisée par la population de diabétiques, sous forme d’infusion des graines ou du fruit entier pour traiter le diabéte sucré. De ce fait, l’obje...

  13. 野西瓜果致接触性皮炎12例%Wild watermelon fruit caused 12 cases of contact dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕丽; 谢泽初

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨因野西瓜果导致接触性皮炎的临床案例。方法:收集因野西瓜果接触导致接触性皮炎患者12例,给予抗组胺药物配合局部用药对症治疗,无禁忌者系统使用糖皮质激素。结果:治疗总有效率为100%。%Objective:To discuss the clinical cases and treatment of Contact dermatitis caused by wild watermelon fruit. Methods:Col ect 12 patients of Contact dermatitis caused by wild watermelon fruit, which were treated by antihistamines ,the Local drug and glucocorticoid with no contraindications. Results:The total effective of the treatment was 100%.

  14. Effects of rind removal on physicochemical quality characteristics of fresh-cut watermelon [Citrus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai] during cold storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.; Soteriou, G.; Schouten, R.E.; Kyriacou, C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of removing the rind from fresh-cut watermelon slices was assessed on the quality of the product during storage at 4 °C for 9 days. Flesh lycopene declined from 55.4 to 47.9 mg kg-1 f.w. and colour lightness (L*) increased from 43.2 to 45.8 after 2 days of storage. Initial heart and place

  15. 有机肥对西瓜品质和产量的影响%Effect of Commercial Organic Fertilizer on the Quality and Yield of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆伟; 张亚菲; 王应君; 张丹

    2015-01-01

    为大面积推广有机肥在西瓜生产中的应用,探究有机肥对西瓜品质和产量的影响。结果表明:施用有机肥均能改善植株生长状况,提高植株抗性;明显增加西瓜果实的心糖和边糖含量,心糖含量增长率达14.35%~39.16%,边糖含量增长率达14.02%~34.10%;明显增加果实直径和产量,增产幅度为13.25%~42.52%。综合考虑产投比及生产风险,认为施用9000 kg·hm‐2金满意有机肥对西瓜生产可达到理想效果。%For promotion of organic fertilizer in watermelon production application ,commercial organic fertilizers on quality and yield of watermelon were explored .The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer could improve the growth status of plants and increased plant resistance ;and then it increased the center sugar and edge sugar content in watermelon fruit sugar content ,the growth rate achieved 14 .35% ~39 .16% ,the edge of sugar content in the growth rate was 14 .02% ~34 .10% ;fruit diameter and yield were increased ,yield increased by 13 .25% ~42 .52% .Considering the output and input ratio and production risk ,Jinmanyi organic fertilizer for 9 000 kg·hm‐2 could achieve the desired effect on watermelon production .

  16. Precise control of clamping force for watermelon picking end-effector%西瓜采摘末端执行器夹持力精确控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志勇; 张学炜; 张伟; 王琳

    2014-01-01

    为实现西瓜的机械化采摘,该文提出了采用液压驱动型末端执行器采摘大型果实的思路。在抓取西瓜时,为避免末端执行器夹持力不稳定引起的果实损伤,需对夹持力进行精确控制,该文建立了末端执行器负载模拟平台和AMESim&Simulink联合仿真模型,模拟西瓜采摘夹持力的加载情况。针对执行器夹持力加载过程中位置控制系统对力控制系统产生干扰,影响夹持力精确加载的问题,该文基于速度同步控制原理,设计了简化的加载误差补偿环节,开展了加载误差补偿理论、仿真及试验研究。结果表明,速度同步控制方法能够有效地减小加载误差,提高末端执行器负载模拟精度。该研究可为末端执行器输出力的精确控制和抓取控制策略提供参考。%Certain agricultural work requires a very stable robot end-effector to reduce vibration and damage to products. However, the structures of conventional articulated robots tend to be too weak to manipulate heavy objects, such as the watermelon. To achieve mechanized harvesting of the watermelon, we compared the characteristics of different end-effectors with the motor, pneumatic and hydraulic drives. By contrast, the hydraulic drive has many advantages, such as high power-weight ratio, compact structure and convenient layout. Therefore, the end-effector with hydraulic drive is more suitable for heavy fruit harvesting such as the watermelon. The hydraulic drive system based on force perception can output appropriate clamping force according to actual situation. When picking robot crawls and picks, it needs to avoid the damage to fruits and vegetables caused by unstable clamping force and to achieve the precise control of the clamping force for picking robot end-effector. Therefore, how to improve output force’s control precision of the valve control cylinder and reduce interference are key to improve the picking performance. Two

  17. Assesing the Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Some Botanicals for Control of Field Insects of Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus In Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season to assess the efficacy of leaf extract of some botanicals for production of watermelon (Citrillus lanatus in Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. The treatments consisted of leaf extracts from 3 botanicals: Bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens, Moringa (Moringa oleifera and Pawpaw (Carica papaya and one synthetic insecticide Labdacyalothrin (karate. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated 3 times to form fifteen plots. The results showed that, there was significant effect among the different botanicals used on all the parameters assessed except on the vinelength of watermelon, at various stages of growth in both years. Application of leaf extract of pawpaw gave better performance in all the parameters assessed when compared to the other botanicals in both years. Application of karate produced the best results in both years; while poor result were obtained from the control plots. Application of pawpaw leaf extract conferred high protection on the fruit when compared to other botanicals, which is statistically similar with result of karate in both 2009 and 2010 cropping season. Pawpaw leaf extracts appears to be a better botanical option in watermelon production.

  18. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market. Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago. This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although its space is very far from their home. This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food security in the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly different and better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level. The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only. Settled cultivation pattern could to improve

  19. Identification des sources de tolérance au stress hydrique sur des espèces sauvages de la famille des Cucurbitacées en cutlture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudou A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tolerance sources to the water stress on wild species of the cucurbitaceous family in in vitro culture. The objective of this survey is to identify sources of tolerance to the water stress. This will permit to choose the adequate material allowing the transfer of genes governing the drought tolerance to the gene pool of the main cultivated species. Indeed, a method has been developed to evaluate the water stress tolerance in vitro. It is based on the capacity of the calus recuperation after dehydration under a laminar flux hot until a loss of 50% of their fresh weight as a basis. The study included nine accessions of wild species and three cultivated varieties of the cucurbitaceous family. It comes out that the three cultivated varieties (melon, cucumber and watermelon, as well as some wild species accessions are sensitive to the water stress. The wild accessions of Cucumis africanus (L4, Cucumis dipsaceus, Citrullus colocynthis (Saudi Arabia and Citrullus colocynthis (Niger are obviously tolerant.

  20. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    populações de plantas prolíficas e de frutos pequenos.Genetic dissimilarity among 31 watermelon genotypes was evaluated through the canonic analysis and cluster analysis (Tocher Method and Ward Method based on Mahalanobis distance (D²ii' Thirty lines obtained from accesses collected in the Northeast of Brazil and the cultivar Crimson Sweet were evaluated to determine the number of days to appearance of the first male and female flower (NDM and NDF; number of shoots to the appearance of the first male and female flower (NGM and NGF; number of fruits per plant (NFP; length of the main vine (CRP; fruit mean weight (PMF; total solid soluble content (TSS; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF and rind thickness average (EMC. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replicates and seven plants per plot. The characteristics that contributed more to the genetic dissimilarity among the genotypes were number of fruit per plant, axial diameter of fruit, total solid soluble content and fruit mean weight. Three clusters were formed by Tocher's optimization method and by the Ward Method, while four clusters were formed by the graphic dispersion, based on two first canonic variables. In the last case, cluster I was composed of seven lines from Pernambuco and one line from Bahia; cluster II was formed by all the 21 lines from Maranhão; clusters III and IV were composed of line 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco and of 'Crimson Sweet', respectively. Lines 87-019.021 and 87-019.022 were the closest related, while line 87-019.023 and Crimson Sweet presented the biggest dissimilarity by the Mahalanobis distance (D²ii'. The hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from the cluster II will be the most promising. Hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from cluster I will be interesting to obtain populations of prolific plants, which give small fruits.

  1. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  2. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  3. Extraction of lycopene from watermelon%西瓜提取番茄红素工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪雁; 麦汸汸; 陈惠兴

    2011-01-01

    实验主要以西瓜为原料,利用番茄红素可溶于有机溶剂的性质,采用单因数实验,并结合正交实验进行对比,结果表明:采用混合溶液石油醚-丙酮1:6为提取溶剂,在原料与提取溶剂的比例为1:8,提取温度为50℃,提取时间为70min,浸提液的pH为6的条件下可得到最佳效果;搅拌和重复提取能提高提取效率。%Watermelon as the raw material extraction and use of the nature of lycopene soluble organic solvents. for the identification of lycopene extracted factors, a single-factor test and experiment with orthogonal contrast, The results showed: mixed solution of petroleum ether - acetone 1:6 as the extraction solvent, raw materials and solvents at a ratio of 1:8, extraction temperature of 50 ℃, extraction time 70 min, extracts of pH 6 extraction conditions can be extracted to achieve the best effect.

  4. Resistance of Marigold Spinosad Water Emulsion against Watermelon Writ Disease%万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病反应的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利霞; 王金胜

    2011-01-01

    研究了万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病菌菌丝生长的影响和对西瓜幼苗保护酶的作用.结果表明,万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病菌的菌丝生长有明显的抑制作用,当质量浓度为1μg/mL时已完全抑制病菌菌丝生长.同时,经对西瓜幼苗叶的酶活性测定和过氧化物同工酶电泳分析的结果表明,该万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂能使西瓜保护酶——超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性提高,减轻西瓜枯萎病菌对西瓜幼苗的毒害作用.%In the article the influence of the mycelium growth of watermelon wilt disease and the role of protective enzymes in watermelon seedlings from marigold spinosad water emulsion were studied. The results showed that it could restrain the mycelial growth of watermelon wilt disease obviously, and the growth in 1 μg/mL marigold spinosad water emulsion was completely stopped. The results of enzymic activity assay on watermelon seedlings' leaves and electrophoresis analyse of peroxide isozyme demonstrated that marigold spinosad water emulsion could enhance the activity of protective enzymes-superoxide dismutase ( SOD), catalase( CAT), Peroxidase( SOD), reduced the harm to watermelon seedlings by watermelon wilt disease.

  5. Mudas de melancia produzidas com substrato à base de pó de coco e soluções nutritivas Watermelon seedlings produced with coconut powder and nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria RP Ramos

    2012-06-01

    mudas de melancia, em relação ao crescimento e status nutricional.The choice of substrate is one of the most important stages for the seedlings production and must take into account the nutritional requirements of cultivated species. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the substrate using coconut dust associated with nutrient solutions to produce seedlings of watermelon. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Arid in Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with ten replications in a factorial arrangement 2 x 10 (cultivars of watermelon and substrates. The cultivars used were: Opara and Top Gun. The coconut fiber was associated with nutrient solutions as follows: T1= control treatment composed of the commercial organic substrate Plantmax® (SC, T2= coconut powder (PC, T3= coconut powder + melon solution (PC+SM, T4= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 12.5% (12.5% PC+HS, T5= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 25% (PC+HS 25%, T6= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 50% (PC+HS 50%, T7= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 75% (PC+HS 75%, T8= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 100% (100% PC+HS, T9= coconut powder + Aminoagro Mol (PC+AM, T10= coconut powder Aminoagro Root (PC+AR. The solutions were applied eight times, 10 mL on each application, since the fourth day after sowing date (DAS, when the evaluation of seedlings emergence began. At 24 DAS we evaluated the fresh weight of shoots and roots, root length, number of roots in the upper third and contents of macro and micronutrients in the aboveground part. The cv. Top Gun presented higher levels of nutrients, except for iron and copper. The treatments T6, T7 and T8 presented levels of nutrients in plants similar to the commercial substrate Plantmax. In general, the combinations of coconut dust associated with the nutrient solution of Hoagland and Arnon at 50, 75 and 100% and Aminoagro Root proved to be

  6. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian

  7. My Understanding on Cultivation of Autonomous Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金玉

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous learning has been popular in western education system for some time, this article aims to analyze the connotation and the necessity of cultivating learner autonomy, and then offer some strategies about the cultivation of learner autonomy from a chinese perspective.

  8. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian

  9. A New Watermelon Variety Suitable for Inter-cropping -‘Xinggui No.1’%间套种适用型西瓜新品种兴桂1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金艳; 李智; 李文信; 何毅; 洪日新; 覃斯华; 李天艳; 樊学军; 李桂芬

    2014-01-01

    ‘Xinggui No.1’is a new watermelon F1 hybrid suitable for sole cropping or inter-cropping with sugercane,cassava or young fruit tree. Its fruit is of short and oval shape with deep green peel and dark green stripes. The single fruit weight is 4.0-7.0 kg. The peel is tough and never dehiscent. It is 1.0-1.2 cm in thickness, The fruit is tolerant to storage and transportation. Its flesh is red with over 11.0% sugar content,sweet flavor and fine texture.‘Xinggui No.1’has strong growth vigor and is resistant to stress and disease. It can easily set fruit.Its fruit has high commodity rate. The total growing period is 110-120 days in spring and about 90 days in autumn. The fruit development period is 35-38 days. The yield of sole cropping and inter-cropping is 37.5-52.5 t·hm-2 and 30.0-36.0 t·hm-2,respectively. It is suitable to be cultivated in various regions of Guangxi both for sole cropping and inter-cropping.%兴桂1号是既适合于单纯种植也适宜与甘蔗、木薯或初植果树地间套种的有籽西瓜一代杂种。果实短椭圆形,果皮深绿底布黑条纹,单瓜质量4.0~7.0 kg,果皮厚1.0~1.2 cm,果皮坚韧,不裂果,耐贮运。肉色鲜红一致,肉质清甜爽脆,中心可溶性固形物含量11.0%以上。植株生长势强,抗逆抗病性强,易坐果,果实商品率高。全生育期春茬110~120 d(天)、秋茬90 d(天)左右,果实发育期35~38 d(天)。单纯种植每667 m2产量2500~3500 kg、间套种每667 m2产量2000~2400 kg,适宜广西各地单纯种植或者间套种。

  10. Watermelon stomach: clinical aspects and treatment with argon plasma coagulation Ectasia vascular do antro gástrico ("watermelon stomach": aspectos clínicos e tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton M. Chaves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que

  11. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION METHODS AND NITROGEN FORMS WITH VARIOUS AMOUNTS ON THE YIELD AND SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS OF WATERMELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas SENYIGIT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out at Research and Production Farm of Agricultural Faculty, Cukurova University during 1996 and 1997 growing season. In this experiment, different irrigation methods (S: Sprinkler; D: Drip, nitrogen forms (L: Liquid; G: Granule with various amounts (based on applied line source sprinkler irrigation method, N1; N2; N3 kg/da and two varieties of watermelon (P: Paladin; M: Madera were studied. Free water surface evaporation was used to determine irrigation water amount. In only SL and SGL treatments, three different nitrogen levels were formed providing gradient situation during the irrigation season. Based on the results, irrigation water ranged from 119.2 mm (first year to 350.5 mm (second year. Nitrogen applications varied from 5.1 kg da-1 (SL to 10 kg da-1 (SG in the all treatments. Total yield changed between 1325 kg da-1 (first year and 5013 kg da-1 (second year depending on year and treatments. Although, the highest yield was taken from treatments in which liquid fertilizers were applied for both of the varieties in the first year. The varieties have different response to form and amounts of nitrogen in the second year. In this year, the highest yield was obtained from SG treatment in Paladin variety. The yield decreased only by 12% in SL treatments that nitrogen was applied in liquid form. In Madera variety, the highest yield was taken from SGL treatments that granule and liquid fertilizer were applied together. The effects of irrigation methods and nitrogen levels on some quality parameters of watermelon were found to be insignificant (P>0.05. However, fruit diameter of Madera was larger than Paladin variety. The longest fruit length was measured in Paladin-DL treatment. As a result, it was determined that watermelon yield was increased by nitrogen which was applied through irrigation water. Therefore, it could be said that watermelon yield increased considerably with applying nitrogen together with irrigation

  12. Caracterización de compuestos volátiles durante el secado por aspersión de jugo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus ThunB.)

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Manuel González Sánchez; Salvador González Palomares; Tábata Rosales Reyes

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maltodextrina y goma arábiga en la retención de compuestos volátiles durante el secado por aspersión de jugo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). Se utilizó sandía de la variedad Alena. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos de encapsulantes, T1: 0.5% p/p de maltodextrina, T2: 0.5% p/p de goma arábiga y T3: 0.5% de una mezcla de maltodextrina DE-10 y goma arábiga (1:1) p/p. Las condiciones del secado fueron constantes: flujo de alimentación del 15%...

  13. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E- glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  14. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael; Schroder, Robert F W; Matsuo, Koharto; Li, Betty W

    2002-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E-glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW) that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillusspp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose) makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  15. Host Reaction of Watermelon mosaic virus Isolates Infecting Melon from Different Geographical Origins in Xinjiang of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is one of the major viruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Although WMV is very common worldwide, little is known about the biological traits of WMV isolates from China. Hence, this study aimed to characterize 11 WMV isolates infecting melon from different geographical origins in Xinjiang based on experimental hosts. Sap inoculation of the 11 WMV isolates onto a range of 13 plant species revealed some differences compared to the WMV isolates collected from other countries. Our results showed that, overall, there were no obvious correlations of host responses to inoculation with WMV isolates from different geographical origins. However, isolate JS-1 caused mild mosaic on Cucurbita moschata, whereas the remaining 10 isolates were asymptomatic on this plant species. Moreover, in Datura stramonium, isolate TYG-1 induced mosaic, whereas the remaining 10 isolates did not infect this species. All isolates infected systemically Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis melo plants, causing severe symptoms. All isolates did not induce any symptoms on Cucumis sativus, but the virus could be detected using RT-PCR. Additionally, all isolates infected systemically Nicotiana tabacum plants, causing mild mosaics. Chenopodium amaranticolor and Chenopodium quinoa reacted to all isolates by chlorotic local lesions in the inoculated leaves, and the virus was detected in the inoculated leaves using RT-PCR. In addition, the attempts to transmit the isolates to Luffa cylindrica, Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata or Pisum sativum failed as confirmed by negative RT-PCR. Our results would be useful for understanding the biological variability of WMV.

  16. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  17. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  18. A major QTL associated with Fusarium oxysporum race 1 resistance identified in genetic populations derived from closely related watermelon lines using selective genotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing for SNP discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt is a major soil-borne disease of watermelon caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). In this study, a genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous distribution for Fon race ...

  19. 菌渣有机肥对大棚西瓜产量和品质的影响%Effect on Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Watermelon with Using Bacteria Residue Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振国; 薛宇; 王子勤; 刘玉然

    2014-01-01

    本文通过田间试验,研究在施用氮、磷、钾肥的基础上,增施菌渣有机肥对西瓜产量、品质及主要农艺性状的影响。实验结果表明:增施菌渣有机肥,不仅提高了西瓜的产量和产值,而且有利于西瓜果实品质的改善,促进西瓜果实中Vc以及可溶性固形物的积累。%In the paper, the effect on watermelon yield, quality and major agronomic traits were studied by adding organic bacterial residue fertilizer on the basis of the regular application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizer through a field trial. .The results showed that: Adding bacteria residue organic fertilizer can not only raise the watermelon production and value, but also improve the quality of watermelon fruit, and promote the accumulation of watermelon fruit Vc and soluble solid.

  20. 控释肥对西瓜生长发育的影响%Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer on Growth and Development of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元秀; 井大炜; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    Taking the watermelon Heitong K-8 as meterial,the field experiment was conducted to study effect of controlled-release fertilizer on growth period,plant growth and yield of watermelon.The results showed that controlled-release fertilizer could promote wat%以黑彤K-8西瓜为试验材料,用田间小区试验的方法研究了控释肥对西瓜生育期、植株生长及产量的影响。结果表明,控释肥能促进西瓜早熟3~6 d;相对于习惯施肥,控释肥对植株的生长也有明显的作用;而且对西瓜的产量具有显著的提高作用,在等养分施用情况下与习惯施肥相比,增产幅度为22.32%,而且在减少20%养分用量的情况下,增产幅度仍可达到10.60%;等量控释肥、减量控释肥、减氮控释肥处理的肥料生产率分别为习惯施肥处理的2.28、2.01、1.32倍。

  1. 正交实验法优化西瓜番茄红素的提取工艺%The Orthogonal Experiment Method Extracting Lycopene in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义庆

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, lycopene was extracted from watermelon with the component solvent of ethyl acetate and acetone,the volume ratio was 7∶1. Effect of extraction time, extraction temperature, solid-liquid ratio, pH on extraction of watermelon lycopene were studied. The last orthogonal experiments showed the optimum conditions:solid-liquid ratio was 1∶4, the temperature was 45℃, the time was 50 min, pH=6.%采用了体积比为7∶1的乙酸乙酯-丙酮混合溶剂,提取新鲜西瓜中的番茄红素,考察了提取溶剂、提取时间、提取温度、料液比、pH等因索对提取液吸光度的影响,最后用正交试验确定了最佳工艺条件,分析结果表明:料液比为1∶4,温度为45℃,时间为50 min,pH=6时提取效果最好。

  2. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  3. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    tian xiu ying

    2008-01-01

    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  4. “福青源”叶面营养液在大棚西瓜上的应用试验%Application of "Fu Qing Yuan" Foliar Nutrient Solution on the Greenhouse Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单建明; 马运涛; 孔小龙

    2011-01-01

    【目的】对“富青源”叶面营养液在大棚西瓜上的应用效果进行研究。【方法】试验设3个处理,分别为20000倍叶面营养液喷施、30000倍叶面营养液喷施及清水喷施对照,进行效果对比试验。【结果】叶面喷施“富青源”叶面营养液能提高大棚西瓜产量21.5%~25.6%,并提高西瓜的糖分含量;结合西瓜产量和糖分含量分析,“富青源”叶面营养液20000倍稀释,在西瓜苗大田移栽14d后分3次喷施,隔7d喷施1次,施用效果最好。[结论】施用“富青源”叶面营养液能显著提高西瓜产量和改善西瓜品质。%[Objective] The application effects of "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution on watermelon were studied. [Method] 3 treatments of spraying diluted foliar nutrient solution 20 000 times, 30 000 times and water control were set up to study their efficacy in field. [Result] Spraying "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution could increase the yield of greenhouse watermelon in 21.5%- 25.6%, and improve watermelon sugar content. Combined the anlysis of watermelon yield and sugar content, 14 days after watermelon seedlings field transplanting using 20 000 times diluted of "Fu Qing Yuan" Foliar nutrient to spray watermelon seedlings weekly 3 times in total can achieve best results. [Conclusion] The application of "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution can significantly improve the yield and quality of watermelon.

  5. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  6. 打瓜白粉病药剂防治技术研究%Study on the Technique of Controling Seed- used Watermelon Powdery Mildew with Bactericides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛; 李新辉; 于建新; 王艳; 杨渡; 李承业; 潘竟海; 李妍娥; 杨静飞; 严丽; 刘同业; 侯秀芳

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Because seed - used watermelon powdery mildew induced serious damage in Xinjiang Region, we study the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed - used watermelon powdery mildew in the field. [Method] Comparison of the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed -used watermelon powdery mildew was made in the field plot experiment. [Result]Fourteen days after using these bactericides twice, thecontrol efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 5 ,000 times solution is 73. 80% , achieving the highest control efficacy in all the six used bactericides And the control efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 1,0000 times solution, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG 3 ,000 times solution, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC 7 ,500 times solution and 25% Ethirimol wp 1,500 times solution are also effective, reaching the effect of 69. 69% , 69.56% , 68. 48% , and 67. 32% respectively after being used 14 days later. [ Conclusion]The control efficacy of ZJ0712 wp, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC and 25% Ethirimol wp are quite effective, so it is suggested that they could be used in production by turn, and the rule for controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is made. The primary sources of infection and suitable time for controlling this disease have been clearly made, too. The key to controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is to spray effective bactericide in time.%[目的]针对打瓜白粉病在新疆严重危害的现状,研究6种杀菌剂对打瓜白粉病的田间防治效果.[方法]采用田间小区试验,比较6种药剂的防效差异.[结果]两次施药后第14 d,10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂5000倍液防效最高,防效达73.80%.10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂10 000倍液、50%醚菌酯水分散粒剂3 000倍液、400 g/L氟硅唑乳油7 500倍液和25%乙嘧酚悬浮剂1 500倍液的防效也较好,药后14 d分别达69.69%、69.56%、68.48%和67.32%.[结论]4种药剂防效较好,推荐在生产中交替使用.提出了打瓜白粉病防治原则,明

  7. Oferta e comercialização de melancia na CEASA-PI (1991- 1996 Supply and commercialization of watermelon at CEASA-PI (1991-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de analisar e fornecer informações quanto à oferta, procedência e comercialização de melancia no Piauí, no período de 1991 a 1996. Foram utilizados os dados básicos referentes ao suprimento mensal de melancia, por procedência, obtidos junto à CEASA-PI. Verificou-se que foram comercializadas no mercado atacadista de Teresina (PI um volume médio anual de 11.250 t de melancia, correspondendo a um acréscimo de 33,8% em relação ao volume médio anual de 8.408,3 t obtido no período de 1986 a 1991. Os estados que mais contribuíram para a oferta de melancia foram Pernambuco, Bahia e Piauí com um volume médio de melancia comercializada e percentual de participação de 5.139,5 t (45,68%, 3.765,4 t (33,48% e 1.798,5 t (15,97%, respectivamente. As maiores quantidades de melancia comercializadas foram oriundas dos municípios de Petrolina (PE, Juazeiro (BA, Barreiras (BA e Barras (PI, destacando-se como os mais regulares quanto ao fornecimento do produto. Os meses do ano em que houve menor oferta de Pernambuco e Bahia foram junho-julho, setembro-outubro e dezembro, recomendando-se ao produtor piauiense que, uma vez atingidos níveis econômicos de produtividade, procure ofertar seu produto neste período.This study was conducted to analyze and provide information about the supply, source and commercialization of watermelon in the state of Piauí, Brazil, from 1991 to 1996. Monthly data of commercialized fruits were obtained from CEASA-PI, which is a central market for vegetable and fruit commercialization for the whole state. The average total commercialized annually within the period was 11,250 t of fruits, which meant an increase of 33.8% in comparison to the average total of 8,409 t, commercialized annually from 1986 to 1991. Pernambuco (PE, Bahia (BA and Piauí (PI were the most important states in terms of watermelon supply, with average annual totals and average percentages of 5,140 t (45

  8. Metodologia para determinação das necessidades nutricionais de melão e melancia Metodology for assessment of nutritional requirements of melon and watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. de A. Paula

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho visando definir a necessidade nutricional de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio de melão e melancia, em função da produtividade esperada, a partir de dados médios citados na literatura, e validá-los com dados obtidos em experimentos com melão e melancia, realizados no Agropolo Assu/Mossoró. O experimento com melão seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3 x 3 + 3, que constou da combinação de três doses de N (N1 = 42, N2 = 84 e N3 = 126 kg ha-1 e de K (K1 = 106, K2 = 212 e K3 = 322 kg ha-1, mais três tratamentos adicionais (N0K0, N0K2 e N2K0, sendo que N0 e K0 não receberam N nem K. O experimento com melancia seguiu o mesmo delineamento experimental, modificando as doses de N (N1 = 45, N2 = 91 e N3 = 136 kg ha-1 e de K (K1 = 78, K2 = 156 e K3 = 234 kg ha-1, havendo dois tratamentos adicionais (N0K2 e N2K0. O modelo que melhor se ajustou, tanto para a melancia como para o melão, seguiu a relação produtividade (kg planta-1 x nutrientes exportados (g planta-1. Os índices de concordância observados entre os valores estimados pelo modelo de absorção total de N e K e valores obtidos experimentalmente, são considerados aceitáveis, tanto para melancia como para melão.This work was carried out aiming to determine nutritional requirements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for melon and watermelon, as a function of estimated yield, and validate them with experimental data obtained from melon and watermelon trials carried out in Assu-Mossoró region. Melon trial followed a randomized block design, in a 3 x 3 + 3 factorial scheme with three replications, which consisted of combination of three doses of N (N1 = 42, N2 = 84 and N3 = 126 kg ha-1 and of K (K1 = 106, K2 = 212 and K3 = 322 kg ha-1, and three additional treatments (N0K0, N0K2 e N2K0, where N0 and K0 had no application of N and K. Watermelon trial followed the same design, with modification of doses of

  9. 外源ABA对西瓜幼苗抗冷性和某些生理指标的影响%Effect of Exogenous ABA on Chilling Resistance and Some Physiological Index in Watermelon Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲高斌; 张凯; 张陆阳; 赵书民

    2011-01-01

    以5、10,15、20、25 mg/L 5种质量浓度的ABA处理三叶一心西瓜幼苗,研究ABA对西瓜幼苗抗冷性的影响.结果表明,叶面喷施ABA能有效提高西瓜苗的抗冷性,其中以20 mg/L的效果最好.ABA能显著增加西瓜苗叶片的SOD和CAT活性,有效减缓低温胁迫过程中西瓜苗叶片叶绿素和GSH含量的降低,以及MDA的积累,促进脯氨酸含量和可溶性糖含量增加,使AsA含量保持在相对稳定的水平.%The seedlings of watermelon at 3 leaf stage were treated with 5,10,15,20 and 25 mg/L of ABA and then exposed at 5 ℃ for 24 h in order to study the effects of ABA on chilling-tolerance. The chilling-tolerance of watermelon seedling can be increased with ABA treatment. The concentration of ABA at 20 mg/L showed the most effective results. The results showed that ABA could improve the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT),remarkably delay the decrease of chlorophyll and reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) content aswell as the increase of malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the leaves of watermelon seedling during low temperature stress. On the other hand,ABA could effectively promote the increase of contents of proline and soluble sugar in the leaves of watermelon seedling during low temperature stress. The ascorbic acid (ASA) content was maintained a steady level in leaves of watermelon seedling by ABA treatment.

  10. Feasibility Study on Soilless Cultivation of Organic Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji JIN; Hongyan ZHAO; Xiangguo LI; Renzhe PIAO

    2015-01-01

    Based on the present situation and problems concerning ginseng cultivation as well as soilless cultivation features,we analyze the growth indicators and input-output ratio of different ginseng cultivation patterns,and conform that the soilless cultivation technology for organic ginseng is feasible. And this technology provides theoretical basis and technological feasibility for the sustainable development of ginseng industry.

  11. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  12. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  13. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Watermelon Production in a Family Farm-A Case Study of a Large Watermelon Planting Grower in Yanqing District of Beijing City%家庭农场模式下的西瓜生产调查分析--以北京市延庆区某西瓜种植大户为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲凯; 胡宝贵

    2016-01-01

    以北京市延庆县西瓜生产较为成熟的家庭农场经营模式为例,对其生产经营过程进行了调研,分析了家庭农场模式下从事西瓜生产的优势与不足,进而总结了北京市家庭农场普遍存在的经营主体短缺、农业社会化服务体系建设滞后、资金短缺等问题,提出了加强农业科技推广与应用、提高农场主科技素质、创新家庭农场金融政策等建议,为北京西瓜产业推广家庭农场模式提供依据。%The production and management process of watermelon in a family farm were investigated and studied .The advantages and disadvan-tages of watermelon production in the family farm were analyzed , and then common problems such as shortage of operators , lagging of agricultural socialized service system construction, and capital shortage existing in family farms in Beijing City were summarized .Finally, some suggestions such as strengthening the popularization and application of agricultural science and technology , improving farmers’ quality of science and technol-ogy, and innovating financial policies of family farms were proposed to provide scientific references for the popularization of family farms in water-melon industry in Beijing City .

  15. Black truffle cultivation: a global reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Reyna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: In recent decades the cultivation of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum has expanded across all the Mediterranean-climate regions, but also to other regions outside the European standard for the species. We aim to describe the current extent of T. melanosporum cultivation.Area of study: Tuber melanosporum plantations in Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Australia, New Zealand, China, America and South Africa.Material and Methods: The socioeconomic impact of T. melanosporum cultivation, the way in which the current situation has been achieved and the knowledge needed for its progress are reviewed.Research highlights: T. melanosporum has been successfully cultivated in several countries outside its natural area, but many practices are still empirical and thus yields cannot be guaranteed. The recent advances in molecular techniques and genome science are helping to overcome some of the difficulties traditionally constraining truffle research. The role of truffles as a transitional element between agricultural and forestry activities makes its cultivation a paradigm of sustainable rural development.Keywords: Tuber melanosporum; Europe; Australia; New Zealand; Chile; USA.

  16. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp., its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour, syrup, sugar, ethanol, vegetable oil, starch, wax, paints, and animal fodder (the grain and entire plant. Sorghum straw is used to produce fibres, paper, and building materials. Sorghum has high energy value and can be an excellent source of renewable energy. It is easy to cultivate, with low soil and nutrient requirements. Due to its content of allelopathic compounds, it inhibits weed growth and has a phytosanitary effect. It is also resistant to disease and pests. It is a short-day plant, and in Polish climate conditions, it does not form sufficiently mature seeds, but produces a very high yield of green matter that can be used for fodder. Cultivation of sorghum during periodic water shortages may be an alternative solution for obtaining fodder when maize cultivation is unreliable.

  17. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  18. Evaluation of Nutritional and Physical Properties of Watermelon Juice during the Thermal Processing by Using Alumina Nano-fluid in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Saremnejad Namini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Thermal processing is an effective method in preventing microbial spoilage but high heat transfer in a long time process that leads to quality loss and increased energy consumption. Also it is important to consider sensitive nature of food products during the thermal processing. Due to the nano-fluids' unique thermo–physical properties compared with the conventional fluids (steam and hot water, their use in various industries to enhance the efficiency of equipment and energy optimization has increased. Materials and Methods: The effects of alumina–water nano-fluids (0, 2, and 4% concentrations on some nutritional properties (lycopene and vitamin C content, and some physical properties (color, pH and TSS of watermelon juice treated by high temperature–short time (75, 80, and 85°C for 15, 30, and 45 seconds in a shell and tube heat exchanger were evaluated. Results: In compared with water, process time reduced by 24.88% and 51.63% for 2% and 4% nano-fluids, respectively. It had a significant effect on improving the properties of watermelon juice (P<0.05. Under the treatment conditions (75°C and 15s, with 0, 2, and 4% nano-fluids, 81.15, 84.81, and 91.28% of lycopene and 61.11, 63.70 and 67.04% of vitamin C were maintained, respectively. &DeltaE* values for the fruit juices processed with 0, 2 and 4% nano-fluids were 3.26, 2.21 and 1.14, respectively. Also pH and TSS changed in the range of 5.58–5.82 and 9.00–9.40%, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that qualitative and nutritional properties of watermelon juices processed with nano-fluids in terms of lycopene and vitamin C retention, and color were, respectively, 9.89, 6.18 and 50.38% better than the samples processed with water.

  19. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  20. Application of photobioreactors to cultivation of microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷; 王光玉

    2003-01-01

    An overview of photobioreactors now in use for production of microalgae world wide is presented, andthe application of photobioreactors to the cultivation of microalgae is discussed in detail. It is pointed out thathigh cell density and industrial production of microalgae can be achieved using many kinds of closed photobiore-actors including fermentor, tubular and flat plate photobioreactors, and the cultivation of Spirulina, Chlorella,Dunaliella tertiolecta and Porphyridium cruentrim by photobioreactors can achieve higher and steadier produc-tivity than the cultivation of microalgae by an open air system. More and more researches indicate that tubularand flat plate photobioreactors are the development trend for photobioreactors with bubbles and air lift stirrers,and high bright light-emitting diodes are the most economic light source with great potential for future develop-ment of photobioreactors. Photobioreactors can also be used for the production of high-value metabolite ( EPA orDHA) using some microalgae species for energy development and environment protection.